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  • BIOTRANSFORMATION AND MODELLED

    BIOCONCENTRATION FACTORS (BCFS) OF SELECT

    HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC COMPOUNDS USING

    RAINBOW TROUT HEPATOCYTES

    by

    Jennifer Trowell

    Bachelors of Science in Biology (High Honours)

    University of Saskatchewan, 2004

    PROJECT

    SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF

    THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

    MASTER OF ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY

    In the

    Department of Biological Sciences

    © Jennifer Trowell, 2010

    SIMON FRASER UNIVERSITY

    Fall, 2010

    All rights reserved. However, in accordance with the Copyright Act of Canada, this work

    may be reproduced, without authorization, under the conditions for Fair Dealing.

    Therefore, limited reproduction of this work for the purposes of private study, research,

    criticism, review and news reporting is likely to be in accordance with the law,

    particularly if cited appropriately.

  • ii

    Approval

    Name: Jennifer Trowell

    Degree: Master of Environmental Toxicology

    Title of Thesis: Biotransformation and modelled bioconcentration factors

    (BCFs) of select hydrophobic organic compounds using

    rainbow trout hepatocytes

    Examining Committee:

    Chair: Dr. Arne Mooers Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, SFU

    ___________________________________________

    Dr. Chris Kennedy Senior Supervisor

    Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, SFU

    ___________________________________________

    Dr. Margo Moore Supervisor

    Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, SFU

    ___________________________________________

    Dr. Frank Gobas

    Supervisor

    Associate Member, Department of Biological Sciences, SFU

    and Professor, School of Resource and Environment

    Management, SFU

    ___________________________________________

    Dr. Francis Law Public Examiner

    Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, SFU

    Date Defended/Approved: December 10 2010

  • Last revision: Spring 09

    Declaration of Partial Copyright Licence

    The author, whose copyright is declared on the title page of this work, has granted to Simon Fraser University the right to lend this thesis, project or extended essay to users of the Simon Fraser University Library, and to make partial or single copies only for such users or in response to a request from the library of any other university, or other educational institution, on its own behalf or for one of its users.

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    It is understood that copying or publication of this work for financial gain shall not be allowed without the author’s written permission.

    Permission for public performance, or limited permission for private scholarly use, of any multimedia materials forming part of this work, may have been granted by the author. This information may be found on the separately catalogued multimedia material and in the signed Partial Copyright Licence.

    While licensing SFU to permit the above uses, the author retains copyright in the thesis, project or extended essays, including the right to change the work for subsequent purposes, including editing and publishing the work in whole or in part, and licensing other parties, as the author may desire.

    The original Partial Copyright Licence attesting to these terms, and signed by this author, may be found in the original bound copy of this work, retained in the Simon Fraser University Archive.

    Simon Fraser University Library Burnaby, BC, Canada

  • STATEMENT OF ETHICS APPROVAL

    The author, whose name appears on the title page of this work, has obtained, for the research described in this work, either:

    (a) Human research ethics approval from the Simon Fraser University Office of Research Ethics,

    or

    (b) Advance approval of the animal care protocol from the University Animal Care Committee of Simon Fraser University;

    or has conducted the research

    (c) as a co-investigator, collaborator or research assistant in a research project approved in advance,

    or

    (d) as a member of a course approved in advance for minimal risk human research, by the Office of Research Ethics.

    A copy of the approval letter has been filed at the Theses Office of the University Library at the time of submission of this thesis or project.

    The original application for approval and letter of approval are filed with the relevant offices. Inquiries may be directed to those authorities.

    Simon Fraser University Library

    Simon Fraser University Burnaby, BC, Canada

    Last update: Spring 2010

  • iii

    Abstract

    Biotransformation is an important factor in determining the extent that chemicals

    bioaccumulate. Since most anthropogenic chemicals lack data on biotransformation, this

    research used rainbow trout isolated hepatocytes to determine the depletion rates of

    several hydrophobic chemicals (benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, 9-methylanthracene,

    polychlorinatedbiphenyl-153). These results were extrapolated to the organism level and

    bioconcentration factors (BCFs) modelled.

    Since concurrent chemical exposure and temperature modify biotransformation,

    they were investigated for effects on modelled BCF values. Depletion rate constants

    were generally lower for chemical mixture than for individual incubations. At

    acclimation temperatures, chrysene biotransformation exhibited thermal compensation;

    for benzo(a)pyrene and 9-methylanthracene, lower acclimation temperature resulted in

    lower rate constants and increased BCFs. Acute temperature increases significantly

    increased depletion rate constants for benzo(a)pyrene and chrysene, and decreased BCF

    values. Acute temperature decreases had no effect. This research highlights the

    importance of considering environmental factors in evaluating the bioaccumulative

    potential of chemicals.

    Keywords: biotransformation; bioconcentration factor (BCF); temperature; hepatocytes;

    mixture

  • iv

    Acknowledgements

    Without the support and encouragement of many, this thesis may never have

    come to fruition. Many thanks to Dr. Chris Kennedy, senior supervisor, for giving me the

    impetus to push myself to be independent and for challenging me to expand my research.

    Thanks to Dr. Margo Moore, for your attention to detail, and Dr. Frank Gobas, for the

    direction of the thesis. Thank-you to Victoria Otton and Yung-Shan Lee for aiding me in

    operating the GC-MS, and analysing my data.

    With the help of friends, all things are possible. Thanks to Janey Lam, for helping

    me at the start of our respective projects. As someone to lean on, and to talk to, your

    assistance has always been invaluable. To Lisa Rear, thanks for the discussions on

    science and other topics, especially over a glass of white wine. Thanks to Lesley Shelley,

    for your critical eye and questioning mind. For showing me the ropes, both in the lab and

    in the hepatocyte isolation, many thanks to Meagan Gourley. To Chris Hauta, Adam

    Goulding, Deigo Lopez-Arias, Brittany Wilmot, Tim Gray and Heather Osachoff, thanks

    for all your help with my many presentations.

    The support of my family has been steady-fast and reassuring throughout my

    Masters. To my parents, sisters and brother, thanks for all the support and

    encouragement. To Hugh Holtz, thank-you for your patience, tolerance, and for sticking

    with me, in good times and not-so good times.

  • v

    Table of Contents

    Approval .......................................................................................................................................... ii

    Abstract .......................................................................................................................................... iii

    Acknowledgements .........................................................................................................................iv

    Table of Contents ............................................................................................................................. v

    List of Figures ............................................................................................................................... vii

    List of Tables ................................................................................................................................ viii

    Glossary ...........................................................................................................................................ix

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