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Kingdom where there is not such a hospital provided forthe citizens.
Queen’s College, Beyast.On Thursday, Nov. 2nd, Dr. Byers, the new Professor of
Midwifery and of Diseases of Women and Children, wasinstalled in his chair and received a most cordial receptionfrom a very large audience of colleagues, students, andmedical practitioners who filled the midwifery class-room.Nov. 7th.
PARIS.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
The Curability of Tuberculous Peritonitis.MOST modern writers agree in regarding the absorption of
tubercle deposited on the surface of the peritoneum as afrequent occurrence. Long before laparotomy was heard of as.a remedy for this condition, inunction of the abdominal
parietes with liniment of mercury or with oleate of mercuryhad determined many a cure at Guy’s Hospital. From a’discussion that arose on this subject at the Societe Médica1edes Hôpitaux on the 27th ult. it would appear that a varietyof therapeutical means suffice to bring about the same happy’result. Thus, M. Rendu presented a woman who had beencured by intra-peritoneal injections of camphorated naphthol.Admitted into the ward in the month of May with con-siderable ascites and other unmistakable signs of tuberculousperitonitis, seven Pravaz syringefuls of pure camphoratednaphthol were introduced into the abdominal cavity afterthis had been emptied of seven litres of fluid. Some fever.and pain resulted, but both disappeared in a few days. Noreturn of the effusion was noted, and the altered condition’of the abdomen enabled a diffused mass of tuberculous depositto be distinguished. This mass (gâtea1t) became graduallyabsorbed, and by Aug. 15th the abdominal walls had regained all their normal suppleness. At presentit would be impossiblefor any physician to suspect the former existence of tuberculousperitonitis. In the course of the discussion that followed thereading of M. Rendu’s paper M. du Cazal remarked that ofall manifestations af tuberculosis that affecting the peri-toneum was the one that had the greatest tendency towards recovery, and this under the most diversified forms of treat-ment-e. g., blisters, local applications of tinctures of iodine orof collodion, &c. Stranger still, M. Le Gendre said that he hadseen tuberculous peritonitis in a young girl disappear com-pletely in consequence of regular exercise on a tricycle.With regard to the employment of camphorated naphthol,both MM. Le Gendre and Fernet uttered a note of warning,the former stating that he had more than once seen animalsinto whose peritoneal cavity this substance had been intro-duced succumb in convulsions.
-R6th,eln.At the same meeting 1 M. Sevestre stated that from notes
he had recently taken of an epidemic of German measles at aParis lycee he believed himself in a position to formulate thefollowing conclusions: Epidemics of rubeola are charac-terised by successive outbreaks separated the one from theother by an interval corresponding to the period of incuba-tion-here a fortnight on an average. The disease is in-fectious from the beginning, like measles, and isolation ofthe patients is too late a measure, for they have alreadyspread around them the specific germs. The desideratumis isolation of children who have been in contactwith cases. These exposed persons should be closelywatched, especially from the twelfth day after exposure,in order that they may be isolated on °the appearance,of the initial symptoms. Unfortunately, prodromata are,in the majority of cases, wanting, and preventive isolationis accordingly difficult to put into practice. Once thedisease is over-i. e., in about eight days-the patient is nolonger dangerous to his neighbours, and he may be safelyallowed to mix with his comrades. On this point M. Sevestre,differs in toto from M. Ollivier, who insists upon a quarantineof twenty days and the taking of an antiseptic bath, as well asthe closing and the disinfection of the school that has been thelocus of the disease. In the epidemic observed by M. Sevestrethe patients remained in the infirmary for a period of from sevento twelve days and were then allowed to resume their studies.No instance of infection was noted. Disinfection of theroom, furniture, &c., is, according to him, unnecessary, the
1 Société Médicale des Hôpitaux, Oct. 27th.
specific microbe being, like that of measles, endowed with avery limited vitality. M. Juhel-Renoy laid stress on the
importance of an early diagnosis and said that the apyrexiaso commonly attending rubeola was an altogether exceptionalphenomenon in measles. If, then, a child affected with ameasly eruption was apyretic, rötheln might be almost cer-tainly diagnosed. Of four cases observed by M. Rendu in thesame family, two had fever and two had none.
The late Professor Trélat.A movement has been started among the friends and old
pupils of the late regretted surgeon of the Charite Hospitalhaving for its object the placing of his bust in the Salle desActes (Notice Room) of the Paris Faculty. Such a piousproject will, I am sure, meet with the approbation and sup-port of all who, like myself, were privileged to attend thepractice at the old Charité of this remarkably eloquentsurgeon.
Staff Cltrxnges at Hospitals.The recent death of Professor Le Fort has necessitated
certain changes among the surgical staff of the hospitals.Thus Professor Duplay removes to the clinical wardsof the Hotel-Dieu, and Professor Tillaux to those of theCharite. M. Terrier, who has accepted the vacant chair ofClinical Surgery only under certain conditions, at presentunrevealed, will soon be transferred to the distant Hôpital dela Pitie. By the way, it is not perhaps known in Englandthat M. Terrier was formerly a veterinary practitioner at thecelebrated school of Alfort.Nov. 7th.
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
Investigation into the Origin of Blood-corpuscles.THE much-discussed question of the origin of the cor-
puscular elements of the blood is the subject of a paper byEngel which is illustrated by some very good colouredplates. Engel examined the blood of fcetal mice at variousstages of development, as also that of human embryos, of aprematurely born child, and of some cases of leucæmia. Thefoetal blood was examined as quickly as possible after death,and often the preparation was dry within five to ten seconds.The method employed was strictly that with which ProfessorEhrlich’s name is associated. In the blood of an infantprematurely born at the seventh month, which lived forsixteen days, Engel found on the day after death : (1) normal,biconcave, red corpuscles ; (2) red corpuscles of globular formfrom which a nucleus, invisible on account of its mantle ofhaemoglobin, finally extricated itself as (3) a more or lesscompletely developed white corpuscle. No blood plaqueswere found in this blood, and the number of leucocytes wassmall in comparison to that of the red cells.Iodine Trichloride as a Hypodermic Injection in Puerperal
Septicæmia.Gottschalk publishes a note 2 on the use of iodine trichloride
in cases of puerperal fever. It has been asserted that thissalt is so irritating that it cannot be used hypodermically.Gottschalk has employed it in three cases of puerperalfever, injecting it deeply into the gluteus muscle withoutany painful result. He used a 1 per cent. solution, of whichfrom 1 to 2 c.cm. were injected once or twice daily. Twoof the cases recovered.
: New Departments in the Charité.Two new departments have -been formed in the Charite,
one for diseases of the nose and throat, with ProfessorB. Fraenkel as chief, and the other for aural diseases underProfessor F. Trautmann. The number of beds in the Chariteis about 1780.
The date of the Introduction of Syphilis into EuropeThis subject is discussed by Professor Binz.3 The con-
clusion he comes to is that constitutional syphilis was
unknown in Europe before 1493, in which year Columbusarrived at Barcelona from Haiti and brought with him thedisease, which his followers had contracted among theHaitians. It seems that the complaint had been known andgeneral for a very long time in Haiti and was not at all
1 Archiv fur Microscopische Anatomie, Band xlii., Heft 22 Deutsche Medicinische Wochenschrift, No. 44.
severe, but when infected upon the fresh soil of the Spanibhrace it raged furiously.
Amæbæ in Human Intestines.
Quincke and Roos4 communicate the results of investiga-tions into the occurrence of amceboe in human intestines.Amoebas do not play any part in causing epidemic dysenterysuch as is seen among armies in the field, but are foundin tropical or endemic dysentery. Two cases are describedin which enteritis of long standing seemed to be causedby amœbæ. In one case they were found to be patho- genic for cats when introduced into the bowel and alsowhen the encysted form was given by the mouth. In thesecond case those found in the stools did not affect cats.at all. Besides the already known form-A. coli Loschv. coli felis-there is another form of amoeba, amoeba colimitis, which gives rise to a milder form of enteritis and isnot pathogenic for cats. Distinct from both of these is athird form-amœba intestini vulgaris-which is found in theintestines of healthy persons and is harmless. The best treat-ment was found to be calomel, but relapses occur, becausecalomel appears to favour the encysting of the amoebae.
Nov. 7th. ________________
(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
The C7tolera Epidemic in St. Petersburg.DURING the past fortnight the daily returns of cholera ir
St. Petersburg have shown a very marked improvement uporthose of the preceding weeks. In the week ending Oct. 14th(Old Style) there were 124 cases of cholera and 59 deaths fromthe disease, as compared with 157 cases and 72 deaths in theweek before. In the week ending Oct. 21st a still further’decline is noticeable, the figures being 54 cases and 27 deaths,or a daily average of 8 cases and 4 deaths. The numbercemaining under treatment at the last-named date was 75.
Ne?v Physiological Institute in ffosco7v.On Oct. 10th a new Institute of Physiological Histology
was opened in Moscow. The building is stated to have cost120,000 roubles (£12,000), and a further 10,000 roubles havebeen spent in furnishing it. It is said to be the best fittedinstitution of the kind in Europe.Introduction of the Decimal System of Weights and Measures.Next year the use of the decimal system of weights and
measures in all pharmaceutical matters, in place of theso-called Nuremberg system hitherto in use, will become
compulsory throughout Russia. For the past four yearsinstrnction in this system, as well as in the old system, hasbeen obligatory in all the Russian universities, so that thechange will not take place without sufficient warning.
Closing of t7te Hygienic Exhibition.The Hygienic Exhibition, which has been open all the
summer, was closed on Oct. 10th (22nd). The closing ceremony took place to the strains of the 1rIarseillaise "and amid prolonged cries of "Vive la France," which, if not very relevant, sufficiently indicate the one prevailing topic which occupies men’s minds here at the present time. TheExhibition is generally held to have been a success, andthe Russian National Health Society (to whose initiative it was due) has decided to found a permanent Museum of Hygiene in St. Petersburg. A large number of objectsshown at the Exhibition have already been presented to thesociety as a nucleus for the museum.
St. Petersburg, Oct. 22nd (Nov. 3rd).
EGYPT.(FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENT.)
Quarantine Department.ON Nov. 1st the new decisions of the late International
Congress at Dresden will commence to take effect. One ofthe most important points which affects this country is thatthe number of Egyptian representatives will be reducedfrom nine to four. These four are now two Englishmen, aGerman, and a Frenchman, and they hold the respective postsof president and vice-president of the Quarantine Board,
4 Berliner Klinische Wochenschrift, No. 45.
sanitary inspector of Alexandria, and chief veterinary adviserto the Egyptian Government. It is hoped that one of theirfirst duties will be to re-make the laws relating to the admis-sion of cattle into Egypt, and with this might very well beconsidered the advisability of enforcing police inspectionof imported dogs. There was a time when rabies and
hydrophobia were unknown in Egypt, but during the lastseven years many undoubted cases have been met with.During the past summer an English officer and his nativeservant were bitten by the former’s pet dog, and have sinceundergone the Pasteur treatment in Paris. There have beenmany complaints from passengers who have had to undergotwo or three days’ quarantine in the lazaretto at Alexandria.In cases where the steamer happened to be remaining inthe harbour passengers used to be allowed to remainon board to take their purgatory comfortably ; but in con-sequence of cholera having apparently been concealed on anItalian vessel this privilege was lately withdrawn. Early inOctober an English ship reached Alexandria with some thirty-eight Europeans on board. The ship had stopped at Naples,and though no one had landed or embarked there three days’quarantine was enforced at the lazaretto. It is stated thatthe railway carriages which convey passengers from thelanding-place to the lazaretto are very dirty and evil-smelling, and that in the buildings provided for first.class passengers there are no baths, too few waterclosets,which are kept in a very filthy state, and an insufficientnumber of bedrooms, so that six or seven people have to sharea room. Among minor complaints there is that of no supplyof milk or other facilities for children’s requirements and thatvery little hot water can only be obtained with great diffi-culty. There are, however, no complaints about the restaurant,which is fairly good and not expensive.
Absence of Cholera.r
Egypt may again be congratulated upon having escaped a’ visitation of cholera, in spite of the thousands of pilgrims ather very doors. The next time there is a cholera congress in
Europe, attention might surely be turned to the Mussulmanhabit of bringing Zem-zem water polluted by sewage into
7 countries anxious to avoid cholera. All such water shouldb be confiscated in the desert, and I am assured that noMahommedan would think himself seriously aggrieved inconsequence. Pilgrims bring back bottles of this water fortheir friends, exactly as Europeans collect water of theJordan for their untravelled neighbours. This Jordan water
is sometimes used at Royal christenings in England, where itis quite harmless ; but the pious Turk or Egyptian is apt tokeep the Zem-zem water as a precious cordial for use duringillness or to break his fast at the end of the trying month of
: Ramadan, when the bottled-up germs would be specially apt’ to prey upon his exhausted interior. In September there was
a case suspiciously like true cholera in one of the outlyingparts of Cairo, but as careful search failed to find any commabacilli the death was declared not to be due to cholera. The
patient died forty-eight hours after being attacked and neversuffered from cramps, though there were vomiting, diarrhoea,sunken eyes, aphonia, thirst, dyspnoea, pulselessness, andsuppression of urine. The medical men seeing the case, who hadhad a previous experience of cholera, believed that it was notthe real disease, but suspicion was created by finding that inthe same house there were pilgrims who had returned to Cairofrom Mecca only four days before. Moreover the effects of thesepilgrims included Zem-zem water, dates from the Hedjaz, andthe clothing and other property of another pilgrim who haddied from cholera in the Holy Places. It is needless to say thatthe precautions taken were of the most careful kind. The houseand its cesspool were cleaned, disinfected, and whitewashed,as many things as possible were burnt, and the people of thehouse were kept under observation in a tent in the desert forseveral days.
The greatest festival at Tantah in honour of a modernHercules, who is enshrined in a mosque there, unfortunatelytakes place at the end of August and beginning of September.It is attended by some 95,000 Egyptians, who travel by rail-way, besides an incalculable number who arrive by road. Oflate years it has often been suppressed because of the obviousdanger of a crowded fair at the height of the potential cholera season, but this year the Government decidedto listen to the clamours of those who were anxiousto celebrate the festival. Mahmoud Pasha Sidky was sent
to organise all sanitary details, and it is said that the fairhas never been so well arranged before. There were 1050