arterial blood gas interpretation

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Author: preeths-roshan

Post on 17-Dec-2014




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2. BLOOD Blood is a connective tissue BLOOD CONSIST OF PLASMA (55%) AND CELLS (45%). 3. FUNCTIONS Transport respiratory gases Transport nutrients Act as a vehicle (hormones & vitamins) Drainage of waste products Maintenance of water balance Maintenance of acid equilibrium Regulation of body temperature 4. COMMON TERMINOLOGIES ACIDS: Acid is a substance which when dissolved in water undergoes or splits into a hydrogen ion and anion. BASES: Base is a substance which undergoes dissociation in water to give a hydroxyl ion and a cation. SALTS: Salt is a substance which when dissolved in water dissociate to release a cation and anion neither of which is a hydogen ion nor a hydroxyl ion. 5. PH PH is the hydrogen ion concentration in any solution. 1________________7________________14 Acid Base Normal Blood PH- 7.35 7.45 mEq/L 6. BUFFER Buffer is a substance which is capable of converting strong acid into weak acid and strong base into weak base & does not undergo rapid ionisation & thereby does not contribute to alteration of pH. THREE SYSTEMS: 1.Buffer system 2.Respiratory system 3. Renal system 7. BUFFER SYSTEMS 1. Carbonic acid bi-carbonate system 2. Sodium salt of di-hydrogen and mono-hydrogen phosphate 3. Protein buffer system 8. NORMAL ABG VALUES pH PaO2 PaCO2 HCO3- Base excess SaO2 7.35 - 7.45 80 - 90 mm/Hg 35 45 mm/Hg 22-26 mEq/L +2 95 - 100% 9. INDICATIONS Cardiac Failure Renal or Hepatic Failure Mechanical ventilation Diabetic Ketoacidosis Respiratory Failure Or Dysfunction. Sepsis and burns Poisoning Cardiopulmonary surgery Cardiac pulmonary exercise testing Oxygen administration 10. CONTRAINDICATIONS: Patients on anticoagulant & those with coagulopathies. Obstructing thrombus in the artery. Patients with poor collateral flow. 11. PROCEDURE OF ABG ANALYSIS Arterial puncture sites: Wrist :most common site used. Radial artery Brachial artery Femoral artery Dorsalis pedis artery 12. EQUIPMENTS USED: Sterile Gloves Heparinized syringe (2ml) Alcohol Swabs Gauze pieces Tape or Plaster Patient Label Ice bag or box. 13. ALLENS TEST 14. AFTER-CARE Applies pressure to the puncture site for 10-15 mins to stop the bleeding. The patient should rest quietly while applying the pressure to the puncture site. Then place a dressing over the puncture. Health care workers will observe the patient for the signs of bleeding or circulation problem 15. COMPLICATIONS Hematoma Hemorrhage Arteriospasm Nosocomial Bacteraemia Distal Ischemia Numbness of Hand Sepsis Infection of health care worker. 16. UNCOMPENSATED ABG VALUES pH PaCO2 HCO3 Respiratory acidosis Normal Respiratory alkalosis Normal Metabolic acidosis Normal Metabolic alkalosis Normal 17. COMPENSATED ABG VALUES pH PaCO2 HCO3- Respiratory Alkalosis Normal Metabolic Alkalosis Normal