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Page 1: Art History Chapter 3 ArtTalk Textbook. What is art history? Art history is the record of art from past to present Art history is the record of art from

Art HistoryArt History

Chapter 3 ArtTalk TextbookChapter 3 ArtTalk Textbook

Page 2: Art History Chapter 3 ArtTalk Textbook. What is art history? Art history is the record of art from past to present Art history is the record of art from

What is art history?What is art history? Art historyArt history is the record is the record

of art from past to presentof art from past to present Ever since there have been Ever since there have been

human beings, there has human beings, there has been art – paintings, been art – paintings, drawings, sculptures, and drawings, sculptures, and decorative objects.decorative objects.

Art tells us what people in Art tells us what people in the past were like – what the past were like – what their culture was like - their culture was like - their beliefs, ideas, and the their beliefs, ideas, and the way they lived.way they lived.

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How to study art historyHow to study art history

There is a four step There is a four step system similar to the system similar to the four steps used in four steps used in art art criticism.criticism. DescriptionDescription AnalysisAnalysis InterpretationInterpretation JudgmentJudgment

However, this time, However, this time, each of these steps is each of these steps is approached differently.approached differently.

Mary CassattMary Cassatt. . Reine Lefevre and Margot.Reine Lefevre and Margot. c. 1902. Pastel on paper. The Armand Hammer Museum c. 1902. Pastel on paper. The Armand Hammer Museum of Art and Cultural Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA. of Art and Cultural Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

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DescriptionDescription In the description step, you are In the description step, you are

collecting facts collecting facts aboutabout the artwork. the artwork. If you are looking at the actual If you are looking at the actual

artwork, you would look for the artwork, you would look for the artist’s signature and the date of artist’s signature and the date of the work.the work.

If you are looking at a picture of If you are looking at a picture of the artwork, you look at the credit the artwork, you look at the credit line. This will tell you the name line. This will tell you the name of the artist, the title of the piece, of the artist, the title of the piece, the date the artwork was done, the the date the artwork was done, the medium used, the size of the medium used, the size of the work, and where the work is work, and where the work is currently located.currently located.

Sir Jacob Epstein, Sir Jacob Epstein, The Visitation. The Visitation. 1926 (cast 1955). Bronze. 66” H x 19” W x 17½” D. 1926 (cast 1955). Bronze. 66” H x 19” W x 17½” D. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. Gift of Joseph Hirshhorn, 1966.Gift of Joseph Hirshhorn, 1966.

Page 5: Art History Chapter 3 ArtTalk Textbook. What is art history? Art history is the record of art from past to present Art history is the record of art from

AnalysisAnalysis In the analysis step, you look at In the analysis step, you look at

the artist’s the artist’s stylestyle. . An artist’s An artist’s stylestyle is as individual is as individual

and unique as his handwriting. and unique as his handwriting. No two people have exactly the No two people have exactly the same handwriting, and no two same handwriting, and no two artists have exactly the same artists have exactly the same style.style.

Individual Individual stylestyle is the artist’s is the artist’s personal way of using the personal way of using the elements of artelements of art and the and the principles of designprinciples of design to express to express feeling and ideas.feeling and ideas.

Think about how you know a Think about how you know a painting was done by Monet, or painting was done by Monet, or Van Gogh, or Matisse, or Jackson Van Gogh, or Matisse, or Jackson Pollock. Their individual styles Pollock. Their individual styles are so unique as to be instantly are so unique as to be instantly recognizable. recognizable.

Claude Monet, Claude Monet, Water Lilies II,Water Lilies II,1908.1908.

Jackson PollackJackson Pollack

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InterpretationInterpretation In this step, you will need to In this step, you will need to

research a little to find out how research a little to find out how time and place affected an artist’s time and place affected an artist’s stylestyle..

For example, Alice Neel was an For example, Alice Neel was an American artist who was born in American artist who was born in 1900. She painted people that she 1900. She painted people that she was interested in instead of was interested in instead of traditional portraiture. She did traditional portraiture. She did not follow any art movements or not follow any art movements or stylesstyles. This is reflected in her . This is reflected in her unique unique stylestyle. Once you see her . Once you see her images, you can easily recognize images, you can easily recognize her paintings through her her paintings through her individual individual stylestyle..

Alice Neel, Alice Neel, Dana GordonDana Gordon. 1972.. 1972.

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JudgmentJudgment This is another step where you This is another step where you

have to research the artist. Did have to research the artist. Did this work introduce a new this work introduce a new stylestyle? ? Or, is it an outstanding example Or, is it an outstanding example of an existing of an existing stylestyle??

For example, Alice Neel is For example, Alice Neel is considered by art historians to be considered by art historians to be a great American portrait painter. a great American portrait painter. Her painting Her painting Faith RinggoldFaith Ringgold is of is of an important American artist who an important American artist who made “story quilts”. made “story quilts”. Faith Faith RinggoldRinggold is the epitome of Alice is the epitome of Alice Neel’s work, so yes this piece is Neel’s work, so yes this piece is an outstanding example of Alice an outstanding example of Alice Neel’s unique style.Neel’s unique style.

Alice Neel, Faith Ringgold. 1977. Oil on canvas. 48 x 36 in (121.9 x 91.4 cm). Corporate collection, Texas

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Art HistoryArt History Art has been around for as long as Art has been around for as long as

man has been around. Humans man has been around. Humans have a compulsion to create art – have a compulsion to create art – either to communicate or to either to communicate or to decorate.decorate.

We will be looking at We will be looking at art historyart history in very general terms. In other in very general terms. In other words, we are not going to go into words, we are not going to go into great detail for every period in art. great detail for every period in art. We will try to hit the high spots We will try to hit the high spots so you have a general overview of so you have a general overview of art historyart history..

Palmer Hayden, Palmer Hayden, The Janitor Who PaintsThe Janitor Who Paints, c. 1937. , c. 1937. Oil on Canvas. 99.4 x 83.5 cm (39 ½ x 32 Oil on Canvas. 99.4 x 83.5 cm (39 ½ x 32 ¼ “). National Museum of American Art, ¼ “). National Museum of American Art, Washington DCWashington DC

Leonardo da Vinci, Leonardo da Vinci, The Mona LisaThe Mona Lisa, c. 1503-1506. Oil , c. 1503-1506. Oil on poplar. 77 x 53 cm, 30 x 21”. Musee du on poplar. 77 x 53 cm, 30 x 21”. Musee du Louvre, Paris, France. Louvre, Paris, France.

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Prehistoric CulturesPrehistoric Cultures In the Altamira Caves in Spain, an In the Altamira Caves in Spain, an

amateur archaeologist excavated this amateur archaeologist excavated this low roof cave for 4 years before his low roof cave for 4 years before his daughter who was small enough to daughter who was small enough to stand up straight in the cave looked stand up straight in the cave looked up and discovered these paintings of up and discovered these paintings of sleeping, galloping, and crouching sleeping, galloping, and crouching animals.animals.

These cave paintings date back to These cave paintings date back to 15,000 BC15,000 BC

We have no real idea what the We have no real idea what the purpose of the paintings is. We know purpose of the paintings is. We know they aren’t decorative because they they aren’t decorative because they are deep inside the caves, and on the are deep inside the caves, and on the ceilings. The paintings may have ceilings. The paintings may have been part of the hunting ritual, part of been part of the hunting ritual, part of a religious-type of ritual, or maybe a religious-type of ritual, or maybe just to celebrate a successful hunt.just to celebrate a successful hunt.

Altamira Cave Painting, Spain.Altamira Cave Painting, Spain.

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Ancient River Valley CivilizationsAncient River Valley CivilizationsAncient EgyptAncient Egypt

Ancient Egypt developed along the Ancient Egypt developed along the banks of the Nile River 3000 years banks of the Nile River 3000 years B.C.B.C.

Religion was a huge influence. Religion was a huge influence. Pharaohs (rulers) were worshipped as Pharaohs (rulers) were worshipped as gods. The famous pyramids of Egypt gods. The famous pyramids of Egypt were built as tombs for the pharaohs.were built as tombs for the pharaohs.

Egyptians believed in life after death Egyptians believed in life after death and prepared for living in the and prepared for living in the afterlife.afterlife.

Egyptian artists followed strict rules Egyptian artists followed strict rules to decorate temples and tombs.to decorate temples and tombs.

Each part of body had to be shown Each part of body had to be shown from the most visible angle. This is from the most visible angle. This is why you see the heads, arms, legs, why you see the heads, arms, legs, and feet in profile while the shoulders and feet in profile while the shoulders and eyes are seen from a frontal view.and eyes are seen from a frontal view.

Scenes from the life of the person Scenes from the life of the person being buried were depicted.being buried were depicted.

Size indicated social hierarchy.Size indicated social hierarchy.

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Ancient River Valley CivilizationsAncient River Valley CivilizationsMesopotamiaMesopotamia

Mesopotamia was the fertile Mesopotamia was the fertile crescent of land between the crescent of land between the Tigris and Euphrates river.Tigris and Euphrates river.

The first important group in The first important group in the area were the Sumerians the area were the Sumerians (around 2700 B.C.)(around 2700 B.C.)

Sumerians were the first Sumerians were the first people to have a system of people to have a system of writing called writing called cuneiformcuneiform, , made up of wedge-shaped made up of wedge-shaped characters.characters.

Sumerian artwork was more Sumerian artwork was more realistic than the Egyptians.realistic than the Egyptians.

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Ancient River Valley CivilizationsAncient River Valley CivilizationsChinaChina

Ancient China was in the Ancient China was in the Yellow River valleyYellow River valley

This is the oldest continuous This is the oldest continuous culture in the history of the culture in the history of the world.world.

History of China until History of China until modern times was divided modern times was divided into into dynastiesdynasties. A . A dynastydynasty was a period of time during was a period of time during which a single family which a single family provided a succession of provided a succession of rulers. The first dynasty rulers. The first dynasty was the Shang dynasty was the Shang dynasty around 1300 B.C.around 1300 B.C.

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Ancient River Valley CivilizationsAncient River Valley CivilizationsIndiaIndia

Ancient India was located in Ancient India was located in the Indus River valley.the Indus River valley.

The culture of ancient India The culture of ancient India has been discovered to date has been discovered to date back as far as 2500 B.C.back as far as 2500 B.C.

A city called Mohenjo-Daro A city called Mohenjo-Daro was a major commercial was a major commercial center with large blocks, center with large blocks, multi-storied houses of fired multi-storied houses of fired brick and wood, and brick and wood, and elaborate drainage systems.elaborate drainage systems.

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Art of AsiaArt of AsiaIndia (300 B.C. to A.D. 1200)India (300 B.C. to A.D. 1200)

The art of India has been strongly The art of India has been strongly influenced by the Hindu and Buddhist influenced by the Hindu and Buddhist religions.religions.

Buddhism was predominant from 300 Buddhism was predominant from 300 B.C. to 50 A.D.B.C. to 50 A.D.

Hinduism became dominant after Hinduism became dominant after that. Hinduism has three primary that. Hinduism has three primary processes in life and in the universe, processes in life and in the universe, each represented by a god.each represented by a god.

Creation – Brahma, the Creator is the Creation – Brahma, the Creator is the god.god.

Preservation – Vishnu, the Preserver Preservation – Vishnu, the Preserver is the god.is the god.

Destruction – Shiva, the Destroyer is Destruction – Shiva, the Destroyer is the god.the god.

India exported its religions to the rest India exported its religions to the rest of Asiaof Asia

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Art of AsiaArt of AsiaChina (300 B.C. to modern times)China (300 B.C. to modern times)

China adopted Buddhism during Han China adopted Buddhism during Han dynasty (206 B.C. to A.D. 220) that dynasty (206 B.C. to A.D. 220) that stressed the oneness of human beings stressed the oneness of human beings with nature.with nature.

Chinese artists found that long Chinese artists found that long periods of meditation enabled them to periods of meditation enabled them to perceive the beauty of an object or perceive the beauty of an object or scene, and enabled them to capture scene, and enabled them to capture that beauty in their painting.that beauty in their painting.

Paintings were on scrolls of Paintings were on scrolls of parchment or silk.parchment or silk.

Sculpture was for religious purposes Sculpture was for religious purposes and to honor the dead.and to honor the dead.

During the Sung dynasty, porcelain During the Sung dynasty, porcelain objects were made of fine-grained objects were made of fine-grained white clay called kaolin.white clay called kaolin.

Work in porcelain reached its high Work in porcelain reached its high point during the Ming dynasty.point during the Ming dynasty.

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Art of AsiaArt of AsiaJapanJapan

Japan also adopted Japan also adopted Buddhism as its major Buddhism as its major religion.religion.

Until the end of 9Until the end of 9thth century, Japanese artists century, Japanese artists copied art styles of China copied art styles of China and other Asian countries.and other Asian countries.

Japanese artists developed Japanese artists developed a unique style of a unique style of printmaking and painting, printmaking and painting, including the woodcut including the woodcut print.print.

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Art of Greece and RomeArt of Greece and Rome Greece was the birthplace of Western civilization. Greece was the birthplace of Western civilization. The Greeks built temples in honor of their gods. The The Greeks built temples in honor of their gods. The

most outstanding example is the Parthenon.most outstanding example is the Parthenon. The Greeks believed in a logical, harmonious world. The Greeks believed in a logical, harmonious world.

They sought perfect proportion in everything They sought perfect proportion in everything (building, sculpture and music) by following formulas.(building, sculpture and music) by following formulas.

Originally statues were painted – the Greeks loved Originally statues were painted – the Greeks loved color. All we see now is the white of the marble.color. All we see now is the white of the marble.

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Art of Greece and RomeArt of Greece and Rome The Romans conquered Greece in 146 The Romans conquered Greece in 146

B.C. but instead of imposing their culture B.C. but instead of imposing their culture on Greece, the Romans adopted Greek on Greece, the Romans adopted Greek culture for their own. They had previously culture for their own. They had previously adopted Etruscan culture when they adopted Etruscan culture when they conquered Italy. As a result, Roman conquered Italy. As a result, Roman culture is a blend of the ideal Greek culture is a blend of the ideal Greek philosophy and the practical Etruscan arts philosophy and the practical Etruscan arts (system of drainage and improved use of (system of drainage and improved use of the arch).the arch).

The Romans continued to improve their The Romans continued to improve their adopted cultures – they used the arch and adopted cultures – they used the arch and concrete to build large scale structures, concrete to build large scale structures, developed beautiful interior decorations, developed beautiful interior decorations, excellent roads, and realistic rather than excellent roads, and realistic rather than idealized sculpture.idealized sculpture.

The Romans were not concerned with The Romans were not concerned with Greek ideas of perfection. They wanted Greek ideas of perfection. They wanted realistic, accurate portraits of people.realistic, accurate portraits of people.

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Art of Greece and RomeArt of Greece and Rome When Roman emperor When Roman emperor

Constantine legalized Constantine legalized Christianity during the 4Christianity during the 4thth century, Christians were century, Christians were able to build their own able to build their own churches (based on Roman churches (based on Roman design).design).

Interiors of these churches Interiors of these churches were decorated with were decorated with mosaics (pictures made by mosaics (pictures made by arranging small pieces of arranging small pieces of colored glass or tile in a colored glass or tile in a grout mixture).grout mixture).

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Art of Greece and RomeArt of Greece and Rome

Another style of art Another style of art developed in the eastern part developed in the eastern part of the Roman empire was of the Roman empire was called Byzantine art (named called Byzantine art (named after the city Byzantium). after the city Byzantium). This style blended Greek, This style blended Greek, Roman, and Asian styles, Roman, and Asian styles, had a religious theme, and had a religious theme, and used very rich colors and used very rich colors and figures that were flat and figures that were flat and stiff.stiff.

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Art of the Middle Ages in EuropeArt of the Middle Ages in EuropeRomanesqueRomanesque

The Middle Ages began with the conquest The Middle Ages began with the conquest of Rome in 476. The Christian religion of Rome in 476. The Christian religion became a dominant force at this time in became a dominant force at this time in Europe. Life was now centered around Europe. Life was now centered around churches. The churches grew in size and churches. The churches grew in size and political importance.political importance.

During this time, new churches were built During this time, new churches were built in the in the RomanesqueRomanesque style. These churches style. These churches were massive in size, had solid, heavy were massive in size, had solid, heavy walls made possible by the support of the walls made possible by the support of the Roman arch, and had many sculptural Roman arch, and had many sculptural decorations.decorations.

Up until this time, buildings could not be Up until this time, buildings could not be very large because there was no way to very large because there was no way to support the weight of the roof and the support the weight of the roof and the walls. The development of the Roman walls. The development of the Roman arch allowed buildings (especially arch allowed buildings (especially churches) to get larger and allow more churches) to get larger and allow more people to congregate, thus increasing the people to congregate, thus increasing the power of the church even more.power of the church even more.

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Art of the Middle Ages in EuropeArt of the Middle Ages in EuropeGothicGothic

In the twelfth century, people moved from the In the twelfth century, people moved from the country to the city. Guilds (the forerunners of country to the city. Guilds (the forerunners of unions) were formed, and apprentices learned unions) were formed, and apprentices learned their craft from the masters. their craft from the masters.

During this time, a wealthy middle class sprung During this time, a wealthy middle class sprung up. Now there are three classes – upper, middle up. Now there are three classes – upper, middle and lower.and lower.

Two new developments freed up architecture – Two new developments freed up architecture – the pointed arch and the flying buttress. These the pointed arch and the flying buttress. These two innovations supported the weight of the two innovations supported the weight of the walls and roof even more than the Roman arch. walls and roof even more than the Roman arch. Now churches could soar upward and windows Now churches could soar upward and windows could be added.could be added.

Gothic builders changed the light by using Gothic builders changed the light by using stained glass windows.stained glass windows.

Art was dictated by the Church. The only art at Art was dictated by the Church. The only art at this time was religious art that commemorated this time was religious art that commemorated Christian themes. Christian themes.

Sculpture and painting during the Gothic period Sculpture and painting during the Gothic period started becoming less stylized, more realistic. started becoming less stylized, more realistic. Egg tempera was used for painting at this time. Egg tempera was used for painting at this time. This was before the development of oil paint.This was before the development of oil paint.

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Art of the Middle Ages in EuropeArt of the Middle Ages in EuropeRenaissanceRenaissance

In the fifteenth century, the printing press and exploration of the Americas and the Pacific opened up the world. Gone were the dark days of the In the fifteenth century, the printing press and exploration of the Americas and the Pacific opened up the world. Gone were the dark days of the Middle Ages. Middle Ages. Renaissance Renaissance is a term given to the period of awakening at the end of the Middle Ages.is a term given to the period of awakening at the end of the Middle Ages.

The The RenaissanceRenaissance was a time of complete change in the way life was looked at. Kings and church were no longer at the top of the food chain – they was a time of complete change in the way life was looked at. Kings and church were no longer at the top of the food chain – they were replaced by bankers and merchants.were replaced by bankers and merchants.

Art changed during the Art changed during the RenaissanceRenaissance – it was no longer limited to just the Church. Religious art was still a primary source of art, but now art was – it was no longer limited to just the Church. Religious art was still a primary source of art, but now art was commissioned by private individuals. Subject matter expanded from religious subjects to portraiture, still lifes, and every day life. commissioned by private individuals. Subject matter expanded from religious subjects to portraiture, still lifes, and every day life.

The The Renaissance Renaissance focused on reviving the classical art of Greece and Rome as well as studying the natural world around us. Realism was the ultimate focused on reviving the classical art of Greece and Rome as well as studying the natural world around us. Realism was the ultimate goal for both people and objects depicted. In order to achieve this realism, architect Filippo Brunelleschi developed a technique based on geometry goal for both people and objects depicted. In order to achieve this realism, architect Filippo Brunelleschi developed a technique based on geometry called called linear perspectivelinear perspective. . Linear perspective Linear perspective is a graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface.is a graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface.

The most famous of the The most famous of the RenaissanceRenaissance artists were Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. artists were Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, and Raphael. Oil painting was invented during the Oil painting was invented during the RenaissanceRenaissance. Oil painting allowed artists to work on fine detail while the paint was still wet.. Oil painting allowed artists to work on fine detail while the paint was still wet.

Leonardo da Vinci, Leonardo da Vinci, The Last Supper.The Last Supper. C. 1495-1498. Tempera on gesso, pitch, and mastic. 460 x 880 cm, 181 x 346 in. Santa C. 1495-1498. Tempera on gesso, pitch, and mastic. 460 x 880 cm, 181 x 346 in. Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy.Maria delle Grazie, Milan, Italy.

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Art of IslamArt of Islam Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570. Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570.

He taught that there was only one god, He taught that there was only one god, Allah, and his followers were called Allah, and his followers were called Muslims. His teachings became the holy Muslims. His teachings became the holy scriptures called the Koran, and the name scriptures called the Koran, and the name of the religion became Islam.of the religion became Islam.

Islamic art is the art of the Muslim world Islamic art is the art of the Muslim world and is used to decorate the mosques and is used to decorate the mosques (Muslim places of worship). Art (Muslim places of worship). Art depicting people or animals was not depicting people or animals was not permitted in mosques, but could be and permitted in mosques, but could be and was used in illustrating books.was used in illustrating books.

Islamic art in the mosques was decorative Islamic art in the mosques was decorative – ornate – ornate calligraphy (beautiful writing)calligraphy (beautiful writing), , geometric patterns, and stylized plants geometric patterns, and stylized plants and flowers.and flowers.

Book illustrations depicted people and Book illustrations depicted people and animals in everyday scenes such as animals in everyday scenes such as banquets, hunting scenes, and romantic banquets, hunting scenes, and romantic stories.stories.

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Art of Native AmericansArt of Native Americans Prior to Columbus and the Prior to Columbus and the

Europeans arriving in America in Europeans arriving in America in 1492, the people of North, 1492, the people of North, Central, and South America had Central, and South America had well-organized civilizations. well-organized civilizations. There were over 20 million There were over 20 million people living in 2000 different people living in 2000 different groups. Each group had its own groups. Each group had its own unique language, traditions, unique language, traditions, rituals and art forms.rituals and art forms.

Any culture before the Europeans Any culture before the Europeans (Columbus) arrived is referred to (Columbus) arrived is referred to as pre-Columbian. As you can as pre-Columbian. As you can imagine, this part of art history imagine, this part of art history covers a wide variety and covers a wide variety and function of art depending on function of art depending on which of the 2000 cultures you which of the 2000 cultures you are looking at.are looking at.

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Art of EuropeArt of Europe17th Century17th Century

The The RenaissanceRenaissance opened up learning in all areas opened up learning in all areas as well as encouraging many new and major as well as encouraging many new and major developments in exploration and scientific developments in exploration and scientific discoveries. As a result, as we move into the discoveries. As a result, as we move into the 17th century, we can see the impact of the 17th century, we can see the impact of the inventions such as the microscope and the inventions such as the microscope and the telescope. A new worldview is emerging and is telescope. A new worldview is emerging and is reflected in the arts. Learning, discovery, and reflected in the arts. Learning, discovery, and exploration are moving faster and are happening exploration are moving faster and are happening in every direction – science, math, literature, in every direction – science, math, literature, theater, visual arts. theater, visual arts.

The The BaroqueBaroque art style is a new movement in art art style is a new movement in art that is reflecting this changing culture. that is reflecting this changing culture.

Baroque Baroque art emphasized movement, strong art emphasized movement, strong value contrast, and variety. Forms and figures in value contrast, and variety. Forms and figures in BaroqueBaroque art turn, twist and spiral into space. art turn, twist and spiral into space.

Baroque Baroque artists refined perspective to the point artists refined perspective to the point they could make figures seem to move off the they could make figures seem to move off the canvas toward the viewer. They opened up the canvas toward the viewer. They opened up the picture plane into infinity. There are no more picture plane into infinity. There are no more limits in space – the picture plane is no longer limits in space – the picture plane is no longer flat, it now appears to be completely three-flat, it now appears to be completely three-dimensional.dimensional.

In addition to movement, the In addition to movement, the BaroqueBaroque artists artists used dramatic lighting effects with dark, used dramatic lighting effects with dark, mysterious shadows, and brightly lit areas.mysterious shadows, and brightly lit areas.

Michelangelo, Michelangelo, The Sistine Chapel The Sistine Chapel (detail). (detail).

Michelangelo, Michelangelo, La PietaLa Pieta. 1499. Marble. . 1499. Marble. 174 x 195 cm, 68.5 x 76.8 in. St. 174 x 195 cm, 68.5 x 76.8 in. St. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy. Peter’s Basilica, Rome, Italy.

Peter Paul Rubens, Peter Paul Rubens, The Adoration of the The Adoration of the MagiMagi. 1624. Oil on canvas. 447 . 1624. Oil on canvas. 447 by 336cm (15 by 11 feet). by 336cm (15 by 11 feet). Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Koninklijk Museum voor Schone Kunsten in Antwerp, Belgium.Kunsten in Antwerp, Belgium.

Rembrandt van Rijn, Rembrandt van Rijn, Titus, the Titus, the Artist’s son. Artist’s son. C. 1657. Oil on C. 1657. Oil on canvas. 55 x 67 cm (21.7 x canvas. 55 x 67 cm (21.7 x 26.4”). Wallace Collection, 26.4”). Wallace Collection, London, England.London, England.

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Art of EuropeArt of Europe18th Century18th Century

The The BaroqueBaroque art movement art movement of the 17of the 17thth century morphed century morphed into a more relaxed style in into a more relaxed style in the 18the 18thth century called century called Rococo.Rococo.

RococoRococo stressed free stressed free graceful movement, a graceful movement, a playful use of line, and playful use of line, and delicate colors.delicate colors.

RococoRococo art was used to art was used to decorate the homes of the decorate the homes of the French aristocracy, and French aristocracy, and depicted their luxurious and depicted their luxurious and carefree lifestyles (pre-carefree lifestyles (pre-Marie Antoinette)Marie Antoinette)

The Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria)The Basilica at Ottobeuren (Bavaria)

Thomas Gainsborough, Thomas Gainsborough, The Mall in St. James Park.The Mall in St. James Park. 1783. Oil on 1783. Oil on canvas. 147 x 120 cm. The Frick Collection, New York, canvas. 147 x 120 cm. The Frick Collection, New York, NY.NY.

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Art of EuropeArt of Europe1919thth Century Century

Life changes faster and faster as we move Life changes faster and faster as we move ahead in time. The industrial revolution and ahead in time. The industrial revolution and the democratic revolutions (including the U.S. the democratic revolutions (including the U.S. and French revolutions) in the late 18and French revolutions) in the late 18 thth century century brought about even newer and faster ways of brought about even newer and faster ways of life, which was reflected in art as well.life, which was reflected in art as well.

Some of the new styles of art were a rebellion Some of the new styles of art were a rebellion against what had gone before in art.against what had gone before in art.

Now instead of a new style for the century, we Now instead of a new style for the century, we start seeing movements in art happening either start seeing movements in art happening either simultaneously, or in rapid successionsimultaneously, or in rapid succession

The major new movements in the 19The major new movements in the 19 thth century century were were Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Neoclassicism, Romanticism, Realism, Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism.Impressionism, and Post-Impressionism.

Jacques-Louis David, Jacques-Louis David, The Oath of the The Oath of the Horatii. Horatii. C 1784-1785. Oil on C 1784-1785. Oil on canvas. 4.27 x 3.35 m. (14 x 11 ft). canvas. 4.27 x 3.35 m. (14 x 11 ft). Louvre, Paris.Louvre, Paris. Rosa Bonheur, Rosa Bonheur, The Horse FairThe Horse Fair. 1853-55. Oil on canvas. . 1853-55. Oil on canvas.

244.5 x 506.7 cm (96 ¼ x 199 ½”). The 244.5 x 506.7 cm (96 ¼ x 199 ½”). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, NY.Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, NY.

Thomas Eakin, Thomas Eakin, Alice Kurtz.Alice Kurtz. 1903. 1903. Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University. Cambridge, University. Cambridge, Massachusetts. Massachusetts.

NeoclassicismNeoclassicism

RomanticismRomanticism

RealismRealism

ImpressionismImpressionism

Edgar Degas, Edgar Degas, The Dance Class.The Dance Class. 1873-1876. Oil 1873-1876. Oil on canvas.on canvas.

Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism

Paul Gauguin, Paul Gauguin, Paysanes Paysannes bretonnes (Breton peasant womenPaysanes Paysannes bretonnes (Breton peasant women ). ). 1894. Oil on canvas. 26 x 36 1/4 in. (66 x 92 cm). Musee 1894. Oil on canvas. 26 x 36 1/4 in. (66 x 92 cm). Musee d'Orsay. Paris, France.d'Orsay. Paris, France.

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century NeoclassicismNeoclassicism

The French revolution abandoned The French revolution abandoned the the RococoRococo style since it mirrored style since it mirrored the life of the aristocracy. the life of the aristocracy. Academies replaced the apprentice Academies replaced the apprentice system. Academies were strict system. Academies were strict “schools” of art that taught all “schools” of art that taught all aspects of art. The natural place to aspects of art. The natural place to start was the classic art styles of start was the classic art styles of Greece and Rome, hence the name Greece and Rome, hence the name ““NeoclassicNeoclassic” (new classic).” (new classic).

NeoclassicismNeoclassicism was severely was severely realistic and unemotional.realistic and unemotional.

An outstanding example of An outstanding example of NeoclassicNeoclassic art art The Death of The Death of SocratesSocrates by Jacques Louis David, by Jacques Louis David,

Jacques Louis David, Jacques Louis David, The Death of Socrates. The Death of Socrates. 1787. Oil on canvas. 51 x 77 1/4 in. (129.5 x 1787. Oil on canvas. 51 x 77 1/4 in. (129.5 x 196.2 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, NY. 196.2 cm). The Metropolitan Museum of Art. New York, NY.

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century RomanticismRomanticism

RomanticismRomanticism was a reaction to was a reaction to the unemotional the unemotional NeoclassicismNeoclassicism. . RomanticistsRomanticists disliked the many disliked the many rules and the lack of emotion in rules and the lack of emotion in NeoclassicismNeoclassicism..

Romanticists Romanticists painted emotional painted emotional scenes of action using brilliant scenes of action using brilliant colors to emphasize the feeling of colors to emphasize the feeling of the art work.the art work.

RomanticistsRomanticists believed the artist’s believed the artist’s personal impression of an event personal impression of an event was more interesting than an was more interesting than an accurate, historical report.accurate, historical report.

Rosa Bonheur’s Rosa Bonheur’s The Horse FairThe Horse Fair is a good example of the is a good example of the RomanticismRomanticism movement. movement.

J. W.M. Turner, J. W.M. Turner, The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th The Burning of the Houses of Lords and Commons, 16th OctoberOctober. 1834-1835. Oil on canvas. 92 x 123 cm. Philadelphia . 1834-1835. Oil on canvas. 92 x 123 cm. Philadelphia Museum of Art Museum of Art

Rosa Bonheur, Rosa Bonheur, The Horse FairThe Horse Fair. 1853-55. Oil on canvas. 244.5 x 506.7 cm (96 ¼ x 199 ½”). The . 1853-55. Oil on canvas. 244.5 x 506.7 cm (96 ¼ x 199 ½”). The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY.

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century RealismRealism

The The RealistsRealists rejected the rules of rejected the rules of NeoclassicismNeoclassicism and the drama of and the drama of the the Romanticists Romanticists in favor of real in favor of real life. The life. The RealistsRealists portrayed portrayed familiar scenes as they actually familiar scenes as they actually were.were.

The The RealistsRealists felt that they should felt that they should portray political, social and moral portray political, social and moral issues.issues.

Francisco de Goya was a Spanish Francisco de Goya was a Spanish artist who portrayed the ugly truth artist who portrayed the ugly truth of war during the Spanish of war during the Spanish Revolution.Revolution.

The American artist, Thomas The American artist, Thomas Eakins painted every day scenes Eakins painted every day scenes realistically. realistically.

Francisco de Goya, Francisco de Goya, The Shootings of May Third 1808. The Shootings of May Third 1808. 1814. Oil on 1814. Oil on canvas. 104 3/4 x 136 in. Museo del Prado, Madrid canvas. 104 3/4 x 136 in. Museo del Prado, Madrid

Thomas Eakins, Thomas Eakins, The Agnew Clinic. The Agnew Clinic. 1889. Oil on canvas. 84 3/8 x 118 1889. Oil on canvas. 84 3/8 x 118 1/8 inches. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 1/8 inches. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century ImpressionismImpressionism

While the While the RealistsRealists were busy looking at were busy looking at the real world, another group called the the real world, another group called the Impressionists Impressionists also looked at the world also looked at the world around them. around them.

The The ImpressionistsImpressionists took their studios took their studios outside so they could capture the effects outside so they could capture the effects of color and light. They were more of color and light. They were more interested in reflected light than in interested in reflected light than in realistic form.realistic form.

ImpressionismImpressionism captured everyday captured everyday subjects and emphasized the momentary subjects and emphasized the momentary effects of sunlight.effects of sunlight.

Foremost among the Foremost among the ImpressionistsImpressionists were Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, and were Edouard Manet, Claude Monet, and Auguste Renoir.Auguste Renoir.

Monet, Claude, Monet, Claude, Impression, soleil levantImpression, soleil levantImpression, Sunrise. Impression, Sunrise. 1872. Oil on 1872. Oil on canvas. 48 x 63 cm (19 x 24 3/8"). canvas. 48 x 63 cm (19 x 24 3/8"). Musee Marmottan, Paris, France. Musee Marmottan, Paris, France.

Claude MonetClaude MonetPaintings of the same cathedral under Paintings of the same cathedral under

different light and weather different light and weather conditions.conditions.

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century ImpressionismImpressionism

Edouard Manet, Edouard Manet, The Fifer. The Fifer. 1866. Oil on canvas. 63 x 38 1866. Oil on canvas. 63 x 38 1/2 in. (161 x 97 cm). Musee d'Orsay, Paris. 1/2 in. (161 x 97 cm). Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Luncheon of the Boating Party. The Luncheon of the Boating Party. 1881. Oil on canvas. 129.5 x 172.7 cm (51 x 68 in.). 1881. Oil on canvas. 129.5 x 172.7 cm (51 x 68 in.). The Phillips Collection, Washington The Phillips Collection, Washington

Berthe Morisot, Berthe Morisot, At the Ball,At the Ball, 1875. Musee Marmottan Monet. 1875. Musee Marmottan Monet. Paris, France.Paris, France.

Mary Cassatt, Mary Cassatt, Portrait of a Little GirlPortrait of a Little Girl . 1878. Oil on canvas. 89.5 x . 1878. Oil on canvas. 89.5 x 129.8 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington 129.8 cm. National Gallery of Art, Washington

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism

Some of the Some of the ImpressionistImpressionist artists artists became dissatisfied and wanted their art became dissatisfied and wanted their art to become more meaningful. Others to become more meaningful. Others wanted more feelings, intuitions and wanted more feelings, intuitions and ideas in their art. Still others wanted ideas in their art. Still others wanted more structure and form. These artists more structure and form. These artists became known as the became known as the Post-Post-ImpressionistsImpressionists..

Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism was not a unified was not a unified movement. movement. Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism better better describes a time period in the latter part describes a time period in the latter part of the nineteenth century than a of the nineteenth century than a particular style of art. The artists had particular style of art. The artists had very little in common with one another very little in common with one another except for the time period in which they except for the time period in which they lived.lived.

TheThe Post-Impressionists Post-Impressionists each expanded each expanded his or her style to create something so his or her style to create something so unusual that each style led to important unusual that each style led to important developments in art during the 20developments in art during the 20 thth Century.Century.

Post-ImpressionistPost-Impressionist artists include Henri artists include Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Berthe Morisot, Mary Toulouse-Lautrec, Berthe Morisot, Mary Cassatt, Paul Cezanne, Vincent van Cassatt, Paul Cezanne, Vincent van Gogh, and Paul Gauguin. Gogh, and Paul Gauguin.

Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, In Bed.In Bed. 1893. 1893.

Berthe Morisot, Berthe Morisot, Peasant Hanging out the Washing. 1881. Oil on canvas. 18 x 26 1/4" (46 x 67 cm). Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek, Copenhagen

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism

Paul Cezanne, Paul Cezanne, Still Life with Plate of Cherries. Still Life with Plate of Cherries. 1885-87. Oil on canvas. 22 /78 x 27" (58.1 1885-87. Oil on canvas. 22 /78 x 27" (58.1 x 68.9 cm). Los Angeles County Museum of Art. x 68.9 cm). Los Angeles County Museum of Art.

Mary Cassatt, Mary Cassatt, Summertime. Summertime. c. 1894. c. 1894. Oil on canvas. 100.7 x 81.3 Oil on canvas. 100.7 x 81.3 cm. Terra Foundation for the cm. Terra Foundation for the Arts Arts

Mary Cassatt, Mary Cassatt, The Banjo Lesson. The Banjo Lesson. 1893/94. Pastel 1893/94. Pastel over oiled pastel on tan wove paper. 72.2 x over oiled pastel on tan wove paper. 72.2 x 58.6 cm. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, 58.6 cm. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond Richmond

Mary Cassatt, Mary Cassatt, Lady at the Tea Table. Lady at the Tea Table. 1883. Oil 1883. Oil on canvas. 73.4 x 61 cm. Metropolitan on canvas. 73.4 x 61 cm. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Museum of Art, New York

Paul Cezanne, Portrait of Gustave Geffroy. 1895. Oil on canvas. 45 5/8 x 35 in. Collection Mr. and Mrs. Rene Lecomte. Paris, France., France.

Paul Cezanne, Well: Millstone and Cistern Under Trees (Meule et citerne sous bois). 1892. Oil on canvas. 25 5/8 x 31 7/8 in. (65 x 81 cm). The Barnes Foundation, Merion, Pennsylvania

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Art of Europe - 19Art of Europe - 19thth Century Century Post-ImpressionismPost-Impressionism

Paul Gauguin, Paul Gauguin, Portrait of the Artist Portrait of the Artist with the Idol. with the Idol. c. 1893. Oil on c. 1893. Oil on canvas. 17 1/4 x 12 7/8 in. canvas. 17 1/4 x 12 7/8 in. (43.8 x 32.7 cm). McMay Art (43.8 x 32.7 cm). McMay Art Museum. San Antonio, TX. Museum. San Antonio, TX.

Paul Gauguin, Paul Gauguin, Femmes de Tahiti OR Sur la plage (Tahitian Women Femmes de Tahiti OR Sur la plage (Tahitian Women OR On the Beach). OR On the Beach). 1891. Oil on canvas. 27 1/8 x 35 7/8 1891. Oil on canvas. 27 1/8 x 35 7/8 in. (69 x 91 cm). Musee d'Orsay, Paris in. (69 x 91 cm). Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Vincent Van Gogh, Vincent Van Gogh, Entrance to the Public Garden in Arles. Entrance to the Public Garden in Arles. 1888. Oil on canvas. 72.5 x 91 cm (28 1/2 x 35 1888. Oil on canvas. 72.5 x 91 cm (28 1/2 x 35 3/4 in.). The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C. 3/4 in.). The Phillips Collection, Washington, D.C.

Vincent Van Gogh, Vincent Van Gogh, The Starry Night. The Starry Night. 1889. Oil on canvas. 29 1889. Oil on canvas. 29 x 36 1/4 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York x 36 1/4 in. The Museum of Modern Art, New York

Vincent Van Gogh, Vincent Van Gogh, Wheat Field Under Threatening Skies. Wheat Field Under Threatening Skies. 1890. Oil on canvas. 50.5 x 100.5 cm. 1890. Oil on canvas. 50.5 x 100.5 cm. Vincent van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam Vincent van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam

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Art of AfricaArt of Africa The art of Africa is as varied as The art of Africa is as varied as

the one thousand cultures the one thousand cultures consisting of millions of people.consisting of millions of people.

Most African art in museums Most African art in museums dates only from the last century dates only from the last century because the damp climate has because the damp climate has destroyed many of the wooden or destroyed many of the wooden or fabric pieces.fabric pieces.

A few metal sculptures dating A few metal sculptures dating back to the 16back to the 16thth century from the century from the Benin kingdom show an Benin kingdom show an outstanding command of metal-outstanding command of metal-casting techniques.casting techniques.

SONGYESONGYE Figure. Zaire. Wood, metal, and Figure. Zaire. Wood, metal, and feathers. 44 1/4 in. (112.5 cm) high. feathers. 44 1/4 in. (112.5 cm) high. Collection J.W. Mestach, Brussels Collection J.W. Mestach, Brussels

YOMBE YOMBE Fetish. Zaire. Wood and mixed Fetish. Zaire. Wood and mixed media. 23 3/8 in. (59.5 cm) high. media. 23 3/8 in. (59.5 cm) high. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale. Tervuren, Belgium .Tervuren, Belgium .

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Art of AfricaArt of Africa The arts of Africa are interwoven into the The arts of Africa are interwoven into the

religious life and everyday lives of the many religious life and everyday lives of the many nations, kingdoms and culture groups. nations, kingdoms and culture groups. Everything artistic also serves a functional Everything artistic also serves a functional purpose – ceremonial canes, combs for hair, purpose – ceremonial canes, combs for hair, stools, chairs, pipes, and spoons.stools, chairs, pipes, and spoons.

Weaving is widespread. Everyday weaving is Weaving is widespread. Everyday weaving is done by the women, while the ceremonial done by the women, while the ceremonial weavings such as Kente cloth are reserved for weavings such as Kente cloth are reserved for the men alone to do.the men alone to do.

Sculpture is regarded as one of Africa’s greatest Sculpture is regarded as one of Africa’s greatest contributions to the world’s cultural heritage. contributions to the world’s cultural heritage. African sculpture inspired the development of African sculpture inspired the development of Cubism in Europe in the 20Cubism in Europe in the 20thth century. century.

African wood carvings include figures and African wood carvings include figures and masks. The figures are ancestral figures, power masks. The figures are ancestral figures, power figures, and funeral figures. They have figures, and funeral figures. They have proportions that reflect cultural concepts rather proportions that reflect cultural concepts rather than realism, and an enlarged head indicates its than realism, and an enlarged head indicates its importance as the center of reason and wisdom.importance as the center of reason and wisdom.

Yoruba bronze head sculpture from the city Yoruba bronze head sculpture from the city of Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century A.D. of Ife, Nigeria c. 12th century A.D.

SONGYESONGYE Kifwebe Mask. Zaire. Painted Kifwebe Mask. Zaire. Painted wood. 24 3/4 in. (63 cm) high. wood. 24 3/4 in. (63 cm) high. Private collection Private collection

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2020thth Century Art Century Art 2020thth century art changed so century art changed so

rapidly and in so many directions, rapidly and in so many directions, it’s difficult to pinpoint all the it’s difficult to pinpoint all the movements or even define a movements or even define a movement any more. Some movement any more. Some artists were involved in several artists were involved in several movements in their lifetime.movements in their lifetime.

European art moved in three European art moved in three general directions:general directions:

Expressing emotionsExpressing emotions Emphasized structure and Emphasized structure and

compositioncomposition Stressed imagination and Stressed imagination and

dreamlike inventionsdreamlike inventions Artists experimented with Artists experimented with

anything and everything in the anything and everything in the 2020thth century century

William de Kooning, William de Kooning, Whose Name Was Writ in WaterWhose Name Was Writ in Water

Piet Mondrian, Piet Mondrian, Broadway Boogie Woogie. Broadway Boogie Woogie. 1942-1943. 1942-1943. Oil on canvas. 50 x 50 in. (127 x 127 cm). The Oil on canvas. 50 x 50 in. (127 x 127 cm). The Museum of Modern Art, New York Museum of Modern Art, New York

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtFauvismFauvism

FauvismFauvism was a movement at the was a movement at the beginning of the 20beginning of the 20thth century century characterized by the use of characterized by the use of brilliant colors, bold distortions, brilliant colors, bold distortions, and loose brushstrokes.and loose brushstrokes.

FauveFauve is French for “wild beasts” is French for “wild beasts” The The FauvesFauves continued the continued the

expressive ideas of Van Gogh and expressive ideas of Van Gogh and Gauging.Gauging.

Henri Matisse was the leader of Henri Matisse was the leader of this movement. He was this movement. He was concerned with expressing the concerned with expressing the feeling he had for life. He feeling he had for life. He insisted that his work had one insisted that his work had one purpose – to give pleasure.purpose – to give pleasure.

Henri Matisse, Henri Matisse, Femme au manteau violet (Woman in a Femme au manteau violet (Woman in a Purple CoatPurple Coat). 1937. Oil on canvas. 37 7/8 x ). 1937. Oil on canvas. 37 7/8 x 25 11/16 in. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston 25 11/16 in. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston

Andre Derain, Andre Derain, The Turning Road, L'Estaque. The Turning Road, L'Estaque. 1906. Oil on canvas. 1906. Oil on canvas. 4 ft 2 1/2 in x 6 ft 4 1/2 in. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.4 ft 2 1/2 in x 6 ft 4 1/2 in. Museum of Fine Arts, Houston.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtExpressionismExpressionism

ExpressionismExpressionism was a was a German movement in which German movement in which artists tried to communicate artists tried to communicate strong emotional feelings. strong emotional feelings. ExpressionismExpressionism stressed stressed personal feelings rather than personal feelings rather than composition.composition.

Kathe Kollwitz was an Kathe Kollwitz was an ExpressionistExpressionist who was who was concerned with poverty and concerned with poverty and war.war.

Edvard Munch, Edvard Munch, The Scream. The Scream. 1893. Oil, 1893. Oil, tempera and pastel on cardboard. tempera and pastel on cardboard. 91 x 73.5 cm. National Gallery, 91 x 73.5 cm. National Gallery, OsloOslo

Kathe KollwitzKathe Kollwitz, , Selbstbildnis mit der Hand Selbstbildnis mit der Hand an der Stirn (Self-Portrait with Hand an der Stirn (Self-Portrait with Hand on the Forehead)on the Forehead). 1910. Etching. . 1910. Etching. 15.5 x 13.8 cm (plate). California 15.5 x 13.8 cm (plate). California State Library long loan. State Library long loan.

Kathe Kollwitz, Kathe Kollwitz, Selbstbildnis von vorn Selbstbildnis von vorn (Self-Portrait from the Front)(Self-Portrait from the Front). . 1923. Woodcut. 15 x 15.6 cm 1923. Woodcut. 15 x 15.6 cm (image). Gift of Albert M. (image). Gift of Albert M. Bender. Bender.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtCubismCubism

CubismCubism is a style that emphasizes is a style that emphasizes structure and design. It is an structure and design. It is an attempt to put all dimensions onto attempt to put all dimensions onto a flat surface at one time – to see a flat surface at one time – to see all points of view at the same all points of view at the same time.time.

Three things influenced the Three things influenced the CubistsCubists::

The idea that all shapes in nature The idea that all shapes in nature are based on geometric solidsare based on geometric solids

The scientific discovery that The scientific discovery that matter is made up of atoms that matter is made up of atoms that are constantly in motionare constantly in motion

The art of Africa – African The art of Africa – African sculpturesculpture

Pablo Picasso, Pablo Picasso, The Guitar Player. The Guitar Player. 1910.1910.

Joan Miro, Joan Miro, The Farm (La masia).The Farm (La masia).

Juan Gris, Portrait of Picasso. 1912. Oil on canvas. 93.4 x 74.3 cm. (36 3/4 x 29 1/4 in.). The Art Institute of Chicago.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtThe FuturistsThe Futurists

The The FuturistsFuturists took took CubismCubism a step farther. a step farther. They placed lines and They placed lines and shapes in a composition shapes in a composition to suggest motion. to suggest motion.

Piet Mondrian was a Piet Mondrian was a prime example. He prime example. He created nonobjective art created nonobjective art using only vertical and using only vertical and horizontal black lines, horizontal black lines, black, white and gray black, white and gray rectangles, and the three rectangles, and the three primary colors.primary colors.

Piet Mondrian, New York City. 1941-42. Oil on canvas. 119 x 114 cm (46 7/8 x 44 7/8 in). Musee national d'art moderne, Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris..

Piet Mondrian, Composition with Yellow, Blue and Red. 1937-42. Oil on canvas. 72.5 x 69 cm (28 1/2 x 27 1/8 in.). Tate Gallery, London

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtDadaismDadaism

DadaismDadaism introduced fantasy into their introduced fantasy into their subject matter. subject matter. DadaistsDadaists used fantasy used fantasy to take aim at the culture they thought to take aim at the culture they thought had failed them.had failed them.

DadaismDadaism was a reaction to the was a reaction to the horrors of World War I. Basically, horrors of World War I. Basically, artists felt that society with all its artists felt that society with all its rules was the cause of all the rules was the cause of all the bloodshed. World War Ibloodshed. World War I was was considered to be “an insane spectacle considered to be “an insane spectacle of collective homicide” by the of collective homicide” by the Dadaists.Dadaists.

DadaDada is anti-art. It has no meaning. is anti-art. It has no meaning. It has no purpose. Ironically, it set It has no purpose. Ironically, it set the stage for much of the 20the stage for much of the 20thth century century art to follow.art to follow.

Some examples of Some examples of DadaismDadaism are a fur- are a fur-lined teacup and a urinal.lined teacup and a urinal.

Meret Oppenheim, Meret Oppenheim, Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure).Object (Le Déjeuner en fourrure). 1936. Teacup, saucer, 1936. Teacup, saucer, spoon, fur. Museum of Modern Art, New York.spoon, fur. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Marcel Duchamp, Marcel Duchamp, FountainFountain. 1970. 60 cm tall. Readymade . 1970. 60 cm tall. Readymade porcelain urinal. Philadelphia Museum of Art.porcelain urinal. Philadelphia Museum of Art.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtSurrealismSurrealism

SurrealismSurrealism is another is another movement similar to movement similar to DadaDada in philosophy, but not as in philosophy, but not as extreme.extreme.

SurrealismSurrealism was a style in was a style in which dreams, fantasy, and which dreams, fantasy, and the subconscious served as the subconscious served as inspiration for artists.inspiration for artists.

SurrealistSurrealist art was very art was very realistic, almost realistic, almost photographic, but not real photographic, but not real life at all.life at all.

Salvador Dali, Salvador Dali, Nature Morte Vivante ( Still Life – Fast Moving) . Nature Morte Vivante ( Still Life – Fast Moving) . 1956. 1956.

Salvador Dali, Salvador Dali, The Persistence of MemoryThe Persistence of Memory . . 1931.1931.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtRegionalismRegionalism

RegionalismRegionalism was a was a purely American art purely American art movement that focused movement that focused on scenes in America.on scenes in America.

RegionalistsRegionalists painted painted farmlands and cities, farmlands and cities, focusing on the vast focusing on the vast expanse, beauty, expanse, beauty, productivity and productivity and abundance of America.abundance of America.

Thomas Hart Benton, Thomas Hart Benton, The Sources of Country Music.The Sources of Country Music. 1975. Acrylic on canvas. 1.8 x 3 m (6 x 10’). 1975. Acrylic on canvas. 1.8 x 3 m (6 x 10’). The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, Nashville, Tennessee.The Country Music Hall of Fame and Museum, Nashville, Tennessee.

Grant Wood, Grant Wood, American Gothic American Gothic, American Gothic American Gothic, 1930. Oil on 1930. Oil on beaverboard. 74.3 x 62.4 cm. Friends of American Art beaverboard. 74.3 x 62.4 cm. Friends of American Art Collection, Chicago. Collection, Chicago.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtMexican MuralistsMexican Muralists

The The Mexican MuralistsMexican Muralists were a were a group of artists whose art group of artists whose art reflected their concerns about the reflected their concerns about the plight of common people.plight of common people.

They were called the They were called the Mexican Mexican MuralistsMuralists because they covered because they covered walls and ceilings with murals walls and ceilings with murals about Mexican history – the about Mexican history – the plight of the peasants and the plight of the peasants and the immoral behavior of the ruling immoral behavior of the ruling class.class.

David Siqueiros, Jose Clemente David Siqueiros, Jose Clemente Orozco, and Diego Rivera were Orozco, and Diego Rivera were the three the three Mexican MuralistsMexican Muralists

Diego Rivera, Night of the Rich. 1928. Fresco. North wall, Courtyard of the Fiestas, Ministry of Education, Mexico City

Jose Clemente Orozco, Jose Clemente Orozco, The Dartmouth Mural.The Dartmouth Mural. 1932 – 1934. 1932 – 1934.

David Alfaro Siqueiros, Echo of a Scream. 1937. Enamel on wood, 48 x 36" (121.9 x 91.4 cm). Gift of Edward M. M. Warburg. Museum of Modern Art, New York.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtAbstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism

Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism was one of the first art was one of the first art movements to emerge after movements to emerge after World War II.World War II.

It was It was abstractabstract because it because it emphasized the elements of emphasized the elements of art and principles of design art and principles of design as its subject matter.as its subject matter.

It was It was expressiveexpressive because it because it stressed feeling and stressed feeling and emotions rather than emotions rather than planned design.planned design.

Jackson Pollack, Jackson Pollack, Eyes in the HeatEyes in the Heat. 1946.. 1946.

Willem de Kooning, Willem de Kooning, Woman VWoman V. 1952-53.. 1952-53.

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtPop and Op ArtPop and Op Art

In the 1960’s, artists turned In the 1960’s, artists turned to mass media, specifically to mass media, specifically advertising for inspiration.advertising for inspiration.

Pop artistsPop artists portrayed portrayed images of popular culture as images of popular culture as their subject matter. Two of their subject matter. Two of the most famous the most famous pop artists pop artists were Andy Warhol and Roy were Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein.Lichtenstein.

Op artistsOp artists liked to fool the liked to fool the eye using scientific eye using scientific knowledge to create optical knowledge to create optical illusions of movement.illusions of movement.

Andy Warhol, Andy Warhol, Marilyn.Marilyn. Roy Lichtenstein, Roy Lichtenstein, Drowning Girl.Drowning Girl. 1953. 1953.

Bridget Riley, Bridget Riley, Movement in SquaresMovement in Squares. 1961.. 1961.

Op ArtOp Art

Pop ArtPop Art

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtColor-Field PaintingColor-Field Painting

Color-Field PaintingColor-Field Painting focuses only on flat focuses only on flat fields of color.fields of color.

Color-Field PaintingColor-Field Painting is is color for the pure color for the pure sensation of color.sensation of color.

The most famous The most famous Color-Color-FieldField artist is Mark artist is Mark Rothko. His color areas Rothko. His color areas have hazy edges that have hazy edges that seem to float in space.seem to float in space.

Mark Rothko, Mark Rothko, Red on Maroon.Red on Maroon. 1959. Tate Collection, 1959. Tate Collection, London.London.

Mark Rothko, Mark Rothko, Earth and GreenEarth and Green. .

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2020thth Century Art Century ArtNew RealismNew Realism

Americans love to have Americans love to have their art look like real life. their art look like real life. In the 20In the 20thth century, realism century, realism became less important with became less important with the increasing popularity of the increasing popularity of photography. However, we photography. However, we still want our art to be still want our art to be realistic. Realistic art in the realistic. Realistic art in the 2020thth century is called century is called Photo-Realism, Hyper-Photo-Realism, Hyper-Realism, Realism, and and Super-Super-Realism.Realism.

Andrew Wyeth and Duane Andrew Wyeth and Duane Hanson are famous Hanson are famous examples of examples of RealistRealist artists. artists.

Andrew Wyeth, Hawk Mountain. 1961. Gift of Mr. Halleck Lefferts

Andrew Wyeth, Andrew Wyeth, The Master’s Bedroom. The Master’s Bedroom.

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Meet the ArtistMeet the ArtistLilla Cabot PerryLilla Cabot Perry

Lilla Cabot Perry was a late 19Lilla Cabot Perry was a late 19 thth century who century who captured the genteel world in turn-of-the-century captured the genteel world in turn-of-the-century Boston.Boston.

Perry came from a socially prominent family, Perry came from a socially prominent family, was a scholar interested in all the arts – visual, was a scholar interested in all the arts – visual, performance, writing, etc.performance, writing, etc.

Perry went to Paris and studied in a French Perry went to Paris and studied in a French academy and spent hours copying paintings of academy and spent hours copying paintings of the old masters at the Louvre.the old masters at the Louvre.

She and her husband became friends with the She and her husband became friends with the Monets (Claude Monet, the Monets (Claude Monet, the ImpressionistImpressionist), and ), and she introduced and promoted she introduced and promoted ImpressionismImpressionism in in Boston.Boston.

Her art combined the realism from her academy Her art combined the realism from her academy training with training with ImpressionismImpressionism. She did portraits . She did portraits during the first part of her career, but was later during the first part of her career, but was later able to turn to doing landscapes.able to turn to doing landscapes.

Lilla Cabot Perry’s career spanned a half a Lilla Cabot Perry’s career spanned a half a century. She was very successful as an artist.century. She was very successful as an artist.

Perry was able to successfully combine being an Perry was able to successfully combine being an artist, a woman, a daughter, a mother, and a artist, a woman, a daughter, a mother, and a wife.wife.

Lilla Cabot Perry was painting on the day she Lilla Cabot Perry was painting on the day she died.died.

Lilla Cabot Perry, Lilla Cabot Perry, Self Portrait.Self Portrait. 1892. Bakersfield Art 1892. Bakersfield Art Museum, Bakersfield, Museum, Bakersfield, California.California.

Lilla Cabot Perry, Lilla Cabot Perry, A Young A Young Violoncellist. Violoncellist. 1892. 1892. Oil on canvas. Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.Boston.

Lilla Cabot Perry, A Cup of Tea. Late 19th century or early 20th century. Oil on canvas. 31 1/2 x 25 1/2 in. (80.01 x 64.77 cm). Los Angeles County Art Museum.

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Objective Assessment – Building Objective Assessment – Building VocabularyVocabulary

Write the entire definition, then add the term that best matches the definition.Write the entire definition, then add the term that best matches the definition.

1.1. The artist’s personal way of using the elements of The artist’s personal way of using the elements of art and principles of design to express feelings and art and principles of design to express feelings and ideas.ideas.

2.2. A period of time during which a single family A period of time during which a single family provided a succession of rulers.provided a succession of rulers.

3.3. A style of art that used rich color and flat, still A style of art that used rich color and flat, still figures and blended Greek, Roman, and Asian figures and blended Greek, Roman, and Asian styles.styles.

4.4. A style of architecture in which churches soared A style of architecture in which churches soared upwards, used pointed arches and had stained glass upwards, used pointed arches and had stained glass windows.windows.

5.5. The name given to the period of rebirth, or The name given to the period of rebirth, or awakening, at the end of the Middle Ages.awakening, at the end of the Middle Ages.

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Objective Assessment – Building Objective Assessment – Building VocabularyVocabulary

Write the entire definition, then add the term that best matches the definition.Write the entire definition, then add the term that best matches the definition.

6.6. A graphic system that creates the illusion of depth A graphic system that creates the illusion of depth and volume on a flat surface.and volume on a flat surface.

7.7. A 17A 17thth century art style that emphasized movement, century art style that emphasized movement, contrast, and variety.contrast, and variety.

8.8. An art style that captured everyday subjects and An art style that captured everyday subjects and emphasized the momentary effects of sunlight by emphasized the momentary effects of sunlight by using broken brushstrokes.using broken brushstrokes.

9.9. An art style that stressed personal feelings rather An art style that stressed personal feelings rather than composition.than composition.

10.10. A style of art in which dreams, fantasy, and the A style of art in which dreams, fantasy, and the subconscious served as inspiration.subconscious served as inspiration.

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Objective Assessment – Reviewing Objective Assessment – Reviewing Art FactsArt Facts

Write the following questions and then the answer.Write the following questions and then the answer.

1.1. Name the four steps used by art historians to gain Name the four steps used by art historians to gain information about a work of art.information about a work of art.

2.2. In which step would you examine the style of the In which step would you examine the style of the work and decide if it fit into an art movement.work and decide if it fit into an art movement.

3.3. Select a painting shown in this chapter and list three Select a painting shown in this chapter and list three characteristics of the artist’s style.characteristics of the artist’s style.

4.4. Describe the rules that Egyptian artists were Describe the rules that Egyptian artists were required to follow when painting or sculpting a required to follow when painting or sculpting a relief figure.relief figure.

5.5. How did the ancient Greek belief in a logical, How did the ancient Greek belief in a logical, harmonious world affect the art that was produced?harmonious world affect the art that was produced?

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Objective Assessment – Reviewing Objective Assessment – Reviewing Art FactsArt Facts

Write the following questions and then the answer.Write the following questions and then the answer.

6.6. What effect did the Renaissance rebirth of interest What effect did the Renaissance rebirth of interest in the classical art of Greece and Rome have on the in the classical art of Greece and Rome have on the art of that period?art of that period?

7.7. Describe the difference between the art forms used Describe the difference between the art forms used in an Islamic mosque and in Islamic book in an Islamic mosque and in Islamic book illustration..illustration..

8.8. Name one similarity and one difference between the Name one similarity and one difference between the artworks created by the Realists and the artworks created by the Realists and the Impressionists.Impressionists.

9.9. Describe the subject matter chosen by the Mexican Describe the subject matter chosen by the Mexican Muralists.Muralists.