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Page 1: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Articulations & axial skeleton

Articulations & axial skeleton

Page 2: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Classification of articulations/joints

• Two classification methods:– The type of movement allowed at the joint

(the function of the joint) (subjective)

– The type of connective tissue that joins the bones (the structure of the joint)

Page 3: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Functional joint classification

• Synarthroses-no movement at the joint– Between skull bones

• Amphiarthroses-slight motion at the joint– Symphysis pubis

• Diarthroses/Synovial -freely moveable joint with a joint cavity– elbow

Page 4: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Synarthroses• Boney edges interlock• Connective tissues

fibers attach bones• epiphyseal plate in

developing long bone table 5.2

Page 5: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Amphiarthroses• Very limited

movementFig8.9

Page 6: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Diarthroses/Synovial

• Wide range of motion• Bones do not contact

each other Fig 8.1

Page 7: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Structural joint classification

• Three types:• Fibrous joints-fibrous connective tissue

holds the joint together• Cartilaginous joints-cartilage hold the

joints together• Synovial joints-bones are held together

by a joint cavity (knee, elbow)

Page 8: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fibrous joints• Sutures-suture bone

holding bones together• Syndesmoses-long

connective tissue bands(interosseous membrane between bones in distal appendages)

• Gomphosis-short connective tissue bands(only example-ligaments attached to the teeth)

Page 9: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Cartilaginous joints

• Synchondroses-hyaline cartilage between bones (1st rib to sternum, epiphyseal plate in growing long bone)

• Symphyses-fibrocartilage holds bones together (symphysis pubis, intervertebraldiscs)

Page 10: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Synovial joint -cavity between the bones

• Bones separated by articular cartilage– Reduce friction– absorb shock

• Articular capsule– Fibrous joint capsule– Synovial membrane

• Produces synovial fluidFig 8.1

Page 11: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Synovial fluid

• Synovial fluid:• Provides lubrication• Nourishes chondrocytes• Acts as a shock absorber

Fig 8.1

Page 12: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Accessory structures of synovialjoints

• menisci–subdivide cavity/restrict movement• Ligaments-connect bone to bone• Tendons-connect muscle to bone

Fig 8.1

Page 13: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

• Bursae-small pockets filled with synovial fluid

• reduce friction put on tendons

Fig 8.11

Page 14: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fig 8.6

Page 15: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Whiplash• A hyperextension-hyperflexion injury• The neck hyperextends:

– Anterior longitudinal ligament• Torn, swelling

– Atlas• Vertebral arch may break

– Anulus fibrosus• C2/C3 may rupture-dislocation of skull

• The neck is hyper flexed:– Supraspinous/Interspinous ligament

• tear– Interspinales muscles

• tear– Crushed vertebral bodies– Dens of axis may be jammed into the spinal

cord– Herniated interverterbral discs

hyperflexion

Page 16: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Bony orbit-bones around the eye socket

PLEaSe Feed My Zebra

Palatine, lacrimal, ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal, maxillary, & zygomaticbones

Page 17: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Normal spinal curve

Page 18: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Scoliosis Kyphosis

Exaggerated thoracic curve

J.Lo dorsis

lateral thoracic/lumbar curve

Page 19: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fig 8.8

Page 20: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Ligamentum nuchae

• The name of the supraspinous ligament when it reaches the cervical vertebrae

Page 21: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fig 8.9

Page 22: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Carotid canal

Jugular foramen

Fig 6.3

Page 23: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Nasal septum =

Vomer (inferior) +

Perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone (superior)

Fig 6.3

Page 24: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Anterior cranial fossamiddle cranial fossaposterior cranial fossa

anteriorFig 6.4

Page 25: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

calvariaFig 6.3

Page 26: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fig 6.17

Fig 10.10

Hyoid bone

Page 27: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Frontal bone

Page 28: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
Page 29: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Right vs. left parietal bone

Page 30: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
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Page 32: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

The pituitary gland sits in the sellaturcica of the sphenoid bone

Page 33: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
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Page 38: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
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Page 40: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Alveolar processes-the teeth sockets

Page 41: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
Page 42: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Intermaxillary suture

Page 43: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Median palatine suture

Page 44: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:

Fontanel-soft spots on a fetal/baby skull

Page 45: Articulations & axial skeleton - Cuyamaca College · Articulations & axial skeleton Articulations & axial skeleton. Classification of articulations/joints • Two classification methods:
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