articles and determiners ( unit 16 of your student’s book )
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DESCRIPTIONARTICLES AND DETERMINERS ( unit 16 of your students book ). Ignacio Morales Suero Marta Gimeno. ARTICLES. ARTICLES. First the good news: There are only three articles in English: a, an and the . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
ARTICLES AND DETERMINERS(unit 16 of your students book)Ignacio Morales SueroMarta Gimeno
ARTICLESFirst the good news:There are only three articles in English:a, anandthe.There are twotypesof articlesindefinite 'a'and 'an'ordefinite 'the'.You also need to know when not to use an article.The bad news is that their proper use is complex, especially when you get into the advanced use of English. Quite often you have to work it out by whatsoundsright, which can be frustrating for a learner.
A) Indefinite articles - a and an
Aandanare used before nouns that introduce something or someone you have not mentioned before:-For example:"I sawanelephant this morning.""I ateabanana for lunch.Aandanare also used when talking about your profession:For example:"I amanEnglish teacher." "I amabuilder."
You useawhen the noun you are referring to begins with a consonant (b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y or z)For example: "acity", "afactory", and "a hotel".You useanwhen the noun you are referring to begins with a vowel (a, e, i, o, u)Pronunciation changes this rule: It's the sound that matters, not the spelling.
NOTE!If the next word begins with aconsonantsoundwhen we say it.For example: "university" then we usea. We say "university" with a "y" sound at the beginning as though it were spelt "youniversity". So, "auniversity" IS correct.
If the next word begins with avowel soundwhen we say it.For example: "hour" then we usean.We say "hour" with a silent h as though it were spelt "our". So, "anhour" IS correct.
B) Definite Article - the
You usethewhen you know that the listener knows or can work out what particular person/thing you are talking about.For example:"Theapple you ate was rotten."Did you lockthecar?You should also usethewhen you have already mentioned the thing you are talking about.For example:"She's got two children;agirl andaboy.Thegirl's eight andtheboy's fourteen.
We also usethebefore certain nouns when we know there is only one of a particular thing.For example:therain,thesun,thewind,theworld,theearth,theWhite House etc..However if you want to describe a particular instance of these you should use a/an.For example:"I could hearthewind." / "There'sacold wind blowing.""What are your plans forthefuture?" / "She hasapromising future ahead of her."Theis also used to say that a particular person or thing being mentioned is the best, most famous, etc. In this use, 'the' is usually given strong pronunciation:For example:"Harry's Bar istheplace to go.""You don't mean you mettheTony Blair, do you?"
Thedoesn't mean all:-For example:"Thebooks are expensive." = (Not all books are expensive, just the ones I'm talking about.)"Books are expensive." = (All books are expensive.)
We usually use no article to talk about things in general:For example:Inflationis rising.Peopleare worried about rising crime. (Note! People generally, so no article)You do not use an article when talking about sports.For example:My son playsfootball.Tennisis expensive.
You do not use an article before uncountable nouns when talking about them generally.For example:Informationis important to any organisation.Coffeeis bad for you.You do not use an article before the names of countriesexceptwhere they indicate multiple areas or contain the words (state(s), kindom, republic, union). Kingdom, state, republic and union are nouns, so they need an article.For example:No article - Italy, Mexico, Bolivia, EnglandUse the -theUK (UnitedKingdom),theUSA (UnitedStatesof America),theIrishRepublicMultiple areas!theNetherlands,thePhilippines,theBritish Isles
Determiners are used in front of nouns to indicate whether you are referring to something specific or something of a particular type.
Determiners are different to pronouns in that a determiner is always followed by a noun. Therefore personal pronouns (I,you,he, etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his,etc.) cannot be determiners.
The definite and indefinite articlesa/an/the are all determiners.
You use a specific determiner when people know exactly which thing(s) or person/people you are talking about.The specific determiners are:
For example:"Thedog barked attheboy."Theseapples are rotten."Theirbus was late."
Definite article :TheDemonstratives:This, that, these and thosePossessives:My, your, his, her, its, our and their
You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are.The general determiners are:
- For example:"Aman sat underanumbrella."Have you gotanyEnglish books that I could have?""There isenoughfood to feed everyone."
The indefinite articles: an, aa few a little all another anyboth each either enough everyfew fewer less little many more most muchneither no other several some
Either and Neither
Either and neither are used in sentences concerning a possible choice between two items.Either can mean one or the other (of two) or each of two.For example: I've got tea and coffee, so you can haveeither.(One or the other)The room has a door ateitherend.(Both)Neither means not the first one and not the second one.For example:Neitherof the students were listening.