Assessment of Energy Consumption in a Meat-Processing Plant—a Case Study

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ORIGINAL PAPERAssessment of Energy Consumption in a Meat-ProcessingPlanta Case StudyJanusz Wojdalski & Bogdan Drd & Jzef Grochowicz &Anna Magry & Adam EkielskiReceived: 9 March 2012 /Accepted: 29 June 2012# Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012Abstract Meat-processing plants have their specific character-istics due to quantity of raw materials processed, productiontechnology, degree of mechanisation of production and spaceutilization. These characteristics affect variability in consump-tion of energy carriers. This paper presents a case study ofenergy consumption in a small meat processing plant. It isattempting to identify and evaluate key factors which may beuseful in conducting an in-depth analysis of energy consumptionin the meat industry, and so this analysis may be important inselecting the best production techniques available. The results ofthe analysis are of critical importance for the selection of pro-duction technology selection assuming high plant efficiency.Keywords Meat processing . Energy consumption . EnergyefficiencyAbbreviationsa Regression coefficientAc Monthly thermal energy consumption (Ac0BrzQrw, forQrw043.1 MJ/kg of fuel)Ae Active electric energy monthly consumption kWh/monthAt1 Total monthly energy consumption (after conversion1 kWh012 MJ), in megajoules per monthAt2 Total monthly energy consumption (after conversion1kWh03,6MJ), in megajoules per monthb Regression coefficientBce1 Monthly coal equivalent consumption based on At1,in kilograms CE per monthBce2 Monthly coal equivalent consumption based on At2,in kilograms CE per monthBrz Monthly real fuel consumption, in kilograms per monthEE Energy efficiency megagrams of product per kilowatthour, megagrams of product per gigajoulesn Total number of employees in the plant personP Total capacity of installed electrical equipment, inkilowattsR2 Determination coefficient (R20r2100 %) in percentUen Power of installed electrical equipment per employ-ee, in kilowatts per personQce Calorific value of coal equivalent (29.3076 MJ/kg CE)Qrw Calorific value of real fuel, in megajoules per kilo-gram of fuelV1 Volume of the plant production space, in cubic metersV2 Total volume of the plant, in cubic metersWA Aggregate indicator of energy consumption per unitof physical output (aggregate indicator of specificenergy consumption SECA)WP Production indicator of energy consumption per unitof physical output (production indicator of specificenergy consumption SECP)WT Technological indicator of energy consumption perunit of physical output (technological indicator ofspecific energy consumption SECT)WZ Plant indicator of energy consumption per unit ofphysical output (plant indicator of specific energyconsumption SECZ)Z Monthly production, in megagrams of product per monthIntroductionMeat processing is one of the branches of the food industry(see Grochowicz and Walczyski 2004; Jekayinfa andJ. Wojdalski : B. Drd :A. Magry :A. EkielskiDepartment of Production Management and Engineering Facultyof Production Engineering, Warsaw University of Life Sciences,Nowoursynowska 166,02-787 Warsaw, PolandJ. Grochowicz (*)Hotel Management and Catering Technology,Warsaw Academy of Tourism, Food and Hospitality,Chodakowska 50,03-816 Warsaw, Polande-mail: jozef@jozefgrochowicz.comFood Bioprocess TechnolDOI 10.1007/s11947-012-0924-4Bamgboye 2006; Wang 2008; Kleme et al. 2008; Neryng etal. 1990; Wilhite 2008) for discussion of some aspects ofenergy consumption in the food industry). The energy con-sumption is one of the key production factors in the industry.It has a great impact on the meat processing plant efficiencyand the natural environment. Consumption of energy car-riers in meat processing plants depends on many factorssuch as, for example, size and structure of output, produc-tion technology used, thermo-physical properties of rawmaterials, mechanisation of production processes and utili-zation of processing capacity (see Cierach et al. 2000; Tkaczet al. 2000;Tkacz and Iwaniak 2001; Markowski et al. 2004;Marcotte et al. 2008; Banach and ywica 2010; Houska etal. 2003; Li et al. 2010; Campaone et al.2010; Gogate2011; Norton and Sun 2008). Demand for energy carriersis taken into account, among others, in the EUs IntegratedPollution Prevention and Control Directive which deter-mines a set of rules and requirements for effective protectionof the environment and application of the best availableproduction techniques (WS Atkins Int 1998; EuropeanCommission 2006; Ramirez et al. 2006; IFCWorld BankGroup 2007). Moreover, modern methods of energy man-agement in small manufacturing plants require creation ofdatabases which are useful in analysing energy efficiency offood processing and supply of more detailed input data(Swords et al. 2008).To assess energy efficiency, unit energy consumption indi-cators as well as energy efficiency indicators are most com-monly used. Efficiency is defined as a result of production(industrial) activity and it is expressed as a quotient of theresult obtained to the effort expended. Improvement in energyefficiency may involve a reduction in demand for energycarriers during their transformation, transmission, and finaluse. It may be due to changes in technology which are capableof providing a constant or a higher level of production. Suchimprovements may result in energy conservation, reducingconsumption of natural resources, reducing emissions andlimiting the amount of waste generated at each stage of meatproduction and processing (Ramirez et al. 2006; Pagan et al.2002; Pimentel et al. 2008).The available sources in literature show that productionenergy consumption is expressed using different units, and thereasons for variation in energy carriers consumption in meat-processing plants of various sizes were not fully explained(WS Atkins Int 1998; European Commission 2006; Ramirezet al. 2006; Podfilipski and elazny 1985; Singh 1986; Budnyet al. 1987; Fritzson and Berntsson 2006).Table 1 presents the figures for energy consumption in themeat processing plants referred to in the literature. Differentranges of unit energy consumption indicators listed in Fig. 1were taken into account. Energy efficiency in meat processingis given by using indicators which are difficult to comparebecause they do not relate to specific conditions found in meatprocessing plants. Table 1 does not include data from poultry-processing plants which can be found in Drd (2010);Jekayinfa (2007); Wojdalski et al. (2009).The aim of this study was to determine the energy con-sumption of a small-sized pork meat processing plant. Thisstudy aims to provide detailed data which could be useful increating models of enterprises of this kind as energy users aswell as for determining the relationship between productionvolume and energy carriers consumption which serves toevaluate energy efficiency of production. The aim of thestudy is also correlated with the study (Bunse et al. 2011),where the authors indicate a gap between the needs forresearch reported by manufacturing plants and scientificpublications currently on offer.Materials and MethodsThe research data were collected in a meat processing plant inMazowieckie Voivodship, Poland, employing 73 people intotal, among whom 33 were directly involved in production.The plant did not slaughter animals. Pre-treated frozencarcasses were purchased from slaughter plants.Monthly production (Z) during the study period rangedfrom 303 to 699 Mg. The annual plant production profile:meat products 78.4 % and unprocessed meat 21.6 % of totalproduction.The plants production area was 994.28 m2; the totalvolume of the plant was 6,336.6 m3 of which the productionspace accounted for 78.1 %. The combined power of allinstalled electrical equipment in the plant (P) was 180 kW.Breakdown of power by type of electrical equipment in theplant is shown in Table 2.Table 2 shows that the largest category on the powerbalance sheet was meat cutters and grinders (22 %).The values of the indicator expressing the degree ofmechanisation of the production operations (Table 4) mea-sured in several 1-month intervals during study ranged from0.257 to 0.594 kW/Mg of processed products. The plantused conventional technologies to produce meat, meat prod-ucts, and raw and melted animal fat.Meeting the goals of the study required, among others,using a model of the meat processing plant as the end-userof energy carriers (Fig. 1) and applying the plant indicatorsof energy carriers consumption, as applied in the study(Wojdalski et al. 2010). These indicators cover all energyreceivers associated with transformation and use of energycarriers in the plant as a whole. The indicators WA, WT andWP are less informative as far as energy consumption of theplant is concerned. A study of these indicators is not withinthe scope this paper. They are included however in Fig. 1because some of them are cited in the literature and reportedin Table 1.Food Bioprocess TechnolIt should be noted that these research methods could bemodified to include the issues concerning combined heat andpower as presented, among others, in the papers by Bianchi et al.(2006) and Bieranowski and Klonowski (2005).To assess energy efficiency of production in the analysedplant, we used the indicator method, which allows onlineanalysis of the plant performance. It is possible, by compar-ison with results obtained in similar plants, to indicatedirections of possible changes aimed at increasing energyefficiency. In order to characterise the energy managementof the plant, the indicators contained in Table 3 were adop-ted. These indicators cover the WZ range shown in Fig. 1.The indicators listed in rows 8, 10 and 13 take into accountthe efficiency (00.3) of electric energy generation and itstransmission too.From the cost and specific technology evaluation stand-points, it is important to use a value indicator which includestotal energy consumption in the processing plant. To achieveTable 1 Available research data on energy carriers consumption in the meat processing industryEnergy carriers Symbols and units Indicators Average SourceRange FiguresElectric energy We [kWh/Mg of meat batter] WZ 802,420 720 WS Atkins Int (1998)We [kWh/Mg of product] WZ 708,140 1,260 WS Atkins Int (1998)WT 65.396.3 Neryng et al. (1990)WA 44112 Tkacz (2002)WZ 269279 Kowalczyk & Netter (2008)We [kWh/Mg of meat] WZ 37.052.0a 44.5a Wojdalski et al. (2010)We [kJ/kg of meat batter] WA 420 Dolata (1992)Thermal energy Wc [GJ/Mg of meat batter] WZ 5.8958.1 12.9 WS Atkins Int (1998)Wc [MJ/Mg of meat] WZ 9701,110a 1,040a Wojdalski et al. (2010)Wc [Mg of coal/Mg of meat batter] WZ 0.96 WS Atkins Int (1998)Wc [GJ/Mg of product] WZ 0220 24.5 WS Atkins Int (1998)WZ 3.144.27e 3.61e Skonecki et al. (2001)WZ 2.102.26 Kowalczyk & Netter (2008)Wc [kg of steam/Mg of product] WZ 800900 European Commission (2006)Wc [MJ/unit] WT 31.863.0a 44.6a Neryng et al. (1990)WT 22.845.2b 32.6bTotal energy Wc [MJ/Mg dress carcass weight]for whole and chilledWZ 1,390c Ramirez et al.(2006)WZ 2,097dWt2 [MJ/Mg dress carcass weight]for whole and frozenWZ 2,110cWZ 3,128dWt2 [MJ/Mg dress carcass weight]for cut-up, deboned and chilledWZ 2,146cWZ 2,849dWt2 [MJ/Mg dress carcass weight]for cut-up, deboned and frozenWZ 2,866cWZ 3,884dWt1 [MJ/Mg of meat] WZ 1,4201,720a 1,570a Wojdalski et al. (2010)Wt2 [MJ/Mg of meat] WZ 1,1101,280a 1,195aWt2 [MJ/Mg of HSCW] WZ 1,2004,800f Hansen et al. (2000)Coal equivalent Wce1 [kg CE/Mg of meat] WZ 48.458.7a 53.6a Wojdalski et al. (2010)Wce2 [kg CE/Mg of meat] WZ 37.943.7a 40.8aa Pig slaughterb Cattle slaughterc Beef, veal and sheepd Porke Energy supplied by water steamfHSCW hot standard carcass weightFood Bioprocess Technolthis aim, the unit energy consumption indicators were adop-ted (items 6 and 7 in Table 3).These indicators (Wt1 and Wt2) were converted into unitenergy consumption of coal equivalent based on Eqs. 8 and9 (Table 3).Indicators of total energy consumption (Wt1 and Wt2)were also converted into energy obtainable from variousalternative sources using the equations given (see items 10and 11 in Table 3). Thus, obtained results are mainly oftheoretical importance, since the change of energy carrier isassociated with the need to modify the energy conversionsystem in the boiler house. To express the energy efficiencyof meat processing, three sample indicators were applied(see items 1214, Table 3).Similar research methodology for analysis of the en-ergy consumption in agro-food plants is presented in thecited literature (Wojdalski and Drd 2006; Kaleta andWojdalski 2008).It is assumed that the monthly production volume (Z)has an impact on demand for energy carriers in theprocessing plant. Previous studies have shown that thisfactor has the greatest relevance because of environmen-tal impact assessment of meat processing plants anddetermination of the best production techniques avail-able (WS Atkins Int 1998; European Commission 2006;IFCWorld Bank Group 2007; Wojdalski et al. 2010;Simpson and Kubicki 1998).Receivers cold (cold storage)Electric appliances -electric motors, HeatingReceivers, steam, hot water, washing, thermal treatment of meat productsHandling rawCutting half-carcassesCuring (injections)Improve vividnessShreddingStuffingSteaming and CookingSmokingCutting productsPackingStorage devicesWashing machines and packagingMeat products for distribution (Z)Production of water vapor (steam generator) and hot waterPreparation of refrigeration (Ammonia compressor) and flakes iceWater for process and manufacturing operations and for washingReplenishment of water losseswater from themunicipalpTZAFig. 1 Material and energy flows in the analysed plantTable 2 Breakdown of power by type of electrical equipmentItem Equipment Power installed [kW]1 Cutters and grinders 40.02 Smoke houses, cookers 28.03 Cooling machine and ice generator 10.04 Electrical boilers 7.05 Tumbler 5.56 Plant lighting 9.07 Other devices up to 5 kW 80.58 Total 180.0Food Bioprocess TechnolIn order to determine the impact of meat production (Z)on the actual energy carriers consumption (Y), Eq. (1) wasapplied:Y b aZ 1where Y is the energy carriers consumption (the dependentvariable, e.g., We, Wt1) and Z is the mass of meat processing(the explanatory variable).Assumption of border conditions:aZ b 2andZ > 0 3using the obtained regression equations with the borderconditions met can partly explain this issue in the analysedmeat-processing plant.The use of regression equations to characterise energyconsumption in food plants in different seasons is shown indetail in Muller et al. (2007) and Wojdalski and Drd(2006). The methodology for determining energy consump-tion of production processes presented by Jekayinfa andBambgboye (2006) may also be found of use in meat-processing plants.Results and DiscussionTable 4 shows the ranges of operational and organizationalindicators of the analysed plant.Table 5 shows variability ranges of the plant energyconsumption by type of energy carrier.Using statistical analysis of the collected data we obtainedlinear regression equations (Table 6) expressing variability inenergy consumption. Calculations were performed using theSTATISTICA Data Miner + QC Polish v. 9.1.The resulting regression equations (Table 6) describe thefluctuation of the analysed indicators very well, as evidencedTable 3 Indicators used tocharacterise meat processingplantItem Description Formula Units1 Volume of plant production space per 1 Mgof meat products processed in a monthK1 V1Z m3/Mg2 Total plant volume per 1 Mg of meatproducts processed in a monthK2 V2Z m3/Mg3 Power of installed electrical equipment per 1Mg of processed products for a month periodKm PZ kW/Mg4 Monthly production per plant employee Kp Zn Mg/person5 Electric energy consumption indicator per 1Mg of meat productsWe AeZ kW h/Mg6 Total unit energy consumption indicator(conversion 1 kWh012 MJ)Wt1 At1Z 12AeBrzQrwZ MJ/Mg of product7 Total unit energy consumption indicator(conversion 1 kWh03.6 MJ)Wt2 At2Z 3:6AeBrzQrwZ MJ/Mg of product8 Unit energy consumption - coal equivalent(conversion 1 kWh012 MJ)Wce1 Wt1Qce kg CE/Mg of product9 Unit energy consumption - coal equivalent(conversion 1 kWh03.6 MJ)Wce2 Wt2Qce kg CE/Mg of product10 Total unit energy consumption - real fuel(conversion 1 kWh012 MJ)Wrz1 Wt1Qrw kg of fuel/Mgof product11 Total unit energy consumption - real fuel(conversion 1 kWh03.6 MJ)Wrz2 Wt2Qrw kg of fuel/Mgof product12 Energy efficiency indicator - electricity EEe ZAe Mg of product/kWh13 Energy efficiency indicator - total energy EEt1 ZAt1 Mg of product/MJ14 Energy efficiency indicator - coal equivalent EEce1 ZBce1 Mg of product/kg CETable 4 Operational and organizational indicators of the plantItem Indicator Units RangeMinimum Maximum1 Uen kW/person 2.46 (average value)2 Km kW/Mg 0.258 0.6293 Kp Mg/person 4.15 9.584 K1 m3 of volumeof the plantsproductionspace/Mg7.08 16.335 K2 m3 of totalvolume ofthe plant/Mg9.06 20.91Food Bioprocess Technolby the high values of the coefficients of determination (R2).Large changes in the value (R2090 %) of the index of unitenergy consumption (We) was due to the impact of other, non-production factors not analysed in this work. However,changes of We index are similar to the changes in other indi-cators used to evaluate the energy consumption in the plant.The increased non-productive energy consumption couldhave resulted from a relatively large number of small devices,whose share in the total installed power was 44.7 % (Table 2).The indicators K1 and K2 (rows 4 and 5 in Table 4) provideinformation concerning the use of production space of theplant. Simpson and Kubicki (1998) showed that in a typicalmeat plant, cooling systems consume the most power (up to40 % of the total). Refrigeration compressors and flake icegenerators represent only 5 to 25 % of the installed power inmeat plants. It should also be noted that many plants do notconduct ongoing analysis of their energy consumption.The results obtainedwere comparedwith the data in literature(IFCWorld BankGroup 2007). The publication (IFCWorldBank Group 2007) shows that the total unit energy consumptionfor meat processing plants ranged between 110 and 760 kWh/Mg of pig carcasses (raw material), which, converted into unitsused in this work, is 0.3962.763GJ/Mg. The comparisonmadeshows that energy consumption in the studied plant, asexpressed by Wt2 indicator, was within 0.5811.399 GJ/Mg ofproducts. Therefore, the energy consumption was below theaverage for the group of similar plants mentioned in the publi-cation (IFCWorld Bank Group 2007).According to the study (WS Atkins Int. 1998) the electricenergy consumption per unit of output (expressed by theindicator We) for the Polish meat-processing plants with fullproduction profile was, on average, approximately 1,260 kWh/Mg of products (ranging from 70 to 8,140 kWh/Mg of prod-ucts). The corresponding values for heat were approximately24.5 GJ/Mg of products. Skonecki et al. (2001) present data forconsumption of selected energy carriers: fuel, 4.311 GJ/Mg ofproducts and water steam, 3.613 GJ/Mg. The paper (EuropeanCommission 2006) presents only the energy consumption forselected meat products, including 2,5004,000 kWh/Mg ofham and 150180 m3 of methane/Mg of ham and it does notprovide any methodological background for determining theabove-mentioned indicators.The indices presented in Tables 5 and 6may also be useful inanalysing the impact of the manufacturing plant on the envi-ronment. This analysis could include a possible reduction ingreenhouse gas emissions if the fuel oil used for heat productionwas replaced by biomass (see alternative energy sources listedin Table 7). In order to obtain environmental benefits, themethodology set out in a publication of the IPCC (1996) wouldbe of use. Results of such analysis could refer to other paperscovering the environmental aspects of production and meatTable 5 Energy carriers consumption in the plant (including meatproduction)Dependent variable,energy carriersconsumption indicatorsSymbols and units Range AverageElectric energy Ae [MWh/month] 27.7136.63 33.19We [kWh/Mgof products]43.80101.50 82.10EEe [kg/kWh] 9.85 - 22.83 12.18Total energy At1 [GJ/month] 628.46735.47 694.18Wt1 [MJ/Mgof products]949.02252.0 1723.0EEt1 [kg ofproduct/MJ]0.4441.054 0.580At2 [GJ/month] 395.66427.76 415.616Wt2 [MJ/Mgof product]581.01399.0 1034.0Coal equivalent Bce1 [MgCE/month]21.4425.09 23.69Wce1 [kg CE/Mgof product]32.3876.84 58.81EEc1 [kg ofproduct/kg CE]13.0130.88 17.00Bce2 [MgCE/month]13.5014.59 14.18Wce2 [kg CE/Mgof product]19.8247.73 35.27Table 6 Impact of monthly production Z (Mg/month) on energycarriers consumptionItem Regression equation R2 [%] Units1 We 137:226 0:131 Z 90.0 kWh/Mg2 Wt1 2989:926 3:015 Z 95.5 MJ/Mg3 Wt2 1837:234 1:913 Z 92.9 MJ/Mg4 Km 0:817 0:001 Z 87.5 kW/MgTable 7 Unit energy consumption indicators for differentfuelsEnergycarriersCalorific value Qrw,[MJ/kg]Average unit fuel consumptionindicatorsWrz1 [kg of fuel/Mg ofproduct]Wrz2 [kg of fuel/Mg ofproduct]Treebrisketsand pellets18.0 95.7 57.4Strawbriskets17.1 100.8 60.5Wheat straw 17.3 99.6 59.8Rape straw 15.0 114.9 68.9Sawdust 19.3 89.3 53.6Willowchips16.5 104.4 62.7Food Bioprocess Technolprocessing (Alczar-Ortega et al. 2012; Burke et al. 2009;James and James 2010; Nielsen et al. 2008; Roy et al. 2012).In Poland, electricity production is mainly based on en-ergy from coal. Therefore, any change in unit energy con-sumption affects the amount of CO2 emissions. Thermalenergy in the analysed plant was obtained from combustionof liquid fuels.Using the indicators Wt1 and Wt2 and taking into accountthe calorific values of different fuels referred to in literature(Niedzika and Zuchniarz 2006). Table 7 shows the con-sumption of different energy carriers (real fuel). For thepurpose of calculations, the calorific values, Qrw areexpressed in megagrams per kilogram of real fuel.Selected figures contained in Table 7 may be used in theabove-mentioned research opportunity for analysing possi-bilities of replacing fossil fuels by alternative sources.The Wrz1 index expresses the average unit demand for agiven energy carrier if it fully replaced the primary energyused to produce electric power supplied to the meat plantand heat energy consumed in this plant. The Wrz2 index hasa narrower range and indicates the average unit demand foran energy carrier equivalent only to the energy consumed inthe meat plant At2.The results presented here may be useful in improvingenergy management by determining the volume of produc-tion at which the indicators We, Wt1 and Wt2 achieve theirlowest values. Moreover, they can be used for comparisonwith those for other meat processing plants in terms of thespecific features arising from production technology, ap-plied research methods and applied technologies such asheat recovery (Fritzson and Berntsson 2006; Kowalczykand Netter 2008; Simpson and Kubicki 1998). Benchmark-ing can be used to draw conclusions about possible changesin unit energy consumption in the plant.ConclusionsThe studied meat processing plant was characterised by lowvalues of unit energy carriers consumption indicators whencompared with the literature on plants with a similar profileand processing technology and may be considered as a goodmodel for other similar plants (no slaughter operations,annual production of app. 5,000 Mg of meat products).The energy consumption of the plants included in Table 1is 1.55 times higher than in the analysed plant. It has beenshown in the tested plant that production volume is a fun-damental factor conditioning the thermal and electric energyconsumption. This study shows the usefulness of introduc-ing active monitoring of energy carriers consumption asone of the best energy management techniques when used inline with existing volumes of production. The regressionequations obtained allow determining the monthly productionvolume at which the specific energy consumption indicatorsare the lowest.The results contained in the present study may also beuseful for verifying environmental standards. Since theobtained results relate to the specific conditions of produc-tion and the specific level of utilization of installed electricalequipment, they may be of use in estimating productioncosts and air emissions in comparable processing plants. Itwas the aim of this paper to present a methodology which,due to its comprehensiveness, has a potential to be used inbenchmarking procedures allowing for a more detailed com-parison of plants as energo-technological systems.Further research should lead to answering the questionwhat is the optimal energy consumption for a specific typeof meat plant when taking into account its utilization of theinstalled power, production area and the number of employ-ees. In addition, studies should include the issues of effi-ciency of energy transformation and energy consumption inthe largest groups of production equipment using the WA,WT and WP indices defined in this paper. Research may alsoinclude the importance of water as a heat carrier.Acknowledgments The authors express their gratitude to Mr. AndrzejKubiszyn for editing and proofreading of this paper. Special thanks go tothe reviewers of this paper. Their input led to improvement in thepresentation of this study and provided some useful guidelines for ourfuture publications.ReferencesAlczar-Ortega, M., lvarez-Bel, C., Escriv-Escriv, G., & Domijan,A. (2012). Evaluation and assessment of demand response poten-tial applied to the meat industry. Applied Energy, 92, 8491.Banach, J., & ywica, R. (2010). The effect of electrical stimulationand freezing on electrical conductivity of beef trimmed at varioustimes after slaughter. 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