baroque baroque - from the portuguese or spanish “barroco” meaning “rough of imperfect...
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BaroqueBaroque - From the Portuguese or Spanish barroco meaning rough of imperfect pearl. Refers to something being elaborate; with many details. An insulting term used by historians who preferred the Renaissance.Overview:
The Baroque came about in Rome near the end of the 16th century
Artists were good at drawing and painting the human figure and reproducing complicated perspective.
There is much use of colour and value contrasts in painting.
The style is characterized by TIME, LIGHT and SPACE.
Time: Captures a brief moment in time; often through a sense of frozen movement.
Often a dramatic use of light and shadow. In painting through Chiaroscuro and Tenebrism. In Architecture and Sculpture, through curves and undulating surfaces to reflect the light and cast deep shadows.Chiaroscuro Coming out of the darkness. Where areas with lighter values seem to emerge from areas of surrounding darkness.
Tenebrism Exaggerated strong contrasts between light and dark seen in late 16th century painting. A more dramatic version of chiaroscuro.Light:
Artists are creating works that appear to occupy the same space as the viewer. Space:Foreshortening Drawing / painting an object or person that is not parallel to the picture plane. It makes the object / person appear to recede into space. Sculpture physically interacts with the viewers space in all directions. Painting has perfected and pushed the boundaries of perspective through the technique of foreshortening. Architecture uses convex and concave forms to create a sense of interesting space for visitors.
Italian BaroqueBaroque Art began in Rome around 1600 AD
Baroque artists were experts at creating realistic human proportions from almost any angle and scenes with complex realistic perspective.
Highly religious and emotional.
Influenced by the Counter-Reformation because the Art is meant to help ordinary people connect with the Catholic religion.
Patrons: Church, Royalty & Nobility
Borromini19. Francesco Borromini. St. Ivo. (1643-1660 AD) Rome. Chapel for the University of Rome
movement created by symmetry and curvature
concave and convex forms used
decorative details (e.g. symbol of the Pope)
Interior view of the dome of St. Ivo The dome created by two intersecting equilateral triangles concave and convex forms Focus on design, no need for painting or gold leaf to decorate the dome it appeared just as heavenly remaining pure white.
Other notable works by BorrominiSan Carlo alle Quattro FontaneSant Agnese in Agony
20. Gian Lorenzo Bernini. David. (1623 AD) Marble.Bernini created many works for the Pope(s) throughout Rome
used his own face for David
How is this piece different from Donatello and Michelangelos Davids?
How did the artist usetime,light,space?
displayed at the Villa Borghese (in Rome), David appears dynamic from all sides.
Other notable works by BerniniPluto rapes Persepina(a.k.a. Hades rapes Persephone)The Ecstasy of St. Teresa
Bernini continuedEmperor ConstantineThe Popes Throne
Caravaggio21. Caravaggio. Crucifixion of St. Peter. (1600-1601 AD) Oil on canvas. One of the most influential painters of the Baroque
used everyday people as models for religious paintings (sometimes controversial)
Other notable works by CaravaggioThe Calling of St. MatthewDavid with the Head of Goliath
Gentileschi22. Artemesia Gentileschi. Judith and Holofernes. (1625 AD) Oil on canvas. first recorded female artist in Europe follower of Caravaggio Scene: Biblical hero Judith, beheading the Babylonian general, Holofernes.
figures show foreshortening
Other notable works by GentileschiJudith and Maidservant with the Head of HolofernesSelf Portrait as the Allegory of Painting
Dutch BaroqueBaroque artists throughout Europe often trained in Rome and brought techniques back to their country to develop their own local style.
Holland was Protestant and Democratic.
They forbade having religious images in Church.
Tended to paint still lifes, landscapes and scenes of everyday life.
Patrons: middle class
Rembrandt23. Rembrandt. The Return of the Prodigal Son. (1662) Oil on canvas. Considered greatest Dutch painter. Created nearly 100 self-portraits throughout his lifetime. example of his late style gold-brown tones with subtle shading implied psychological reaction quiet, solemn, brooding gradually used looser, thicker brushstrokes
Other notable works by RembrandtThe NightwatchBathsheba Taking Her Bath
24. Johannes Vermeer. Girl with a Pearl Earring. (1665 AD) Oil on panel.Vermeer Not well known in his own day, increasingly recognized during & after the 19th century. Vermeer is also known for his delicate portraits - used chiaroscuro and realism. Master of texture (capturing appearance of different materials) Subject of this painting: unknown Believed to use the camera obscura in creating his compositions
Also known for capturing scenes of everyday life in Delft, Holland. Only completed about 50 paintings in his lifetime.
Other notable works by VermeerThe Love LetterThe Little Street (View of Houses in Delft)