audubon corkscrew swamp sanctuary aquatic id guide

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Illustrated guide to freshwater fish, amphibians, and invertebrates at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary.

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Table of Contents Invertebrates Ampullariidae: apple snail....8 Anisoptera: dragonflies (larva).2 Belostomatidae: giant water bug (adult).....9 Bivalva: bivalves...3 Cambaridae: crayfish.4 Coenagrionidae : damselfly (larva).......5 Corbiculidae: Asian clam...3 Dytiscidae: predaceous diving beetle (adult),water tiger (larva)..6 Ephemeroptera: mayfly (larva)....7 Gastropoda: snails.8 Gyrinidae: whirligig waterbeetle (adult)..7 Heteroptera: true bugs (adult).9-10 Hirudinea: leech11 Naucoridae: alligator flea (adult).10 Nepidae: water scorpion (adult)...10 Palaemonidae: grass shrimp.11 Physidae: physid snail...8 Planorbidae: planorbid snail.....8 Sphaeriidae: fingernail clam..3 Unionidae: freshwater mussel...3 Amphibians Amphiumidae: amphiumas...35 Salamandridae: newts, salamanders.....35 Sirenidae: sirens..36 Fish Amiidae: bowfin.12 Antherinidae: silversides12 Callichthyidae: armored catfish13 Centrarchidae: sunfish...14-20 Clariidae: air breathing catfish..27 Cichlidae: cichlids, tilapia..21-26 Cyprinidae: minnows, shiners27 Cyprinodontidae: pupfish..28 Elassomatidae: pygmy sunfish.28 Fundulidae: topminnows..29-30 Ictaluridae: freshwater catfish..30 Lepisosteidae: gar..31 Loricariidae: South American armored catfish31 Percidae: perch, darters.32 Poeciliidae : livebearers, mollies, mosquitofish33-34 2 Invertebrates Aeshnidae (larva): AESCHCommon name: Darner Cigar-shaped/cylindrical body Mouth parts: flat (a) Libellulidae (larva): LIBELCommon name: Skimmer Wide, flattened body Mouth parts: spoon shaped (a) Unidentified dragonfly larva: ANISCommon name: Dragonfly Caudal gills: three short pointsAnisoptera order Gomphidae (larva): GOMPHCommon name: Clubtail Tapered abdomen Mouthparts: flat, short (a) Native Native Native 3 Invertebrates Exotic Bivalva class Unionidae: UNION Common name: Freshwater mussel Color: native mussels (spikes) are dark brown; others may be yellow, green, or tan and have rays or other pigmented patterns. Protective outer coating often peels off apex of shell (umbo) on older individuals, revealing white calcium un-derneath Sphaeriidae: SPHAE Common name: Fingernail clam Average length: 2-10 mmShell color: cream to slightly rosy Growth rings very small and close together, making the shell feel smooth. Corbicula fluminea: CORFLUCommon name: Asian clam Average length: 35-50 mm Shell is thick, strong Growth rings widely spaced, visible ridges.Rough when scratched with fingernail. Usually dark brown/blackish Exotic 4 Invertebrates Cambaridae family Procambarus fallax: PROALL Common name: Slough crayfish Sexable at 5 mm:a.:Annulus between last set of walking legs b. :Pleopods before first set of swimmeretsCompare to: Procambarus alleni (has headlights) Procambarus alleni: PROALL Common name: Everglades crayfish/Florida crayfish Sexable at 5 mm:a.Annulus between last set of walking legs b.Pleopods before first swimmerets Headlights: two dark pectoral spotsCommon name: Everglades crayfish/Florida crayfish Compare to: Procambarus fallax (no headlights) Native Native Unidentified Procambarus: PROSPP 5 Invertebrates Coenagrionidaefamily 1Coleoptera order Coenagrionidae (larva): COENA Common name: Narrow-winged damselfly Caudal gills: 3 long, feather-like appendages on apex of abdomen Body: slender, with head being the widest part Compare with: Anisoptera, Ephemeroptera (compare caudal gills) Native Native Unknown adult Coleoptera: COLEOA*NOTE: Use this code for unknown specimens and for all families below that do not have a unique code.Include fami-ly name in the notes. Noteridae: burrowing water beetles tiny, orange-brown oval body 40 mm length) Beak: basal segment about half as long as second seg-ment Hind legs: tibia and tarsus flattened and wider than tib-ia and tarsus of middle leg One large and one reduced claw on foreleg Compare with: Belostoma Belostoma spp. (adult): BELOSCommon name: giant water bug Smaller in size than Lethocerus (18-25 mm) Beak: basal segment subequal to second segment Legs: tibia and tarsus of mid and hind similar Hemelytron (forewing): larger transparent area Compare with: Lethocerus Native Native 10 Invertebrates Heteroptera order Pelocorisfemoratus (adult): NAUCO Common name: Alligator flea Dorsoventrally flattened body Antennae: 4 segments, not visible from above Eyes: lines drawn along inner margins of eyes and continued down length of body converge anteriorly Fore legs: raptoral, with huge femora Nepidae family Ranatra spp. (adult): RANATRA Common name: Water scorpion Elongate, stick-like body Antennae: shorter than length of head, originatebelow eyes, not visible from above Legs: all with one tarsal segment, front legs raptorial Long, nonretractile, cylindrical siphon at apex of abdomen Native Native Naucoridae family 11 Invertebrates 1Hirudinea family Hirudinae: HIRUD Common name: Leech Suckers: two on underside, one in the front and one in the back end of the body Variable number of eyespots in the first few body segments Variable colors, patterns Native Unidentified Heteroptera (adult): HETER Common name: true bug Mouthparts: beak or cone that folds under head when not in use Wings: forewings leathery and opaque at base, membranous and translucent or transparent toward edges; hindwings membranous and transparent. Fold flatat rest, forming an X on back Body often flattened Heteroptera order Palaemonidae family Palaemonetes paludosus: PALPAL Common name: Grass shrimp Body cylindrical, abdomen often curled under Legs: 5 pairs walking legs, small hinged claws on ends of 1st 2 pairs Snout ends in notched spike reaching far past eyes Color: grey to transparent, often turn pink when frozen Native Fish 12 Labidesthes sicculus: LABSIC Common name: brook silverside Long, narrow snout Black, horizontal stripe down length of body Dorsal fins: two; first starts directly above start of anal fin Anal fin: long, sickle-shaped Pectoral fins stick out Compare to: Menidia beryllina (compare position of 1st dorsal fin) Amia calva: AMICAL Common name: bowfin Long, cylindrical body Dorsal fin extends more than half the length of back Mouth: large, extends past eye; many teeth Tubular nostrils Large, bony gular plate Black spot near upper base of caudal fin (in young) Amiidae family Antherinidae family Native Native Fish 13 Hoplosternum littorale: HOPLIT Common name: Brown hoplo Hard, armored exterior Barbels: 4 pairs Adipose fin present, with spine at front Compare with: Bullheads (Ameiurus spp.), Tadpole madtom, Orinoco sailfin catfish, Walking catfish (Clarius batrachus) Exotic Callichthyidae family Fish 14 Centrarchidae key Native Sunfish: Adapted from Loftus and Kushlan 1986 Rounded tail? Suborbital bar? Body has a few brown specks, subopercle unspotted? Gill rakers very short and stubby, not touching each other? Opercular spot black, in-cluding margins? Black spot toward rear end of dorsal fin? Gill rakers long and slender? Opercular spot with light or red margins? No black spot on dorsal fin? Body and subopercle have dark specks? Rhomboidal body? Gill rakers short but touching each other? Enneacanthus gloriosus (ENNGLO) Lepomis gulosus (LEPGUL) YES Lepomis macrochirus (LEPMAC) Lepomis microlophus (LEPMIC) Lepomis punctatus (LEPPUN) Lepomis marginatus (LEPMAR) YES YES YES YES Pectoral finlong and pointed, reaching to/beyond 3rd anal spine? Largemouth (corner of jaws comes back to middle of eye)? NO YES NO YES NO Fish 15 Centrarchidae family Lepomis spp: LEPSPP Common name: unknown sunfish Dark opercular tab Dorsoventrally compressed shape Emarginate tail Compare with: Cichlidae family, especially tilapia (Oreochromis, Tilapia, Cichlasoma) Native Enneacanthus gloriosis: ENNGLO Common name: bluespotted sunfish Black spot on operculum Dark suborbital bar (sometimes faint, especially in small individuals) Caudal fin less emarginated than other sunfish Light spots on unpaired fins Compare to: Other Centrarchidae Tilapia: also have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small. Fish 16 Lepomis gulosus: LEPGUL Common name: warmouth Black spot on operculum Mouth large, extends past anterior margin of eye Emarginate tail Compare to: Other Centrarchidae Tilapia: also have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small. Centrarchidae family Native Fish 17 Lepomis macrochirus: LEPMAC Common name: bluegill sunfish Black opercular tab Pectoral fin long and pointed, reaching to/past 3rd anal spine Black spot on soft dorsal fin Emarginate tail Compare to: Other Centrarchidae, Tilapia (have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small) Centrarchidae family Native Fish 18 Lepomis marginatus: LEPMAR Common name: Dollar sunfish Smallest Lepomis in South Florida Black opercular tab with light margins Pectoral fin short and rounded Emarginate tail Pry back operculum (a) to see gill rakers (b): short and stubby, not touching each otherCompare to: Lepomis punctatus (compare gill rakers), other Centrarchidae, tilapia (have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small) Native Centrarchidae family Fish 19 Lepomis microlophus: LEPMIC Common name: redear sunfish Black opercular tab with red or light margin Pectoral fin long and pointed Emarginate tail Gill rakers long, touching each other (b) Compare to: Lepomis marginatus (compare gill rakers) other Centrarchidae, tilapia (have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small) Native Centrarchidae family Fish 20 Lepomis punctatus: LEPPUN Common name: spotted sunfish Black opercular tab Pectoral fin short and rounded Emarginate tail Pry back operculum (a) to see gill rakers (b): long, touching each other Compare to: Lepomis marginatus (compare gill rakers). other Centrarchidae, tilapia (have black opercular tab, but always have dark spot on soft dorsal when small) Centrarchidae family Native Fish 21 Exotic Astronotus ocellatus: ASTOCECommon name: Osc