arterial blood gas interpretation

18
ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS [ABG]

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Page 1: Arterial blood gas interpretation

ARTERIAL BLOOD GAS ANALYSIS

[ABG]

Page 2: Arterial blood gas interpretation

BLOOD Blood is a connective tissue

BLOOD CONSIST OF PLASMA

(55%) AND CELLS (45%).

Page 3: Arterial blood gas interpretation

FUNCTIONS Transport respiratory gases Transport nutrients Act as a vehicle (hormones & vitamins)

Drainage of waste productsMaintenance of water balanceMaintenance of acid equilibriumRegulation of body temperature

Page 4: Arterial blood gas interpretation

COMMON TERMINOLOGIES

ACIDS: Acid is a substance which when dissolved in water undergoes or splits into a hydrogen ion and anion.

BASES: Base is a substance which undergoes dissociation in water to give a hydroxyl ion and a cation.

SALTS: Salt is a substance which when dissolved in water dissociate to release a cation and anion neither of which is a hydogen ion nor a hydroxyl ion.

Page 5: Arterial blood gas interpretation

PH PH is the hydrogen ion

concentration in any solution.

1________________7________________14

Acid Base

Normal Blood PH- 7.35 – 7.45 mEq/L

Page 6: Arterial blood gas interpretation

BUFFER Buffer is a substance which is capable of converting strong acid into weak acid and strong base into weak base & does not undergo rapid ionisation & thereby does not contribute to alteration of pH.

THREE SYSTEMS: 1.Buffer system 2.Respiratory system 3. Renal system

Page 7: Arterial blood gas interpretation

BUFFER SYSTEMS

1. Carbonic acid bi-carbonate system2. Sodium salt of di-hydrogen and mono-hydrogen phosphate3. Protein buffer system

Page 8: Arterial blood gas interpretation

NORMAL ABG VALUES

pH PaO2 PaCO2 HCO3- Base excess SaO2

7.35 - 7.45 80 - 90 mm/Hg 35 – 45 mm/Hg 22-26 mEq/L +2 95 - 100%

Page 9: Arterial blood gas interpretation

INDICATIONSCardiac FailureRenal or Hepatic FailureMechanical ventilationDiabetic KetoacidosisRespiratory Failure Or Dysfunction.Sepsis and burnsPoisoningCardiopulmonary surgeryCardiac pulmonary exercise testingOxygen administration

Page 10: Arterial blood gas interpretation

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

Patients on anticoagulant & those with coagulopathies.

Obstructing thrombus in the artery. Patients with poor collateral flow.

Page 11: Arterial blood gas interpretation

PROCEDURE OF ABG ANALYSIS Arterial puncture sites:Wrist :most common site used.Radial arteryBrachial arteryFemoral arteryDorsalis pedis artery

Page 12: Arterial blood gas interpretation

EQUIPMENTS USED:Sterile Gloves

Heparinized syringe (2ml)Alcohol SwabsGauze piecesTape or PlasterPatient Label Ice bag or box.

Page 13: Arterial blood gas interpretation

ALLEN’S TEST

Page 14: Arterial blood gas interpretation

AFTER-CARE

Applies pressure to the puncture site for

10-15 mins to stop the bleeding.The patient should rest quietly while

applying the pressure to the puncture site.

Then place a dressing over the puncture.

Health care workers will observe the patient

for the signs of bleeding or circulation problem

Page 15: Arterial blood gas interpretation

COMPLICATIONSHematomaHemorrhageArteriospasmNosocomial BacteraemiaDistal IschemiaNumbness of HandSepsis Infection of health care worker.

Page 16: Arterial blood gas interpretation

UNCOMPENSATED ABG VALUES

pH PaCO2

HCO3

Respiratory acidosis

Normal

Respiratory alkalosis

Normal

Metabolicacidosis

Normal

Metabolicalkalosis

Normal

Page 17: Arterial blood gas interpretation

COMPENSATED ABG VALUES

pH PaCO2 HCO3-

RespiratoryAlkalosis Normal

MetabolicAlkalosis Normal

Page 18: Arterial blood gas interpretation