beryllium and beryllium compounds

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  • This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts and does notnecessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the United Nations EnvironmentProgramme, the International Labour Organization, or the World Health Organization.

    Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 32

    BERYLLIUM AND BERYLLIUM COMPOUNDS

    Please note that the layout and pagination of this pdf file are not identical to those of theprinted CICAD

    First draft prepared by Dr Robert M. Bruce, National Center for Environmental Assessment, US Environmental ProtectionAgency, Cincinnati, OH, USA, andMr Mark Odin, Syracuse Research Corporation, Syracuse, NY, USA

    Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, theInternational Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization, and produced within theframework of the Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals.

    World Health OrganizationGeneva, 2001

  • The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), established in 1980, is a joint ventureof the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the International Labour Organization (ILO),and the World Health Organization (WHO). The overall objectives of the IPCS are to establish thescientific basis for assessment of the risk to human health and the environment from exposure tochemicals, through international peer review processes, as a prerequisite for the promotion of chemicalsafety, and to provide technical assistance in strengthening national capacities for the sound managementof chemicals.

    The Inter-Organization Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC) wasestablished in 1995 by UNEP, ILO, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, WHO,the United Nations Industrial Development Organization, the United Nations Institute for Training andResearch, and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (ParticipatingOrganizations), following recommendations made by the 1992 UN Conference on Environment andDevelopment to strengthen cooperation and increase coordination in the field of chemical safety. Thepurpose of the IOMC is to promote coordination of the policies and activities pursued by the ParticipatingOrganizations, jointly or separately, to achieve the sound management of chemicals in relation to humanhealth and the environment.

    WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data

    Beryllium and beryllium compounds.

    (Concise international chemical assessment document ; 32)

    1.Beryllium - toxicity 2.Risk assessment 3.Environmental exposure4.Occupational exposure I.International Programme on Chemical Safety II.Series

    ISBN 92 4 153032 4 (NLM Classification: QV 275) ISSN 1020-6167

    The World Health Organization welcomes requests for permission to reproduce or translate itspublications, in part or in full. Applications and enquiries should be addressed to the Office of Publications,World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, which will be glad to provide the latest information onany changes made to the text, plans for new editions, and reprints and translations already available.

    World Health Organization 2001

    Publications of the World Health Organization enjoy copyright protection in accordance with theprovisions of Protocol 2 of the Universal Copyright Convention. All rights reserved.

    The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply theexpression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Secretariat of the World Health Organizationconcerning the legal status of any country, territory, city, or area or of its authorities, or concerning thedelimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

    The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers products does not imply that they areendorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar naturethat are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products aredistinguished by initial capital letters.

    The Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety, Germany,provided financial support for the printing of this publication.

    Printed by Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft mbH, D-70009 Stuttgart 10

  • iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

    1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

    2. IDENTITY AND PHYSICAL/CHEMICAL PROPERTIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

    3. ANALYTICAL METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

    4. SOURCES OF HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    5. ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT, DISTRIBUTION, AND TRANSFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    6. ENVIRONMENTAL LEVELS AND HUMAN EXPOSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    6.1 Environmental levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106.2 Human exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    7. COMPARATIVE KINETICS AND METABOLISM IN LABORATORY ANIMALS ANDHUMANS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    7.1 Absorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.1.1 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127.1.2 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137.1.3 Dermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    7.2 Metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137.3 Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137.4 Excretion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    8. EFFECTS ON LABORATORY MAMMALS AND IN VITRO TEST SYSTEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    8.1 Single exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148.1.1 Inhalation and intratracheal instillation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148.1.2 Other routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    8.2 Irritation and sensitization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158.3 Short-term exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    8.3.1 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168.3.2 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    8.3.3 Dermal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168.4 Medium-term exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    8.4.1 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168.4.2 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    8.5 Long-term exposure and carcinogenicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178.5.1 Inhalation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178.5.2 Oral . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188.5.3 Other routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    8.6 Genotoxicity and related end-points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .