Barulina 1930 Lentils of the USSR Vicia Ervilia

Download Barulina 1930 Lentils of the USSR Vicia Ervilia

Post on 28-Dec-2015

21 views

Category:

Documents

1 download

DESCRIPTION

Barulina, H. (1930). "Lentils of the USSR and of other countries (English summary)." Bulletin of Applied Botany, Genetics & Plant Breeding, Leningrad (Supplement) 40: 265-304.This is a selection of content relevant to Vicia ervilia (bitter vetch). The rest of the work is about Lentils and their genetic resources.Chap 7. 30 characters studied for V. ervilia and their hereditary behaviour recorded. Key to the varieties of V. ervilia. Centre of origin is the Eastern Mediterranean Chap 14. V. sativa mimics of lentils. The adulteration of vetch with lentil is a fact pointed out in the literature by many investigators: Thaer, Wiegmann, Gaertner, Berg, Fruwirth, etc. The russian text is worth translating into English.

TRANSCRIPT

  • 40- ,

    SUPPLEMENT 40-th TO THE BULLETIN OF APPLIED BOTANY, OF GENETICSAND PLANT-BREEDING

    E. .

    1 -

    3 , 16 86

    Q \1 L^

    Helena BARLINA

    fflTILSFTl.n..AlflFOTmA BOTANIC-A&RONOMICAL MONOGRAPH/

    With many tables and figures.

    - . .

    1930 - LENINGRAD \

  • FT

    N_[--J

    1925. 1926 .

    . 1927 .

    4. .

    Map 4. The Northern limit of maturation of the common lentil according to thireographical experiments conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany.

  • :-J0

    1926 . (5952') , , .

    , (5740') .

    1927 . (5817') , (''), , .

    . , , 1925 1926 . (, 5523' . ., 2352' . .) .

    , -

    , , -

    , ,

    , . . (-. , .) .

    - -

    Lens , -escuienta. ,

    . ,

    1.760 . . . (: , .) 1.550 . (, ) , , , . 1926 . - (, . 1.470 .) . , -

    , , ,

    , , " . .

    , -

    , -

    . -

    . . .

    1.200 1.300 . . .; - 2.700 . ( , ) 2.800 . (-), .

    , (3.000 .). 2.080 .

    (. . ). 2.100 . (,'. . ). , . . , 2.000 . -

    Vicia Ervilia.

    ,

    , -

    , , ,

    ( 5). -

    . , 1924 .

    /- I

  • 5. (Ticia ErvilwW i l l d . ) .

    Map 5. The Northern limit of maturation of the French lentil according to theseographical experiments conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany.

  • ( 67144/), 1925 . 1927 . (64J33') .- (61).

    .

    , 1924 1925 . (1.760 .) ( 1.550 .). . -

    ,

    . . . ,

    2.2002.400 . ,' 3.130 . ( -, -/^, , 2.700 . .

    A i t c h i s o n ' y Vicia Ervilia "Willd. 4.000 (1.220 .) .

    V A i t c h i s o n , J . . . Tlie Botany the A:>ii;in T>eiiini;ationTransactions of the Linnean Society, p. 59.

  • 7.

    .

    Vicia Ervilia Willd.

    Wil ld . Spec. PI. III. 1800, p. 1103.M. Bieb. 1. Taur.-Cauc II. 1808Led eb. Fl. Ross. I. 1842, p. 663.Boiss. FL.Or. II. 1872, p. 595.Bonnier, Fl. compl. ill. France, III, p. 67,tab. 154. f. 830,P s p . Fl.oesterr.Kustenl.il. 1898, p. 410.Rouy et F o u c a u d Fl. France V, 1899, p. 248.Beck in Rcnb.Ic. XXII, 1903, p. 204, t. 261, fig. 110.Aschers, u. Graebn.Synop. , 2, 190610, p. 904.

    Ervum Ervilia L i n n . Spec. 1. ed. 1. 1753, p. 738.DC. Prod. II. 1825, p.367.Koch Syn. I. ed. 3, 1892, p. 684.S t u r m IVutschl. Fl., 1812, H. 32.Ervilia sativa L i n k Enum. Hort. Berol. II. 1822, p. 240.Ervum jilicatuw H o e n c h Method. 1794, p. 147.

    - V. Ervilia

    . D d n a e u s (Stirp. Hist.. Pempt., 1>83) -

    (. 514) hoCicere sa-tivo. B a u l i i n , P a r k i n s o n (1. .) Orobus(Orobus siliquis articulatis, seniine majore B a u h . Pin. 346). P a r -k i n s o n -'. Orobus vulgaris The ordinary bitter vetch. T o n r n e f o r t(l. .) Lens, Ciccr . Ervum, , (t. 221) - * Ervum verum -

  • 7.

    .

    Vicia Ervilia Willd.Wi l ld . Spec. PI. III. 1800, p. 1103.M. Bieb. Fl. Taur.-

  • 144

    ( ). , , . 611 . .

    , -. ,

    , , - -

    . 7 , 4.8 . . , -

    . . ,

    .

    , , . -

    * ( -=2.3 , =2.83.1 ),-, --

    - -

    .

    (. 29 30). -

    . , -

    , . , , , -

    , .. 30. Ticia Ervilia W i l l d.,

    ( ).1: 2: 3:4; 5

    (l-5X*/ 3 ;3x 8 / S )-. . 51. Ill .Fig. 30. Vina Ervilia W 1 Id.,growing wild in Uzbekistan

    (environs of Tashkent).1flower; 2pod; 3seeds;4stipule; 5leaflet (1

    5X4/S: 3x8 / 3 ) .

    Drawn by A. M. S h e p e-1 e v a.

    . A s i a ni i-w >n o r : prope Angora, in montibus calcareis. Jjykmcn.1834. W i e d e m a n n . Kaia-guenl-Dcre, a 2 Heuesau SO d'Ouchak. Phrygie 29. Y. 1857. B. B a l a n s a , 1197. S y r i a : Montium Antilibani, in declivita-tibus prope Baalbek, alt. 11501300 m. s. m. V.1910. J. B o r n m l l e r , 11727. Iter Syriacum.P e r s i a : . KArman, in monte Kuh-i-Hiisar(iuter Kirman et Bender-Abbas) 3400 m. s. m. 10.YIII. 1892. J. B o r n m l l e r . Iter Persieo-tur-cicum, 3680. T r a n s c a u c a s i a : . 14. VI.1889. . JI . , . .. 3- . , . 30. VI.1S88. . . . , - , 5000' 24. VI. 1888. . .

    . Armenia. Erivan. In lapidosis. l i . *. 1922. A. G r o s s l i e i m . : . -. . , . . . 12. V. 1912. . . - . . ., Parkus im Tschirtschik-Thal, 23000' 2. VII. 1881.. R e g e l . . ., . Jassy. pr. Tsgent,56000' V. 1879.. R e g e l . IterTurkestanicum. . ., . . . -. 21. IV.191G. . . Montes meridionales: Tian-Schan occidentalis. In agris derelictisprope stationem viae ferreae Dsllga. 1926. IV. 22 fl., V. 14 fr. P o p o v .

    . . : provenit eulta, spontanea et subspon- per omnem provinc. Gaditanam ( W i l l k o m m , M. Supplem. Fl. Hispanicae.Stuttgartiae. 1893). : in campestribus planitieiinter Sadovo et Philippopol, spontanea ( V e l e n o v s k y , J. Flora Bulsarica. Pragae.1891).

    V. Ervilia , ., B a t t a n d i e r et abut,Fl. Alg.; F i o r i , A. et B e g u i n o t , A. Flora analitica d'Italia.19001902; F i o r i , A. Nuova Flora analitica d'Italia. 1925;E n g l e r , . und Drude, O. Die Vegetation der Erde. XL 1909,p. 531; Ha l ac sy , Consp. Fl. Graec. 1901; Koch, Synopsis. 1S92;Coste, H., Flore de la France. 1901, . I.

    145

    . .

    1 ) , V. Ervilia ,

    , , . -

    .

    Lens orientalis ( ).

    , 20 60 -

    0 0 ( - - ,^

    0 , , -

    ( ). (- ), (, . ). , , , .

    617 , . , ; 1317 , 34.5 . , -, . -

    , , , .

    , 14-, - . ,

    (710 , 57 ), -, -

    ( . , ), , ,

    . , . -

    , ,

    . 610 24 - , . , ,

    , , , 34--, , -

    ( , , ). 1925 56 . (), ( -, ). 3.56.5 , ( 1000 ) 20 75 . - .

    , Lensesculenta; . , - -.

    , .

    ,

    .

    , , , L. esculenta: .

    S i b t h o r p , Flora Graeca. 1833. , S t u r m (1. ),G a m s in H e g i (1. ) .

    ') Schedae ad Herbarium florae Asiae Mediae ab Universitate Asiae Mediaeeditum. Fasc. XIXIII. Taschkent. -, . . 15. 1927.

    . . .

    10

  • -

    V. Ervilia.

    146

    Vicia Ervilia " - , -

    . ,

    V. Ervilia, :Rovi, ( .

    argo vi). ( ) (kirsenneh), , . , () . , .

    , , ( ) (- , ).

    , (.,. .). .

    () , . (. ), -

    ., , , ,

    , .

    ( ).M o c o p i c o l o , e r v o , l e r o , z i r l o , m o c l i i , c a p o g i r l o ,

    v e c c i o l i .Jeros. E r v i l i e , E r v e n l i n s e , k l e i n e

    E r v e , E r v e n w i c k e , S t e i n W i c k l i n s e , S t e i n l i n s e ,E r v e , W i c k l i n s e , L i n s e n w i c k e .

    e r s , e r v i l i e r, l e n t i l l e b t a r d e ,v e s c e e r v i l i e r e , e r v i l i e r c u l t i v e .

    F r e n c h L e n t i l s , b l a c k b i t t e r v e t c h . -

    : , -V. Ervilia.

    > . , . , . , ,'

    , , . -

    , , -

    -, . , -

    : , ( ,

    1), , -, , -, , , , .

    , , ,

    (, -,

    2). -

    , . R. M u s h i e r 3 ) , ,

    k u r s e n e .') - , 1. . s t e, H. Flore de la France. . I. Paris. 1901.R e i c h e n b a c h . 1903.-) , .

    .

    !.. V. . 1261927.3) Mu.?chler, R. Manual Flora of E^ypt. Berlin. 1012. p. 543. 10*

  • 148 149

    . , , : , -

    , ; , -

    '). - , , .

    ,

    2). V. Ervilia

    .

    ,

    (, ), (, ' .).

    V. Ervilia , , -V. Ervilia.

    ,

    .

    ; L. esculenta, -

    3)- , - :

    . 40. V. Ervilia W 11 d.

    V. Ervilia

    >.

    16.4

    16.36

    13.5

    11.SO

    7.10

    17.11

    9.70

    6.34

    16.11

    . ,

    2.30

    1.23

    1.24

    -S

    47.20

    33.78

    60.47

    16.70

    37.02

    4.9S

    5.60

    5.21

    2.70

    ,,

    :

    = 48.63 = 22.40 = 64.40

    ') . . . . , . . . , . . . \\ 1926.

    , . . . . . .

    XVI. 3. 1926. s s (I 7. , G. I. A Study of Ervum Ervilia L.cugrehelbin Georgia.

    Tiflis. 1928.) , II. H.

    1926 . . . . XVII. 4. 1927.) (. . . 37).

    1 -

    .

    . 41. Vicia Ervilia AV i l l d. V. monanthos Desf . ' ) .

    ( 192S . .).

    346

    194

    27

    456

    1095

    -

    .

    . Ervilia. -

    lescensatropunctata

    int (rmedia/

    . monantbos

    -

    .

    . . .

    . . .

    . .

    . .

    / - :

    .

    9.44

    9.28

    9.40

    9.06

    9.0

    2.70

    3.23

    2.8!

    3.37

    4.26

    S f

    3.560.78

    3.730.93

    3.35

    3.740.90

    3.46 0.87

    0.99 3.86 24.12

    4.47 27.93 64

    4.88 30.50 60

    4.08 25.50 67.464.74

    4.36 27.24 65

    68

    .77

    92

    4.55

    ,684.68

    .06 3.38

    4.30

    V. Ervilia ., , , -

    .

    , .

    .

    , ,

    -). . . , () V. Ervilia, - , .

    V. Ervilia -; , , , - . . , -

    : .

    () , , : -, ( ). ()V. Ervilia , , .

    ,

    *). , ,

    , . , -

    11 . - .

    2) - . W. Notes on Agriculture in Cyprus and its Products. 1919."') P i e . t e r s . A. Green Manuring. Xew Jork. 1927, p. 224.

  • 150

    '). - , .

    ( V. Ervilia ). ,

    , . -

    2 ). -, ,

    s) ,, .

    ,

    : ,

    4). - , .

    . . , -

    -

    .

    56 - ,

    . ,

    .

    {Semina Ervi).V. Ervilia ;

    , -

    , ,

    . .

    , -

    .

    V. Ervilia

    4). V. Ervilia .

    '^ '''**

    -

    (. 10) . () - , -

    , . . . . -

    , -

    .

    : .

    .

    ') , . . , . . .. 129.

    2) . . .3) , . ., 1. .*) s s (I . . 1. .'') G r e s h o f f . M. Beschrijving der giltige en bewehnende planten bij de

    Tischvangst in geliruik. Batavia. 1913, p. 78.

    =

  • 152

    . 42. ,Vicia Ervilia "Willd., .

    .

    . .

    -

    .

    .

    .

    .

    -

    .

    . . . .

    - . . . . .

    .

    .

    . . . .

    .

    .

    . . .

    10

    456

    153

    V i c i a E r v i l i a W i l l d .

    .

    .

    I. .

    1.

    2.

    3.

    a. 1) (. , )2)

    ()b. -

    a. ( 810 )b. ( 78 )a. b.

    4. . 12 (, , . )1). 24

    5. a. b.

    II. .

    6.

    7.

    8.

    9.

    a. ( 2125 , 50 )

    b. ( 1721 , 45.5 )

    a. b. (, )a. -b. (, )a. 34b. 45

    III. .

    10.

    .

    a. ( - -)

    b.

    a. ( 56.5 )

    b. ( 3.55 )

    12, ( 1000) . 22GO .

    . 6075 .

  • . 34. Ticia Ervilia W 11 d. var. intermedia .. . 2/5.. . . .

    Fig. 34. Ticia Ervilia W 11 d. var. intermedia ., Georgia. -.Drawn by A. M. S h e p e 1 e v a.

    159

    -

    . , V. Ervilia - (- lutea). - -

    . - -

    ,

    . 35. Ticia Ervilia W i l l d . .7.. . . .

    Fig. 35. Ticia Ervilia W i l l d . Branch of Frencli lentil from Bulgaria, -/-Drawn by A. M. S li e p e 1 e v a.

    . ,

    .

    -

    _

    -

    . (1. .) 3 -:

    1. vulgaris (gemeine Ervenlinse) sub var. tnacrosperma (gros-samige Ervenlinse)

    2. punctata (punktierte Ervenlinse)3. pygmaea (Zwerg-Ervenlinse ').

    T u h i l i a t s h e f f (Asie Hineure) M. (Plirygi) var. tnitnis

  • 162

    ) : - ,

    (6) . variegata . , , . . . . . .

    f) (), -- () -

    (7) var. coerulescens ., . , . . , .

    gj , (8) var. melanosperma .

    . (. , , - -). . . - .

    .a) -, -

    (9) var. bicolor m., . , , . . ,

    .

    b) , -

    (10) var. cypria m.0. . . . .

    . , -

    ( 1925 , 45.5 ). 4.55 . . 1000 2565 . (7.510 ), , , 24 . ( 12.517 , 35 ).

    11 17. -, (2560 ). ; ,

    ,

    , . -

    - : ,, , (, , ),; : . , . ,, , , . , , ,

    -, ,

    grex exparsae m.

    1. , -, . -

    (11) var. globulosa m. ( ) . . . .2. , -.

    - - (-).

    163

    ) -, - . .

    4- ( 44.5 ).(12) var. minima m.

    ( ). . . . .

    + + 4.56.5 (13) var. intermedia m.

    . vulgaris, . . , . , . , , , ,

    , , , , , , , ,

    , , .

    b) (), . , ,

    . -

    (14) var. punctulata Abess ., .

    c) - ( )

    (15) var. maculata m., . . , .

    d) () (16) var. atropunctata .

    (). . , , ( ), (. .), .

    e) : - , , -

    . -

    (17) var. georgica Abess_, , , .

    f) (), - () -

    (18) var. einerea m., , . .

    g) , . -- ()

    (19) var. nigra A b e s s ., .

    11*

  • 164

    .) -,

    (20) var. vulgaris ( K r n . ) m . . , . , -

    , , , . , , , , . ,

    , -, , .

    V. Ervilia.

    .

    . , -

    , , . ,

    -

    ,

    . V. Ervilia '). - pcc:;, -Ervum; . - .

    D e C a n d o l l e V. Ervilia , .

    -

    , ,

    . , . ,

    , . -

    .

    V. Ervilia, - , Jiabifrus'y - . -

    , --

    - .

    , -

    . , - , ,

    , V. Ervilia - ( 11).

    Vicia monanthos 2) Desf.Fl. Atlant., II. 1800, p. 165. Rouy & F o u c a u d Fl. France

    V. 1899, p. 2 4 1 B e c k in R c h b . Ic. XXII. 1903, p. 201. t. 263.fig. I. II. 1 7. N y m a n Consp. Fl. Eur. 1878-82, p. 208;Suppl. II. 1889, p. 103. Arcang. Compen. Fl. ital. 1882, p. 205.

    Ervum monanthos L. Sp. Plant, ed. 1., 1753, p. 738. DC. Prodr. II. lS2o,p. 367. Koch Syn. I. ed. 3, 1892, p. 684.

    Leus monanthos . Inst., p. 390. Mnch, Meth., 17S4, p. 131.Lathyrus monanthos W i l l d . Spec. PI. III. 1800, p. 1083.') W i t t m a c k. Sitiungsber. d. bot. Vereins zu Brandenburg, 19 Dec. 1879.2) V. monantha , -

    , R e t z i u s -: V. monantha ( = ~V. calcarata).

    .A's

    -

  • A)A'Bs

    ]. Cai

    ferruginei

    .

    .

    ,

    .

    ,

    . nj

    '

    !

    ',

    . VI.

    2-. .

    As ]

    * 6(95).

    ?

    .

    .

    1G8

    . 58 , - (27 38 ). , ; ( )1724 , 23 . , - , , , , -

    , ,

    , . ,

    , .

    , , ,

    . .

    1014 , 78.5 . - . ,

    - .

    , . . -

    ,

    . -

    . 11 2- , . , ; . , , -

    , , 24-, --. 26 32 , 79 , - 3.23.7 . 2548. ,

    . -

    5.0-5.8 , 2.83.4 . - ( 1000)4060 . - ( ). , , 7 - (. . , ). .

    V. monanthos -. 159 . - , 45 . . . -

    , . , -

    , . -

    , , 102 . ." , . ,

    .

    ( ) 5567 , 103112 (. 37 38).

    V. monanthos

    _ g ,

    >. , -, , . ,

    .

    , , -

    , , , , , .

    169

    . .

    ( Coimbra), . , ,

    , ,

    , , , , , (- ), , -, , .

    .

    ,

    (. 39). . . ,

    1400 .( ).

    V. monanthos - -

    .

    , , -

    ,

    , -

    .

    13 - , ,

    , , .

    ; -: -, , ,

    . -

    ' , . 39. - -

    - Vicia , ,

    -

    . A l e f e l d - V. monanthos, : f. marmo-rata 1 f. nigra 1 f.

    . .

    , . -

    , (Avena, Vicia): - - .

    '**?

    monanthos. (Alcala), .

    . . . .

    Fig. 39. Bick of thrashed Onefloweredlentil Vicia monanthos Desf, Spain

    (Alcala), near Madrid.Phot, by N. I. V 1 .

  • 2ii4

    E o e m e r , Th. 1924. Vererbungsstudien mit Lupinen. I. Zeit. f. Pflanzenz.B. IX. H. 4.

    R o u p p e r t , H. 1921. Apergu agricole sur la Region de Fez.R u y, G. et F a a d, J. 1899. Flore de France. V. Paris.S a k a r a u r a . 1920. Experimentelle Studien ber die Zeil u. Kernteilung

    mit besonderer Rcksicht der Form, Grosse u. Zahl der Chromosomen. Tokyo.S a n c h e z S a n t a m a r i a, J. M. 1925. Geografia Comercial economica de

    Colombia. Bogota.S c l i b c l e r . F. C. 188S. Yiridarium Norvegicum. B. II. Christiania.S c h u r , J. F. 1866. Enumeratio plantarum Transsvaniae. Vindobonae.S h e i n f u r t h, G. 1883. Neue Beitrge zur Flora des alten Aegyptens..

    Ber. d. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. I.Shaw and R a k h a l da s Bse . 1929. Studies in Indian Pulses. I. Lentil.

    (Ervum Lent, L in .). Mem. of the Depart, of Agricult. in India. Vol. XVI. No. 6.December 1928. Calcutta.

    S i b t h o r p , J. 1813. Flora Graecae. Londini.S t u r m . J. 1812. Deutschlands Flora. Nrnberg.T c h i h a t c h e f f , P. 1860. Asie Mineure. Trois. par. Botanique. I. Paris.Ted in , Hans and Olof. 1928. Contributions to the Genetics of Pisum V:

    Seed Coat Color. Linkage and Free Combination. Hereditas. B. XI. H. I. no re, M. 183536. Flora Napolitana. T. V. Napoli.T h o m p s t o n e , F. and S a w y e r , A. M. 1914. The Peas and Beans of

    Burma. Department of Agriculture, Burma. Bull. No 12. Rangoon.T i s c h l e r . G. 192122. Allgemeine Pflanzenkaryologie. Handbuch der Pflan-

    zenanatomie. I. T. Abt. I.Berlin.T j e b b e s , K. 1923. Ganzfarbige Samen bei gefleckten Bohnenrassen. Ber. d.

    D. Bot. Ges., XLI.T j e b b e s , K. 1925. Die Zeichnung der Samenschale von Phaseolus milii-

    flonts. Hereditas, B. VII, H. I.T o u r n e f o r t . 1719. Institutiones Rei Herbariae. T. I. Parisiis.T r a b u t , D. L. et M a r e s , K. 1907. L'Algerie Agricole en 1906. Alger.T s c h e r m a k , Erich. 1928. Einige Bastardierungsergebnisse an Linsen und

    Ackerbohnen. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wissensch. Wien. Abt. I, 137. ., 3 u 4 Beft.T s c h i r c h , A. und e s t e I e. 0. 1900. Anatomischer Atlas der Pharma-

    kognosie und Nahrungsmittelkunde. Leipzig.V a v i l o v , N. I. 1922. The Law of Homologous Series iii Variation. Journ.

    of Genetics.V a r i l or, N. I. 1927. Essais geographique sur l'etude de la variabilite

    des plantes cultivees en URSS. Rapport a l'Institut International d'Agriculture deRome en novembre.

    V e l e n o v s k y , J. 1891. Flora bulgarica. Pragae.W e e s e, J. 1924. Zur Kenntnis der Anatomie der Samen eines Linsen-Wickenba-

    stards. Mitteil, d. bot. Laborat. d. Tecbn. Hochschule. Wien.W e 11 e n s k, S. J. 1927. Linkage-Studies in Pisum. I. Genetica. IX. 46'.W e l l n s e k, S. J. 1925. Genetic monograph on Pisum. Bibl. Genetica. II.W h i t e , . 1916. Inheritance Studies in Pisum. Inheritance of cotyledon

    colour. Am. Natur. 50.W h t o, 0. 1917. Interrelation of the genetic factors of Pisum. J. Agr. Re-

    search. II.W i e g m a n n , A. F. 182S. Ueber die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreiche.

    Braunschweig.W i l l k o m m , M. et L a n g e, J. 1880. Prodromus Florae Hisparicae. Vol.

    III. Snttgartiae.W i n ton, A. L. 1916. The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods. N. Y.W g, Fr. 1886. Die Pflanzen im alten Aegypten. Leipzig.Wood w o r t h , C. M. 1921. Inheritance of cotyledon, seed coat, hilum and

    pubescens colours in soybeans. Genetics. 6.Wood w o r t h , and Cole, L. 1924. Mottling of soybeans. The Jour, of

    Heredity. XV.

    1.

    Lentils of the USSR and of other countries.Helena Barulina.

    (A Botanico-Agronomical Monograph).S M M A E Y.

    I n t r o d u c t i o n .Being in possession of vast world collections of cultivated

    plants, brought home from different countries bv a whole series ofexpeditions, the Bureau of Applied Botany of the State Instituteof Experimental Agronomy and the Institute of Applied Botanyhave made it their purpose to publish a series of monographs oncultivated plants. The present work is the first essay to givea botanico-agronomical world monograph on the lentil.

    Our investigation embraces chiefly the common lentil, Lensesculenta Mo#nch, as being of the greatest economical important.It partly applies also to the French lentil, Vicia Ervilia Wi l ld . ,and touches shortly on the Oneflowered lentil, Vicia monawthosD e s f. The last two species belong to grain-forage plants.

    C h a p t e r 1.History of the cultivation of the lentil.

    The lentil is one of the most ancient crop plants, cultivatedalready in prehistorical times in the East, in Hungary and inSwitzerland. Lentil of the neolithic period has been found inEurope in: Bosnia, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and in the Southernpart of Germany. This crop was evidently adventive of the South-Eastern Asia. The ancientness of lentil cultivation in South-WesternAsia is testified by numerous Sanskrit names. It was known to theancient Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. From Italy thelentil has spread over the Alps to Germany, to the Lithuaniansand Slavs.

    C h a p t e r 2.The geography of the crop and the limits of its cultivation.

    The area of lentil cultivation embraces a con-Countries siderable acreage. Common lentil is grown in USSR;

    ^resculenta.nS of the "West-European countries in France, Germany,

    Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Roumania, Spain,Portugal, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia; in the Balkan Peninsula: in Bulgariar

  • 2(16

    Greece; in the island Cyprus (table 1). On a small scale the lentilis grown in Switzerland and in England. In N. Africa the lentilis sown in Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripolitania, Abyssiniaand Eritrea. In America the crop has gained wide spread in Chile.It is equally grown in Argentina and Brazil, sometimes in Mexico,Columbia, Guatemala and in the island Cuba. As regards theAsiatic countries, the lentil is grown on a large scale in, Asia Mi-nor, Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Mesopotamia, Arabia (Yemen),Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India, Kashmir, sometimes inChina.Countries gro- ^ s regards the cultivation of the French andwingViciaEr- of the Oneflowered lentil in our country ,the first

    vilia and is of importance only in the Caucasus" while theV. monanthos.

    s e c o n d i s n o t g r o w n a t a l l in the Soviet Union.The chief countries where the French lentil is cultivated are:

    Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Asia Minor, Greece, the islandsGreta and Cyprus, Spain, as well as Afghanistan. The area ofcultivation of the Oneflowered lentil is Spain and Portugal.

    The regions of cultivation of the common lentil in USSR.

    The chief regions where the lentil is grown in USSR the South-East of European USSR (the provinces Saratov,Tambov, Penza), the Ukraine, the Upper Volga region (the pro-vinces Nishny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk) and the Central pro-vinces (Tula, Orel, Ryazan). The lentil is also cultivated in theCrimea and in the Northern Caucasus, as well as iibthe Trans-caucasian and Middle-Asiatic Republics. In Siberia however thelentil occupies but a very inconsiderable acreage, its crops bein;scattered chiefly along the rail-roads. In the Far East (the UsstT-rijsk territory) the lentil is sometimes sown.

    T h e S o u t h-E a s t of E u r o p e a n U S S R i s t h e p r i n -c i p a l c e n t r e p r o d u c i n g e x p o r t l e n t i l .

    The first place among the grain Legummosae of the Ukraineis occupied by the lentil, along with peas. The centre of lentilcultivation in the Ukraine are the provinces: Podolia, Chernigov,Kiev and Volynia.

    The lentil crops of the Tartar Republic are concentrated inthe region adjoining the river Kama and in the Trans-Volgadistricts. In the Trans-Kama region the crop has gained but littlespread.

    Before the war, in 1913, the acreage under lentils constitutedin Russia=415.05S ha. In 1926 the acreage sown to lentils in theEuropean part of USSR was 419.542 ha, in 1929it was 426.500 ha.

    Thus, USSR lentil crops occupy almost the half ofthe world acreage under lentils. USSR holds the first place inthe world market with regard to lentil production; Egypt follows,'with Spain, Chile, Roumania and Czechoslovakia.

    In Spain all three species of the lentil are grown, the firstplace being occupied by Yicia monanthos. The next in importance

    267 -

    83BJ0BUAiOS

    J /

    UMOS-JOI a q ^

    JO O/p

    - M Q CM US

    13 -*

    io f- -^

    0000 -- 1

    L~ ~.

  • 208

    is Vicia Ervilia, while the common lentil comes last. Besides Spainere French lentil is an important crop in Syria, Palestine,Fransjordania, in Cyprus and Greece. The acreage occupied bythis crop in the above mentioned countries is considerably greaterthan that sown to common lentil. If we attempt the approximateestimation of the acreage under lentils in all countries of theworld growing this crop (not only the common lentil, but alsothe French and the Oneflowered one), it will find its expressionin a b o u t o n e m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s . This value gives an idea.of the importance of the crop in the economy of the world.

    Import and Export.

    The countries which export lentils are USSR, Spain, Egypt,Chile, Abyssinia, Turkey, Western Asia and India. The majorityof West-European countries, as Germany, France, England, Greece,Bulgaria, as well as America import the lentil from other countries.

    Previously to the war Russia occupied the first place amongother countries as regards the export oi lentils. Almost the wholeRussian lentil export went to -Germany through Knigsberg. Thebulk of the exported lentil was supplied by the provinces Saratov,Penza and Tambov. After the war Chile has become a seriousrival of USSR on the world market.

    The limits of lentil cultivation.

    The data of the geographical experimentsThe latitudinal conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany

    ti^atfon* i?eLCeUns W i t h r e S a r d t o t h e l e n t i l during 6 years (1923escnlenta. 192b) have shown that the Northern limit of

    maturation of the separate lentil varieties mayvary in dependence on the meteorological conditions of the vege-tation period (see map 4). Thus, in the moist year 1923 not oneof the lentil varieties reached full maturity in the Northernstations. Only beginning with 5740' North iatitude (Kostroma)full maturation could be observed. In the comparatively dryyear 1924 the limit shifted considerably to the North. Thus, atthe Station near the Ladoga lake (59 52') and at the NovgorodStation (58 40') almost all varieties attained maturity.

    As far as may be judged from the results of the geographicalexperiments conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany, thecultivation of the lentil may be regarded as more or less reliableonly beginning with approximately 57 N. lat. (provinces Kostroma,Tver, Moscow).

    At an elevation of 1760 m. above sea-levelThe vertical (Georgia: Bakuriani, prov. Tiflis) and 1550 m.

    ""tion^VbeSs ( T u r k e s t a n : Chimgan) the response of the lentilesculenta. ^ environmental conditions is the same as in the-

    extreme North and as a rule it does not reachmaturity. In 1926 in Armenia (Leninakan1470 m.) all varietiesof the lentil attained maturity.

    269

    According to "the data of the expedition of X. I. V a v i l c v ,the chief region of lentil cultivation in Afghanistan is situated atan, altitude of 12001300 m. above sea-level. The highest pointfor the lentil was marked at 2700 m. and even 2800 m., wherethis plant is grown in a mixture with wheat.

    The extreme vertical limit of lentil cultivation in Abyssiniais even higher (3000 m.) than in Afghanistan.

    According to the data of the geographicalT11. limits of sowings conducted bv the Institute of AppliedC V ErviHa Botany, the Northern limit of the cultivation of

    V. Ervilia also sharply fluctuates in dependenceon the meteorological conditions of the summer (see map >). Itmust be noted that this crop may advance considerably fartherto the North. Thus, in 1924 V. Ervilia ripened even in theMurman region (Khibiny, 67 44'); in 1925 and in 1927in Arkhan-gelsk (64 33') and in Severo-Dvinsk (61 10')-

    The vertical limit of the cultivation of V. Ervilia equallyascends much higher than that of the common lentil.

    C h a p t e r 3.

    The chemical composition and the cooking properties of lentil seeds.According to the investigation of the Lochemical Laboratory

    of the Institute of Applied Botany, the seeds of leguminous plantsshow a constant chemical composition. In peas, lentils, vetches,horse-beans, grown in the most different regions of USSR, noconsiderable changes are observed as regards the contents ofproteins, ash, cellular tissue and fat. Thus, the varietal differencesobserved in the lentil with regard to its chemical compositionremain practically unaltered in any geographical station (see table 2).

    The author gives the data concerning theC O O l

    r tL S P r o " cooking properties of different lentil varieties.lentil seeds. according to the investigation carried out by

    V. S. F e d o t o v at the Genetical Station of theInstitute of Applied Botany (see table 3).

    Of all grain Leguminosae the lentil shows the highest cookingcoefficient. The small-seeded varieties (Afghanistan, India, Abys-sinia, Persia) are better cookers than the large-seeded ones (Italy,USSR). The colour of the seeds does not influence their cookingproperties. The thickness of the seed coat plays a considerablerole in regard to the cooking properties.

    C h a p t e r 4.The genus Lens, its history and geography.

    From an agricultural point of view usuallyThe species of

    t h r e e p i a n t s are referred to the cultivated lentils.the cultivated -r, , . r ., , , , ,-, n ,Lentil. jBotamcally they belong to the same iamily

    Leguminosae J u s s . , sub-family Papilionatae T a u b ,and tribus Vicieae B r o n n . , but to two separate genera [Lens( T o u r n , ) A d a n s . and Vicia L.]: common lentilLens esculenta

  • 290

    b) Seeds with well marked marblepattern (51) var. marmorata m.

    Asia Minor (vilayet Konia). Collectedby P. M. Z h i i k o v s k y .

    4. Seeds grey, unicoloured or with black marblepattern. Cotyledons yellow (52) var. subitalica m.Italv, Sardinia, Asia Minor (Mersina, Sivas,Tokat).Flowers 24 on peduncle, white with light blue veins.Cal3'x-teeth much longer than corolla. Leaflets of mediumsize. Plant most frequently light green (yellow-green) colou-red

    grex europaeae m. Prostrate habit. Late form (the period before

    flowering is especially long '). Seeds 35 mmin diameter, reddish-grey, unicoloured or withblack marble pattern. Cotyledons orange (53) var. prostrata m.

    France, Germany, USSR (distr. Kiev). Erect habit.

    X Pods before maturity with purple patches.Seedlings and stems purple. Seeds 45 mm indiameter, yellow-green with dark green marblepattern and dark purple spots. Cotyledonsyellow (54) var. dupuyensis m.Widespread in France under the name Du-Puy. Grown also in Germany, Spain, Italy,Algeria, Tunis, Syria, as well as in theUkraine.

    XX Pods withmit anthocyan. '1. Seeds pinkish, unicoloured or with slightly

    marked black marble pattern (speckledness).Cotyledons orange (55) var. pseudomar-

    morata m.Russia: prov. Samara, Ukraine. Distr. Kharkov.Macedonia, Mesopotamia.

    2. Seeds greyish-reddish without pattern or withblack marble pattern (speckledness). Cotyledonsorange (56) var. variabilis m.Tripoli, Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, Greece(Thessaly), Bulgaria, France, Czechoslovakia,Soviet Russia: Bashkir Republic, prov. Samara,distr. Kharkov, Don province.

    ') Sometimes known under the name of winter lentil, as in some countriesi t is sown in fall. Seed samples have been obtained from V i l m o r i n under thename Ervutn Lens minor hietnalis. K o e r n i c k e in his work SystematischeUebersicht der Cerealien und monocarpischen Leguminosen (1873) describes var.erythrospermum Botsamiga Wintprlinse, -which evidently corresponds to ourvar. prostrata. However, the description of K o e r n i c k e being concise, the perfectidentity of the forms is difficult to establish.

    4

    291

    3. Seeds grey, unicoloured or with black marblepattern. Cotyledons yellow (57) var. mutabilis m.USSR: Prov. Ryazan, Kuban. Italy, Asia

    Minor, Denmark, Macedonia.

    4. Seeds yellow-green without pattern andwith dark green marble pattern. Cotyledonsyellow (58) var.Widespread form. USSR, Sardinia, Greece,

    Asia Minor, France, Germany, North Africa.

    vulgaris(Al.) m.

    C h a p t e r 7.

    Treats on the French lentil (Vicia Ervilia W i l l d.) and the'Oneflowered lentil (Vicia monanthos D e s f.).

    The first of these species has been studied with more detail.The author gives the scheme of variation of the hereditary varyingcharacters (in all 30) of V. Ervilia, as well as key to the determi-nation of its varieties. The greatest concentration of endemiccharacters and forms of V. Ervilia is found in the eastern part ofthe Mediterranean region (see map 11). In Syria, Palestine, inCyprus, partly in Asia Minor a 'special endemic group of V. Erviliahas been found (called by us mediterraneae) which in its generalhabit is the most akin to the wild growing lentil. In this regiondwarfy forms have been found, as well as black-seeded ones withlarge and with small seeds.

    The Eastern Mediterranean is the centre of origin of the cul-tivated Vicia Ervilia.

    As the distance from this region increases, the number ofcharacters and forms becomes perceptibly less. Thus, for instance,in Afghanistan but 3 varieties are grown.

    In comparing the scheme of variation of Vicia Ervilia withthat of Lens esculenta, we see that the characters of both speciesvary on the whole in the same way. Still some individual featu-res may be observed in the variation of the separate charactersof V. Ervilia. In the first place, the range of variation of thisspecies is much narrower. Difference with regard to the size ofpods and seeds is 3 times in Lens esculenta, and reaches 6 mm,while in V. Ervilia it is but l'/

    s2 times (3 mm). Fo differences

    have been found with regard to the pubescence of the plants, thelength of the calyx-teeth, shattering, etc.

    19*

  • 292

    General scheme of the variation of Vicia Ervilia Willd.

    Hereditary varying features. Character of features.

    I. F l o w e r c h a r a c t e r s .

    1. Colour of corolla

    2. Dimensions of flower

    3. Colour of pedicel

    4. Number of flowers on pe-duncle

    5. Length of awn of peduncle

    a. yellowish: 1) standard without veins(Asia Minor, Syria), 2) standard withviolet veins (Afghanistan)

    b. reddish-violet

    a. large (length 810 mm)b. small (length 78 mm)a. greenb. purplea. 12 (Syria, Palestine, Cyprus)b. 24a. longb. short

    II. P o d c h a r a c t e r s .

    6. Dimensions of pod

    7. Colour of immature pod

    8. Colour of mature pod

    9. Number of seeds per pod

    a. large (length 21 25 mm, width56 mm)

    h. small (length 17 21 mm, width45,5 mm)

    a. greenb. purple (Syria, Palestine)a. straw-colouredb. brown (Syria, Palestine)a. 34b. 45

    III. Seed c h a r a c t e r s .

    10. Shape of seeds

    11. Size of seeds

    12. Weight of 1000 seeds

    13. Colour of seeds

    a. spherical (Afghanistan: Vazirabad)b. triangular (pyramidal)a. large (greatest diameter 56,5 mm)b. small (greatest diameter 3,55 mm)a. 2260 gr.b. 6075 gr.a. pinkb. grey brownd. black

    293

    Hereditary varying features. Character of features.

    14. Character of pattern

    15. Colour of pattern

    16. Colour of cotyledons

    17. Colour of hilum

    a. marbly patternb. spottiness dottinessd. complex pattern (combination of

    a, b, c)a. brownb. purple black

    a. yellowb. bright-orange (red) light-orange (piiik)a. light-brownb. dark-brown

    IV. V e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s .

    18. Colour of seedlings

    19. Shape of leaflets

    20. Size of leaflets

    21. Number of pairs of leaflets

    22. Colour of plant

    23. Height of plant

    24. Colour of stem

    25. Thickness of stem

    26. Branching

    27. Habit of young plant

    green (Syria, island Ehodos)purple

    ovallinear

    largesmall

    612 (Syria, Palestine, Cyprus)1117 (Italy, Algeria, Tunis. Bul-garia)light-green (yellow-green)dark-green (Syria, Palestine, Cyprus)

    tallmediumdwarfy

    greenpurple

    thick (2,54 mm)thin (22,5 mm)forms profusely branched (7 10and more)forms scantily branched (47)erectsemi-prostrate (Zarafshan)prostrate (Palestine, Tunis)

  • 296 -

    as well as in Mediterranean countries: Asia Minor, island Rhodos,Algeria, Tunis, Italy, Malta, Spain. In Western Europe: Bulgaria,Czechoslovakia, Germany, France

    grex exparsae m.1. Seeds orbicular, yellowish-pink, unicoloured.

    Cotyledons orange (11) var. globulosa m.Afghanistan (Vazirabad). Collected by N. I.Y a v 1 v.

    2. Seeds of usual shape: triangular-pyramidal.a) Seeds greyish-pink, unicoloured or

    with scarcely perceptible grey spots.Hilum brown.

    Cotyledons from bright-orange to light-orange.

    f Seeds very small (greatest diameter44,5 mm) (12) var. minima m.

    The Crimea, valley of Baidary. As admix-ture to crops of common lentil. Collectedby H. B a r u l i n a.

    ff Greatest diameter of seeds 4,56,5 mm.Hilum brown (13) var. intermedia m.

    Along with var. vulgaris, this is one ofthe most widespread varieties of theworld. Asia Minor, Spain, Italy, Greece,Algeria, Tunis, Afghanistan, Persia,Uzbekistan (distr. Fergana), Azerbaijan,Georgia, Armenia, Daghestan.a) Seeds with brown, uniform (blending)

    marble pattern. Sometimes some of theseeds show an addition greyish spots.Ground greyish-pink . . . . (14) var. punctidata

    Georgia, Armenia. A b e s s.b) Seeds with dark brown (or black) spots

    near the hilum . . . . . . . (15) var. maculata m.c) Seeds with minute black (purple)

    dots (16) var. atropun-Asia Minor, Daghestan. data m.d) Seeds with compound pattern: small

    uniform, brown marble pattern andblack spots near the hilum. Groundgreyish-pink (17) var. georgica

    Ab ess.Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Algeria,Germany, Czechoslovakia.e) Seeds grey (smoke-coloured), colour

    varies from light grey (light bluish)to dark grey (18) var. cinerea m.

    Spain, Creta, Asia Minor.

    297

    f) Seeds black, hilum white. Cotyledonslight orange (19) var.

    Georgia, Daghestan. Cotyledons yellow. Seeds grej-ish-pink,

    unicoloured or with scarcely percep-tible grey spots (20) var.

    Most widespread form. Afghanistan, Spain,Italy, Greece, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, AsiaMinor, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France.Germany.

    nigraA b e s s.

    vulgarisKrn .

    C h a p t e r 8.The lentil of USSR.

    Lens esculenta is grown all over USSR, while Vicia monanthosis entirely missing. The cultivation of Vicia Ervilia is of importanceonly in the Caucasus.

    The lentil grown in the European part of the Soviet Union,as well as in Siberia, shows no great diversity. The large-seededlentil in all probability has been introduced into our country fromthe "West, the small-seeded one being adventive from the East.To the large-seeded group belong forms being of importance forexport. The small-seeded forms are used for forage.

    The centre of the large-seeded lentil are the provincesadjoining the middle course of the Volga, and the Ukraine. Thesmall-seeded lentil gravitates towards the North and East of USSR.

    For the territory of proper Russia, the Ukraine, the Tartarian,Tchuvashian, Crimean Republics, Siberiawe have established 10varieties: var. nummularia, Pulmanii, italica, iberica, subnummularia,dupyensis, vulgaris, pseudomarmorata, mutabilis, varidbilis.

    Only during the very last times the Russian experimentstations have begin to devote their attention to lentil breeding.Smoke-coloured = Dymchataya lentil has been bred by I. A. P u 1-m a n in prov. Kursk.

    The Institute of Applied Botany is engaged in the propaga-tion and testing of the practically most interesting lentil varietiesof different geographical origin.

    The lentil of the Transcaucasian Republics: Georgia, Armenia,Azerbaijan has much in common with that of the neighbouringcountries of South - Western and Western Asia. It embracesmoreover a considerable number of endemic elements. All Trans-caucasian Republics grow almost exclusively small-seeded lentils.

    Valuable practical properties of the Transcaucasian lentilsare their earliness, drought-resistanse and the high cookingproperties of their seeds.

    The varietal and racial diversity of the lentils of the Middle-Asiatic Republics: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Tajik Republicis similar to that of the nieghbouring countries, especially Persia.Almost exclusivelv small-seeded lentils are grown in Turkestan.

  • 314

    12-.

    221 221 222 223

    13-. (Lens

    esculenta) 224 224 224 L. esculenta . . . . 227 . . . . 230 .- . . 231 231 231

    14-.- , ( ).

    . 235, 234 236 244

    15-.

    Lens esculenta . . 248 248 249 249 254 , t 255 256 260 " 265 I. II 305 . . 307 309

    C O N T E N T S .Page

    Introduction 1

    C h a p t e r 1.

    The history of lentil cultivation 5Data on the cultivation of lentil in historical times 5Occurrence of lentil in preliistorical times Data of linguistic 8M o d e r n n a m e s of t h e c o m m o n l e n t i ] 8

    C h a p t e r 2.

    Geography of the lentil and the limits of its cultivation 11Countries growing Lens esculenta Countries growing Yicia Ervilia and Y, vionanihos 11World statistics of lentil cultivation , E e g i o n of c u l t i v a t i o n of t h e c o m m o n l e n t i l ' i n T J S S B . . 14Acreage under lentil in the South-East of European USSR. 15Acreage under lentil in the Ukraine 15Acreage under lentil in other lentil growing regions of USSR 16A c r e a g e a n d y i e l d of l e n t i l i n U S S R b e f o r e a n d a f t e r

    t i e w a r 16Acreage and yie]d of lentil iv. Sussia in 1913 16Acreage under lentil in European USSR in 1926 20S t a t i s t i c s of l e n t i l c u l t i v a t i o n i n d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s . 21Acreage and yield of lentil in Egypt 21Acreage under lentil in Spain. 21Acreage under lentil in Greece 23Yield of lentil in Palestine 24Statistics of lentil in other countries , 24I m p o r t a n d e s p o r t 25Countries exporting lentil. Export of Russian lentil 25Export of common lentil from Spain 26Import and export of lentil in Egypt 26Countries importing lentil 27L i m i t s of l e n t i l c u l t i v a t i o n 27Latitudinal limit? of cultivation 27Vertical limits of the cultivation of Lens esculenia -.-, 30Limits of the cultivation of Ticia Ervilia 30

    C h a p t e r s .

    Chemical compos i t ion a n d cooking propert ies of l e n t i l seeds . . 33Utilization of the lentil in different countries 33Chemical .composition of ih-; lentil 33Cooking properties of lest-: =--

  • - 316 317

    C h a p t e r 4.

    T h e g e n u s Lens: i t s h i s t o r y a n d g e o g r a p h y 39Species of cultivated lentil . . " " . . . , . 39The history of the genus Lens in literature 39The position of the genus Lens in the trilras Vicieae. Its differences from other

    genera. 40General description of the genus Ticia L 42General description of the genus Lens ( T o u m e f . ) A d a n s 42G e o g r a p h i c a l d i s t r i b u t i o n of t h e g e n u s Lens . 43The general area of the genus Lens and the distribution of its species . . . . 43The ecology of the species of the genus Lens 47D e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s p e c i e s of t h e g e n u s Lens. 48Lens Lenticula (S h r e b.) A 1 e f. 48Lens nigricans (M. B.) G d r ' 50Lens Kotschyana ( s s.) A1 e f. . . 53Lens orientalis ( s s.) a n d. - a z z 54Lens esculenta M h 59

    C h a p t e r 5.

    Sys tem of h e r e d i t a r y var ia t ion of t h e lent i l (Lens esculenta) a n ddescription of separate charac ter s 62

    Material and methods. G2General scheme of hereditary variation of the species Lens esculenta M e n h. ioD e s c r i p t i o n of c h a r a c t e r s of Lens esculenia 68Characters of flower 68Colour of corolla. 68Size of flower 70Size of calyx-teeth 71Number of flowers on ^peduncle 72Characters of pod 72Size of pod 72Form of surface of pod (thickness of pod) . . * . . ! 72Shape of pod (outline) 76Colour of pod 77Pehiseence of pod 77diameters of seeds 78Size of seeds 78Shape of seeds (thickness) * 78Surface of seeds 79Colour of seeds ' . . , ' . 81Pattern of seeds , "85-Colour of cotyledons . .' . .' ' 89Productivity. ''.'8'Vegetative characters 91Colour of seedlings 91Colour of plant. , 91Pubescence of plant . 91Size of leaflets '. 94Shape of leaflets , . 95Number of pairs of leaflets / 9 5Length of tendrils - 9 5Habit of growth 98Types of branching. ' .' 99Branchiness 103Height of plants 105Physiological characters 105Vegetation period 105Investigation of some quantitative character? 112Biology of the lentil 117

    tp&

    Germination - Germination power of the seed? . . .BranchingFlowering and fruit formation . . .Pollination. .Cytological investigation of the lentilRoot system of the lenti l .

    4 . . . . .

    Page117119119119I 2 0122122

    ," C h a p t e r 6. ,

    Classif ication of Lens esculenta. K e y t o var iet ies. . 123Short survey of the systematic study of the lentil 123Classification of the common lentil 124Principal systematic units . . ~ I 2 *Subspecies. V . . - - - - . . . " ' 124Geographical groups of varieties 127Description of geographical groups . ' 128Varieties . . . _ . . .. . . - 130Elementary speciesjordanons 130Ecotypes. 130Geographk and non-geograpbical characters 131Systematic value of the characters 132K e y t o t h e v a r i e t i e s of Lens esculenta M o e n c h 134

    - Chapter- 7.

    Other species of cultivated lentil. . 1*2F r e n c h l e n t i l Vieia Ervia W 11 d. 142Short history of its generic and specific name 142Description of wild growing V. Ervia 143General description of cultivated V. Ervilia *. . . . 145Modem names 01 . Ervia I 4 6Region of cultivation of V. Ervilia 146Utilization of T. Ervia lfsMaterial and scheme of variation 150Classification of V. Ervia 159K e y t4) t h e v a r i e t i e s of Ye Ervilia 164H i s t o r y of c u l t i v a t i o n and o r i g i n of Tr. Ervilia 164O n e f l w e r e d l e n t i l Vicia monanthos Desf. .* . . 164Modern names . . . ' . - . ;* 167Description . . , . . . . ' : - I 6 ?Geographical distribution and origin 168

    Chapter 8. -

    The lenti l of USSR. Geography of the lentil forms in European USSR. 170Botanical diversity of the lentil in European USSR and in Siberia. 172Practical work with the lentil conducted by the experimental institutions of

    USSR. . . . v . . . V . . - ..-- . . . . . . . 173The lentil of the Daghestan SSR . . - 181T h e l e n t i l of t h e T r a n s c a u c a s i a n R e p u b l i c s 182The lentil of Azerbaijan . 1S3The lentil of Armenia ; I s 4The lentil of Georgia. . . . 185T h e l e n t i l of t h e M i d d l e A s i a t i c R e p u b l i c s 1S5

  • 318

    C h a p t e r 9.

    T h e l e n t i l o f A s i a 187T h e l e n t i l o f I n d i a 187T h e reg ion of its cu l t iva t ion , 187Botanica l d ivers i ty of t h e I n d i a n l e n t i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188Description of the Indian lentil 189The lentil in Mongolia, China. 190The lentil of Afghanistan. r 1 9The lentil of Persia . . . . . . . . 191T h e l e n t i l of S y r i a a n d P a l e s t i n e . . . 193Vicia Ervilia of Syria and Palestine 194T h e l e n t i l of A s i a M i n o r " " . . . . " 196The common lentil - 1 9 < >Varietal diversity . 196Vicia Ervilia of Asia Minor 200

    Chapter 10. *

    The lentil of Africa 202T h e l e n t i l o f A b y s s i n i a a n d E r i t r e a . . . . . . . : - . . . . . 202Util izat ion of the lent i l .' . \ . - - 202Region of distr ibut ion and ver t ica l l imi t s of cul t ivat ion. 202Botanica l descript ion of t h e Abyssinian lent i l . . . . . . .. . . . . . . 202Orig in of t h e Abyssinian lent i l . . . . . . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . . 205N o r t h e r n A f r i c a . . . . . . . . . . . - . . 206Morocco . . . . . . . . . . . 206Alger ia . . . 207Tunis ia 208Tripol i tania , Cirenaica 208E g y p t . . . . . . V . 208

    Chapter 11. _,

    T h e l e n t i l of E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a 209T h e l e n t i l o f t h e M e d i t e r r a n - e a n c o u n t r i e s of E u r o p e :

    of the Iberian peninsula (Spain, Portugal), of Italy, Greece and theislands of the Mediterranean (Sardinia, Sicily, Malta, Creta, Cyprus) . . 209

    Spain and Portugal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' . . ..-,- 209Lens esculenta of Spain and Portugal : . . . - - - 210Vina Ervilia of Spain . . . . . - . . - . - - 213Vicia monanthos of Spain and P o r t u g a l 213Italy, Sardinia, Sicily . - - - 2 1 *Common lentil of Greece, Creta. - . . . . . - . . . - - 216V. Ervilia of Cyprus, Creta and Greece . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - 216T h e l e n t i l i n t h e c o u n t r i e s o f C e n t r a l a n d W e s t e r n

    Europe 217The lentil of America . . 219The lentil in the United States, in Mexico and Columbia - 219The lentil in Chile. -..-- - 219The botanical diversity of the American lentil . . . . . . 220

    Chapter 12.

    Ectypes of the lenti lEarlinessBranchinessHeight of plants. . . . .

    222223

    319

    Chapter 13.The chief centres of origin of the common lentil (Lens esculenta). 224Literary data 224Geographical distribution of the lentil forms 224Principal centre of origin of Lens esculenta 227Secondary centres of origin of the lentiL 230Eegions of adventive cultivation of the lentil. . . . , . . . 231Data of botanical geography 231General conclusions 231

    C h a p t e r 14.

    On the vetch as a weed in lentils (mimicry la plants). Diseasesand pests of the lentil 233

    Vetch a v eed in peas 234Flat-seeded vetch a weed in lentil 236T h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t d i s e a s e s and p e s t s of t h e l e n t i l . . 244

    Chapter 15.

    Anatomy of the lentil (Lens escnlenta) 248Material and methods 248Anatomy of the root of the lentil . . . . . . . : 249Anatomy of the stem. . 249Anatomy of the leaf 254Anatomy of the fruit. 255Anatomy of the seeds 256Bibliography 260Summary 265Explanation of plates I, II and III 305List of drawings . 307List of maps 309

  • 1.

    .

    , -

    -

    , -

    .

    0 , -

    '). - , , , -

    . , ,

    .

    , -

    , -.

    - -

    .

    .

    S c h w e i n f u r t h , -

    XI . , . ,

    ,

    ;

    . ( P l i n i u s , Nat. hist. XVIII, 31) , ,

    , . -

    ; -

    ( V i r g i l i us, Georgica I, 228), - : , -

    1912.') De C a n d o l l e , A. L'origine des plantes cultivees. (1882). 5-me ed. Paris. , .

    , . . 1872.S c h b e i e r , F. . Viridarium Norvegicum. . II. Christiania. 1888. u 11 , a If u r J o h n . The Plants of the Bible. London. 1866.B u s c h a n , G. Vorgeschichtliche Botanik der Cultur - und Nutzpflanzen der

    alten Welt auf Grund prhistorischer Funde. Breslau. 1895.H o o p s , J o h a n n e s . Waldbume und Kulturpflanzen im germanischen Alter-

    turn. Strassburg. 1905.S c h w e i n f u r t h . Neue Beitrge zur Flora des alten Aegyptens. Ber.

    d. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. I. 1883.W o e n i g , Fr. Die Pflanzen im alten Aegypten. Leipzig. 1886.

  • 6

    , 120.000 . ,

    : , , XII (2.4002.220 . ) .

    ,

    . -

    3 A d a s c h u m A d a s h i m, -

    -

    -

    d a s .

    ,

    , -

    ,

    -

    -

    ,

    (. 1).

    , -

    , ,

    (. ,17,28);

    . 1. (Hebron). - . ,

    .

    . . . .

    Fig. I. Palestine (Hebron). Ancient cemetery nearAbraham's tomb, where Esau sold his birthright to

    Jacob for a mess of pottage made of lentils.Phot, of N. I. Va v i l o v.

    -

    , ,

    (, 4, 9). -

    , Sch I iem a n n'y,

    ( H o o p s , 1. , . 327). ( T h e o p h r a s t o s , Hist, plant. II. 4, 2),

    ( D i o s c o r i d e s , De med. mat. II, 129) , , .

    -

    ,

    . V-ro - ( ) . - .

    ; ,

    Reva-lentn arabica", .

    L e n -t u 1 , - .

    L e n t i s , L e n s (- ) , - ( ) , , , L i n s e , 1 n s z s, , , 1 n s s . . - , , -

    , Faba, Pisum, Cicer. , , -

    '). - ( I u m e 11 a, De re rustica *).

    -

    , . -

    ,

    , .

    -

    , , ,

    Lent" ).

    .

    , - 15- . , -

    . "

    4).

    - ,

    ."

    Bielersee, Lscherz, (Monte Loffa), (Butmir), -

    (Schussenried), (Aggtelek, Lengyel, Fels-Dobsza,Ripac), . ( ).

    (Petersinsel), (Mistelbach), (Bourget), . (Heraclea) [(Dra - Abu - Negga) ].

    : Brandenburg(Niemitzsch, Guben), (Lutzmannstein), (Karhof), (Steinburg)* (Striegau), (Haute-Loire); (Baden, Buchs) - (Bor, Pacengo, Aquileja).

    :').

    ') H e e r , O s w a l d . Die Pflanzen der Pfahlbauten. Zrich. 1865.'-') 1 u m e 11 e, De l'economie rurale. Tradtiit par M. Louis du Bois. T. prem.

    Liv. II, p. 159. Paris. 1844.:1) H u t t o n , B. J., l.-c.*) , . . . 1866, . 612.') H e e r , ., 1. ; u s h , 1. ; H o o p s , 1. .P a x , F. Schlesiens Pflanzenwelt. Jena. 1925.H e g i , G. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. B. IV. T. 3. Mnchen. 1925.N e u w e i l e r , E. Die prhistorischen Pflanzenreste Mitteleuropas mit beson-

    derer Bercksichtigung der schweizerischen Funde. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturfor-schenden Gesellschaft in Zrich. 1905.

  • 10

    (), (). (, , ) (); ; (, , , . ); m a s u ; () , b e r s e m .

    d i e g e m e i n e L i n s e ,L i n s e n e r v e , P f e n n i g l i n s e , S a a t l i n s e , L i n s e n k i e c k e r ^P 1 a 111 n s e; l e n t i l l e c u l t i v e e , l e n t i l l o n ,n a n t 11 e; L e n t i l , l e n t i l s ; l i n z e ; 1 n t h a, l e n t ; L e n-t e j a s , L e n t i l h a s . 3. n e i n t i l la , n a n t i l l a .

    2.

    .

    , - . -Ba

    escuientanS , , ,, , , -, -

    , , , , , , -

    ( -, , ), . , . .

    : , . , ,, . , ,

    ; . . , , , -

    , . ; -. -

    , , , , -

    , (), , , ,, ( 2).

    -

    , - ,

    Vkia , -miJiiTthos?* .

    , . , . , , , -

    , . , , , .

    -

    .

    , ,

    .

    -

    0 - .

    ') Annuaire Internationa] de Statistique Agricole. Rome (Institut InternationaltTArteulture). 1909-1921, 1925, 1926.

  • !') , ,

    > (5740')

    ; 926 . 2352' . .)

    -

    , -

    . . (-

    -

    -

    ,

    { .) : , 1926 . ->. -

    .

    -

    -

    -

    .

    -

    100 . (.

    (3.000 .). 2.080 .

    2.000 .

    -

    , ,

    5). -

    5. (Vicia ErviliaW i l l d.) .

    Map 5. The Northern limit of maturation of the French lentil according to thegeographical experiments conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany.

  • L. esculen

    -: (.

    ,

    .

    ;

    ; ; ,

    1,'

    {-*

    ,

    . Kau

    -

    ,

    ),

    -

    :

    ,

    -

    <

    {:

  • fr-"

    ; > D

    14 11dHK K E . . . ! d

    r n line of POSSIBLE l e n t i lipn (Ltn', Tscultnt Hoench)

    2. ( ).Map 2. Kegions of cultivation of the common lentil (scheme).

  • 145

    tot*.

    - --;: _,. .-, .: .;.. ,'. II

    . \ . , -. ,

    , , - -

    . 7 , 4.8 . . " , -

    . . ,

    .

    , , . -

    ( -=:2.3 , =2.83.-1 ),-, --

    - -

    .

    (. 29 30). -

    . , -

    , . , , , -

    , .. 30. Tina Ervilia Will d.,

    ( ).1 : 2: 3:4; 5

    (t-5X

  • ^t -v 4

    Vicia Ervilia ,." - -

    B H U eg , - v. c-rvi ia.

    . ,

    V. Ervilia, :Kovi, ( .

    ar gor vi).() (kirsenneh), , . , () . , .

    , , ( ) (- , }.

    , (., . .). .

    () , . (. ), -

    ., , , ,

    , .

    ( ).M o c o p i c o l o , ervo, l e r o , z i r lo , mochi, c a p o g i r l o ,

    v e c c i o l i .Jeros. E r v i l i e , E r v e n l i n s e , k l e i n e

    Erve, E r v e n w i c k e , S t e i n W i c k l i n s e , S t e i n l i n s e .Erve, "Wicklinse, L i n s e n w i c k e .

    ers, e r v i l i e r, l e n t i l l e b t a r d e .v e s c e e r v i l i e r e , e r v i l i e r c u l t i v e .

    F r e n c h L e n t i l s , b l a c k b i t t e r v e t c h . -

    : , -|" , . , . , . , ,

    , , . -

    , , -

    -, . , -

    : , ( , '), , -, , -, , , , .

    , : , ,' (, -, ^

    2). -

    , . . u s h 1 5) , ,

    k u r s e n e .

    ') H e s i , 1. .C o s t e . H. Flore de la France. . I. Paris. 1901. hen ba e li. 1903.-) , .

    .

    .. . . 1261S27'.3) Mucl ; le r , . A Manual FJorr, of Etrypt. Berlin. 1^ 12. p. 543.

    m ^?

    10*

  • 149

    3 - -;;: : -. : . . : : : ' -:--::? :* . py;sii^ _. v/;^;^::.. . ' ;_;:,;.;, : , -

    , ; , -

    .'). - , , .

    ,

    -). , V. Ervilia

    .

    ,,

    (, ), (, .).

    \/. Ervilia , , -V. Erviiia.

    B O e ,

    .

    ; L. esculenta, - "). , - :

    . 40. X V. Ervilia W 11 d.

    .

    .

    .

    =

    2

    16.4 ! 11.60

    35.3G j 7.1013.5 17.11

    I ri

    9.706.34

    16.11

    a, .a s

    2.301.231.24

    E S t

    47.20 ;' 10.7033.78 37.02

    60.47 4.98

    5.605.212.70

    :

    =: 48.63 = 22.40 = 64.40

    ') & , . . . . . . . , . . . V. 1926.

    . *. . . . . . .. S. 1820.

    s a d z e. G. I. A Srady of Ervum Ervilia L.tugreheliin Georgia.Tiflis. 1928. ' .

    " ( , H. H. . :926 . . . . XVII. 4. 1927.

    :'\ 3?( (. . . 37).

    . 11. Vicia Ervilia 11 d. V. monanthos D e s f.').

    ( 1928 . .).

    346

    194

    27

    45G

    1095

    -

    .

    ". Erviliavar. coeru-

    lescensatropunctata

    nigra

    . monanthos

    -

    .

    . . .

    . . .

    . .

    . .

    % - :

    ^& . 1

    X

    ^

    9.442.70

    9.28 3.239.40:2.86

    5 S-

    >

    3.35|0.99!.86

    3.56 0.78 4.08 25.50 67.46 4.743.73 0.93 4.36 27.24 65.77 4.55

    9.06 3.37! 3.740.909.0 4.263.460.87

    4.4727.93 64.06 3.384.88 30.50 60.92 4.30

    I !

    V. Ervilia ., , , -

    . .

    , .

    .

    , ,

    -). . . , () V. Ervilia, - jraM , . V."Ervilia -; , , , -

    ^ ' . . , -

    " : .

    () , ", : -, ( ). ()V. Ervilia , , .

    ,

    3 ). , ,

    ., . , -

    ) . - ft.

    s) van, W. Notes on Agriculture in Cyprus and its Produc3) P i e t f rs. A. GreeE Majiurinii. -vr Jerk. 1927. p. 224.duers. 1919.

  • 150

    ). , . MVKH ( V. Ervilia ). ,

    , . ^

    2). -, , *) , .

    ,

    : , . *). - /, .

    . . , -

    -

    . -

    56 - ,

    . , '

    .

    (Semina Ervi).V. Ervilia ;

    , -

    , , -

    . .

    , *

    .

    V. Ervilia *). V. Ervilia .

    '

    (. 10) . () - , -

    , . . . ." -

    , -

    .

    .

    -

    .

    .

    ') , . . , . . . .. 1929.

    2) . . .5) , . .. 1. I' ? ? d z . 1. ."} G s f. . Beselirijvjg der giftige en bewelmeude planten bij oe

    v;u!irst in gpl.Tuik. Batavia. 1918, p. 7S.

  • 152

    > s ? -'." Ervilia T T i i l d . , .

    .

    .

    -. .

    2 I

    .

    . . . . .

    26 I

    .

    .

    . . : . .

    . . .

    - . . . .

    .

    15 "

    Vicia Ervilia W 1 ? .

    .

    .

    I. .

    1.

    2.

    3.

    .

    1) oes (. , )2)

    (). . -

    a. ( 810 )b. ( 7S )a. b.

    4. . 12 (, , . ). 24

    5. a. b.

    . .

    .

    7.

    S.

    9.

    a. ( 2125 , 5G )

    b. ( 1721 . 45.5 )

    a. b. (. )]a. - {b. (, ) |. 34. 45

    III. .

    10.

    11.

    12, ( 1000)

    a. ( - - [)

    b.

    a. ( :56.5 )

    b. ( .5 *

    a. 22GO .b. 607) .

    h

    ft

    ?

  • 154

    so: .

    .

    15.

    14.

    15.

    16.

    17.

    a. b. c. d. a. b. c. d. (

    , , ).a. b. ()c. a. b. - ()c. -

    a. -b. -

    IV.

    18.

    19.

    20.

    21.

    22.

    25.

    24.

    25.

    .

    a. (, . )b. a. b. a. b. . 612 (, ,

    . ) '

    - " 1 7 (, , )

    . - (-). - (.

    . .)a. b.

    _.

    a. b. a. (2.54 )b. (22.5 )

    26.

    27.

    28.

    29.1)2)

    30.

    1)

    :.

    .{: .

    . - (710 )

    . - (47).

    . (). (. ).

    . .

    -

    .

    {-siphe communis G ).

    2) (Eruchu* nhci^ u 1 s. & )

    .

    1). 08

    . 2050 . 50100 . 1.55 .. 510 .

    .

    .

    ^ ,

    .

    V, Emilia . , .

    , L. esciilenta - 3 6 , V. Ervilia /22 (3 ). - , ,

    . .

    , V. Ervilia - -

    . , ,. , . ,

    , , -

    , ,.

    , ( *) , - .

    . V. Ervilia, L. esculenta, - (aurantiae) (jlava) -. .

  • . 31. Vicia Ervilia W i l l d. . -V

    s.

    . . . .

    Fig. 31. Ticia Ervilia Wi l -Id . Branch of the Frenchlentil of Syria. 2/?-

    Drawn by A. M. S h e p e 1 a.

    PEC. 32. Tioia Ervilia W 11 d. . variegata . , . .17 */ ( 8); S 4; *>

    10 X!:,: 11 4/3-. . . .

    Fig. S2. Ticia En-ilia W 1 d. . variegata m., Cyprus.17ar;:J.-i? of the flower x!.k ("X8):8pod X4

    3: 9seeds X8/s :i

  • . 34. Vicia Ervilia W 11 d. var. intermedia . . . 2/.. . . .

    Fig. 34. Ticia Ervilia W 11 d. rar. intermedia .. Georgia. -/5.Drawu " . . S h e p d e r a .

    :,c:-... -:^ ....... .. , . Ervilia :\:.:.:: - (- luteu). - -

    . - -

    ,

    . 35. Vicia Enrilia W 11 d. 8 . 3/s #

    . . . .

    Pig. 35. Vicia Ervilia Wi l ld . Branch of French lentil from Bulgaria. 2/8.l- Drawn A. 31. Sh e pel era.

    . ,

    .

    , -

    */# ^

    rv^

    a B -

    . (1. .) 3 -:

    1. vulgaris (gemeine Ervenlinse) subvar. macfosperma (gros-samige Ervenlinse) -

    2. punctata (punktierte Erven linse)3. pygmaea {Zwerg-Ervenlinse ').

    T c l i i b a t s h e f f (Asie Mineure) M. (Pbrygib) var. minut

  • 260

    o r r e r y " " - - ' : . - ' : " ;-- . v ..- :;:-

    (I. .) -.

    , V. Ervilia - , -

    , Lensesculenta. - (subspecies). - , -

    . 36. ri!tlia W i l l d , rar. intermadiu ., .17 X 8/

    s; 8 4/? 9. X 8/> 1-

    X */3; X Vs-. . . .

    Fig. SS. Ticia Ervilia WilJd. var. intermedia .. Georgia.17analysis _: zht flower x s/

    s (7XS); 8

  • e) : - ,

    (6) var. variegata m., , . . . . . .

    f) (), - () -

    (7) var. coerulescens m., . , , . , .

    g) , (8) var. melanosperma m.

    . (. , , - -}. . . - .

    .a) -, -

    (9) var. bicolor m., . , , . . ,

    .

    b) , -

    (10) var. cypria .0. . . . .

    . , -

    ( 1925 , 45.5 ). 4.55 . . 1000 2565 . (7.510 ), , , 24 . ( 12.517 , 35 ). 11 17. -, (2560 ).

    ; , ,

    , . -

    - : ,, , (, , ),; : . , . ,, }, , . , , ,-, ,

    grex exparsae m.

    1. , -, . - . *

    (11) var. globulosa m. (). . . *.2. , -.

    - - (-).

    , '-;:'.'- : : : : : . : - - - : " - -

    . ,: Gv-.

    -f ( 44.5 ).(12) var. minima m.

    ( ). . . . .

    - 4- 4.56.5 (13) var. intermedium.

    . vulgaris, . . , . , . , , , ,

    , , , , , , , ,

    , , .

    b) (), . ' , ,

    . -

    (14) var. punctulata Abess ., .

    c) - ( )

    (15) var. maculata m., . , , .

    d) () (16) var. atropunctata m.

    (), . , , ( ), (. .), .

    e) : - , , -

    . -

    (17) var. georgica A b e s /, , , .

    I) (), - () -

    (18) var. einerea m., , 31. . .

    g) , . -- ()

    (19) var. jiigra A b e s s ., .

    11*

  • 164

    ) -, -;-

    (20) . vulgaris ( K r n . ) m. . , , , -

    , , , . , , , , . ,

    , -, , .

    V. Ervilia.

    .

    . , -

    , , . ,

    -

    ,

    . V. Ervilia

    1). - pcc^, -Ervum; . - .

    D e C a n d o l l e V. Ervilia , .

    -

    , ,

    . , . ,

    , . -

    .

    V. Ervilia, - , habitus'y - . -

    , --

    - .

    , -

    . , - , ,

    , V. Ervilia - ( ). -

    Vicia monanthos3) Desf.Fi. Atlant., II. 1800, p. 165. Rouy & F o u c a u d FI. France

    V. 1899. p. 2 4 1 B e c k in R c h b . Ic. XXII. 1903, p. 201. t. 263.fig. I. II. 1 7. N y m a n Consp. Fl. Eur. 1878-82, p. 208;Suppl. II. 1889, p. 103, Arcang. Compen. Pl. ital. 1882, p. 205.

    Ervum monanthos L. Sp. Plant, ed. 1., 1753, p. 738. DC. Prodr. II. 1825,p. 367. Koch Syn. I. ed. 3, 1892, p. 684.

    Lens monanihos To u r n . Inst.. p. 390. Mnch, Meth., 1794, p. 131.Laihyrus monanthos W i l l d . Spec. Pl. III. 1800, p. 10S3.') W i t t mack. Sitnmgsber. d. bot. Yereins zu Brandenburg. 19 Dec. 1879.2j V. monantha ,' -

    , t z i u s : . r.'.vncrntha (-Y. calcaraia).

  • \j - >~| **

    / rn 4 inefanospctnni giJvogrtse-a. titfotur in a//opit/uJ0 syruuii m X cypi-ui in

    pulacstuia m globutosa m

    3 tUJf{)ttfUU{M I7L ^ fll(I 111A vnriegcbUv in p i/uesrruutiti- rn

    0 m. /// Abcss

  • 168

    . 8 , - (27 3S :;, , ; ( )1724 , 23 . , - , , , , -

    , ,

    , . ,

    , .

    , , ,

    . .

    1014 , 78:5 . - . ,

    - .

    , . . -

    ,

    . -

    . 11 2- , . , ; . , , -

    , , 24-, --. 26 32 , 79 , - 3.23.7 . 2548. ,

    ^ . -

    5.05.8 , 2.83.4 . - ( 1000)4060 . - ( ). , , 1/10 - (. . , ). .

    V. monanthos -. 159 . - , 45 . . . -

    , ^ , -

    , . -

    , , 102 . ." , . ,

    .

    ( ) 5567 , 103112 (. 37 38).

    V. monanthos ^^^

    -

    -

    0 ,

    .

    , -

    , , . ,

    .

    . , -

    , , , , , .

    169

    . . : -~ .: 77,::;...;. _ . - . : ' ;. ), -.

    "*; , :-.. , ,

    , , , , , (- ), , -, , .

    .

    ,

    (. 39). . . ,

    1400 .( ).

    V. monanthos - -

    .

    , , -

    ,

    , -

    .

    13 - , ,

    , , .

    ; -: -, , ,

    . -

    ,

    -

    , ,

    -

    . 39. - Vicia monanthos.

    (Alcala), .. . . .

    Fig. 39. Bick of thrashed Oneflowered. A l e f e l d - lentil Vicia monanihos D e s f. Spain

    V th ^ ? T 5. A l e e os V. monanthos, ^ ? ' b y T L v 5 T l . : marmo- *

    rata AIef . nigra AIef . H. .

    , . -

    , (Avena, Vicia): - - .

    -

  • , -

    .

    2) . - , , -

    , --

    . -

    3) : , , , . , ,

    .

    ,

    , , ,

    - -

    ,

    ? , -

    ,

    (, ).

    14.

    , ( -- \ ). .' Lens esctUenta

    ,

    1). Legu-

    minosae - .

    , .

    ! Pisum, Lathyrus, Vicia, Lens,

    Cicer, Phaseolus . , - .

    -

    , ; - "" ,

    , -

    . ; . -

    , , ,

    , .

    ( .), Vicia Faba L., , -^- .

    (Lqthyrus Ochrus L.) , .

    Lathyrus Cicera L. L. sativus L. Vicia Ervilia W H Id.

    -

    " : , , (). , -

    ') . . : , 1. .

    , . . . -

    -. III . .*~'~' :. r i -.-;-s \\,.!..;.*. '?1'" " : ; , . I. Tiie L a w : H E V I L - ; . . ^ ' : - . - " : . " . . . : . . : : . - .

  • , (, ,;, , - -. 1/wva sativa Z^vts esculenta . ,

    .

    -

    ,

    , -

    ' . , ,

    , .

    Vicia sativa L. , : , , (. 61). : , , , -

    , , -

    Pisum arvense L. ('. 621,2,3 4). - : (, - .).

    -

    : , , , . - , Pisum arvense L, . , ,

    -

    '). , , , -

    Vicia sativa L., : , ,

    , , .

    , -

    , .

    , Camelina linicola ST. Z i n g er , Sper-gula linicola . , .

    " ,

    , , , -

    , ., -

    , ,

    , -

    2).

    ') , . . . . . 1924.

    2) 9 , . Camelina Spergula . . . . . . VI. . -. 1309.

    . . . -

    . . 1925. S. . . ^ . .

    :.:. . :-::. . . . . , l^fj.

  • He ^

    ? ' ) . - , ,

    , -

    .

    . , ,

    ., 80/0 , -

    . -

    . 1918 1919 . -, . -

    ,

    : , - 40% . . ^

    _

    XIX . . -" "

    2) : , '? , -

    ". . F. " W i e g n i a n n * ) 1828 ,

    .

    : /W g m a n n -,, . ' "

    W g m , Leguminosae:', , , , -

    - -.

    . G r t n e r 4 ) , 40- W;.e g m ', JW i e g ma ' . '** , , G r t n e r , W e g - 1m a n n ' a . , , G r t n e r . , H e r b e r t ' o M 1839 ., " W i e g m a n n ' a . ,

    , - \:

    . B e r g 1848 ., Ervum Lens major , , .

    !

    *) . . . . , -. ( ). III . . 1920.

    2 ) , . . . . ,1835, . 109.

    ') W i e g m a n n , . F. eber die Bastarderzeugung im Pflanzenreiche. Braun-schweig. 1828. . . .

    F o e k e , W. Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge. Berlin. 18S1.4) Grtner, S.F.Versuche und Beobachtungen ber -::? ;nr.z'~. T>*ln-zenreich. 1349.

  • , -

    ( ) , .

    G r t n e r n H e r b e r t Berg 'a . , , -

    , -

    , . , -

    , -

    - ,

    . ,

    .

    -

    .

    -

    (. 626, 10). = 6.14 , = 5.7 . = 55 ., =: 40 . , -

    -

    . , , , (-) - ,

    .

    -

    : -, , .

    , ; -

    , " (. 63).

    ,

    . -

    . -

    ;

    (. 64, 65, 66). , (. . -, " ) , , -

    .

    . .

    , ", -

    .

    , . platysperma . -,

    :

  • 240

    57, 1315. 1.42.7 . . , 1 2 . , -, , .

    21.7 23.4 ,- 14.13 15.4 . -, - (-), ^ -. 57 , ,

    , 4449 .

    -3

    . 64. Vicia sativa L. . platysperma m., . . ., . .

    17 ,* 8; 9. . ..7?, 3 .

    . . . .

    Pig. 64. Vicia sativa X. var. platysperma m.Vetch weed lentils. Pro-v. Saratov, dist. Balashor.

    17analysis of the flower; 8stlpnle; 9leaflet. All in natural size.7magnified 3.

    . '-Drawn by A. M. S h e p e l e va.

    25.428.7 10.311.7 . , -, , .

    , , , ( ), , 4.37.2 , 8.611.8 , (57), - . , ,.

    - , 6 . ?:-! , _>. .-: : . :: ....-~.-:. ' .- %'.:..:;

    . 1525; 39.5 . 1000 4055 . (. 625,6, 9, 10). _ _ _ _ _

    -

    ,

    . -

    -

    ? , -

    , ,

    ?

    ~Pac,.65.Vicia sativa L.var. platysperma m. , -

    , 5 .. .. -. . '/-

    . . . .

    Fig. 65. sativa L. var-plafyspenna m.Seedlings of the flat-seeded vetch weed

    in lentils. Fifth day.PTOV. Saratov, distr. Petrovsk. '/o-

    Drawn by A. M. S h e p e 1 e v a.

    .66. Yccia sativa L. . platysperma m., , -

    , 20 .. -, . . '/2.

    . . . .

    Eig. 66. Vicia sativa L.vax.platysperma m.Seedlings of the flat-seeded vetch weed

    in lentils.Prov. Saratov, distr. Petrovsk. '/..

    Drawn by A.. 5f. S h e p e 1 e .

    -

    , , -

    Leguminosae, , , 20- W g-mann'OM,. Grtner*OM H e r b e r t ' o M .

    , J o h a n n -sen 'a , -,

    , -

    -:-- = _ --,;::;-; :-!'-; .

    16^.

  • F r u w i r th 'a ';. ,

    . -

    , ' Vicia sativa, - . F r u w i r t h , , ,

    .

    . ,

    ( , ) Vicia sativa -).B l e i e r 3 ) , - F r u w i r t h ' a . (12) - -

    .

    . 1 , .,: , ( F r u w i r th 'a .

    ,

    , H H F T U W r t h'y, Tschermak'y. , , , , -

    , .

    , , ^

    .

    , ,

    , . -

    , , ,

    , . . . ; Camelina Spergula " *) , , , i:i29.). - -- ' ;: - -:.-.. :: ;: , --..

  • 244

    ,

    ,

    .

    .

    , , ,

    ,

    , ,

    . -

    .

    , -

    . -

    , ,

    , .

    ^ , -

    , -

    , , -

    , ,

    . '

    .

    -

    Erysiphe communis G r e v . forma .viciae, Peronospora lenti G a m a n n - Uromyces ervi W n t e . , ,

    ,

    ( ); , , .

    , -

    ,

    .

    .,

    1925 . . , ; .

    , ,

    . ,

    .

    . .

    (. . ). ' , ( ) - -

    , . .

    . ,

    , Vicia Lens. , . - , -

    , :?.;, :: --'.; r?-:>TTir:m-?CEoro .

    , -

    .

    .

    , Cuscuta europaea ssp.viciae K o c h et S h n h. ,

    1923 . . ,

    .

    -

    : , Bruchus lentis F r L(Lciria lentis r 1 h), ,, ,

    ; Br. signaticornis G y l l . {Br. pallidicornis Boh.) , , ; Br. ervi F r l. (sertatus 111.) , .

    , ,

    , .

    , ,

    , , .

    . ,

    .

    ,

    - -

    .

    , . BruchidaeCallosobruchus chinensis L. ( ). , ,

    ,

    - ,

    , , -

    , -

    .

    !). . .

    2 ) , V. Ervilia, - . . , . . . -

    , Bruchus ulicis u 1 s. & R e . , V. Ervilia (, , ,, ) . . Br. ulicis ssp. vavilovi km. ( ) .

    1) , . -. . .. . III. 5 24. 1925.

    , ., . ., , . , .

    -

    . . . .. . . III. 1. 1927.-) , . . .

    . . . . IV. 1. 1929.

  • ,

    .

    50/0. 1929 .

    , {Loxostege sticticalis L.), - V. Ervilia, V. sativu

    r

    L esculenta. , , , Lethrus apterus L t m. ,

    , .

    1926 28 . . .

    , : Sitona' crinitusHbst., Otiorrhynchus ligustici L., Cteonus piger Scop, Tanymecus palliatus F . ' ) . , - . -

    (Melanotus brunnipes G e r m . ) , .

    ,

    .

    .

    , , ; , ,

    , . -

    .

    . .

    2 ). , Etiella zinckenella Tr., , , - ( ., . . -, ) , , , ,

    ' , , .

    ; .

    1925 . , . -

    0 9/Ot 3 23/> - : , 0.3%,.0.4%; , Br&slau 0%; .3.4% ( ),8.9% ( ).

    *) .

    -) , . . EtielJa zinclmeVa Tr.. . LU 1 " .?- , ; ; ; ;*'' ' '_'?.'''-

    ,

    , , -

    , .

    .

    ,

    , .

    , ,

    , , , ,

    ,

    .

    ! : . : ; . Lar-.

  • : , . 1878. . , . 1866. . . , . . 1920. , (

    ). III -. .

    , . . 1923. - . (Triiicum vulgre var.ferrugineum A 1.). . . . . . XIII. . 1.

    , . . 1926. . . .. . . XVI. . 3.

    , . . 1926. . . .

    , . . 1928. . . . ., . . . XIX. . 2.

    , . . 1929. . - . . IV. .

    , . . 1925. -. .. . . . III. 24.

    , . . 1929. . . . . . IV. . 1.

    , . . 1920. . III . .

    , . . 1921. -. . , . . 1926. .

    . . . . . XVI. . 2. , . . , . . 1929. .

    .

    , . 19261927. . -

    . .

    , . 1872. , . .

    , . . 1926. - . . -. . . . . . V.

    , . . , . . 1929. . . .-. . . . .

    . VI. , . . , . . 1929. -

    . .

    2-. . . ., . . . XXII. . 1. , . 1927. . 10 . -

    10. , . 19271928. . . 24(89),

    JN5 6(95). , . . 1924. -

    . .

    , . . 1926. . ( - ). . . . . . IV. 4.

    , . . 1927. . . . . . . XVII. . 2.

    , . . 1926. . ..

    , . . 1929. ( 19231927 .).. . ., . . . XXI. . 1.

    , . . 1927. 1926 . . . . . . XVII. . 4.

    , . 1872. . . -. . . . .

    . 1913. , . . .

    , . 1S95. , ..

    , . . 1926. . .

    , . . 1926. . . .

    , . . 1928. . .

    , . 1927. . . , . . 1925. , Etiella zinclcenelJa .,

    . 1920 1925 ..

    , . . 1929. Gicer . ( ). . . ., . . . XXI. . 1.

    , . . ( ;. Lens orientalis . , ., , ., , . , . 1927.

    . . . . . . . III. . 1. , . . 1927. . .

    .

    , . . 1927. Yicia. . . ., . . . XVII. . .

    , . . 1930. . . .., . . . XXIII. . 4.

    . 1924. . . , . 1835. . . V. . - , . . 1926. - -

    . . . . . XVI. . 1. , . . ( ).

    .

    , . . 1926. . . Xs 4. .

    , . . 1929. . 4- ..

    , . . 1928. - ( 19232 .).. . ., . . . XIX. . 1.

    - , . . 1927. Papilio-. . . . . . II. . 6.

    , . . 1909. Camelina tfpergula . . . . VI..-.

    A b e s s a d z e , G. I. 1928. A Study of Ervuvi Ervilia L.ugreheliinGeorgia. Tiflis.

    A d a n son, M. 1763. Families des plantes. Paris. t h s n, J. E. T. The Botany of the Afghan Delimitation Commission.

    Transactions of the Linnean Society. 2 series. Vol. III. Botany. London.A 1 e f e I d, F. 1866. Landwirtschaftliche Flora. Berlin. 188894.A l e f e l d , F. 1861. Ueber Vicieen. Bonplandia. Zeit. f. d. gesammte Botanik.

    Hannover. IX Jahrgang. Mai 15. No 8 u. 9.A s c h e r s o n und G r a e b n e r. 19061910. Synopsis der mitteleuropischen

    Flora. . VI. 2. Leipzig.A z z i, Girolamo. 1928. Ecologia Agraria. Torino. a i l I o n , H. 1870. Histoire des plantes. II. Paris.B a r u l i n a , H. 1923- Essay on a systematic botanical study of tlie characters

    (Jordanons) within the limits of one group ot the soft wheat, Triticum vulgre var.ferrugtneum A 1. Bulletin of Applied Botany and PlantBreeding. Vol. XIII. 1.Leningrad. With summary in english.

    Barulina, H. 1926. Field Crops of Djavakhetia (Eastern Georgia). Bulletinof Applied Botany and Plant-Breeding. Vol. XVI. No 3. Leningrad. With summaryin english.

    B a r u l i n a , H. 1928. Lentils of Afghanistan. Bulletin of Applied Botanyand Plant-Breeding. Vol. XIX. No 2. Leningrad. With summary in english.

  • a 11 n d ^ e r et a b u t. 1888. Flore de l'Algerie. Alger.B a u h i n , Caspar. 1671. theatri botanici. Basil.B a u m g a r t e n , J. 1816. Enumeratio Stirpium in magno principatu Trans-

    siJvaniaf\ Vindobonae.B e g u i n o t , A. et D i r a t z o u y a n , P. N. 1912. Contributo alia Flora dell,

    Armenia. Venezia.B e n t h a m et H o o k e r . 186267. Genera Plantarum. Vol. I. London.B e r t o l o n i , A. 1847. Flora italica. Vol. VII. Boloniae.Be van, W. 1919. Notes on Agriculture in Cyprus and its Products.B l e i e r , H. 1928. Karyologische Untersuchungen an Linsen-Wicken-Bastarden.

    Genetica. XI. oi s s i e r , E. 1839 1845. Voyage botanique dans le Midi de l'Espagne pen-

    dant 1837. . II. Paris. s s e , . 1849. Diagnoses plantarum orientalium novarum. No 9. Pariss.B o i s s i e r , E. 1872. Flora orientalis. V. II. Genevae et Basileae.B h m e r . 1903. Die Kraftfuttermittel, ihre Rohstoffe, Herstellung, Zusammen-

    setzung, Verdaulichkeit und Verwendung mit besonderer Bercksichtigung derVerflschungen und der mikroskopischen Untersuchung. Berlin.

    B o r n m l l e r , J. 1889. Beitrag zur Flora Dalmatiens. ster. Bot. Zeitschr.XXXIX Jahrg. 9. Wien.

    Q u et, 1913. Prodrome de la Flore Corse. II.B u s c h a n , G. 1895. Vorgeschichtliche Botanik der Cultur und Nutzpflanzen

    der alten Welt auf Grund prhistorischer Funde. Breslau.C a s t a l d i , G a e t a n o . 1921. I semi delle piu comuni civaie leguminose.

    Casale Monferrato.C h i o v e n d a , E. 1912. Etiopia. Osservazioni botaniche, agrarie ed industriali

    fatte nell Abissinia Settentrionale nell'anno 1909. Roma.C h i r i t e s c u v , . 1925. The Cultivation of Leguminous Seed Crops

    in Roumania. International Review ot the Science and Practice of Agriculture. No 3.Vol. VIII. Rome.

    C o l u m e l l e .prem. Liv. II. Paris.

    s t e, H. 1201. Flore de la France. T. I. Paris.C o u t i n h o , A.X.P. 1913. A Flora de Portugal. Paris, Lisboa, Rio de Janeiro.D e C a n d o l l e , A. 1825. Memoires sur la famille des legumineuses. Paris.De C a n d o l l e , A. 1825. Prodromus systematis naturalis Regni vegetabilis.

    T. II. Parisiis.De C a n d o l l e , A. 1882. L'origine des plantes cultivees. 5-me ed. Paris.

    D e a s s, P. A. 1904. Die Landwirtschaft im heutigen Griechenland. II.

    1844. De l'economie rurale. Traduit par M. Louis du Bois. T.

    1912.

    Berlin.D o d o n e u s , R. 1583. Stirpium Historiae Pemptades. Antverpiae.D u c e l l i e r , L. 1921. Lentille en Algerie. Revue Agricole de l'Afrique du

    Nord. No 126.Du t i e , J. E. 1903. Flora of the upper Gangetic Plain and of the adjacent

    SiwaJik and Sub Himalayan Tracts. Calcutta.D u t h i e , J. E. and F u l l e r , J. B. 1883. Field and Garden Crops of the

    North-Western Provinces and Oudh. Part II. Depart, of Agric. and . N.-W.1'rov. and Ondh.

    E g. 1927. A second Contribution to the knowledge of the Flora of Palestine.Bull. 6.

    E n g e l b r e c h t , Th. H. 1928. Die Feldfrchte des Deutschen Reichs. 1 Teil.Berlin.

    E n g e l b r e c h t , Th. H. 1899. Die Landbauzonen der aussertropischen Lnder. ITeil. Berlin.

    E n g l e r u. P r a n t l . 1894. Natrliche Pflanzenfamilien.E n g l e r , A. 1924. Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien. Berlin.E n g l e r , A. und D r u d e , 0. 1909. Die Vegetation der Erde- Leipzig.F i o r i , A. 1925. Nuova Flora analitica d'Italia. V. I. Fase. 6. Firenze.F o c k e , W. 1981. Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge. Berlin.. F r u w i r t h . 1915. Versuche zur Wirkung der Auslese. Zeitschr. f. Pflan-

    zenz. B. Ill, H. 2.F r u w i r t h , C. 1918. Landwirtschaftlich wichtige Hlsenfruchter. 1. Heft.

    Berlin.

    F r u w i r t h , 191!.. Landwirtschaftlich wichtige Hlsenfruchter. 2 HeftBerlin.F r u w i r t h , C. 1922. Handbuch des Hlsenfruchterbaues. Berlin.F r u w i r t h , 1923. Eine auffallende Linsenwickenbastardierung. Genetica.Bd. V.

    G r t n e r , S. F. 1849. Versuche und Beobachtungen ber die Bastarder-zeugung im Pflanzenreich.

    G i a r d i n e l l i , Giulia. 1911. Sul valore sistematico del tegumento seminaledelle Vicieae (D.C.) italiane. Torino.

    G r e n e r, M. et G d n, M. 1848. Flore de France. Paris.G r e s h o f f , M. 1913. Beschrijving der giftige en bewelmende planten bij de

    vischvangst in gebruik. Batavia.G r o b b a , Fritz. 1923. Die Getreidewirtschaft Syriens und Palstinas seitBeginn des Weltkrieges. II. Hannover.G u s s n e, J. 1843. Florae Siculae. Synopsis. V. II. P. 1. Neapoli.H a 1 s , . 1901. Conspectus Florae Graecae.H a 11 q v s t, C. 1921. The Inheritance of the flower colour and the seed colourin Lupinus august ifolius. Nereditas. II.H a r z , . D. 1885. Landwirtschaftliche Samenkunde. Berlin.H e e r , Oswald. 1865. Die Pflanzen der Pfahlbauten. Zrich.H e g i , G. 1925. Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. IV Band, . Mnchen.H t z, E. 19251926. Der Nachweis der Chromosomen. Vergleichende Studien

    ber ihre Zahl, Grosse und Form in Pflanzenreich. I. Zeitschrift fr Botanik. 18 Band.H o o p s , Johannes. Waldbume und Kulturpflanzen im germanischen Alter-tum. Sfcrassburg. 1905.H u t t o n , Balfour John. 1866. The Plants of the Bible. London.K a j a n u s , . 1913. Ueber die kontinuierlich violetten Samen von Pisum

    arvense. Fhl, landw. Ztg. 62. 1 a u t e, P. 1922. Nutzpflanzen und Nutztiere Chinas.Kocl i , W. D. J. 1892. Synopsis der Deutschen und Schweizerischen Flora.8 Aufl. I. B. Leipzig.K n i g , J. 1906. Untersuchung landwirtschaftlich und gewerblish wichtigerStoffe. Praktisches Handbuch. Berlin.K o o i m a n , H. N. 1923. De grondslagen voor de veredeling en her winen

    van nieuwe rassen boonen. Mededeeling, Vereen tot Bevord. van Wetensch. Teelt, No 17. r n e, F. 1873. Systematische Uebersicht der Cerealien und monocar-pischen Leguminosen. Poppeisdorf.K o s t l a n , Alfred. 1913. Die Landwirtschaft in Abessinien. I Teil. Beiheft

    zum

  • 2G4

    Bo em e r, Th. 1924. Vererbungsstudien mit Lupinen. I. Zeit. f. Pflanzen z.. IX. H. 4.

    R o u p p e r t , H. 1921. Apercu agricole sur la Region de Fez.E o u y , G. et F o u c a a d , J. 1899. Flore de France. V. Paris.S a k a m u r a . 1920. Experimentelle Studien ber die Zeil u. Kernteilung

    mit besonderer Rcksicht der Form, Grosse u. Zahl der Chromosomen. Tokyo.S a n c h e z S a n t a m a r i a , . M, 1925. Geografia Comercial economica deColombia. Bogota.S h b e ] e r, F. 1888. Yiridarium Norvegicum. B. II. Christiania.S c h u r , J. F. 1866. Enumeratio plantarum Transsilvaniae. Vindobonae.S c h w e i n f u r t h , G. 1883. Neue Beitrge zur Flora des alten Aegyptens.Ber. d. Deutsch. Bot. Ges. I.S h a w and R a k h a l d a s B s e . 1929. Studies in Indian Pulses. J. Lentil.{Ervum Lern, L n .). Mem. of the Depart, of Agricult. in India. Vol. XVI. No. 6.

    December 1928. Calcutta.S i b t h o r p , J. 1813. Flora Graecae. Londini.S t u r m , J. 1812. Deutschlands Flora. Nrnberg.T c h i h a t e h e f f , P. 1860. Asie Mineure. Trois. par. Botanique. I. Paris.T e d i n , Hans and Olof. 1928. Contributions to the Genetics of PisumV:

    Seed Coat Color. Linkage and Free Combination. Hereditas. B. XI. H. I.T e n r e, M. 183536. Flora Napolitana. T. V. Napoli.T h o m p s t o n e , F. and S a w y e r , A. M. 1914. The Peas and Beans of

    Burma. Department of Agriculture, Burma. Bull. No 12. Rangoon.T i s c h l e r . G. 192122. Allgemeine Pflanzenkaryologie. Handbuch der Pflan-

    zenanatomie. I. T. Abt. I.Berlin.T j e b b e s , K. 1923. Ganzfarbige Samen bei gefleckten Bohnenrassen. Ber. d.D. Bot. Ges., XLI.T j e b b e s , K. 1925. Die Zeichnung der Samenschale von Phaseolus nnUi-florus. Hereditas, B. VII, H. I.T o u r n e f o r t . 1719. Institutiones Rei Herbariae. T. I. Parisiis.T r a b u t , D. L. e t M a r es, K. 1907. L'Algerie Agricole en 1906. Alger.T s c h e r , Erich. 1928. Einige Bastardierungsergebnisse an Linsen und

    Ackerbohnen. Sitzungsb. Akad. Wissensch. Wien. Abt. I, 137. ., 3 u 4 Heft.T s c h i r c h , A. und e s t e r 1 e, 0. 1900. Anatomischer Atlas der Pharma-kognosie und Nahrungsmittelkunde. Leipzig.V a v i l o v , N. I. 1922. The Law of Homologous Series in Variation. Journ.of Genetics.V a v i l o v , N. I. 1927. Essais geographique sur l'etude de la variabilite

    des plantes cultivees en URSS. Rapport a l'lnstitut International (['Agriculture deRome en novembre.

    V e l e n o v s k y , J. 1891. Flora bulgarica. Pragae.W e e s e, J. 1924. Zur Kenntnis der Anatomie der Samen eines Linsen-Wickenba-

    stards. Mitteil, d. bot. Laborat. d. Techn. Hochschule. Wien.W e 11 e n s e k, S. J. 1927. Linkage-Studies in Pisum. I. Genetica. IX. 46.W e l l n s i e k , S. J. 1925. Genetic monograph on Pisum. Bibl. Genetica. II.W h i t e , . 1916. Inheritance Studies in Pisum. Inheritance of cotyledon

    colour. Am. Natur. 50.Interrelation of the genetic factors of Pisum. J. Agr. Re-W h i tc, 0. 1917search. II.

    W i e g m a n n , A. F. 1828. Ueber die BastarderzeugunBraunschweig.W i l l k o m m , M. et

    III. Suttgartiae.W i n t o n , A. L. 1916. The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods. N. Y.Wo en ig, Fr. 1886. Die Pflanzen im alten Aegypten. Leipzig.W o o d w o r t h , . . 1921. Inheritance of cotyledon, seed coat, hilum and

    pubescens colours in soybeans. Genetics. 6.W o o d w o r t h , C. and C o l e , L. 1924. Mottling of soybeans. The Jour, ofHeredity. XV.

    im Pflanzenreiche.

    L a n g e , J. 1880. Prodromus Florae Hispanicae. Vol.

    Lentils of the USSE and of other countries.Helena Barulina.

    (A Botanico-Agronomical Monograph).S U*M M A R Y .

    I n t r o d u c t i o n .Being in possession of vast world collections of cultivated

    plants, brought home from different countries b;y a whole series ofexpeditions, the Bureau of Applied Botanjr of the State Instituteof Experimental Agronomy and the Institute of Applied Botanyhave made it their purpose to publish a series of monographs oncultivated plants. The present work is the first essay to givea botanico-agronomical world monograph on the lentil.

    Our investigation embraces chiefly the common lentil, Lensesculenta M h? as being of the greatest economical importance.It partly applies also to the French lentil, Vicia Ervilia Wil ld. ,and touches shortly on the Oneflowered lentil, Vicia monanthosD e s f. The last two species belong to grain-forage plants.

    C h a p t e r 1.History of the cultivation of the lentil.

    The lentil is one of the most ancient crop plants, cultivatedalready in prehistorical times in the East, in Hungary and inSwitzerland. Lentil of the neolithic period has been found inEurope in: Bosnia, Hungary, Italy, Switzerland and in the Southernpart of Germany. This crop was evidently adventive of the South-Eastern Asia. The ancientness of lentil cultivation in South-WesternAsia is testified by numerous Sanskrit names. It was known to theancient Egyptians, Hebrews, Greeks and Romans. From Italy thelentil has spread over the Alps to Germany, to the Lithuaniansand Slavs.

    C h a p t e r 2.The geography of the crop and the limits of its cultivation.

    The area of lentil cultivation embraces a con-Countries siderable acreage. Common lentil is grown in USSR;

    ** lnta of the West-European countries in France Germanesculenta.+rio-dl +.-

    g n lentil is grown in USSR;of the West-European countries in France, Germany,Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, Roumania, Spain,Sinil-v 1 +.p "Rfl.l 1 -

  • Greece; in the island Cyprus (table 1). On a small scale the lentilis grown in Switzerland and in England. In N. Africa the lentilis sown in Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripolitania, Abyssiniaand Eritrea. In America the crop has gained wide spread in Chile.It is equally grown in Argentina and Brazil, sometimes in Mexico,Columbia, Guatemala and in the island Cuba. As regards theAsiatic countries, the lentil is grown on a large scale in Asia Mi-nor, Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Mesopotamia, Arabia (Yemen),Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India, Kashmir, sometimes inChina.Conntries gro- As regards the cultivation of the French andwingVlciaEr- of the Oneflowered lentil in our country ,the first

    vilia and is of importance only in the Caucasus, while theV. monanthos.

    s e c o nd is not grown at all in the Soviet Union.

    The chief countries where the French lentil is cultivated are:Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Asia Minor, Greece, the islandsGreta and Cyprus, Spain, as well as Afghanistan. The area ofcultivation of the Oneflowered lentil is Spain and Portugal.

    The regions of cultivation of the common lentil in USSR.

    The chief regions where the lentil is grown in USSRare the South-East of European USSR (the provinces Saratov,Tambov, Penza), the Ukraine, the Upper Volga region (the pro-vinces Nishny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk) and the Central pro-vinces (Tula, Orel, Ryazan). The lentil is also cultivated in theCrimea and in the Northern Caucasus, as well as in the Trans-caucasian and Middle-Asiatic Republics. In Siberia however thelentil occupies but a very inconsiderable acreage, its crops beingscattered chiefly along the rail-roads. In the Far East (the Ussu-rijsk territory) the lentil is sometimes sown.

    T h e S u t h-E a s t of E u r o p e a n U S S R is t h e pr in-c i p a l c e n t r e p r o d u c i n g e x p o r t l e n t i l .

    The first place among the grain Leguminosae of the Ukraineis occupied by the lentil, along with peas. The centre of lentilcultivation in the Ukraine are the provinces: Podolia, Chernigov,Kiev and Volynia.

    The lentil crops of the Tartar Republic are concentrated inthe region adjoining the river Kama and in the Trans-Volgadistricts. In the Trans-Kama region the crop has gained but littlespread.

    Before the war, in 1913, the acreage under lentils constitutedin Russiar=415.05H ha. In 1926 the acreage sown to lentils in theEuropean part of USSR was 419.542 ha, in 1929it was 426.500 ha.

    Thus, USSR lentil crops occupy almost the half ofthe world acreage under lentils. USSR holds the first place inthe world market with regard to lentil production; Egypt follows,with Spain, Chile, Roumania and Czechoslovakia.

    In Spain all three species of the lentil are grown, the firstplace being occupied by Vicia monanthos. The next in importance

    -p

    f-i-

    0

    -

    ^ f~_

    CM

    I

    -

    )

    UA10S

    %

    UAiOS

    JO %

    t~

    00 -# )^

  • -s l'"^ / " " ' " ' .
  • is grvOn a small scale the le

    rid. in IN". Arrica the leis sown in Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tfipolitania, Abyssiniaand Eritrea. In America the crop has gained wide spread in Chile.It is equally grown in Argentina and Brazil, sometimes in Mexico."Columbia, Guatemala and in the island Cuba. As regards theAsiatic countries, the lentil is grown on a large scale in Asia Mi-nor, Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Mesopotamia, Arabia (Yemen),-Persia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India, Kashmir, sometimes inChina.Countries gjro- ^-s regar

  • Greece: in the islandis grovri; j enanciis sown in Egypt, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Tripoiitauia, ,and Eritrea. In America the crop has gained wide spread in*WiUIt is equally grown in Argentina and Brazil, sometimes in Columbia, Guatemala and in the island Cuba. As regardsAsiatic countries, the lentil is grown on a large scale in Asianor, Syria, Palestine, Transjordania, Mesopotamia, Arabia (YemiPersia, Afghanistan, Baluchistan, India, Kashmir, sometimesChina.Countries gro- ^ s regards the cultivation of the FrenchwingVicia&r- of the Oneflowered lentil in our country

    rthevilia and is of importance only in the Caucasus, while

    V. monantbos. seCond is not grown at all in the Soviet Union;

    The chief countries where the French lentil is cultivatedSyria, Palestine, Transjordania, Asia Minor, Greece, the Creta and ', Spain, as well as Afghanistan. Thecultivation of the Oneflowered lentil is Spain and Po;

    The regions of cultivation of the common lentil in USSB.

    The chief regions where the lentil is grown in USare the South-East of European USSR (the provinces SaratTambov, Penza), the Ukraine, the Upper' Volga region (thevinces Nishny Novgorod, Kazan, Ulyanovsk) and the Central ^vinces (Tula, Orel, Ryazan). The lentil is also cultivated in'Crimea and in the Northern Caucasus, as well as in theCaucasian and Middle-Asiatic Republics. In Siberia howe-wilentil occupies but a very inconsiderable acreage, its cropsscattered chiefly along the rail-roads. In the Far East (the Utrijsk territory) the lentil is sometimes sown.

    The Souti i-East of E u r o p e a n U S S R is t h e pri icipal c e n t r e p r o d u c i n g e x p o r t l e n t i l .

    The first place among the grain Leguminosae^pf^ Uiis occupied by the lentil, along with peas. The centrecultivation in the "Ckraine are the provinces: Podolia, ClKiev and Yolynia.

    The lentil crops of the Tartar Republic are concentratthe region adjoining the river Kama and in the Trans-Tcdistricts. In the Trans-Kama region the crop has gained but litspread.

    Before the war. in 1913, the acreage under Lentils constifcutin Russia=-415.05* ha. In 1926 the acreage sown to lentils inEuropean part of USSR was 419.542 ha, in 1929it was 426.50$^

    Thus, USSR lentil crops occupy almost the halrtthe world acreage under lentils. USSR holds the first, place"*the world market with regard to lentil production; Egypt follows!"with Spain, Chile, Pooumania and Czechoslovakia.

    In Spain all three species of the lentil grown, theplace beksg occupied by Vicia monaniho?. The nest in import

    267 -

    ~s.3

    53

    .5'S *

    X

    em

    es

    '*

    ?

    s- ".

    '

    "

    0 2

    ".

    ?"

    (

    r-i

    192

    to

    -

    S

    UA10S} %

    J0 %

    1

    83B9J0BUM0S

    JO %CQ

    JO %

    .- 1- 'S* TZ

    CD

    .

    -*to

    > - -

    *

    -< *

    1-

    ~-

    - <

    1 2 31

    "

    ! ^ ^to to

    IM

    -*

    -

    -

    !"1

    , ,

    *

    1 ""^ 11 ^ " '

    S ' "

    .2

    >

    I M WlOr^

    ^ l

    t -

    #

    1

    * '.

    OO I MCS O5 0 0 -

    -

    1

    1

    .

    '.5

    '~ SS -

    p G *5

    -

    -

    ~

    OOOIS- - 1 '

    *-(

    . to oj ~.

    * *

    t ot o

    I S

    -

    00

    r i

    ' -*

    I ". | .

  • is Tiom Hrvilic, v.\hilv the cor-.y... :_ . ...". ' .:.. . :- .:'.-'' ." - : : ' : r.J'e -French lentil is an important crop ia -y::i;.. ru^stnie, ransjordania, in Cyprus and Greece. The acreage occupied bythis crop in the above mentioned countries is considerably greaterthan that sown to common lentil. If we attempt the approximateestimation of the acreage under lentils in all countries of theworld growing this crop (not only the common lentil, but alsothe Trench and the Oneflowered one), it will find its expressionin a b o u t one m i l l i o n h e c t a r e s . This value gives an ideaof the importance of the crop in the economy of the world.

    Import and Export.

    The countries which export lentils are USSR, Spain, Egypt,Chile, Abyssinia, Turkey, Western Asia and India. The majorityof West-European countries, as Germany, Prance, England, Greece,Bulgaria, as well as America import the lentil from other countries.

    Previously to the war Russia occupied the first place amongother countries as regards the export oi lentils. Almost the wholeRussian lentil export went to Germany through Knigsberg. Thebulk of the exported lentil was supplied by the provinces Saratov,Penza and Tambov. After the war Chile has become a seriousrival of USSR on the world market.

    The limits of lentil cultivation.

    The data of the geographical experimentsThe latitudinal conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany

    S ^ ^ W k h r e S a r d . * t b e 5 e n t i l d a r i n g 6 y e a r s (19231^ 2i?) have shown that the Northern limit ofmaturation of the separate lentil varieties may

    vary in dependence on the meteorological conditions of the vege-tation period (see map 4). Thus, in the moist year 1923 not oneof the lentil varieties reached full maturity in the Northern-stations. Only beginning with 5740' North latitude (Kostroma)full maturation could be" observed, In the comparatively dryyear 1924 the limit shifted considerably to the North. Thus, atthe Station near the Ladoga lake (59 52') and at the NovgorodStation (58C 40') almost all varieties attained maturity.

    As far as may be judged from the results of the geographicalexperiments conducted by the Institute of Applied Botany, thecultivation of the lentil - be regarded as more or less reliableonly beginning with approximately 57C N. lat. (provinces Kostroma.Tver, Moscow),

    At an elevation of 1760 m. above sea-level(Georgia: Bakuriani, prov. Tiflis) and 1550 m.(Turkestan: Cbiingan) the response of the lentilto environmental conditions is the same as in theextreme North and as a rule -it does not reach

    maturity. In 1926 in Armenia (Lenrnakan1470 m.) all varietiesof the lei;til attdreci maturity.

    The verticallimits of culti-vation of Lens

    esculenta.

    269

    A"?""! i ic r:

  • r-l .5.

    )s .

    22 *> S g

    2

    Th

    S3

  • 272 2.73

    ZI h. French lentilVkia Ervilia " 11 d. and Onefiowered'. ;:.. 1-Vjda /? D e s : . l .v -: species of Yicia areusually referred to the grain-forage plan:- They will be discussedin a separate chapter 7. The remaining part of the work deals onthe common lentilLens esculenta which is of the greatestimportance in cultivation. The author gives also a cursory surveyof the wild growing species of Lens.

    The first' good description and drawings of the genusLens were given by T o u r n e f o r t . L i n u e unhappily united thegenus Lens with, the genus Offer. He brought the common lentilto the genus Ervum (Ervum Lens L.) together with E. tetraspermum,E. hirsutum, E. monanihos, E. Ervilia. The last four species arereferred by the modern authors to the genus Vkia. During a longtime the botanists followed the nomenclature of L i n n e andonly in the late half of the XIX century Lens appears oncemore in botanical literature as an independent genus. AcceptingLens along with Yicia as a separate genus, the modern authors,regard Ervum as but a section of the genus Yicia.

    To the tribus Vicieae belong 4 very related genera: Lathyrus,Pisum, Vicia, Lens; especially closely related are Lens and Vicia.The difference between these two genera consists sometimes onlyin minor characters. An extremely great and intricate synonymismis found in this group.

    Our study of the, genus Lens with its species (chiefly thecultivated lentil), as a whole, according to a definite complex ofcharacters has shown however that the group Lens is indubitablya separate genus, delimited from the neighbouring ones not onlymorphologically but also physiologically.

    Geographical distribution of the genus Lens.The genus Lens is not large, it embraces only 5 species:

    L. Lenticula (Schreb.) A 1., L. nigricans (H. B.) (jodr.,L'. Kotschyana (Boi-ss.) A 1., L. orientalis (Boiss.) Hand.-Mazz.and, finally, the cultivated L. esculenta M o e u c h .

    The extreme -Western station of the distribution of thegenus Lens is in MoroccoTamanir (prov. Haha), situated at 9West. long, from Greenwich and 30 North, lat. (L. nigricans). Theeasternmost limit of the distribution of the species is the valleyChimgan in Turkestan. I t is determined by 42 North, lat. andthe 39 th meridian to the East from Pulkovo (or 69 from Green-wich) (L. orientalis). The Northern limit of the distribution of thegenus (the cultivated lentil i.% here not taken into consideration)passes through Italy (Mbnfalcone) at 4547' North, lat. and 2 33'Eastern long. (L. Lenticula). The southernmost station is Djereh,in Persiabetween ABushir and Shirazat 29 19' North, lat. and51" 58' Eastern long. (L. orientalis).

    " Thus, the total area of the genus Lens is comparativelynarrow in regard to latitude (from North to South) and conside-rably stretched out as regards longitude (from West to East). Thegenus Lens is a typical Mediterranean genus whose whole area is

    situated in the region of the so called Ancient Mediterranean' map 6. ~\.

    Description of the species of the genus Lens.1. L. Lenticula (Schreb.) Alef.

    Plant annual, much branched, slightly pubescent withadpressed hairs. S e e d l i n g s purple coloured. Semiprostratehabit.S t e m s thin, erect, purple coloured (with anthocyan). L e a v e sshowing 24 pairs of leaflets. Axis of leaf terminates in bristleor tendril. Le af l e t s small, lower ones orbiculate, upper onusnarrow-linear. Length of leaflet in. upper part of main stem 1011mm, width 2,5-4 mm. S t i p u l e s s e m i - h a s t a t e orl a n c e 1 ale. entire. Peduncles uniflorous, rarely biflorous,longer than the leaf, usually bearing no awn as in other species.1 w e r s small (46 in length, w^dth of the standard 4 mm),violet-blue; standard with blue veins, wings bluish, keel whitish.P e d i c e l s with anthocyan. C a l y x - t e e t h v e r y sho"rt (muchshorter than the corolla). P d s rhomboid, s l i g h t l y p u b e s c e n twith short adpressed hairs, 12 seeded, readily dehiscent, seedsshattering. Length of the pod 89,6 , width 3,54,8 mm,thickness 2,52,7 mm. S e e d s very small, reddish-brown, withblack marbly pattern and speckles. Diameter of seeds 2,95 mm,thickness 1.8 mm, relation of length to thickness 1.6. H i l u mlinear, white, somewhat longer than in other species. C o t y l e d o n sorange coloured. V e g e t a t i o n p e r i o d from seedlings to flo-wering30 days, to maturity50 days ') (fig. 2 and 3).

    H a b i t a t : on tilled land, pastures, dry stony places.G e o g r a p h i c a l area. Mediterranean region: Spain, Algeria,

    Italy, Sardinia, Sicily, the Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria,Palestine, the Crimea, the Caucasus.

    2. L. nigricans (M. B.) Godr.Plant annual, 1030 cm high, perceptibly pubescent, short

    woolly or almost villous. S tem ascending or decumbent, branched.L e a v e s in the majority of cases without tendrils, but the upperones show a bristle; less frequently they terminate in a simpletendril. L e a f l e t s of the lower leaves are 23 pairs, small, ovalor obovate: those of the upper leaves5 pairs, larger, elongateor linear-lanceolate (up to 1 cm Ions;, 2 mm bread). S t i p u l e sd e n t a t e , semi-triangular, semi-hastate. Peduncles 12 flowered,in the majority of cases somewhat longer than leaf, terminatingin an awn. C o r o l l a bluish. C a l y x - t e e t h subulate, equal,24 times longer than the tube and slightly surpassing thecorolla. P o d rhomboid, glabrous, 2-seeded. S e e d s small, flat-tened, brown (fig. 4 and 5).

    ') All figures are given according to the data obtained in sowing out, in thedistr. Kharbor. seeds of L. Lenticula received from the Tiflis Botanical Garden andcollected in Karabakh.

    E. . . IS

  • 274

    !: t a t- :, / s*:-r;T slopes: in ravines, in barren, sandj*,stony places.

    G e o g r a p h i c a l a rea . Mediterranean region. Portugal,Spain, Southern France, Italy, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, the BalkanPeninsula, Creta, Morocco, Algeria, Asia Minor, the Crimea,Transcaucasia. , . , ' *

    3. L. Kotschyana (Boiss.) Alef. - 'Plant' annual, strongly pubescent with dense long hairs

    (villous). S t e m short, spreading. L e a v e s -with 69 pairs of ovalor elongated leaflets, terminating in long branched tendrils. Lengthof the leaflet-10,7 mm, -width3,5 mm. Stipulessemi-sagit-tate, entire. P e d u n c l e xmiflorous, considerably siorter than

    leaf. - C a l y x - t e e t h slightly shorter 'than. corolla. C o r o l l awhitish. P o d p u b e s c e n t , rhomboid elongated, 16,5 mm long,67 mm broad, *2-seeded.t S e e d s irregular oval, large (greatestdiameter.of seeds about 6 mm, smallest4,55 mm), thicknessof seed 2,72,8 mm. H i l u m very short, elliptic (fig. 6 and 7).

    This interesting species is very rare and occurs only inMesopotamia."

    , ^ 4. L. orientalis (Boiss). Hand.-Mazz.Plant annual, about 30 cm high, with medium pubescence.

    B r a n c h i n g - 78, number of internodes 1617. S e e d l i n g spurple, semi-erect habit. S t e m s thin (1,5 mm thick), purple(anthocyan present throughout whole length of stem). L e a v e swith 36 pairs of oval or elliptical-linear leaflets. Length ofleaflet 1014 mm, width 23 ,o mm. T e n d r i l s short. S t i p u l e soblong, lanceolate, entire." F1 w e r s small (4,56 mm in length,width of standard 3,54,3 mm), purple-blue; standard with blueveins, wings somewhat lighter than standard, keel whitish. Pedicelspurple coloured. Mowers arranged by one or two on the peduncle.Peduncles equal to length of leaf, terminating in an awn. Calyx-t e e t h slightly shorter than corolla or equal to it. P d rhomboid,glabrous, 10 mm long, 4,6 mm broad, 3,2 mm

    v thick, 2-seeded;

    "strongly dehiscent, seeds" shattering. S e e d s small, reddish-brownwith black dots and speckles or entirely black. Diameter of seeds3,6 mm, thickness 2,0 , relation of diameter to thickness 1,7.Cotyledons orange coloured. H i l u m white. W e i g h t o f l 000g r a i n s 1314 gr. (fig. 8 and 9).

    H a b i t a t : occurs in Asia Media in the foothill zone, onstrongly carbonaceous, rubbly fine-textured or rubbly stony soils,on swarded slopes of medium steepness., G g r-a p h a 1 a rea . Asia Minor, Syria, Palestine, Meso-

    potamia, Transcaucasia, Persia, Afghanistan, Asia Media.

    5. L. esculents Moench.Plant annual, 15 to 75 cm high, pubescent with short hairs.

    The degree of pubescence (length, density of hairs) varies in tb-e

    2 '

    separate varieties; the greatest pubescence is observed in t-L-Indian lentil. Stein almost srect or 1:~:.;". :-'.'r_- ::-Z- :":v->. ""..(furrowed) with anthocyan over the vrhcie surface or only at .*.-base, more rarely entirely green, as in some Mediterranean (Spam,Portugal, Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, Syria, Palestine), African (Abys-sinia, Egypt, Morocco) and Persian varieties. L e a v e s compound,even-pinnate, with 28 pairs of leaflets terminating in the"majority-of cases in a simple, rarely a branched tendril, sometimes onlythe rudiment of a tendril (for instance in the Indian form).L e a f l e t s oval or linear. S t i p u l e s semi-hastate, lanceolate,-entire. P e d u n c l e shorter than leaf, with 1 flowers, termi-nating in an awn. F l o w e r s 58 mm long; colour of corollavaries from white to blue, or pink; of most frequent occurrenceis a white standard with violet-blue veins of different intensity.Wings grown together with the keel. Stamens10, nine of themunited in a tube, while one is free; stamen tube oblique at theTaase. Ovary free. Style in upper part flattened on dorsal side, ouinner side hairy; in lower part glabrous. As regards the structureof the style, the genus Lens approaches the genus Latkyrus, butdiffers from it by the stamen tube oblique at the base. Thecharacter of the style is a distinctive feature of this genus fromsome small-flowered species of Vicia, akin to Lens. In the genusVicia the st}rle is round, in its upper part pubescent from allsides. C a l y x five-cleft, calyx - teeth subulate, almost all equal,shorter than corolla or surpassing it, longer than tube. F r u i t p o d unilocular, two-valved, flattened, more or less rhomboid, to 20 mm in length, 4 mm in width, 13 seeded (mostfrequently 2seeded), glabrous, 3Tellow. Forms occur with podscoloured with anthocyan before maturity (Afghanistan: Chekhosarai.Jalalabad; Asia Minor: var. Du-Puy) and brown or black inmature condition (Afghanistan: Jalalabad, Chekhosarai). S e e d sflattened or almost globose. 39 ram in diameter, greatly variousin colour, ranging from light green to perfectly black. W e i g h tof 1000 grainsfrom 11 to 82 gr.

    C h a p t e r 5.System of hereditary variation of the lentil (L. esculenta); de-

    scription of separate characters.The study of the lentil from different points of view has

    been carried out on the vast collection of the Institute of AppliedBotany, embracing at the present time up to 1500 samples. A great

    ^Republics (Russian Turkestan), Syria, Palestine, Greece, Italy,Spain, Portugal were collected by N. I. T a v 1 v, those fromAsia Minorb}T P. M. Zi iukovsky, from the other countriesby a whole series of investigators.

    The study of the lentil was carried on during a series ofyears (becrinniag with 1920' chiefly on pare lines. The material

    18*

  • :-

    276

    eine of the hereditary variation of the species Lensesculenta Moench.

    Hereditary varying features. Character of the features.

    I. C h a r a c t e r s of f l o w e r .

    1. Colonr of corolla

    2. Size of flower

    3. Colour of pedicel

    4. Length of calyx-teeth

    5. Number of flowers on pe-duncle

    6. Length of awn of peduncle

    a. white: 1) standard almost withoutveins (India)

    2) standard with blue veinsb. light blue (Asia, Transcaucasia)c. blue (Daghestan)d. violet-blue (South-Eastern Afghani-

    stan, India, Abyssinia)e. pink (India)a. large (78 mm in length)b. small (57 mm in length)a. greenb. violet (South-Eastern Afghanistan)a. calyx-teeth considerably longer than

    corollab. calyx-teeth shorter than corolla

    (India, Afghanistan, Abyssinia)a. 12b. 23 and morea. longb. short

    . C h a r a c t e r s of pod.

    7. Shape of pod surface

    8. Size of pod

    9. Shape of pod (outlines)

    10. Size of pod apex

    11. Colonr of unripe pod

    a. convexb. flata. large (15,520 mm in length and

    7,510,5 mm in width)b. small (615 mm in length and

    3.57 mm in width)a. rhomboidb. oval

    a. shortb. long (Abyssinia)a. greenb. purple (Asia Minor)c. violet (Afghanistan)d. spotted (with violet 6pots) (Du Puy")

    Hereditary varying features. Character of ie features.

    12. Colour of ripe pod

    15. Number of seeds per pod

    14. Dehiscence of pod

    a. stiaw-colouredb. light brown (Abyssinia, Asia Minor) dull brown {black) (Afghanistan;d. spotted (Du-Puy")a. one (rarely 2)b. two (rarely 1)a. dehiscent forms (Jalalabad, Chekho-

    sarai)b. non-dehiscent forms

    HI. C h a r a c t e r . of s e e d s .

    15. Shape of seeds

    16. Size of seeds

    17. Surface of seeds

    18. Weight of 1000 grains

    19. Colonr of seeds

    20. Character of pattern

    21. Colour of pattern

    22. Colour of cotyledons

    25. Colour ex hi !um

    a. globose (relation of diameter tothickness 1,52,5)

    b. flattened (relation of diameter tothickness 2,54)

    a. large (diameter 69 mm)b. of medium size (diameter 56 mm)e. small (diameter 35 mm)a. smoothb. wrinkled ;a. great (4082 gr)b. small (1140 gr)a.-pinkb. yellowc. greend. graye. brownf. black

    a. spottinessb. dottiness marbly patternd. complex pattern (combination of

    a, b. c)a. greenb. gray violett (blue)d. browne. black

    a. yellowb. orange 'a. whitb. dull browTo

    -.

  • 278 279

    Hereditary varying features. Character of the features.

    IV. V e g e t a t i v e c h a r a c t e r s .

    24. Colour of seedlings

    25. Shape of leaflets

    26. Size of leaflets

    27. Number of pairs of leaflets

    28. Length of tendrils

    29. Colour of plant

    50. Height of plant ~

    31. Pubescence of plant

    52. Colour of stem

    33. Thickness of stem

    34. Shape of the young plant

    35. Branching

    a. greenb. purplea. oval (relation of length to width

    2-3,5)b. linear (relation of length to width

    3-5)a. large (15,527 mm in length and

    5,510 mm in width)b. small (8,515 mm in length and

    2,05,0 mm in width)a. 36b. 58

    a. long; (3060 mm)b. short (135 mm)a. light green (yellow green)b. dark green gray green

    a. .tallb. intermediate dwarfy

    a. strongb. slight

    a. greenb. purplea. thick (1,53,0 mm)b. thin (0,51,5 mm)a. erectb. prostrate intermediate

    a. profusely branching forms (614)b. sparingly branching forms (I6)

    V. B i o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r s .

    56. Vegetation period a. early formsb. late forms

    Hereditary vary:;:? .-..

    37. Degree of susceptibility toparasitic fungi (Erysiphecommunis G v. f. viciae,Uromyces ervi W i n t e r ) andinsect pests (Bruchus, Eii-ella zinckenella T r.)

    58. Productivity:1) Number of pods per plant

    2) Weight of seeds from oneplant

    a.b-

    a.b.a.

    b.

    VI. A n a t o m i c a l

    59. Thickness of seed coat(spermoderm)

    a.

    Character of tue features. ;

    immunesusceptible

    great* (80100 and more, up to 200)small (4580) :high (35 gr.)low (0,53 gr.)

    characters.

    thick (3642 micr.)thin (3033 jnicr.)

    was sown out in different places: prov. Saratov, prov." Leningrad,in the Crimea, Transcaucasia, prov. Voronesh,. distrj Kharkov andin other stations of USSR. The plants were under observationduring the whole -vegetation period. The investigation of theseparate lentil forms was carried out. with, regard to all charactersaccording ;to a general scheme adopted by the Institute of AppliedBotany for all cultivated plants. In analysing the quantitativecharacters the method of variation statistics was applied.

    The rest of chapter 5 is devoted to the description of theseparate characters of L. esculentaV "With regard to the quantitativecharacters, tables of variation are given, according to the .separateyears, and the different characters. The" "biological peculiarities ofthe lentil, as germination, germinative power of he seeds, flowe-ring and fructification, pollination have been- touched upon ina general way. Cytological data are equally given.

    C h a p t e r 6.'Classification of L. esculenta. Key to the determination of varieties.

    The classification of the cultivated lentil was first proposed A l e f e l d and K o e r n i c k e . A.Iefeld established 7 varieties.K o e r n i b k e introduced but * few alterations into the system ofA l e f e l d . The subsequent authors accepted the classification ofA l e f e l d almost entirely, with slight modifications and additions.

    In comparing the numerous samples of the lentil from thewhole world we have come to the conclusion that the existingclassification does not embrace the whole diversity of lentil forms.This plant has proved extremely polymorphous. The number of

    " 'fit

  • 280 281

    ciiar&cr-ers by wLicii ihe ^^.:,:. . -t>^, :-:.-^- ::...- : ,.-. . _:.steadof the 7 8 varieties known up to now, we have established 58.

    The classification of the lentil, adopted by us,Principal sy- j

    s a morphologic-geographical one, being based in

    units. ^ e frrsk place on the geographical principle. Thearea of distribution of a form with the one or the

    other characters, or of separate characters is of decisive import-ance in discussing the systematical merit of a form. Besides, onemay judge of the degree of importance of the systematical cha-racters from their greater or smaller constancy, the divisionbeing based on characters varying the least under the influenceof environmental conditions.

    s . . All forms of the lentil may be divided in 2 vast

    . ' geographical groupssubspecies (subspecies or racesaccording to K o r s h i n s k y , K o m a r o v , Sem en v-Tian-Shansky) , well delimited from one another morphologically, eachwith a definite geographical area: macrosperma and microsperma.We are giving a detailed description of both subspecies.Sc, -,- --^ p

    r o v a r ) Barul.large-seeded

    lentil.Ssp. macrosperma (Baumg.

    P o d s large (15 20 mm in length, 7,510,5 mm in width),in the majority of cases flat. Seeds large (69 mm in diameter),flattened (relation of diameter.to thickness 2,54). C o t y l e d o n sin the majority of cases yellow, sometimes orange coloured.

    , F l o w e r s large (7 8 mm: long), white (standard with blue or

    light blue veins), rarely light blue. P e d u n c l e s with 2 3 flo-wers. Calyx-teeth long. L e a f l e t s large (15 27 mm in length,410 mm in width), oval (length exceeding -width by 33,5 times),rarely elongated. H e i g h t of plants from 25 to 75 cm. To thisgroup belong chiefly the midseason varieties. They are grown inthe Mediterranean countries (Spain, Portugal, Sicily, Sardinia,....Greece, Cyprus), in Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunis), in AsiaMinor; in Syria, Palestine it is met with chiefly as admixture.In western Europe it is grown in France Germany, Austria,Czechoslovakia. In USSR the large-seeded lentil is met with chieflyin the South-East and in the Ukraine: In the countries of South-western Asia (India, Afghanistan) this group of lentil is notgrown; sometimes it is found in Persia, as well as in the Trans-caucasian Republics. In America the large-seeded lentil is alsogrown (fig. 25, 26).Ssp. microsperma (Baumg. pro var.) B a r u l . smal l-seeded

    l e n t i l .P o d s small, more frequently of medium size (6 15 mm in

    length, 3.5 7 mm in width), convex. S e e d s convex (relation ofdiameter to thickness 1,53). small or of medium size (3 6 mmin diameter), various in colour and pattern. F l o w e r s small(5 7 mm long"), violet-blue, blue, light blue, white, or pink.P e d u n c l e s wirb 14 flowers. Leaflets small (815 mm long,2 5 broad), elongated, linear or lanceolate (length 4 5

    times exert.'-_ 'viuii:,.-. H e i g h t o f p l a n t s from 15 to 35 err;.This group oi forms is distinguished by comparative earliness.I t is chiefly grown in the countries of South-Western andWestern Asia: India, Kashmir, Afghanistan, Syria, Palestine, AsiaMinor, Yemen, as well as in Africa: Abyssinia, Eritrea, Egypt,Morocco. In USSR the small-seeded lentil is" grown in the Middle-Asiatic and Transcaucasian Republics (Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia),as 'well as in Daghestan. It is grown moreover in the wholeEuropean part of the Soviet Union (chiefly as a forage plant).In the West-European countries: Spain, Sardinia, France, Germany,Czechoslovakia, -Bulgaria, Roumania the small-seeded lentil isalso met with, frequently mixed with the large-seeded one.

    The small-seeded lentil is polymorphousthan the large-seeded one. Within the limits of

    varieties. this subspecies there may be marked out severalnarrower geographical groups of varieties (grex

    varietatum). We could establish six of such groups. Each of themis distinguished by a whole complex of morphological characterscommon to all its varieties and not repeated in other groups. At

    'the same time each group is differentiated geographically.Thus, the group of lentil forms peculiar to India, Punjab and

    Kashmir, occurring nowhere else in the world, is distinguished bystrong ^pubescence of all vegetative organs.

    : In the region of Afghanistan, adjoining India (Ghekhosarai,

    Jalalabad), N. I. V a v i l o v has found a rather peculiar groupapproaching the wild growing lentil species as regards shatteringand the dehiscence of the pods.v- ^ In.North- Eastern mountainous Africa, in Abyssinia, Eritrea,as well as in Yemen (Arabia), lentil forms are grown, which up tonow have been found only in this region. With regard to manycharacters (violet-blue flowers with short calyx-teeth, dwarfiness,earliness) this group is akin to the Indian and Afghan ones, but

    .may be easily distinguished from them by its general habitus.. All Asiatic forms are characterized fey a series of features

    differing^ from the European group: length of calyx-teeth, numberof flowers per peduncle, character of branching, colour of flowers, etc.

    1. P o d s r e a d i l y d e h i s c e n t and seedsstrewing. Pods purple - coloured before maturity,when mature brown, o.r black. S e e d s v e r ys m a l l (3,03,4 mm in diameter), black or grey withF l o w e r s v i o l e t - b l u e , single or 2 on the

    eeduncle, I, small (5,7 6,0 mm). Peduncle anthocyan coloured. al x-te e t h m u c h s h o r t e r t h a n c o r o l l a . Leaves with

    35 pairs of very small leaflets (length of leaflet 8,5 9,0 mm;width 2,2 2,6 mm). Plant dwarfy, early (fig. 27, 2H)

    . . ' ' ' " ' grex subsponianeae m.Cultivated in the region of Afghanistan adjoining India, near

    Kabul (Jalalabad, Chekhosarai).

    geographicalgroups.

    black pattern.

    !1

    :

  • 282

    _. . ; : : . ; ! b s t \;-]. > . '" : ::: ';;.;:ciitiu greyjS-ii t i n g e , dwarfy, ear ly . F l o w e r s s i n g l e , l e s sfrequently 2 on the peduncle, violet-blue, entirely white, or pink,small (5,36.0 mm in length). C a l y x - t e e t h c o n s i d e r a b l ys h o r t e r t h a n c o r o l l a . T e n d r i l s s h o r t , sometimes onlyrudiments of tendrils may be observed. Leaves with 36 pairs ofsmall elongated leaflets. Length of leaflet 10:12,5 mm, width2,84,4 mm. Plants branching scantily. Main stem stands outclearly against lateral ones. Seeds reddish with black dots or black(fig. 4547) grex pilosae m.

    All varieties belonging to this group are endemic forms whosecultivation is spread in India, Punjab, Kashmir.

    . P o d s w i t h e l o n g a t e d apex, when ripe slightlybrownish. S e e d s brown with black dots, or black. F l o w e r sv i o l e t - b l u e , s i n g l e , or 2 on the peduncle. C a l y x - t e e t hm u c h s h o r t e r t h a n c o r 1 1 a. Leaves with 37 pairs ofelongated leaflets, pointed at the apex. Length of leaflet 1315 mm,width 2,93,7 mm. Plants dwarfy, early (fig., 5456)

    grex aethiopicae m.The varieties of this group are grown in North-Eastern

    mountainous Africa (Abyssinia, Eritrea), as well as in Arabia (Yemen).IV. P e d u n c l e s 13, m o r e f r e q u e n t l y b i f l o r o u s .

    F l o w e r s b l u e , l i g h t b l u e , less frequently"white with lightblue veins. - x - t e e t h in the majority of cases a 1 m s te q u a l l i n g t h e c o r o l l a , sometimes exceeding it in length.Leaflets small, narrow, elongated. .Plants^comparatively early andof short habit. Seeds of different colour (fig. 4851)

    grex asiaticae m.The varieties of this group are of especially, frequent occur-

    rence in South-Western and Western Asia, as well as in Trans-caucasia; less frequent in W. Europe and N. Africa.

    V. P e d u n c l e s 24, more f requent ly ' t r i f lo rous .Flowers white with light blue veins. Ca lyx- tee th consi-d e r a b l y longer than corolla. Leaflets medium - sized.Midseason forms. Seeds of different colour (fig. 4143)

    grex europaeae m.Common forms grown in USSR, in the countries of W. Europe

    in IS". Africa and in America; sometimes met with also in Asia.

    VL F l o w e r s , s i n g l e or 23 on the peduncle. Calyx-teeth either equal to the corolla ox longer than it. Flowers whitewith blue veins. - Leaflets small, less frequently of medium size.S e e d s m e d i u m in d i a m e t e r (56 mm), mostly convex(fig. 52, 53) grex intermediae m.

    This group is of especially frequent occurrence in Asia Minor,Sj^ ria, Palestine, as well as in USSR and in W. Europe.

    283

    V a r i e t i e s . . ^ Y ; i - - - ^ ^ -^-^ - ' - - :-. ' - -- majority oi cases based on nongeograpiacal. not.

    fluctuating characters. These characters are convenient for identi-fication and are practically most important ones, as for instance,colour and pattern of seeds. The geographical principle plays hereno longer a pre-eminent role.

    Thus, a variety is rather a conventional unit. The varietyin its turn falls into a series of small taxonoruical units, racesXjordanons), differing by a number of minor characters: colour ofseedlings, size of leaflets, colour and height of plants, branching,length of vegetation period, etc.

    - A l e f e l d and K o e r n i c k e did evidentlyvVlu^ofcha- n o t d w e 1 1 o n t h e < l n e s t i o 1 1 o f t h e taxonomical

    racters. value of the separate characters. They divided Lensesculenta into two groups according to the height

    of the plants, thn length of the vegetation period, the colour andpubescence of the leaves. Within the limits of each group theyestablished several varieties according to the weight and colourof the grain, the shape of the leaflets, the colour of the seedlings.

    In our opinion, such strongly fluctuating characters as heightof plant and length of vegetation period, cannot serve as basisfor the divisioa-into principal groups. Likewise, the weight of thegrain and the colour of the seedlings cannot serve for the delimi-tation of varieties. The height of the plant, the length of thevegetation period and the weight of the grain depend in a highdegree on environmental conditions.

    We have based our classification of the lentil in two principalgeographical groups of formssubspecies macrosperma and micro-sperma, on complex characters independent on environmentalconditions, qualitative, as well as quantitative ones, showinga small variation coefficient. To these characters belong the sharpdifferences in the size of flowers, pods and seeds, the shape oithe pods. All these characters are accompanied by a series ofother ones- as: shape and size of leaflets, length of vegetationperiod, height of plants.

    To the g r o u p c h a r a c t e r s belong chiefly the qualitativecharacters depending but little on environmental conditions, inthe majority of cases designing narrower geographical groups, forinstance, degree of dehiscence of- the pods, pubescence of theplants, relative leDgth of cahTx-teeth, number of flowers perpeduncle, character of branching, colour of flowers (Abyssiniar.Indian, Afghan, Asiatic lentil).

    To the v a r i e t a l c h a r a c t e r s belong aongeographical,qualitative characters, varying comparatively little under theinfluence of environmental conditions, convenient for identificationand partly designating economical peculiarities. Such are: thecolour of tbe seed coat and the cotyledons, the colour of the pocls,the shape of the plant, etc.

    To the r a c i a l c h a r a c t e r s we refer the fluctuating,chiefly quantitative characters. Thus, for instance, length . '"

    17

  • 284

    " " . - - ~ v . ,.._ ....': s . c o l o u r 0 1 u h . e p l a n t s , c o l o u r :.:'~:\-:. .- '.-._'-height of tue pianos, vegetation period, fractional division a:eord:r^to the diameter of the seeds, etc. The majority of these charactersmanifests itself only in comparing races having grown under equalconditions. ,Key to the determination of the varieties of Lens esculenta Moench.

    A. Pods large, flat (15,520 mm long, 7,510,5. mm width).Seeds large, 69 mm in diameter, flattened. Flowers large(78 mm long), white with light blue veins, very rarelylight blue; 23 flowers on peduncle. Calyx-teeth longerthan corolla ' -

    ssp. macrosperma m.

    X Pods before ripening anthocyan coloured(purple), in mature condition light brown.Seedlings and stems of adult plant also showingintensive purple colour. t

    1. Seeds yellow-green, unicoloured or with darkgreen marbly pattern. Cotyledons yellow.-(l) var. erythro-Asia Minor, vilayet Konia, Amasia. Collected carpa m.by P. M. Z h u k o v s k y .

    2. Seeds grey without pattern. Cotyledonsyellow . (2) var. .Asia Minor, vilayet Konia. Collected by P. M.Zhiik vsk v. .

    XX TTnripe pods green, ripe ones straw-coloured.1. Seeds yellow-green (overripe ones pinkish and

    brown) unicoloured and with dark green marblypattern. Cotyledons yellow ^ .; ..- (3) var. nummn-One of the most widespread varieties. Culti- laria ALvated in W. European countries under thename Heller, Pfennig-Linzei Lentille largeblonde, etc. In USSR known Under the nameof plate-likezrtareloehnay'a lentiL This varietyembraces a great number of races differingby the size of the seeds, the dimensions ofthe leaflets, the colour of the seedlings andother characters. The most large-seeded formshave been found in Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia.

    2. Seeds yellow-green, with dark green spots. Cotyledons yellow . . . . . (4) var. atrovirens m.

    . Sicily, Asia Minor (as admixture). Cotyledons orange . . . . . \ (5) var. sicida m.

    Sicily (as admixture). Collected by N. I."V a vi 1 v.

    285

    3. Seeds yellow-green with dark purple minutedots.

    Cotyledons yellow (6) var. vindi? m.Greece (Thessaly). Cyprus.

    Cotyledons orange (7) var. hispanica m.Spain, Sicily (as admixture). Collected byN. I. V a v 1 v.

    4. Seeds greysmoke coloured (on the edgesthe colour is less intensive than in the centre),

    without pattern or with black marble pattern,large (7 8^,5 mm), flattened. Cotyledons yellow.Leaflets broad, oval (8) var. Pulmanii m.Smoke coloured dymchataya lentil. Bred byI. A. P u l m a n at the Bogorodizk Exp. Field(prov. Kursk).

    5. Seeds grey, unicoloured and with black marblepattern. Cotyledoas yellow . . . . (9) var. m.Italy, Sicily, Asia Minor. In USSR met withas admixture to var. nummularia.

    6. Seeds greyish-reddish without pattern andwith black marble pattern.

    Cotyledons yellow . . . . . (10) var. iberica m.Portugal, Spain, Italy, Sardinia, Tunis, AsiaMinor, Palestine. In USSR as rare admixture.

    Cotyledons orange . . . . . . (11) var. rubigi-Sardinia, Tunis, Palestine. nosa m.

    7. Seeds greyish-reddish with minute darkpurple dots. Cotyledons yellow. Flowers light

    . blue (12) var. ihessala m.Greece (Thessaly). Collected by N. I.V a v 1 v.

    8. Pods, sipall (615 mm long, 3,57 mm width). Seedssmall or medium-sized (36 mm in diameter). Flowerssmall (57 mm long), of different colour

    ssp. microsperma m. Mature pods readily dehiscent, seeds shattering. Immature

    pods purple coloured, in mature condition brown or black.Flowers small, violet-blue, single or 2 on the peduncle. Seedsvery small (about 3 mm in diameter). Cotyledons orange

    grex subspontaneae m.1. Seeds quite black (13) var. melano-

    Endemic Afghan variety. Collected by Is. I. sperma m.T a v i l o v in South-Eastern Afghanistan nearthe Indian frontier (Chekhosarai, Jalalabad).

    t 1*

    ' t

    4 "

    *^

    f\

  • .-- 287

    2. Se.-ns rrev}?b-r-'idi?h v-;:b minute dark purplei^a-.-;:, u^-. a:^ : . :_-: spec-hies. As to

    zae other characters quite similar to thepreceding variety (14) var. afghanica m.Afghanistan, region adjoining India (Chekho-sarai). Collected by N. I. T a v i l o v .

    OO Pods not dehiscent when mature. Seeds comparatively little,shattering.

    LJ Plants grey-green from strong pubescence (hairs soft, dense),of short habit, early. Flowers smalL violet-blue, rarelyentirely white, in majority of cases single. Calyx-teethshorter than corolla or almost equal to it

    grex pilosae m,-r Flowers violet-blue, standard with veins, seed-

    lings and stems dark purple.1. Seeds greyish-reddish with minute black (dark

    jmrple) dots. Cotyledons orange . . (15) var. indica m.Spread all over India, Punjab, Kashmir.

    2. Seeds greyish-red unicoloured . (16) var. unicolor m.India. As an admixture to var. indica.

    3. Seeds black (17) var. wgreseens m.Kashmir (Ravelpindi).

    + + Flowers white, standard almost without veins,seedlings and stem green (18) var. leueantha m.India: Calcutta, Bailhongal, Jubbulpur, Bengal,Burma. - ::

    -j--f Flowers pink. Seeds prussian red, no mottling,occasional speckling. Hilum pale yellow

    (19) vaf. rhodantha m.This description is based on the work of Shawand R a k h a l D a s B o s e .

    DU Plants of the usual green colour common for lentils.Pubescence medium. : ^

    X Apex of pod elongated. Mature pods light browngrex aethiopicae m.

    1. Seeds 45 mm in diameter, greyish-reddishvrith black dots. Cotyledons orange . . (20) var. abyssinica_ (Hchst.) AI.Endemic variety of North-Eastern Africa.Grown in Abyssinia, Eritrea, as well as inYemen (Arabia). '

    2. Seeds black. As regards the other charactersquite similar to preceding variety . . (21) var. coptica m.Cultivated in Abyssinia, Eritrea along withvar. abyssinica, more frequently as admixture.

    X X Pods of common shape. Flower 13 on peduncle, blue, light, blue, or "Kite.

    teeth longer than corolla, or equal to them. Leaflets small-t Seeds 35 mm iu diameter.

    grex asiaticae m.-f- Flowers blue. Calyx-teeth longer than corolla.1. Seeds black, 44,5 mm in diameter. Cotyledons

    3*ellow. Leaflets narrow, elongated (1,52 cmlong, 4,56 mm broad). Plant of comparativelytall habit, late, yellow-green coloured. . (22) var. nigra A I.The origin of" this form is not known withcertainty. The seeds were received by us fromGermany (SilesiaBreslau).

    2. Seeds dark-brown with black marble pat-tern and dots, 44,5 mm in diameter. Coty-ledons orange. Flowers 23 on peduncle.Leaves with 68 pairs of elongated leaflets(length 1.21,8 cm, width 36 mm). "Seed-lings and stem intensively anthocyan - co-loured . " . . ' . . .(23) var. dagliesta-

    -f--f- Flowers light blue or white (standard withblue veins), 12 on peduncle. Leaflets small.

    1. Seeds yellowish-pink- (seed-coat colourless,colour of seeds depends on colour of translu-cent cotyledons). _ ' -

    Cotyledons orange.a) Sfeeds unicoloured (24) var. persica m.The most widespread form in Persia. Itsarea of distribution is: Persia, Afghanistan,the Middle-Asiatic Republics, Azerbaijan,Georgia, Armenia, Asia Minor, Sj'ria, Pa-lestine, Mesopotamia, Morocco, Spain, Por-tugal. It is a polymorphous variety, embra-cing a whole series of races differing bya number of characters: length of thevegetation period, height of plants, bran-ching, thickness of stem, colour and pube-scence of leaves, colour of seedlings, etc.b) Seeds with minute dark purple (black)

    dots (25) var. nigripun-Afghanistan, Middle-Asiatic and Trans- data m.Caucasian Republics, Syria. Palestine, AsiaMinor, Morocco. Consists of several races.c) Seeds with black spots concentrated

    chiefly around the hilum . . (26) var. m.Syria, Palestine. Collected by X. I. Ta-v i l o v.

  • 288

    3) S e e d s w i t h d a r k p u r * % ..;; :;.':s p o t s . . . i L T ) . , /.- . j .

    Rare form. Found in Afghanistan (prov.Herat). Persia (Meshed), Uzbekistan (Tash-kent, Zarafshan distr).

    Cotyledons yellow. Seeds yellowish-pinkish,without pattern (28) var. gva m.

    Persia (Isfahan), Asia Minor, Spain.2. Seeds greyish-reddish (slightly violet). Coty-

    ledons orange.a) Seeds without pattern . . . . (29) var. violascens m.Afghanistan, Persia, Middle-Asiatic andTrans Caucasian Soviet Republics, AsiaMinor, Syria, Palestine, Morocco, Algeria,Egypt, Tripolitania, Sudan, Greece, Spain.Consists of a whole series of races.b) Seeds with dark purple (black)

    dots (30) var. punctataAfghanistan, Persia, Middle-Asiatic Soviet (Al.) m.Republics (Pamir, distr. Zarafshan), Geor-gia, Azerbaijan, Armenia, Asia Minor,Syria, Palestine, Egypt (rare), Morocco,Algeria, Spain.c) Seeds with black spots concentrated

    chiefly at the hilum . . . (31) var. syriaca m.Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor. , . .d) Seeds with well marked dark brown

    marble pattern and black spots. (32) var. atrorubi-Asia Minor, Daghestan. ginosa m.

    3. Seeds light-brown with black marble patternand dots. Cotyledons yellow . . . . (33) var. m.Georgia. .~

    4. Seeds grey. Cotyledons yellow.a) Seeds without pattern . . . . (34) var. grisea m.Persia, Zarafshan, Daghestan, Azerbaijan,Asia Minor, Spain.b) Seeds wirb dark - purple (black)

    spots (35) var. Tcazvinica m.Persia (Kazvin). Collected by 1ST. I. T a -V 1 V.c) Seeds with dark - purple (black)

    dots (36) var. atrogrisea m.Spain, Azerbaijan.d) Seeds with dark purple dots and

    spots . . (37) var. punctatoma-Afghauistan (Kandahar), China. ctdata m.

    OiQ

    Seeds veilcw-;r?''.'~. Cotyieaoiis \ tii-: '.'.

    a) Seeds without pattern . . . (38) var. viridula m.Syria, Palestine, Daghestan, Armenia, Azer-baijan, Morocco, Spain, Portugal.b) Seeds with black dots . . . (39) var. pdaestina m.Palestine, Azerbaijan, Spain.c) Seeds with black (purple) spots . (40) var. maculosa m.Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Azerbaijan.

    Cotyledons orange.a). Seeds without pattern . . . . (41) var. virescens m.Asia Minor, Persia, Transcaucasia. Rarevariety, occurs as admixture.b) Seeds with black dots. . . . (42) var. atroviri-Azerbaijan (as rare admixture). Collec- dula m.ted by - N. N. u 1 e s h v.c) Seeds with dark green marble pat-

    tern and spots (43) var. transcau-Rare form, found in Georgia. easica m.

    ff Seeds 5 mm in diametergrex intermediae m.

    1. Seeds yellow - green. Cotyledons yellow.a) Seeds unicoloured or with dark green

    marble pattern, flat.... (44) var. subnummu-Spain, Italy, Sicily, Sardinia, Asia Minor, laria m.the island Rhodos, Syria, USSR: CrimeanRepublic, Bashkir Republic, Ukrainian SSR.b) Seeds with dark purple dots . (45) var. subviridis m.Morocco, Spain, Palestine (as admixture).c) Seeds with black (dark - green)

    spots - (46) var. subairovi-Syria, Palestine. Collected by N. . - rens m.v 1 v.

    2. Seed yellowish-pinkish. Cotyledons orange.a) Seeds unicoloured . . . . (47) var. rhodo-

    sperma m.Spain, Sardinia, Greece (Larissa), Asia Minor.

    b) Seeds with black dots. Flowers lightblue . . (48) var. cypria m.

    - Cyprus. Collected by N. I. V a v 1 v.c) Seeds with black marble pattern. (49) var. variegaia m.

    Palestine (Jerusalem). Collected by N. I.V a v 1 v.

    3. Seeds greyish-reddish. Cotyledons orange.a) Seeds without pattern . . . (50) var. subrubi-

    Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor. ginosa na.E. . . if*

    11

    -.

    - .

  • 290

    pattern . ') \.Asia Minor (vilayet Konia). Collectedbv P. M. ZhnkoVskv .

    orafo m.

    4. Seeds grey, unicoloured or with black marblepattern. Cotyledons yellow . . . . . (52) var. subitalica m.Italv, Sardinia, Asia Minor (Mersina, Sivas,Tokat).Flowers 24 on peduncle, white with light blue veins.Calyx-teeth much longer than corolla. Leaflets of mediumsize. Plant most frequently light green (yellow-green) colou-red

    grex enropaeae m. Prostrate habit. Late form (the period before

    flowering is especially long s). Seeds 35 mmin diameter, reddish-grey, unicoloured or withblack marble pattern. Cotyledons orange (53) var. prostrata m.

    Trance, Germany, USSR (distr. r. Kiev).

    Erect habit.X Pods before maturity with purple patches.

    Seedlings and stems purple. Seeds 45 mm indiameter, yellow-green with dark green marblepattern and dark purple spots. Cotyledonsyellow (54) var. dupuyensis m."Widespread in France under the name Du-Puj-. Grown also in Germany, Spain, Italy,Algeria, Tunis, Syria, as well as in theUkraine.

    XX Pods without anthocyan.1. Seeds pinkish, unicoloured or with slightly

    marked black marble pattern (speckledness).Cotyledons' orange (55) var. pseudomar-

    . morata mods per plant2) weight of seeds from one

    plant

    30. Degree of susceptibility:to fungi parasites (Erysi-phe commtmis G v. f. vieiae)and insect pests (Bruchusulicis Mills. & Key)

    to the determination of the varieties of Vicia Ervilia Willd.

    A. Immature pods slightly purple coloured, mature ones lightbrown (length. 21 25 mm, width 5-6 mm). Greatest diameterof seeds on an average 56,5 mm. Seeds in majority of caseswith dark pattern. Weight of 1000 grains 60 75 gr. Flowers7 8 "mm long, standard and wings more or less reddish - purple

    r

    standard with dark violet veins, rarely (in some forms of AsiaMinor) standard yellowish, without veins. Flowers 1, less frequently2 on peduncle,- Xieaves with 612 pairs of leaflets. Leaflets com-paratively small (length 13 15 mm, width 33,5 mm)." Plantsgrey-green, of short habit (20 30 cm in height), comparativelyearly. Grown in Mediterranean countries: Syria, Palestine, Cyprus,Creta, Asia Minor (chiefly vilayets Nigde, Kaisarie, Konia, Afram),.Greece, Spain, Tunis

    v

    - - ; . ; . : 1., j/ grex mediterraneae -. . 1. Flowers yellow/ ^ standard without veins.

    Seeds greyish-pink* . ._ . . ^ . . , . (1) var. pallidi-Aeia Minor (vilayet Aidin, Denizli). Bare form, flora m.occurs as admixture. Collected by P. M. Z h u-k v sky.

    2. Flowers light reddish-purple, standard withdark violet veins.

    Cotyledons from bright orange to lightorange.a) Seeds greyish-pink, unicolpured or with

    scarcely perceptible grey spots, some-times not manifesting itself . . . (2) var. gvogri-

    Syria, Palestine, Asia Minor, Cyprus. sea m.

    * <

    b:) Seeds covered with uniform, blending.li^ht brown marble pattern . \>) - sunaca .

    Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Spain, Morocco,Asia Minor.c) Seeds with dark brown or black spots.

    Large sparse spots concentrated chieflynear the hilum (4) var. palaestina m.

    Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Asia Minor, Morocco.d) Seeds with minute black (purple) dots

    on greyish-pink ground . . . (5) var. nigripunc-tata (Al.) m.

    Syria, Palestine, Cyprus. Collected byN. I. V a v i l o r .e) Seeds with compound pattern: brown

    marble pattern all over the seed andblack dots near the hilum, not infre-quently in form of stripes . . (6) var. variegata m.

    Syria, Palestine, Cyprus, Tunis. Collectedby N. I. Y a v i l o v .f) Seeds grey (smoke-coloured), colour

    varying from light grey (light-bluish)to dark grey CO ^ar.

    Palestine, Cyprus, Greece", Asia Minor,Spain.g) Seeds black, hilum white . . . (8) var.

    coerules-cens m.

    jnelano-m.

    Asia Minor (vilayet Konia, Nigde,Afram Qarahisar). Collected by P. M.Z h u k o v s k y .

    Cotyledons yellow.a) Seeds greyish-pink, unicoloured or with

    scarcely perceptible grey spots . (9) var. bicolor m.Palestine, Creta, "Spain, Asia Minor. Rareform found as admixture.b) Seeds with brown spots, concentrated

    chiefly near the hilum . - - (10) var. cypria m.Cyprus. Collected by N. I. Y a v i i o v .

    B. Immature pods green, mature ones straw - e-L.-.tired (length.725 mm, width 45.5 mm). Greatest diameter of seeds on anaverage 3.55 mm. Seeds unicoloured or with pattern. 1000 grainsweigh 2565 gr. Flowers large (7,510 mm long], yellowish,standard with violet veins; 24 flowers on peduncle. Leaveswith 1117 pairs of leaflets; the latter comparatively large (length12,517 mm, width 35 mm). Plants light green, tall 2^560 cm).Most widespread group, grown in all "places where V. Erviha iscultivated. Yery often met with as admixture to common lentil.Grown in all countries of South-Western Asia: Afghanistan, Persia,Uzbekistan, Transcaucasia (Armenia, Georgia. Azerbaijan'.. Daghestan,

    ) 1

    " AJ

    1 ' L

    I If

  • 296 297

    '-- v.- ' _- '- v prliterranean countries: Asia Minor, ?]':.~~ Rhodos.~-.-^-::'-- ...... lu,lv. Malta. Spain. In "Weetern ~Z~j.r:\-z Z-^garia.Czechoslovakia, Germany, France

    grex esparsae m.1. Seeds orbicular, yellowish-pink, unicoloured.

    Cotyledons orange . .. . - - . . (11) var. globulosa m.Afghanistan (Vazirabad). Collected by. N. I.V S T O T .

    2. Seeds of usual shape: triangular-pyramidal.a) Seeds greyish-pink, tmicoloured or

    with scarcely perceptible grey spots.Hilum brown.

    Cotyledons from bright-orange to light-orange.

    t Seeds very small (greatest diameter44,5 mm) . . . . ._ . . (12) var. minima m.

    The Crimea, valley of Baidary. As admix-ture to crops of common lentil. Collectedby H. u 1 a.

    tf Greatest diameter of seeds 4,5-6,5 mm.Hilum brown . . . . -. ., .(13) var. intermedia m.

    Along with var. imlgaris, this is one ofthe most widespread varieties of theworld. Asia Minor, Spain, Italy,' Greece,Algeria, Tunis, Afghanistan, Persia,Uzbekistan (distr. Fergana),' Azerbaijan,Georgia, Armenia, Daghestan.a) Seeds with brown, uniform (blending)

    marble pattern' Sometimes some c-f theseeds show an addition greyish spots.Ground greyish-pink . . . . (14) var. puncttdata

    Georgia, Armenia. A b e s s.b) Seeds with dark brown (or black) spots

    near the hilum 7 . . ., > - . (15) vax. maculata m.c) Seeds with minute black (purple) *

    dots . . . . . . . . . . (16) var. atropivn-Asia Minor, Daghestan. ~ data m.d) Seeds with compound pattern:, small

    uniform, brown marble pattern andblack spots near the hilum. Groundgreyish-pink . . . . . . . . (17) var.

    Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Algeria,Germany, Czechoslovakia.e) Seeds grey (smoke-coloured), colour

    varies from light grey (light bluish)to dark grey . . . . . . . (18) var.

    Spain, Creta, Asia Minor.

    georgicaAb ess.

    einerea m.

    f) Seeds black, hilum white. Cotyledonslight orange (19) n.r.

    Georgia, Daghestan. Cotyledons "yellow. Seeds greyish-pink,

    unicoloured or with scarcely percep-tible grey spots (20) var.

    Most widespread form. Afghanistan, Spain,Italy, Greece, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, AsiaMinor, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, France,Germany.

    A b e s :

    vidgarisKrn.

    C h a p t e r s .The lentil of US SB.

    Lens escvdenta is grown all over USSR, while Vicia monanthosis entirely missing. The cultivation of Yicia Ervilia is of importanceonly in the Caucasus.

    The lentil grown in the European part of the Soviet Union,as well as in Siberia, shows no great diversity. The large-seededlentil in all probability has been introduced into OUT country fromthe West, the small-seeded one being adventive from the East.To the large-seeded group belong forms being of importance forexport. The small-seeded forms are used for forage.

    The centre of the large-seeded lentil are the provincesadjoining the middle course of the Volga, and the Ukraine^ Thesmall-seeded lentil gravitates towards the North and East of USSR.

    For the territory of proper Russia, the Ukraine, the Tartarian.Tchuvashian, Crimean Republics, Siberiawe have established 10varieties: var. nummularia, Puhnanii, itaJica, iberica, nibnummularia.dupyensis, vulgaris, pseudomannorata, mutabilis, varialrdi?.

    Only during the very last times the Russian experimentstations have begin to devote their attention to lentil breeding.Smoke-coloured := Dj-mchataya lentil has been bred by I. A. P u i-m a n in prov. Kursk.

    The Institute of Applied Botany is engaged in the propaga-tion and testing of the practically most interesting lentil varietiesof different geographical origin.

    The lentil of the Transcaucasian Republics: Georgia. Armenia.Azerbaijan has much in common with that of the neighbouringcountries of South - Western and Western Asia. It embracesmoreover a considerable number of endemic elements. All Trans-caucasian Republics grow almost exclusively small-seeded lentils.

    Valuable practical properties of the Transcaucasian lentilsare their earliness, drought-resistanse and the high cookingproperties of their seeds.

    The varietal and racial diversity of the lentils of the Miadle-Asiatic Republics: Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, the Tajik Republicis similar to that of the nieghbouring countries, especially Persia,Almost exclusively- small-seeded lentils are grown" in Turkestan.

    it.

  • 298 299

    L h a p t e r 9.

    The lentil of Asia.The lentil of South-Western Asia: India, Kashmir, Afghanistan,

    Persia shows the greatest diversity of forms. A great number ofendemic characters has been found in these countries whereexclusively the small-seeded group is grown.

    The principal centre of lentil cultivation in India are theCentral provinces, the United provinces, Bengal and Madras.Over the whole of India, Burma, Punjab, Kashmir a special ende-mic group, characterized by strong pubescence of the vegetativeorgans, is grown. It is represented by varieties: indica A1.,unicolor m., leucantha ... rhodantha m. and nigrescens m. TheIndian lentil, along with the Arabian one, is one of the earliestin the whole world.

    In Afghanistan nine lentil varieties have been established.The most interesting is the endemic group of small-seeded lentilfound by N. I. V a v i l o v in the region of Afghanistan adjoiningIndia (Jalalabad, Chekhosarai). This group represents the extrememicroform, the terminal link, as it were, of the general chain ofvariation of the cultivated species, approaching the latter to thewild growing species. ~

    7In Persia the lentil (a d a s) has gained wide spread. I t is

    grown chiefly in mountainous regions and its cultivation is exclusivelyirrigated. Persia displays the same number of varieties as Afgha-nistan (y), a great majority of them belonging -to the subspeciesmicrosperma. ' . . ; r ; /.

    The lentil of Syria and Palestine shows a great diversity.The following varieties have been found: persica, maculata, nigri-punctata, violascens, jmnctata, syriaca, palaestina, viriduZa, maculosa,subviridis, subatrovirens, variegata, subrubiginosa, subnummularia, num-mularia. . " .

    Large-seeded forms are of comparatively rare occurrence.Forms showing seeds of medium size (of the group intermediae)are' widely spread in Syria, as well as In Palestine. ;;

    Not less diversity is shown "by Viei Ervia in these countries.The endemic group (mediterraneae m.}, dwarfy, suggesting by itsgeneral habitus the wild growing species, is cultivated there.

    In Asia Minor Lens esctdenia merd jmek , as well as ViciaEriAlia boorchak , are grown on a large scale. The chief lentilregion is the South-Eastern part of the peninsula.

    The investigation of P. M. Z h u k o v s k y in Asia Minor(Northern Mesopotamia and Turkish Armenia inclusive) has estab-lished the greatest number of varieties for this country (23).Large-seeded and small-seeded forms are grown, as "well as aconsiderable number of varieties with seeds of medium size. Thesmall-seeded lentil gravitates to the East and South-East of thepeninsula, while the large-seeded one is spread chiefly in theWestern, Northern and Central part of Asia Minor. In centralAnatolia (vilayet Konia, Amassia) very interesting endemic forms

    have been found with purple pisment of the immature pods.A great number of varieties is represented by not endemic forms.

    The varietal diversity of Lois esculenta in Asia Minor showsthe traces of two influences: the small-seeded forms penetratedinto the peninsula from South-Western Asia, while the large-seeded ones came from the West. The result of these influencesis the multifariousness shown by the lentil in Asia Minor.

    V. Ervia is represented in Asia Minor by 12 varieties. Twogroups, mediterraneae and exparsae are met with in this country,as well as a considerable number of intermediate forms.

    -;.. C h a p t e r . 10.The lentil of Africa. *

    In Abyssinia the lentil crops (L. esculenta)m esser, b e r s e mare spread in the south-eastern and central parts of the. country:the districts Harrar and Chercher, Ankober, Addis-Abeba, rarefyin Aksum and Gondar.

    The Abyssinian lentil is an original endemic group whichwe have called aethiopicae. Besides Abyssinia it occurs in themountainous part of Eritrea and in Yemen (Arabia). With regardto many characters, as earliness, dwarfiness, small flowers andsmall seeds, this group approaches the Afghan-Indian one. Twovarieties have been singled out according to their seeds: dbyesinica(Hchs t . ) AI. (with brown dotted seeds) and coptica m. (black-seeded).

    The countries of the North African coastMorocco, Algeria,Tunis, Tripolitania, Egyptrepresent no independent centre, asregards their cultivated vegetation. They all show marks of theinfluence of foreign countries. The lentil of Morocco has provedto be richer in forms. The representatives of the Asiatic groupare grown in considerable numbers. In the countries of FrenchAfrica (especially in Algeria) the iniluence of France makes itselffelt: the variety Du-Puy has gained wide spread.

    The chief region of lentil cultivation in Egypt is the UpperEgypt. The uniformity of the Egyptian lentil (chiefly var.violascens m.) points to its adventive character. As regards ithabitus it is the most suggestive of Palestine lentil.

    C h a p t e r 11.The lentil of Europe.

    The particular conditions of the Mediterranean countries,their soft climate and long vegetation period, the concentrationof the great crops of antiquity in this region, have given rise toa special ecotype of cultivated plants.

    Spain. Italy, Sicily, Sardinia grow the most cultivated lentiltype: late forms with large flowers, large leaves and large seeds. In thePyrenean peninsula (especially in North-Western Spain) t ie small-

    I" I'

    "

    ft

  • 300 301

    '--:.:::' '''.:-. " " - rained ^ride spread. S i r * - f - - . - o

    beer*. -::-:.:..:;^ ,.: :or Spain and Portugal: vai.hispanica, s-u^nummularia, subviridis, rhodospenna. dujiujtn t , iugn-punctata, punetata, violascens, grisea, atrogrisea, vinduXa. palaestina,persica, gilva.

    Besides L. esculenta the cultivation of V. monanihos andV. Ervilia are of great importance in Spain and Portugal. T h eP y r e n e a n p e n i n s u l a is t h e c h i e f c e n t r e f t h e cul-t i v a t i o n of F. monanthos, whose crops are spread in the centralpart. As to V. Ervilia it is chiefly, grown in the. central andsouthern part of the peninsula (see maps 12, 13, 14).

    The absence of endemic lentil forms in the Pyrenean penin-sula induces us to regard the accumulation of a considerablenumber of varieties as a phenomenon of secondary order.

    The islands Sardinia and Sicily deserve special attention. Thevarietal diversity of the lentil is much greater in these islandstlan in Itaty. In Sardinia small-seeded forms are grown?

    In Italy, Sicily, Sardinia a great number of forms with verylarge green seeds (up to 9 mm) have been found.-

    In Greece the lentil is cultivated in the chief agriculturalregions. Thessaly and Macedonia. The most widespread form isthat with seeds of medium size, thongh the large-seeded andsmall-seeded lentils are equally grown in the country.

    In Creta L. esculenta is grown on a small rase, but in Cyprusit is of greater importance. V. Ervilia is a .highly important forageplant in Cyprus, Creta and Greece. Similar to Vicia Ervilia ofSyria and Palestine, it shows a great polymorphism. The majorityof its forms are endemic for this part of the Mediterranean, whichis a fact of pre-eminent importance.

    The lentil of America.

    With the exception of Chile, the lentil plays an insignificantrole in the countries of Northern and Southern America.

    The lentil crops of Chile areConcentrated in/the provincesNuble and Maule. The consumption within the ;qoxmtry is inconsi-derable, the lentil being chiefly att article of export to Argentina,Prance and other countries. The lentil is grown in this countryeither as a winter crop or as a spring crop, chiefly without- irri-gation.

    Having been brought into the country by the Spaniardsafter the discovery of America, the lentil shows no great botanicaldiversity. The prevailing variety is var. nummvUaria. with adiameter about 7 mm.

    * - . - ' ' '

    Chapter 12. :

    This chapter describes the ecological types of the lentil inregard to earliness. amount of green mass, drought-resistance,imnmnitv.

    C h a p t e r 13.The principal centres of the origin of L. esculent a.

    In applying the method of differential systematics, of botanicalgeography to the study of botanical diversity shown by the cul-tivated lentil, we have tried to ascertain the place where it wasintroduced into cultivation and to estalslish, according toN, I. Vav i lov , the focuses" of its primary diversity, thegeographical centres of the origin of its forms.

    Prom the map 15 showing the present geographical distri-bution of the separate lentil forms it- may be seen that the grea-test accumulation of large-seeded forms is found in the Mediterra-nean countries: Spain, Italy with islands, Greece. As to the small-seeded, there are several regions in which their varieties are con-centrated: South-Western Asia (Afghanistan, Persia), Transcaucasia,"Western Asia (Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine) and partly Spain.

    The botanico-geographical study has shown however that thet o t a l n u m b e r of v a r i e t i e s in a c o u n t r y is n o ta l w a y s d e s i c i v e for a s c e r t a i n i n g t h e p l a c e ofo r i g i n of a g i v e n p l a n t . Of m u c h g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c eis t h e a c c o u n t of t h e e n d e m i c c h a r a c t e r s .

    The systematic - geographical analysis of Lens esadenia hasshown that the greatest diversity of endemic small-seeded varie-ties is to be found in the countries of South-Western Asia. "Whilein Greece, in Asia Minor there occurs but one small-seededendemic variety, the latter being entirely missing in Spain and inItaly, South-Western Asia (India inclusive) shows of cine thesevarieties. All rare forms, occurring nowhere else in the world, areconcentrated in this region. Thus in the region of South - EasternAfghanistan, bordering on India, there have been found endemicforms entirely dissimilar to common lentil and most akin to thewild growing species: dwarfy, ephemerous plants with minute.almost spherical dark-coloured seeds, with small blue flowers andreadily dehiscent brown fruits. In India, Kashmir hairy formsare cultivated with flowers white, pink and blue, and with blackseeds. In their recently published work Shaw and R a k h a l D a s s e (Studies in Indian Pulses, Mem. of the Dep. of Aer ofIndia, 1929) have described 66 types of Indian lentils: formshaving been found with pink flowers, differing in the structureof their root system, etc. In - Afghanistan, in the Middle-AsiaticRepublics (Uzbekistan. Turkmenistan, Tajikistan) races have beenfound showing much green mass and being of semi-prostratehabit. Along with early forms there occur comparatively late ones(Oasis of Khiva) with a characteristic pattern of the seed coat, etc.

    Shortly, the whole diversity of the morphological and phy-siological characters of the small-seeded group is to be found inSouth-Western Asia.

    It is in this region that are concentrated all characters mostimportant for classification, the most outstanding and constantones, or, as they are sometimes termed, organizational characters.as the structure of fruit and flower.

    I

    If?:*

    JI

  • 302 303

    ~ ' ' : r.-TTes-erii Asia, in particular the :: ""..:?.:" region bet-. - -^ i.ii-uii-Kush and Himalaya, is tut p r : L : : I p r i m a r yc e n t r e f a c c u m u l a t i o n of v a r i e t a l e l e m e n t s , asw e l l as t h e p r o b a b l e p r i n c i p a l c e n t r e of t h e o r i g i nof t h e c u l t i v a t e d l e n t i l (L. eseulenta).

    As we withdraw from. the-, principal centre of diversity ofthe small-seeded lentil, the number of endemic forms and that ofcharacters, perceptibly decreases. The European part of USSR,Siberia, the West-European countries and America, the NorthernTrench Africa grow an inconsiderable number of lentil forms diffe-ring from one-another by few characters.

    Special attention should be devoted to Abyssinia. Theinvestigations of N. . a v 1 v have established the uniformityof the lentil in North - Eastern Africa. The Abyssinian lentil,though showing certain peculiarities, approaches the Indian andAfghan group in regard to a series of morphological and physio-logical characters. - .

    The uniformity of the Abyssinian lentil speaks, it should seem,in favour of its adventive character. But a whole series of pecu-liar features observed only in the Abyssinian lentil, as the shapeof the pod and other small characters, induce us to single it outinto a separate group.

    As to Transcaucasia, Asia Minor and other Mediterraneancountries, we refer them to the secondary centre of diversity ofthe cultivated lentil.

    In dealing with such ancient crops as the lentil, the possi-bility of their transference from the principal centres to distantregions must be taken into consideration; To such countries wherethe lentil is an adventive belong- Egypt and the countriesof French Africa. The cultivated lentil of Egypt is very uniform,being represented by two typical Asiatic forms.

    In comparing the areas of distribution of the wild growinglentil species with the regions showing the highest concentrationof the diversity of the cultivated lentil, no perfect coincidence isobserved. Still the - Eastern part of ihe area of Lens orientcdis,the species most closely" related to the small-seeded lentil, reachesinto Turkestan (see map 16).

    C h a p t e x 14.On the vetch as a weed in lentils (mimicry in plants).

    whole group of weedpeas, lentil. This weed

    vetches met with inin many characters,

    the plants they are

    There exists adifferent crops, aschiefly in regard to the seeds, simulateadmixed to. ; :

    The percentage of admixture of t h e flat-seeded vetch to thelentil crops is sometimes very considerable and impairs the qualityof the lentil.

    The adulteration of the lentil by the vetch is a fact pointedout in literature by many investigators: T h a e r , W i e g m a n n ,G a e r t n e , B e r g , F r u w r t h, etc.

    Some of the authors, for instance W e s; m a n n, F r u w i r t hare inclined to regard the flat-seeded vet-cii as a hybrid L>etvreer.lentil and vetch.

    Our investigation of the weed vetch has revealed an extra-ordinary diversity of forms according to size, colour, pattern ofseeds, from entirely black spherical ones to lenticular seeds. Asregards the vegetative and biological characters, the weed vetchequally approaches the lentil.

    The origin of the vetch form mimicking the lentil may bescarcely explained by hybridization. Up to now all attemps atartificial crossing of lentil with vetch have failed.

    An approach to the explanation of mimicry in plants may befound, in our opinion, in the law of homologous series in heredi-tary variation established by N. I . a v 1 v, according to whichwhole families of plants are characterized by a definite cycle ofhereditary variation which may be traced through all genera makingup the family.

    The causes of such parallel variation in the family Leguminosaeare of a general order determining the polymorphism of plants.

    The family Leguminosae contains a certain number of here-ditary factors for shape, colour, etc., distributed among its differentmembers. Certain differences observed within the limits of a familydepend on the presence of the one or the other factor, and diver-sity is the result of many combinations of factors. Consideredfrom this point of view, the not infrequently observed strikingsimilarity, exhibited by species belonging to quite different groups,depends on the fact"that the different plant groups have manyhereditary factors in common. I t is for this reason that someforms manifesting themselves in one group correspondinglyappear also in the other.

    The phenomenon of mimicry is only a special case of themanifestation of this general law." I t illustrates the recurrence ofthe forms of variation, common to the whole organized world.The majority of cases of mimicry are only separate manifestationsof polymorphism in the general cycle of hereditary genotypicalvariation, peculiar to the group-'of plants to which the givenmimicking form belongs.

    Natural selection is no creative factor taking an active partin the origin of mimic forms. I t only firmly establishes thoseof the already originated forms which are fittest for the givenconditions, or have some advantage over the others, naking themthe predominant ones.

    The most important diseases and insect pests of the lentil.

    The most important fungi diseases of the lentil are: mildew.Erysiphe communis G v. forma viciae, false mildew. Peronosporalenti G a u m a n n and rust, Uromyces ervi W i n t e r .

    T h e most harmful insects are t h e larvae of Bruehus lentilF r l . , Br. signaticornis G y l l . , Br. ervi F 1.. as w?li as Cdllo-

  • 304

    sobruchus chinensis L. (in India, Afghanistan), zhe la-;e: d:rr;.r..-?:;tLe lentil not only in - field. ~,~:. also I _ : r : - :^ :^- : .

    Of other pests may be mentioned: Lethrus apierus L e i ; ,,*ytpha crinitus H b s t., tiorrhynchus ligustiei L., Cleonus piger Scop . ,Tanymecus palliatus F., Etiella zinchendla Tr.

    C h a p t e r 15.

    Contains a short anatomical characteristic of the lentil {Lensesetdenta). The root, stem, leaf, fruit and seeds of the lentil havebeen investigated.

    The majority of the drawings have been made by our lateassistant 0. M. V v e d e n s .

    All photographs and drawings are original ones. The latterhave been made by means of the drawing apparatus A b b e withan objective 7 and ocular 3 of L e i t z microscope, on a level withthe stage of the microscope.

    All drawings, photos and maps occurring in this work areoriginal.

    Below the contents of each chapter is given.

    . \Plate .

    III

    ill

  • 12

    II.Plate .

  • II III. /f?

    Plate III.

    '

Recommended

View more >