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DESCRIPTIONhello frnds dis is the presentation of plc,scada and HMI.....hope u will surelly like dis...
PRESENTATION ON AUTOMATION
What is AUTOMATION ?
• Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.
• It is used to reduce human interference and an efforts.
• As the name suggest “Automation” means to perform automatic operations by means of different kinds of machines.
Tools of Automation
• Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)
• Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)
• Human Machine Interface (HMI) or Touch Screen (TS)
• Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
ADVANTAGES : ~
• Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.
• Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments.
• Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.
• Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity.
DISADVANTAGES : ~
• Unemployment rate increases due to machines replacing humans and putting those humans out of their jobs.
• Technical Limitation
• Security Threats
• High initial cost.
What is PLC ?
• A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC for short, is simply a special computer device used for industrial control systems. They are used in many industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on.
• PLC implements logic control functions by means of a program.
• PLC - programmable logic controller
How does a PLC differ from a computer ?
• A computer is optimized for calculation and display tasks.
• A computer is programmed by specialists
• A PLC is designed for (logic) control and regulation tasks.
• A PLC is programmed by non-specialists
• A PLC is well adapted to industrial environment.
Components of PLC : ~
1. Inputs Circuits
2. Outputs Circuits
3. CPU (Central Processing Unit )
4. Memory for program and data storage
5. Programming device
6. Communication Device
7. Power Supply
Components of PLC : ~
1.PLC inputs : ~
ANALOG inputs DIGITAL inputs
• Pressure Transducer Push buttons
• Flow meter Sensors
• Thermocouples Selector switches
PLC outputs : ~
ANALOG outputs DIGITAL outputs
• Mass flow controller
• Pressure regulator
• Position controller
• Small motors
Memory for program and data storage : ~
Memories used: - • RAM – Random access memory
Volatile Made up of metal oxide semiconductor lose it's information if power is removed.
• ROM – Read only memory
Non-volatile don't need an external power source to
Power Supply : ~
• A power supply of 120v ac is typically used to drive
the PLC (some units operate on 240v ac).
• The power supply converts the 120v ac into dc
voltages of +5v.
• These low voltages are used to operate equipment
that many have much higher voltage and power
ratings than the PLC itself.
Programming In PLC :~
Languages used in PLC for the purpose of programming are
1. Ladder language
2. Functional Block Diagram (FBD)
3. Instructional List (IL)
4. Drive Functional Block (DFB)
5. Structural test language
Ladder language used in PLC programming
There are two PLC in which ladder programming
is used : -
• ZELIO PLC : - It uses Zelio soft 2 software for the programming.
• DELTA PLC : - It uses WPL soft software for their programming.
The software’s used for different types of Zelio PLC’s are as follows:-
• Zelio 1- non expandable- zelio soft 1• Zelio 2- non expandable- zelio soft 2• Zelio 3- expandable- zelio soft 2
PLC Parameters used in Zelio and delta PLC in
Parameters ZELIO plc DELTA plc
Inputs In Xn
Outputs Qn Yn
NC of input NO of input Timer Tt1, t1 command has to be provided (e.g.- TMR T0 k150)
Zelio soft 2 ladder programming
The various parameters used in zelio soft 2 while
operating ladder program and their relationship
amongst them are as follows:-• INPUT CONTACT• OUTPUT CONTACT • INTERLOCKING• MEMORY COIL• LATCHING• TIMER• COUNTER
INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTACT
• Inputs in Zelio soft 2 is represented by I1, I2, I3,I5,I6.
• Inputs are further classified as: -
Examples for Normally open contact
Example of Normally closed contact
• Interlocking means to interlock something by placing
NC of coil or input in front. The concept of interlocking
reduces the complexity in PLC programming
• Interlocking in ladder programming means whenever
we want to off some output by input or any type coil,
then we have to place NC of that input or a coil in front
of output which we want to off.
Example of Interlocking
• Memory coil in ladder programming is used for
reversing the contacts whenever coil is get
• In ladder programming memory coil is represented
by M1 and its contact is represented by m1.
• When memory coil M1 gets the signal it gets
energized and then it reverses the terminal of its
contact m1 which reverses the operation.
Example of Memory coil
When memory coil gets energized
• Latching is the process in which once output or a coil is energized it remains energized forever. Latching is done by the contact of output or coil which we want to switch ON permanently.
When contact I1 is turned ON
• Timer is basically used add some delay in the
programming circuit by adding a particular time to
Types of timers : - • ON delay timer
• OFF delay timer
Example of Timer
• Counter is same as timer. Counter works on the method of counting the number of pulse.
Types of counter : -
• UP counter- UP counter counts in increment order.
Ex . 1, 2, 4….n.
• DOWN counter- DOWN counter counts in
decrement order. Ex. 5,4,3,2,1
• It is high-speed, stable and highly reliable PLC's are
applied in various automation machines.
• it is totally similar to zelio plc programming but the
specifications of DELTA plc are different from zelio plc
as shown above.
• In DELTA plc memory space has been allotted according to the types of plc.
Timers in Delta PLC
Timers in DELTA plc are used to add some delay in the
circuit, timers can be of two types as follows: -
• ON delay timer.
• OFF delay timer.
Commands for applying timer are as follows: - TMR<space>t0<space>k100
Example of delta PLC
WIRING OF PLC
• The operating voltage of plc is 220v (Ac) / 24v
(dc)/10v (dc). The operating voltage of plc is 220v
(Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v (dc).
Components used in wiring of plc are: -
• SMPS- Switch Mode Power Supply
• OUTPUT- Y0 ,C0
• SOURCE/SINK (S/S)- S0,S1.........
• SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY: -
SMPS is used to provide power supply to plc; SMPS
can be of different power supply mode. Ex - 220v (Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v
• OUTPUT: - Output Y0 actually connected to C0 the pair of Y0 C0 is responsible for working of plc.
Example of wiring of PLC
Applications of PLC
• Gate Control : -
• PLC can sense a vehicle at the entrance or exit, and open
and close the gate automatically.
• The current vehicle count is easily determined by
programming a simple counter.
• Gate control system can also be used for domestic purpose.
Applications of PLC
• Conveyor System: -
• PLC can be used to start/stop latching logic for motor
• Counters can be used for monitoring product amounts
• Conveyor system using plc can be used in car washing
VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD)
• VFD or Variable Frequency Drives are used to run the motors of single phase or three phase supply.
• VFD is used to accelerate and deaccelerate the speed of motor with in a particular time.
Drives commands: -
• Speed reference
• Acceleration/ deacceleration
Parameters of VFD
P = 2—00 = 0 (digital keypad)
= 3 (potentiometer on drive)
P = 2—01 = 0 (digital keypad)
= 1 (external terminal) / keypad stop/enable
= 2 (external terminal)/keypad stop/disable
= 0 (on board)
= 1 (ext M0=forward, M1= reverse)
= 3(M0=forward, M1= reverse, M2=stop)
P = 1—09 = acceleration time
P = 1—10 = deacceleration time
Advantages of VFD
• Dynamic braking : -Dynamic braking stops the
system more quickly than coasting
• Highly efficient
• Low power consumption
• Small space consumption
• Low cost
• Easy to use
• Highly specific
• SCADA is “Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition” –
real time industrial process control systems used to
centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial
equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc• A SCADA system gathers information (such as where a
leak on a pipeline has occurred), transfers the information
back to a central site, then alerts the home station that a
leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and
control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and
displaying the information in a logical and organized
• Saves Time and Money
• Less traveling for workers (e.g. helicopter
• Reduces man-power needs
• Increases production efficiency of a
• Cost effective for power systems
• Saves energy
• Supervisory control over a particular system
HMI HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI)
• A human machine interface (HMI) is an interface which permits interaction between a human being and a machine.
• . Human machine interfaces vary widely, from control panels for nuclear power plants to the screen and input buttons on a cell phone.
• Two components are needed in a human machine interface. The first is an input. A human user needs some way to tell the machine what to do, to make requests of the machine, or to adjust the machine. Examples of input devices include keyboards, toggles, switches, touch screens,