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History Assignment


  • 1. Baroque

3. The early 17th century marked a time of change for theRoman Catholicreligion. A turning point that symbolized their strength as a congregation and the intelligence of their creative minds. In response to theProtestant Reformationof the earlier 16th century, Roman Catholics embarked on a program of restoration, a new way of living that became known as the Counter Reformation. The purpose of the Counter Reformation was aimed at remedying some of the abuses challenged by the Protestants earlier in the century.Within the church, a renewed Catholic culture was imposed on Italian society. It started with theCouncil of Trent, imposed by Pope Paul III, a commission of cardinals who came together to address issues of the Catholic Church and regain faith among worshipers.This resulted in guidelines established by the Church for the commissioning work of artists to communicate biblical truths and ideals.
Baroque originally started in Italy and later moved to other regions of Europe.It replaced the Renaissance style in the late 1500s and was later replaced by Rococo in the 1700s.It is for the most part recognised as having curved and lively and exuberant forms.Movement is emphasised and it is also fairly symmetrical.
4. Socio political
5. Middle Class
6. Peasants
8. Architecture
Floor plans were ellipse or oval
9. Baroque means irregular or pearshaped in Spanish and in Europe it has the definition of deformed , unusual or absurd.
The idea of baroque buildings was conceived by mixing different styles from different eras .For example gothic the forms of skeletal structure and renaissance which it gives us superimposed storyed structure with defined walls.Baroque architects understood this and changed it to make it their own, they saw a building as a structure and when it was designed it was designed with a sculpture concept.Baroque architecture was big, busy and extremely extravagant.Usually this architexture was found on churches and in the palace.The sheer size of the building and its intense dcor was a statement of authority and power.
10. Greek Cross = even arms
11. Renaissance had circles or squares
12. New arch characteristics
13. Colossal order
14. Motifs and Decor
-tower also known as motif
17. Baroque Forms
18. Baroque Architecture Characteristics:
*Ground plans were more oval.Instead of the simple elementary design (square/cross) they produced complex enriched designs
*Nave it is the pathway/entrance that leads you to the alter, it was increased in size by thinning out the walls.
*Colonnade is a row of pillars/Eitha (doric, ionic, Corinthian pillar) which is secured by the entablature on top of the pillars.
*Movement a characteristic of movement was produced by giving the building curves on the exterior walls, the secured curves also became part of the motifs and dcor.
*Motifs and Dcor the size of volutes, scrolls, acanthus was increased, and now it started to connect to each other giving new shapes and making the structure more busy.It gave a newer look.
*A tower was placed on top having no structural reason except for decoration.It is generally covered in motifs and structures.
19. Bernini
Bernini was an all rounded designer (an artist, sculptor and architect).His styles were big, bold and he liked to focus on the enlarged scrolls and volutes with big pillars and arches
21. art
Andrea Mantegna
Artemisia Gentileschi
22. Baroque stemmed from Renaissance.Renaissance art generally depicted the moment BEFORE an event took place whereas baroque showed the actual climatic moment.The reason for thisis that baroque art evokes emotion and passion instead of the calm rationality of renaissance.
Baroque artworks are exaggerated, there is a sense of movement, energy and tension.There is a strong sense of light and dark which is created by illuminating figures out of dark shadows.At the time, this was quite revolutionary and became a hallmark of Baroque art.
The artists of this time were focused on natural forms, space and unity.There are painterly brush strokes, recession of the plane, open forms and an unclearness of the subject.
*2main forms of baroque which can be seen
-Focuses mainly on the religious tensions between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism.The Protestants disagreed with aspects of the catholic religion, things like buying and selling of clerical offices and the teachings of what they believed to be false doctrines.This caused the Roman Catholic church to strike back.The Catholic church began to commission pieces that were known to be doctrinly correct and both visually and emotionally appealing so that it would affect and influence the largest possible audiences.The main artists of this style were Bernini and Rubens.
23. St Sebastian.An incredibly famous man who was killed for being a Christian.The reason for his fame is that he converted and cured so many people.He was tied and shot at with arrows, however he didnt die and when this was found out he was later clubbed to death.There are many variations of this painting
-chiaroscuro, light and dark, energy and tension
St. Sebastian
24. Rembrandt
25. -The second style wasnt part of the religios propaganda and the artist strove to realistically present people off the street.It was more popular in Flemmish countries. The main artists from this style were Carvaggio, Rembrandt and Vermeer.
26. David - Bernini
27. It became more important that sculptures had more than one viewing point.It also became common for sculptures to be of groups of people.
Sculptures had a centre point and from this point figures would spiral and reachoutwards.This created movement and a sense of energy.Another important characteristic of baroque sculpture was that it became multipurpose.For instance it might be used as a water feature and used to conceal lighting.
In 1629 Pope Urban VII found the Trevi Fountain to be lacking the dramatic edge that it should have had so asked Bernini to sketch some possible renovations.However the pope died and the project was abandoned.However Bernini style is still prevalent.There is a custom that if a visitor throws a coin into the fountain, he or she is sure to return one day.
28. Trevi Fountain - Bernini
29. What makes Baroque Music?
*Unity of mood*Melody
30. Baroque music started out in the Western European Region between the 1650s and the 1750s.The composers were Bach, Lully, Francois,and Handel.
Baroque music did not have its own originality, it was influenced by the French Renaissance era.The French had a more dancy energetic rhythm.That is why Baroque music is so up tempo and has confusing rhythms.
People of the Baroque era saw the music style as a joke because of the influence of the french and its intricate rhythms.The composer tries to invent new rhythms using mathematics.But Baroque people had a distaste for classical music because it was too obvious and simple.Classical music usually had the same bar repeasted with slight changes here and there (almost like a heart beat with one constant rhythm of a 4/4 timing which produced a dull and lazy rhythm.
In classical music the first note of each bar was accented (meaning to play that note louder than the others).With Baroque, the accents would be on the first and second note od the first and third, or second and third to spice things up.
The interesting thing of Baroque music is when they started grouping notes together, it gave the illusion of playing various notes over or under each other.
32. Different styles were made by the amount of beats/notes that you put in the bar.
The styles were:
34. Jewellery
Renaissance jewellery was decorative with mythical themes
Early example- figure work fell away,.
Attention had moved from colourful enamelling to emphasizing the metal and the gemstones.The use of gemstones in jewellery really became popular in the Baroque era as there had been an increase in the skill of Gemstone cutting.
35. Changing fashion also influenced the jewellery.The rigid dress of the Renaissance era gave way to soft flowing dresses with low necklines thus the jewellery had to change accordingly.
Jewellery designs began to look more and more naturalistic.Flowers were also seen often this craze was heightened by the fact the trading was improving and exotic flowers which had never been seen before were now being brought into the countries.Flora had been popular for a long time before in embroidery but it was adopted into jewellery design as well painted enamel, Champleve enamel. By the 1650s it has moved from enamelling to engraving being the favoured technique.
38. Faceted gemstones really took off in the second half of the 17th cent.Settings became far more delicate and cluster settings were thrown out.By the end of the 1600s enamelling had diminished completely.Another interesting thing about jewellery that emerged in the Baroque era was that a differentiation between night time appropriate je