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- 1. BILINGUAL APPROACHES TO LANGUAGE LEARNING (MARY MCGROARTY) Rona R. dela Rosa
- 2. Bilingual Approaches to Language Learning describes the various bilingual models found at different levels (elementary, secondary, post- secondary and adult education), identifying key instructional features and emphasizing the drive for quality instruction.
- 3. In many parts of the world, the attainment of proficiency in two or more languages is viewed as a highly desirable goal. Sometimes the development of bilingual skills takes place outside the bounds of formal education, impelled by individual factors in sociocultural context.
- 4. The emphasis here is on understanding how two(or more) languages are used within an educational system to promote the goal of bilingual proficiency for enrolled students.
- 5. BILINGUAL A person who has age-appropriate language skills in two languages, though the nature and extent of skill in each language will vary according to many individual and situational influences.
- 6. BILITERATE Able to read and write in two languages. (Hornberger and Skilton-Sylvester 2000)
- 7. BILINGUAL EDUCATION APPROACH Is one in which two languages are used as media of classroom instruction for the same group of students.
- 8. WHO CAN BENEFIT FROM BILINGUAL APPROACHES? Any student has a potential to benefit from a bilingual approach to instruction as long as the particular approach chosen suits the students linguistic situation and provides good quality instruction.
- 9. Bilingual education is not only for recent immigrants; there are particular approaches aimed at monolingual students who speak only the majority language and wish to develop strong proficiency in another language (TESOL 1992).
- 10. Linguistic majority students-students whose native language is that spoken in the larger national community Linguistic minority students- students whose native language is not the same as that used in larger national community. Bidialectal students- students who regularly use a dialect different from the standard.
- 11. Bilingual approaches are potentially useful for any student at any educational level. However, their appropriateness and feasibility for particular instructional levels and settings varies and depends in part on school-related factors and in part on matters of the social context surrounding the school.
- 12. BILINGUAL APPROACHES: PROGRAM TYPES
- 13. ELEMENTARY- LEVEL PROGRAM MODELS SECONDARY BILINGUAL APPROACHES POSTSECONDARY BILINGUAL APPROACHES
- 14. ELEMENTARY-LEVEL PROGRAM MODELS EARLY- EXIT LATE-EXIT IMMERSION PROGRAMS
- 15. EARLY-EXIT OR TRANSITIONAL Usually developed to serve young students who are recent immigrants to a new country. It aims to use two languages for classroom instruction up until the point at which children have developed sufficient oral and literacy skills to receive all classroom instruction in their second language.
- 16. Early-Exit programs always include oral use of the childrens native language in the classroom; they may or may not include the active teaching of literary skills in the childrens native language.
- 17. Goals: To ensure mastery of grade-appropriate academic content Facilitate the speedy acquisition of the dominant language so that children can move into mainstream classrooms within three years of program entry.
- 18. LATE-EXIT OR MAINTENANCE Aim to serve young students who are either immigrants to a country or who are members of relatively large groups within a country and who speak a native language different from the dominant one.
- 19. GOALS: Development of literacy skills in both the native language and second language. Development of academic literacy skills in both languages theoretically continues for the duration of the program.
- 20. IMMERSION PROGRAMS Aim to immerse students in a language different from their native language.
- 21. GOALS Build strong academic literacy skills in that language. Give students access to subject matter taught entirely through the second language
- 22. SECONDARY BILINGUAL APPROACHES Bilingual programs found at the secondary level are usually some variant of early-exit or transitional bilingual programs in which the students native language is used just long enough to help them make a transition to the socially and politically dominant language which they are then expected to use through the rest of secondary school.
- 23. POSTSECONDARY BILINGUAL APPROACHES Bilingual programs for adults in the United States have been developed to provide short-term, highly focused vocational training for special population such as refugees who qualify for special government support .
- 24. Where there are large numbers of English learners who share a native language background, native language instruction may be included as a part of relatively short programs aimed at helping participants find employment as soon as possible.
- 25. FROM PROGRAM MODELS TO QUALITY INDICATORS Contemporary discussions of bilingual education emphasize the match between the characteristics of an educational program, the sociocultural context of the students it serves, and the resources available to support educational efforts.
- 26. All these affect the nature of related teacher expertise, choice of instructional approach, and outcomes to be expected in any instructional programs, including bilingual approaches.
- 27. AVAILABILITY OF QUALIFIED TEACHERS AND OTHER SCHOOL STAFF Teachers must be both highly proficient in at least one languages of the program and appropriately certified to teach the grade level or subject area for which they will be responsible.
- 28. SOUND CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONAL ORGANIZATIONaccess to the core curriculum ; close articulation of grade and subject levels; flexible groupings; Team teaching; Use of meaningful task ;
- 29. Pedagogy that actively involve the students in instruction; Teaching materials appropriate in quantity and quality to subject taught; peer and cross-age tutoring; Collaborative staff planning; Average class size; Budget for materials and teacher training.
- 30. APPROPRIATE REGULAR ASSESSMENT Good bilingual programs demonstrate a regular and systematic approach to assessment of student progress in all curricular subjects in the relevant language.
- 31. MULTIPLE CHANNELS OF PARENT/COMMUNITY OUTREACH Determine the most effective ways to establish and maintain links between school-level efforts and the activities of students families and communities (McGroarty 1998).
- 32. ONGOING CONCERNS The implementation of good bilingual education programs requires concerted efforts on the parts of teachers, school leaders, students, and families.
- 33. It is often believed that bilingual instruction means instruction in one non-English language only, when, as emphasized in this discussion , the bilingual approaches most commonly used in the United States always involve the use of two languages, one of which is English.
- 34. Thank you!
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