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Biological Beginnings. The Evolutionary Perspective Genetic Foundations of Development Heredity and Environment interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate Prenatal Development Birth. The Evolutionary Perspective. The Evolutionary Perspective. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Biological Beginnings

Biological Beginnings The Evolutionary Perspective

Genetic Foundations of Development

Heredity and Environment interaction: The Nature-Nurture Debate Prenatal Development

Birth

The Evolutionary PerspectiveNatural selection and adaptive behaviorDarwin and his observationsAll organisms must adapt in life

Evolutionary psychologyEmphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behaviorEvolution explains human physical features and behaviorsThe Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary PerspectiveNatural selection and adaptive behaviorDarwin and his observationsAll organisms must adapt in life

Evolutionary psychologyEmphasizes adaptation, reproduction, and survival of the fittest in shaping behaviorEvolution explains human physical features and behaviorsThe Evolutionary Perspective

Evolutionary Developmental PsychologyExplaining humans and their behaviorLarger brains and more complex societiesTakes longest of all mammals to matureSome evolved mechanisms of adaptation not compatible with modern society

The Evolutionary Perspective

Evolution and Life-Span DevelopmentBenefits of evolutionary selection decrease with ageNatural selection failures: harmful conditions and non-adaptivecharacteristicsAs adults weaken biologically, culture-based needs increaseAlternative: bi-directional viewThe Evolutionary Perspective

The Evolutionary PerspectiveBaltes view of evolution and culture across the life span

Evaluating Evolutionary PsychologyRemains just one theoretical approach.

Evolution does not dictate behavior.

Biology allows broad range of cultural possibilities.The Evolutionary Perspective

Genetic Foundations of DevelopmentDNA and the collaborative gene

DNA deoxyribonucleic acid

Chromosomes thread-like structures

Genes units of hereditary information

Human Genome Project

30,000 genes in humansGenetic Foundations

Cells, Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

Genetic FoundationsNucleus (center of cell) contains chromosomes and genesChromosomes are threadlike structures composed of DNA moleculesGene: a segment of DNA (spiraled double chain) containing the hereditary code The Collaborative GeneGenes and chromosomes

Mitosis cell nucleus duplicates

Meiosis cell division forms gametes

Fertilization egg and sperm form zygote

Genetic variability in the population

X and Y chromosomes determine sexGenetic Foundations

The Collaborative GeneGenes and chromosomes

Identical and fraternal twins Mutated gene Genotype all of ones genetic makeup Phenotype observable characteristics

Genetic Foundations

Genetic PrinciplesDominant and recessive genes

Sex-linked genesX-linked inheritance for males and females

Genetic imprintingImprinted gene dominates

Poly-genetically determined characteristicsMany genes interact to influence a traitGenetic Foundations

Genetic Foundationsb bB bB bB B

bBBlond hairBrown hairHow brown-haired parents can have a blond-haired child: the gene for blond hair is recessiveMotherB bFatherB bGenetic FoundationsGenetic PrinciplesChromosome abnormalitiesDown syndrome

Sex-linked chromosome abnormalities

Klinefelter syndrome

Fragile X syndrome

Turner syndrome

XYY syndrome

Sex-Linked Chromosome AbnormalitiesGenetic FoundationsKlinefelterSyndromeFragile X syndromeTurner syndromeMales have an extra X chromosomeAbnormality in the X chromosomeFemales missing an X chromosomeXYY syndromeMales have an extra Y chromosomeGenetic FoundationsGene-Linked AbnormalitiesPKU: phenylketonuriaSickle-cell anemiaCystic fibrosisDiabetesHemophilia Genetic disorders can sometimes be compensated for by other genes or events

Nature-Nurture DebateBehavior GeneticsStudies influence of heredity and environment on individual differencesStudies use twins or adopteesMonozygotic and dizygotic twinsAdoption study: examine behavior and psychological characteristicsHeredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment CorrelationsIn infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents

As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the familys influence

Shared environments are analyzedCommonalities between children attributed to heredity-environment interactionHeredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment CorrelationsPassive genotype-environment correlationsEvocative genotype-environment correlationsActive (niche-picking) genotype-environment correlationsHeredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

Heredity-Environment CorrelationsIn infancy, environment mostly controlled by parents

As children age, their experiences extend more beyond the familys influence

Shared environments are analyzedCommonalities between children attributed to heredity-environment interactionHeredity, Environment, and Individual Differences

The Heredity-Environment and Epigenetic Views

Heredity, Environment, and Individual DifferencesThe Course of Prenatal DevelopmentGerminal period: 2 weeks after conceptionEmbryonic period: 2 to 8 weeks after conception Three layers: endodem, mesoderm, ectodermUmbilical cord connect to placentaOrganogenesis Fetal periodFrom 2 months after conception to birthTrimesters of pregnancy Prenatal Development

Second trimesterThird trimesterFirst trimester0 - 4 weeksLess than 1 inch long12 weeks32 weeks 8 weeksLess than 1/10th of inch long16 -18 inches, wt: 4-5 lbs3 inches long, wt: 1 ounce16 weeks5.5 inches long, wt: 4 ounces20 weeks10-12 inches, wt: -1 lbs24 weeks11-14 inches, wt: 1-1 lbs36-38 weeks28 weeks19 inches, wt: 6 lbs14-17 inches, wt: 2 -3 lbsThe three trimesters of prenatal developmentPrenatal DevelopmentPrenatal Diagnostic Tests

Ultrasound sonographyChorionic villi sampling: small sample of placenta takenAmniocentesis: samples amniotic fluidMaternal blood testPrenatal Development

The Brain

Neurons 100 billionBirth defects and neural tubeNeuronal migration occursPrenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal DevelopmentTeratogen: agent causing birth defects

Severity of damage affected byDose Genetic susceptibilityTime of exposure

Effects of prescription and nonprescription drugsPrenatal Development

Prenatal DevelopmentTeratogens and Timing of Their Effects on Prenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal DevelopmentPsychoactive drugsCaffeineAlcohol and fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)Nicotines link to SIDS, ADHD, low birth weightEffect of fathers smokingCocaine, marijuana, and heroinMethamphetamine Environmental hazards and pollutantsPrenatal Development

Hazards to Prenatal DevelopmentIncompatible blood types of parentsRh-positive and Rh-negativeMaternal diseases like German measles, syphilis, HIV and AIDSOther prenatal factorsNutrition, prenatal education and careMaternal age and risksMaternal emotional states and stressPaternal factorsEnvironmental factorsPrenatal Development

Prenatal CarePrenatal programsEducationMedical careSocial and nutritional servicesLow birth weight and infant mortality ratesView of pregancy vary among cultures and ethnic groupsBirth

The Birth ProcessStages of birth: occurs in three stagesUterine contractionsBabys head moves through birth canalAfterbirth when placenta, umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelledBaby must withstand stress of birthBirth

Strategies for ChildbirthDeciding what setting, who attends, and what technique will be usedHome delivery, birthing center, or hospital?99% of all U.S. births occur in hospitalsHome births more common outside U.S.Doula as caregiverRole of midwife, nurse, and physician

Birth

Methods of DeliveryMedication with analgesics (epidural block, oxytocics, etc.)Possible effects of drugs on fetusNatural childbirthPrepared childbirth and the Lamaze methodCesarean sections for breech babies, other risks and benefits

Birth

Methods of DeliveryNonmedicated techniquesWaterbirth more in European countriesMassage reduces pain and anxietyAcupuncture is standard in ChinaHypnosis has some positive effectsMusic therapy reduces stress, manages pain

BirthAssessing the NewbornApgar Scale: heart, reflexes, and color

Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (BNBAS)A sensitive index of neurological competenceFour categories in global terms

Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Network Neurobehavioral Scale (NNNS)Analysis of behavior, neurological and stress responses, and regulatory capacitiesBirthBirth

The Apgar ScaleLow Birth Weight and PretermLow birth weight infants in U.S. and worldWeigh less than 5.5 lbsVery low birth weight: less than 3 lbsPreterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they shouldEthnic variations characterize preterm birthCauses and consequencesBirthLow Birth Weight and PretermLow birth weight infants in U.S. and worldWeigh less than 5.5 lbsVery low birth weight: less than 3 lbsPreterm infants: 35 or fewer weeks after conception (about 12% of U.S. births)Small-for-date infants: weigh less than they shouldEthnic variations characterize preterm birthCauses and consequencesBirthKangaroo Care and Massage TherapyKangaroo careHolds infant to promote skin-to-skin contact between infant and caregiverCan promoteBetter breathingLonger sleep periodsWeight gainLess cryingLonger periods of alertnessBirthTiffany Fields Research on Massage Therapy Massage therapy led to 47% greater weight gain for preterm infants Also demonstrated benefits of massage for Labor pain Asthma ADHD Arthritis Autisti