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    BASIC PHOTOGRAPHY

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    HISTORY

    The word photography was first used by the scientist Sir John F.W.Herschel in 1839.

    It comes from the French photographie which is based on theGreek (phos) light + (graphis) stylus / paintbrush

    or (graph) representation by means of lines / drawing,together = drawing with light.

    Photography is the science and art of recording images by means ofcapturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or

    electronic sensor. Light patterns reflected or emitted from objects

    expose a sensitive silver halide based chemical or electronicmedium during a timed exposure, usually through a photographiclens in a device known as a camera that also stores the resulting

    information chemically or electronically.

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    THE PINHOLE The Chinese were the first people that we know of towrite about the basic idea of the pinhole camera. About

    2,500 years ago (5th Century BC) they wrote abouthow an image was formed upside down from a

    "pinhole" on the opposite wall.

    About 2,400 years ago (4th Century BC) the famousGreek philosopher Aristotle talked about a pinhole

    image formation in his work.

    He wondered why "when light shines through a

    rectangular peep-hole, it appears circular in the form ofa cone?"

    He did not find an answer to his question and theproblem was not answered until about 1600 years later

    in the early 1000s AD.

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    CAMERA OBSCURA The invention of the camera obscura is attributed to

    the Iraqi scientist Alhazen and described in hisBook of Optics (1011-1021). English scientists

    Robert Boyle and Robert Hooke later invented aportable camera obscura in 1665-1666. In the

    1500s many artists, including Michelangelo andLeonardo da Vinci, used the camera obscura to

    help them draw pictures.

    This drawing below, made in 1652, shows an outershell with lenses in the center of each wall and aninner shell with transparent paper for drawing. The

    artist entered by a trap door in the bottom.

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    HELIOGRAPHY In 1816 Frenchman Nicephore Niepcemade a

    crude wood camera fitted with a microscope lens.

    He invented Heliography around 1826, which he

    used to make the earliest known permanentphotograph from nature

    Louis Daguerre: Daguerreotype

    Louis Daguerre (1789 - 1851), in collaboration withNicephore Niepce, invented the first practical

    photographic process in 1837 which was widely

    used in portraiture until the mid 1850s.

    http://www.nicephore-niepce.com/http://c/Users/malen/Downloads/photography/photography_pg2.phphttp://c/Users/malen/Downloads/photography/photography_pg2.phphttp://c/Users/malen/Downloads/photography/photography_pg2.phphttp://c/Users/malen/Downloads/photography/photography_pg2.phphttp://www.nicephore-niepce.com/http://www.nicephore-niepce.com/http://www.nicephore-niepce.com/
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    CONTINUATION

    A brass plate coated with silver was sensitized byexposure to iodine vapor and exposed to light in a

    camera for several minutes.

    A weak positive image produced by mercury vaporwas fixed with a solution of salt.

    In 1839 the French government purchasedDaguerre's French patent and offered the

    daguerreotype as "a gift free to the world". Daguerre, however, did maintain control of the

    patent throughout the rest of the world.

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    HENRY FOX TALBOT - CALOTYPE In 1839 William Henry Fox Talbot presented a

    paper to the Royal Society of London describing his

    invention, the calotype.

    This paper negative process, although producingan image inferior in quality to the daguerreotype,

    had the great advantage of allowing multiple copies

    to be made. Current film-based photography is

    based on the same principle.

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    CARTE DE VISITE Photographic "visiting cards" were invented by

    Andre Adolphe Eugene Disderi in 1854.

    They were usually an albumen print mounted onto

    card.Albums for the collection and display of cards

    became a common fixture in Victorian parlors.

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    AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY The first aerial photograph showing the Place de l'

    Etoile, Paris, was taken by Gaspard Felix

    Tournachon (aka Felix Nadar) in 1858.

    It was shot from an altitude of 520 meters in atethered balloon.

    Dry Plate Photography

    Dr Richard Maddox discovered a method of usinggelatin instead of glass as the plate material for the

    light-sensitive solution.

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    CONTINUATION

    This discovery led to the invention of dry platephotography, a less cumbersome process that didnot require the photographer to use a darkroom

    tent for immediate plate development as had been

    required by wet plate processes.Eastman Kodak Camera 1888

    George Eastman introduced celluloid based film in1884, and the small portable easy-to-use box

    camera in 1888. Photography could now reach themasses: once the 100 shots on the camera had

    been taken, the camera was sent back to Kodak forfilm processing, new film was loaded, and the

    camera was returned ready-for-use to the owner.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_camerahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_camerahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_camerahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Box_camera
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    TWIN LENS REFLEX CAMERA

    The TLR camera has two objective lenses of the

    same focal length. One of the lenses is the

    photographic objective (the lens that takes the

    picture), while the other is used for the waist-levelviewfinder system. The fixed mirror deflects the

    light rays coming through the lens to a top screen,

    which shows the image upright but laterally

    reversed. Light from the object also goes throughthe taking lens, which is mounted on a common

    panel with the viewing lens, and is projected on the

    film. (1994 Encyclopaedia Brittanica, Inc.)

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twin-lens_reflex_camerahttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twin-lens_reflex_camera
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    RANGE FINDER CAMERA

    In 1913 a German design engineer, Oskar Barnack,

    produced a prototype 35mm camera. In 1924 thecamera went into production at the Leitz factory in

    Germany. It was called the Leica from the initials of

    "LEItz CAmera".

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    SINGLE LENS REFLEX FILM CAMERA

    Pentax Medium Format 6x7 SLR from the 1980s.

    Used 120/220 roll film and featured an

    electronically-timed focal plane shutter andinterchangeable lenses and prisms.

    Asahi's first model, the AsahiflexI, went into

    production in 1952, making it the first Japanese-

    built 35mm SLR.

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    CONTINUATION

    The historic Contax S (1949), the first pentaprism

    SLR for eye-level viewing.

    The first 35mm SLR, the Ihagee Kine Exakta,produced in 1936, had a left-handed shutter

    release and rapid film wind thumb lever, folding

    waist level finder and 12 to 1/1000th second focal

    plane shutter.

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    DIGITAL SINGLE LENS REFLEX CAMERA

    The basic operation of a DSLR is the same as a

    SLR. For viewing purposes, the internal mirror setat a 45 degree angle reflects the light coming

    through the lens up at a 90 degree angle into a

    pentaprism where the image is inverted so it can be

    seen through the viewfinder the right way up.

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    CONTINUATION During an exposure, the mirror swings up, the

    aperture stops down to the selected size, and the

    shutter opens exposing the electronic sensor

    placed on the focal plane to light. At the end of theexposure, a second shutter closes back over the

    sensor, the mirror drops back into place, and the

    first shutter resets.

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    BEGINNERS GUIDELINES TO SIMPLE PHOTOGRAPHY

    There are 3 things that affect your image quality in

    photography; ISO, aperture and shutter speed. All 3of these things depend on one other factor which is

    light. A photograph is basically a chemical process

    in which light is exposed to film, or a sensor in

    digital cameras, and registers an image.

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    CONTINUATION

    Theres a device in the camera called the diaphragm, whichis directly connected to aperture. The different aperturesettings are called f-stops, and are represented by thenumbers you see on the image. The larger the number,

    the smaller the aperture, so for example, an f-stop of f1.4would be very large, while an f-stop of f16 would be very

    small. Typically, most consumer lenses have a range of f2to f16. Dont be overwhelmed by the technical terms andnumbers and things like that, once you try everything out

    on the actual camera, it will all start to make sense. WhenI first went over the module on this it was all gibberish to

    me, until I actually took some pictures trying all thedifferent settings. Thats when it all made perfect sense.

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    Now, usually a faster shutter speed will require a larger apertureto allow enough light into the camera, and a slower shutter speedwill need a smaller aperture to prevent too much light from gettingin. You see, shutter speed is how long the shutter is open to allow

    light into the camera. Shutter speed is always measured inseconds. To demonstrate the effect of ISO, see the below image.Each photo was taken at 1/250th of a second, and the apertureset to f5.6, while the ISO was changed. The ISO is simply how

    sensitive the film, or censor in a digital camera, is to light. Thelower the ISO is, the less sensitive it is to light. The higher theISO is, the more sensitive it is to light. You can see from the

    photo, that at 100 ISO, the picture is quite dark. At 400 ISO, thepicture is better, and at 1600 ISO, the picture is far too bright.

    Depending on the ISO you are using, your shutter speed will have

    to be adjusted to allow the right amount of light for what you wantto achieve.

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    The more light that is available, the faster yourshutter speed can be. The type of light will also

    change things, but that gets more complicated. All

    light has a temperature in degrees Kelvin, which

    also affects things. I wont get into that yet, as its a

    little more advanced.

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    Now, lets talk a little about why shutter speed is

    important. Its pretty simple, actually. The faster your

    shutter opens and closes, the less you have to worry

    about a blurry image. For most people, a shutter speed of

    1/60th of a second is the slowest you can hand hold the

    camera before experiencing blur due to camera shake. If

    you are photographing a still object, or a slow moving

    object, a fast shutter speed isnt as important. If you arephotographing a fast moving object, a fast shutter speed

    suddenly becomes a necessity most of the time. Now

    remember, the higher the ISO, the more sensitive the

    film/censor will be to the light. So one might think its bestto always use the highest ISO possible, right? The correct

    answer is; sometimes. In the next image we see

    something new, called grain.

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    Grain is essentially how nice your photos look. Most ofthe time, you wont be able to tell the difference in grain at

    standard print size of 4x6. However, if you ever have aphotograph youd like to enlarge, ISO suddenly becomes

    very important. The higher the ISO, the grainier yourphoto will look. Below I cropped just the face of an image,one at 100 ISO and the other at 1600 ISO. The first photolooks smoother, while the second looks, well, grainy. Most

    consumers wont need to be making a lot ofenlargements, so this doesnt always matter. But even anamateur will sometimes get that one perfect shot they just

    would love to hang on their wall. Unfortunately, if thatperfect shot was taken with a high ISO film, or using a

    high ISO setting on a digital camera, the size of theenlargement will be limited before it starts to look bad. Ifind for the average every-day John and Jane Q. Normal,

    400 ISO is best. It gets more complicated of course ifyoure looking at it from a professional level, and I may

    get into that another time.

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    Most likely, in the first frame, your eye is attracted to the figurine.This is because the back round is blurred, and unobtrusive. In thesecond frame still focused on the figurine, but a little distracted. Inthe last frame, your eye was probably drawn first to the red box,and when you look at the figurine, youre distracted by the box inthe center. So as you can see from the pictures, depth of field is

    essentially the area in front and behind the object that is in focus..

    Each photo was taken with the same ISO, but both the shutter

    speed and aperture were changed. As you can see, the backround became less blurred the smaller the aperture. The entiretime I kept focused on the figurine. Anything in front of, or behindthe figurine would appear blurry. You can set things up howeverso that your depth of field is infinite (to a degree) and everything

    is sharp. The further away something is, the more infinite the

    focus can be. The closer it is, the more limited that becomes. Forexample, if taking a macro photo of a small insect, you can havethe insect in focus, but no matter what lens or camera you have,you can focus on both the insect up close and mountains in thedistance. The closer something is, the more limited the depth of

    field will be.

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    Depth of Field is probably the most confusing tobeginners, because reading about it can be complicated,

    as there are many different factors that will affect yourdepth of field. For example, a telephoto lens will have amore sensitive depth of field, while a wide angle lens willbe less obvious. Its easiest to tackle this one factor by

    taking your camera out and just trying the differentaperture settings and distances from objects. Some

    cameras will have a depth of field preview button, that will

    show you in the viewfinder how the depth of field will look.This is a very helpful function to have, but if not, trial and

    error must be used for the beginner.

    The best thing to do is buy or rent an old, fully manual filmcamera. The biggest problem most beginners face is the

    ease of automatic features. Buying a fully manual cameraforces you to learn these beginner concepts, which willaid greatly in how all you photographs will look in thefuture. My 2 favorite manual cameras are the Pentax

    K1000 and the Canon AE-1 (But do not get the Canon

    AE-1 Program, as it is largely automatic if you want it tobe).

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    The settings for all these functions will be available

    on most digital cameras, not just SLRs. Chances

    are if your camera is 3 megapixels and up, it will

    have the right functions. Youll have to consult yourmanual for help on where to find them and how to

    set them on your camera however.

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    TERMINOLOGIES Aperture: The lens opening that changes in

    diameter,thereby determining how much light passesthrough to expose the film.

    Aperture Priority Setting: An exposure setting takenwith a camera where the photographer chooses the

    aperture setting and the camera sets the shutterspeed for proper exposure. If the photographerchanges the aperture, the camera automatically

    changes the shutter speed to match. Aperture Ring: The ring located on the outside of the

    lens, usually behind the focusing ring. It controls thesize of the aperture opening.

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    Auto Exposure Bracketing: A camera option that

    automatically sets the exposure of the film to varied

    shutter speeds and/or aperture settings.

    Autofocus (AF) System: A common system on

    SLR cameras where the camera lens automatically

    focuses the image using a selected part of the

    picture. Automatic Camera: A camera with a built-in

    exposure meter that automatically does the work of

    adjusting the aperture, shutter speed, or both for

    proper exposure.

    Automatic Setting or Program Exposure: An

    exposure setting where the camera sets both the

    aperture setting and shutter speed for proper

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    Finder or Viewfinder: The area on the camera

    where the photographer views the subject area that

    will be recorded on the film.

    Fixed-Focus Lens: A non-adjustable camera lens,

    which is set for a fixed distance.

    Flash: A brief, intense burst of light from a bulb or

    flash unit. F-Stop or F-Number: A number that indicates the

    size of the aperture lens opening such as f/1.4, f/4,

    f/5.6, f/16, and f/22. The larger the f-stop number,

    the smaller the lens opening. F-stop determines

    your depth of field.

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    Focal Length: The distance, as marked on the

    lens, between the film and the optical center of the

    lens when the lens is focused on infinity. The

    distance is often listed in millimeters, such as

    50mm.

    Focal-Plane Shutter: The shutter system oncameras with a built-in lens. When the shutter is

    pressed an opaque curtain containing a slit moves

    directly across in front of the camera film, exposing

    the film.

    Focus: The act of adjusting the focus setting on a

    lens in order to sharply define the subject.

    Hot Shoe: The area on a camera that holds a small

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    Image Stabilization or Vibration Reducing: A

    lens with an internal system to detect camerashake and compensate for it.

    Internal Flash. A flash integrated into the body of

    the camera, usually on the top.

    Lens: Optical glass or a similar material thatcollects and focuses light to form an image on film.

    Lens Hood or Shade: An attachment located at

    the front of a lens to keep unwanted light fromstriking the lens and causing image flare.

    Light Meter or Exposure Meter: An instrument

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    Light Meter or Exposure Meter: An instrument

    that measures the light reflected from or falling on

    an object for proper exposure. Cameras often have

    an internal light meter but external light meters aremore effective.

    Macro Lens: A lens which changes the perspective

    to focus from an extremely close distance to infinity.

    Manual Focus: The process of setting the focus

    using the focus ring on the lens instead of using the

    camera's auto-focus system.

    Manual Setting: An exposure setting where theaperture setting and the shutter speed are both set

    by the photographer. It gives the photographer

    more freedom in choosing shutter speed and depth

    of field when composing.

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    Motor Drive or Continuous Mode: An electronic

    mechanism that advances the film to the next frame

    and continues taking photographs. Continuous

    mode is often used in Sports Photography.

    Normal Lens: A lens that does not change the

    perspective of the image like a telephoto or wide-angle lens.

    Reflector: Any device which reflects light onto a

    subject.

    Shutter Blades: A movable cover in a lens that

    controls the aperture setting and the time when

    light reaches the film.

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    Shutter Priority: An exposure setting taken with a

    camera where the photographer chooses the

    shutter speed setting and the camera sets theaperture for proper exposure. If the photographer

    changes the shutter speed, the camera

    automatically changes the aperture to match.

    Single-Lens-Reflex (SLR) Camera: A camera inwhich you view the scene through the same lens

    that takes the picture.

    Soft Focus Lens: A special lens that creates soft

    outlines in the image.

    Telephoto Lens: A lens which changes the

    perspective to make the object appear closer.

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    Time Exposure: An exposure that takes seconds

    or minutes to complete.

    Tripod: A three-legged support that holds thecamera steady.

    Unipod: A one-legged support that holds the

    camera steady.

    Wide-Angle Lens: A lens which changes theperspective to make the objects appear in a wider

    field of view.

    Zoom: A lens which changes the perspective like atelephoto or wide-angle lens. The zoom, though,

    has a wide range of focal lengths, allowing the

    photographer to change the perspective from close

    in to far away.

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    EXPOSURE TERM

    Bracketing: The process of taking a series of

    photographs of the same subject through a range

    of exposures, both lighter and darker, to insure a

    correct exposure. Some SLR cameras havesettings that allow automatic bracketing.

    Film Speed: Your choice of film speed as reflected

    in an ISO number.

    Highlights: The brightest areas of a subject.

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    ISO Number: A rating of the film's sensitivity to

    light. The higher the number, the more sensitive or

    "faster" the film; the lower the number, the lesssensitive or "slower" the film.

    Overexposure: The washed-out, overly bright

    areas of a photograph due to too much lightreaching the film.

    Shutter Speed: The duration for which the aperture

    will remain open. On an SLR camera the shutter

    speed can be adjusted. The numbers represent

    either seconds or fractions of a second. For

    example, 1 = 1 second, 15 = 1/15 second, 60 =

    1/60 second, etc.

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    Tone: The degree of lightness or darkness on

    a print.

    Underexposure: The muddy, dark areas of a

    photograph due to too little light reaching the film. White Balance: A function on the camera that

    compensates for different colors of light being

    emitted by different light sources.

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    LIGHTING TERMS

    Ambient Light: The natural, available light in ascene.

    Backlighting: The light coming from behind thesubject.

    Bounce Lighting: Light that is bounced off areflector to give the effect of ambient light.

    Diffuse Lighting or Soft Lighting: Lighting thatis low or moderate in contrast.

    Existing Light: Any available light regardless oftime of day and at any location.

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    Fill Flash: A technique to brighten dark shadow

    areas, often used when the subject is located in thedark shadow.

    Fill-In Light: Light added to the existing light by

    use of a lamp, flash or reflector.

    Frontlighting: Light shining from the direction ofthe camera toward the subject.

    Sidelighting: Light shining on the subject from the

    side relative to the camera, often casting longshadows.

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    EXAMPL

    ES

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    AERIAL PHOTOGRAPHY

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    DAGUERREOTYPE

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    DRY PLATE

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    WET PLATE ERA

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    THE END!!