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  • 1

  • Contents Record of Experimental Work Unit 1 ...................................................................................................... 4

    Record of Experimental Work Unit 2 ...................................................................................................... 5

    Record of Experimental Work Unit 3 ...................................................................................................... 6

    Skills and Hints ........................................................................................................................................ 7

    Conduct a qualitative test for starch ...................................................................................................... 8

    Conduct a qualitative test for a reducing sugar .................................................................................... 12

    Conduct a qualitative test for protein .................................................................................................. 16

    Conduct a qualitative test for fat .......................................................................................................... 20

    Identify any five fauna and any five flora using simple keys. ............................................................... 25

    Identify and use various apparatus required for collection methods in an ecological study. .............. 31

    Conduct a quantitative study of plants and animals of a sample area of the selected ecosystem...... 36

    Investigate any three abiotic factors present in the selected ecosystem, as listed in syallabus …......45

    Be familiar with and use the light microscope ..................................................................................... 51

    Prepare and examine one animal cell, unstained and stained, using the light microscope ................ 56

    Prepare and examine one plant cell, unstained and stained, using the light microscope .................. 60

    Investigate the effect of pH on the rate of enzyme activity ................................................................. 68

    Investigate the effect of temperature on the rate of enzyme activity ………………………………………….… 74

    Investigate the effect of heat denaturation on the activity of an enzyme ........................................... 80

    Prepare an enzyme immobilisation and examine its application ......................................................... 85

    Conduct any activity to demonstrate osmosis ..................................................................................... 89

    Investigate the influence of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis ........................................... 94

    Prepare and show the production of alcohol by yeast ....................................................................... 101

    Isolate DNA from a plant tissue .......................................................................................................... 107

    Investigate the growth of leaf yeast using agar plates and controls .................................................. 113

    Prepare and examine microscopically the transverse section of a dicotyledonous stem ................. 119

    Dissect, Display and Identify a sheep’s heart ..................................................................................... 123

    Investigate the effect of exercise on the human pulse rate ............................................................... 128

    Investigate the effect of exercise on the breathing rate .................................................................... 133

    Investigate the effect of IAA growth regulator on plant tissue .......................................................... 138

    Investigate the effects of water, oxygen and temperature on germination ...................................... 147

    Use starch agar or skimmed milk plates to show digestive activity during germination................... 152 Visuals for Experiments....................................................................................................................... 156

    2

  • 3

  • Record of Experimental Work Unit 1

    Experiment Title Unit 1

    Date Experiment Completed

    Date Write up Completed

    Questions Completed

    Y/N

    Testing Food for Starch

    Testing Food for Reducing Sugar

    Testing Food for Protein

    Testing Food for Fat

    Identifying Flora and Fauna using

    keys.

    Identify a variety of Habitats

    Identify and use various apparatus

    required for collection methods in an

    Ecological study.

    Quantitative Survey: Plants

    Method: _____________________

    Quantitative Study: Animals

    Method: _____________________

    Investigating Abiotic Factors

    Factors: 1.

    2.

    3.

    4

  • Record of Experimental Work Unit 2

    Experiment Title Unit 2

    Date Experiment

    Completed

    Date Write up

    Completed

    Questions

    Completed

    Y/N

    Using the Microscope

    Looking at Animal (cheek) Cells

    Looking at Plant Cells

    pH and Enzyme Activity

    Temp and Enzyme Activity

    Enzyme Denaturation

    Enzyme Immobilsation

    Osmosis

    Photosynthesis

    Fermentation of Alcohol

    Isolating DNA

    5

  • Record of Experimental Work Unit 3

    Experiment Title Unit 3

    Date Experiment

    Completed

    Date Write up

    Completed

    Questions

    Completed

    Y/N

    Leaf Yeast Growth

    Heart Dissection

    Exercise and the Pulse Rate

    Exercise and the Breathing Rate

    TS of a Dicot Stem

    IAA as a Growth Regulator

    Germination

    Digestive Activity during

    Germination

    6

  • Skills and Hints

    The skills developed primarily through the practical activities include:

    • Manipulation of apparatus

    • Following instructions

    • Observation

    • Recording

    • Interpretation of observations and results

    • Practical enquiry and application of results

    Manipulation of apparatus involves manual dexterity and efficiency for example:

    • using appropriate methods in collecting required specimens in an ecological study

    • being familiar with and using the light microscope

    • dissecting a sheep's heart

    • conducting a series of laboratory activities and investigations safely and humanely

    Following instructions involves adherence to the instructed or recorded sequence of actions required to carry out an activity e.g. the ability to follow instructions from a practical manual.

    Observation is the most important aspect of the scientific method. All knowledge of biology is based on situations in which a biologist observes a particular event and records it. Instruments are used to extend our perceptual limits. Appropriateness, accuracy and completeness of observation need to be practiced, monitored and guided from relevant theoretical criteria.

    Recording is another essential aspect of the scientific method. Records are proof of what has been completed in the activity and what can be repeated with similar expected outcomes.

    Interpretation of observations and results should ensue from the hypothesis being tested or the investigation undertaken. The final interpretation should be coherent and should explain clearly how your conclusions are reached.

    Practical inquiry and application of results e.g. if results are ambiguous, you should consider your results, and where necessary repeat the activity or design a new activity. You should consider the results in a wider context and make suggestions or identify the activity as a scientific paradigm (an activity that serves as a model for further work).

    7

  • Conduct a Qualitative Test for Starch

    Date the experiment was completed: _________________ Materials/Equipment/Apparatus:

    Procedure/Method:

    List steps taken with reasons:

    8

  • Safety/Risks:

    Labelled diagram:

    Results:

    Sample Initial Colour Final Colour Starch Solution Water

    Conclusion:

    9

  • Questions on Qualitative Test for Starch: 1. State clearly the aim of this experiment.

    __________________________________________________________________________________

    __________________________________________________________________________________

    2. Name the three chemical elements present in starch.

    __________________________________________________________________________________

    3. To what food group does starch belong?

    __________________________________________________________________________________

    4. Name three foods that contain starch.

    (i)

    _______________________________________________________________________

    (ii)

    _______________________________________________________________________

    (i) __________________________________________