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Page 1: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:
Page 2: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§ Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and

sternum

§ Appendicular Skeleton: § Arms, legs, scapula,

clavicle, pelvis

Page 3: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:
Page 4: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§ Provide a framework which muscles can pull, give shape and structure to the body, and support and protect internal organs

§ Contain mineral, such as calcium and phosphorous

§ Produces red blood cells, platelets, and certain types of white blood cells

Page 5: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§ Periosteum: tough membrane that contains a network of blood vessels that supply nutrients, and nerves, that signal pain

§ Compact bone: endures stress §  Haversian canal: blood

vessels run through carrying nutrients

§  Osteocytes: several layers of protein fibers wrapped around the Haversian Canal

Page 6: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§ Spongy Bone: connective tissue with latticework structure that consists of bony spikes arranged along points of pressure or stress, making bones both light and strong

Page 7: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§ Many bones contain a soft tissue which can be either yellow or red

§ Yellow Bone Marrow: §  Found in long bones §  Consists of mainly fat cells and serves as an

energy reserve §  Can be converted into red bone marrow and

produce blood cells when severe blood loss

§ Red Bone Marrow: §  found in spongy bone, the end of long bones,

ribs, vertebrae, the sternum, and the pelvis §  Produces red blood cells, platelets, and

certain types of white blood cells

Page 8: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§  Most bones develop from cartilage §  Second month of fetal development, most of the

skeleton is made of cartilage

§  Ossification: Process by which cartilage is slowly replaced by bone as a result of the deposition of minerals

§  Few bones develop directly into hard bone §  Skull

Page 9: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§  Movable Joints: §  Allow a wide range of movements and activities §  Hinge, ball-and-socket, pivot, and saddle, gliding joints

§  Semi movable Joints: §  Permit limited movement §  Hold the bones of vertebral column in place and allow the body to bend and twist

§  Fixed Joints §  Prevent movement §  Skull

Page 10: Axial Skeleton: Appendicular Skeletonbishopaged.weebly.com/uploads/3/7/4/9/37498793/skeletal_system_p… · §Axial Skeleton: § Skull, ribs, spine, and sternum § Appendicular Skeleton:

§  Ligaments: Tough bands of connective tissue, hold the joint in place

§  Synovial fluid: helps protect the ends of bones from damage by friction

§  Arthritis: §  Rheumatoid: immune systems begins to

attack its body tissue §  Osteoarthritis: degenerative joints

disease in which the cartilage covering the surface of the bone becomes thinner and rougher