Basic biological concepts & basic genetics

Download Basic biological concepts & basic genetics

Post on 27-May-2015

6.125 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1. BASIC BIOLOGICAL CONCEPTSANDBASIC GENETICS

2. BASICBIOLOGICALCONCEPTS 3. CELL

  • A cell is a smallest unit that is capable of performing life function

4. Cell Theory

  • All living things are made up of cell
  • Cells are the smallest working units of all living things.
  • All cells come from preexisting cells through cell division.

5. 6. TYPES OF CELLS

  • Prokaryotic cell
  • Eukaryotic cell

7. CHARACTERSTICS OFPROKARYOTIC CELL

  • 1.Do not have structures surrounded by membranes.
  • 2.Few internal structures.
  • 3. One celled organism , Bacteria

8. CHARACTERSTICS OF EUKARYOTIC CELL

  • Contain organelles surrounded by membranes.
  • Most living organisms.
  • IT IS OF TWO TYPES:
  • Animal cell
  • Plant cell

9. 10. 11. DIFFERENT ORGANELLES OF ANIMAL CELL

  • Ribosome's
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  • Golgi Apparatus
  • Lysosomes
  • Mitochondria
  • Cytoplasm
  • Nucleus
  • Cell Membrane

12. BACTERIA

  • Simple structure
  • Lacks membrane bound nucleus
  • Enormous range of metabolic activities
  • Few bacteria causes disease
  • Usually they contain peptidoglycan
  • Gives shape & mechanical strength to the cell

13. CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF STAINING

  • Bacteria can be divided intotwo groups on the basis of gram staining.
  • Gram positive bacteria
  • Gram negative bacteria

14. SHAPES

  • Round shape (cocci)
  • Rod shape (bacilli)
  • Spiral shape (Spring like)

15. BACTERIAL DISEASE

  • Diptheria
  • Tuberculosis
  • Whooping cough
  • Tetanus
  • Cholera
  • Typhoid fever
  • Bacterial Dysentry

16. VIRUS

  • Sub-microscopic infectious agent
  • Unable to grow or reproduce outside a hostcell
  • Consist of genetic material (DNA,RNA)

17. VIRAL DISEASES

  • Influenza
  • Common cold
  • Small pox
  • Mumps
  • Measles
  • German measles
  • Poliovirus
  • Yellow fever

18. FUNGI

  • Eukaryotic organism
  • Heterotrophic organisms possessing a chitinous cell wall
  • Some fungal species grow as single cell
  • Examples: yeasts, molds, mushrooms
  • Symptoms: fluffy white patches, reed inflamed skin under patch, severe irritation

19. DISEASE CAUSED BY FUNGI

  • Athlete's foot
  • Head ringworm
  • Candidiasis

20. PROTOZOA

  • One celled animals
  • Smallest of all animals
  • Most of them can only be seen under a microscope
  • They do breathe, move, reproduce like multi celled animals

21.

  • Live in water where it is damp
  • Example: paramecium, euglena, amoeba
  • Some are harmful to man ,cause serious diseases
  • Helpful because they eat harmful bacteria and are food for fish and other animal
  • Also called fission

22. DISEASE CAUSED BY PROTOZA

  • Malaria
  • Amoebiasis

23. BASIC CONCEPTS INGENETICS 24. MENDELS EXPERIMENT

  • Research was with plants
  • Basic underline principle of heredity
  • Also applicable to human beings and animals
  • Performed experiment on common pea plant
  • Certain traits show up in the offspring
  • Observed seven traits
  • Apparently occurin one of the two form

25. TRAITS

  • Flower color is purple or white
  • Flower position is axil or terminal
  • Stem length is long or short
  • Seed shape is round or wrinkled
  • Seed color is yellow or green
  • Pod shape is inflated or constricted
  • Pod color is yellow or green

26. Mendels second experiment

  • Picked common garden pea plant
  • Pea plant have both male and female reproductive organs
  • Can be self pollinated
  • Cross pollinated

27.

  • Cross pollinating plants that either produce yellow or green pea seeds
  • First offspring generation (f1) always has yellow seeds
  • F2 generation has 3:1 ratio of yellow to green
  • 3:1 ratio occur in the later generations as well
  • Realized that this was the key to under -standing the basic mechanism of inheritance

28. 29. 30. conclusion

  • inheritance of each trait is determined by units or factors that are passed on to descendents unchanged (genes)
  • An individual inherits one such unit from each parent for each trait
  • Trait may not show up in an individual but can still be passed on to the next generation

31.

  • Starting parent plants homozygous (alleles or form)
  • F1 generation heterozygous (different alleles)
  • Genotype
  • Phenotype

32. 33.

  • the principle of segregation
  • the principle of independent assortment

34. thank you