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    Behavior and Accident

    Causation

    Occupational Health and Safety

    PUBH 34310November 5, 2004

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    Introduction

    Accidents may be caused by unsafe acts

    or unsafe conditions

    This presentation emphasizes behavioral

    aspects (acts)

    Most remaining class sessions will deal with

    workplace conditions

    Job Safety Analysis (JSA) will also beaddressed

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    Objectives

    Understand classic motivational theories

    Hertzberg, Mazlow, McGregor

    Know about basic safety behaviorprograms

    Incentives, behavior based safety

    Advantages/disadvantages

    Be familiar with Job Safety Analysis

    JSA procedures, forms

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    Unsafe Acts

    Most industrial accidents are attributed tounsafe acts, rather than unsafeconditions

    88% of accidents caused by unsafe acts Travelers Insurance Company

    Heinrich, Industrial Accident Prevention,1941

    96% of accidents caused by unsafe acts

    DuPont (1986)

    BTerry McSween, The Values-Based Safety

    Process

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    Understanding Behavior

    Why study behavior?

    Most accidents are caused by a workers

    actions

    An understanding of behavior may help

    change this unsafe behavior

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    Psychological Factors in Safety

    Individual Differences

    Motivation

    Emotions Stress

    Attitudes and Behaviors

    Learning Processes

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    Individual Differences

    Behavior may notbe predictable

    Individual

    psychologicalmakeup differs

    Affected byattitude, heredity,

    past experiences(knowledge),situation

    Motivation

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    Theories of Motivation

    What motivates behavior?

    Well-known behavior theories

    Abraham Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs

    (1949)

    Frederick Hertzberg's Hygiene theory (1953)

    Douglas MacGregor's "Theory X and Y" (1960s)

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    Theories of Motivation

    Abraham Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs (1949)

    Five motivators Physiological

    Security

    Social

    Ego

    Self-actualization

    Unfulfilled needsmotivate

    Each need must bemet in sequence

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    Theories of Motivation

    Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs ( cont.)

    Physiological

    Hunger, thirst, sex, excretion, rest, activity

    Pay

    Security, safety Comfort, self-preservation, protection, safety,

    justice

    Job security

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    Theories of Motivation

    Mazlow's Hierarchy of Needs ( cont.)

    Social, belonging

    Acceptance, membership, tolerance, teamspirit, equality

    Co-workers Ego

    Self-respect, freedom, importance, dignity,power, recognition

    Promotions

    Self-actualization Self-expression, achievement, development,

    creativity

    Self-direction

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    Theories of Motivation

    Frederick Hertzberg's Hygiene theory (1953)

    Hygiene Factors, Satisfiers

    Policies, Supervision, work conditions, salary, peer relations,

    subordinate relations, status, security

    They can not motivate, but they can de-motivate if absent

    (dis-satisfiers)

    Motivators

    Achievement, recognition, work itself, responsibility,

    advancement, growth These factors result from internal generators in employees,

    yielding motivation

    Hygiene and motivation must be done simultaneously

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    Theories of Motivation

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    Theories of Motivation

    Douglas MacGregor's "Theory X and Y" (1960s) Theory X Assumptions

    Humans do not like work and avoid it if possible

    Most people must be controlled and threatened before they will

    work hard Humans prefers to be directed, dislikes responsibility, and

    desires security

    Theory Y Assumptions Physical and mental effort in work is as natural as play or rest

    Man will direct himself if he is committed to the organization

    If a job is satisfying, then the result will be commitment

    The average man learns accept and seek responsibility

    Most employees can use creativity to solve work problems

    Intellectual potentialities of the average man are only partiallyutilized.

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    Attitude

    Attitude may have little to do with behavior

    Attitude components

    Affective

    Positive or negative feelings created

    Cognitive Extent of knowledge about a topic

    Action Actual behavior about a topic

    Changing attitudes?

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Incentive Awards

    A pre-determined goal is established, such as an

    accident rate or number of lost time injuries

    Goods, merchandise or cash is awarded if goal is met Advantages/Disadvantages

    Easy to administer

    May reduce rates (often because it discourages proper

    reporting of injuries)

    Making a game of safety is trivializing

    Feedback can go to the wrong group

    Robs workers of pride of performance

    Creeping entitlement syndrome

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Incentive awards (cont.)

    Examples:

    Gifts are awarded to members of a work group

    when a safety goal is met No lost time injuries in a year, etc.

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Incentive awards (cont.)

    Examples:

    Safety Bingo, Safety Poker

    Workers are given game cards

    Each day a new number is drawn and posted

    The winning worker gets a cash reward

    The prize increases after each round

    If there is an injury

    The current game is aborted

    The prize reverts back to the starting value

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Incentive Awards (cont.)

    Advantages/Disadvantages

    Easy to administer

    May reduce rates (often because it discouragesproper reporting of injuries)

    Making a game of safety is trivializing

    Feedback can go to the wrong group

    Robs workers of pride of performance

    Creeping entitlement syndrome

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Behavior Modification programs Reward for behavior

    Smaller rewards (coupons, tokens, etc.)

    Awarded many times throughout year

    Advantages/Disadvantages

    Eliminates false feedback

    Does not encourage under-reporting

    More difficult to administer (observations, manymeetings, etc.)

    Robs workers of pride of performance

    Employees may respond cynically

    May motivate right behavior, but for wrong reason

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Behavior Modification (cont.)

    Example:

    Behavior-Based Safety

    Uses feedback based on identified behaviors

    Management behaviors - design, support

    Supervisor behaviors - training, equipment

    Involvement behaviors - meetings, observations,

    suggestions

    Relies on Critical behaviors

    PPE, body position, tool use

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Behavior-Based Safety (cont.)

    Advantages/Disadvantages

    Identifies behavior and training problems

    Increases awareness and aids motivation

    More difficult to administer

    Depends on proper identification of critical

    behaviors

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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    Behavior-Based Safety

    Advantages/Disadvantages (cont.)

    Turns the Hierarchy of Controls upside down

    Workers afraid to report injuries

    Can create conflict

    Workers

    Management

    Labor Unions

    Internet sites http://www.semcosh.org/behaviorbasedsafety.htm

    http://www.ufcw.org/workplace_connections/retail/safety_health

    _news_and_facts/behavior_based.cfm

    http://www.semcosh.org/behaviorbasedsafety.htmhttp://www.ufcw.org/workplace_connections/retail/safety_health_news_and_facts/behavior_based.cfmhttp://www.ufcw.org/workplace_connections/retail/safety_health_news_and_facts/behavior_based.cfmhttp://www.ufcw.org/workplace_connections/retail/safety_health_news_and_facts/behavior_based.cfmhttp://www.ufcw.org/workplace_connections/retail/safety_health_news_and_facts/behavior_based.cfmhttp://www.semcosh.org/behaviorbasedsafety.htm
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    Behavioral Safety Programs

    The Hawthorne effect, a considerationfor all safety programs

    1930s era study of the Hawthorne Plant of

    the Western Electric Company in Cicero,Illinois.

    Productivity regardless of the workplace factorbeing studied

    Environmental and psychological factors Conclusion: People change their behavior

    when they are being studied

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    Job Safety Analysis

    Occupational Health and Safety

    PUBH 34310November 5, 2004

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