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  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Blended Learning

    Trevor BarkerUniversity of HertfordshireLB206t.1.barker@herts.ac.uk

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Disclaimer

    The Blended Learning Unit is having its very first meeting next weekWill set objectives, priorities, mission etc.Will establish a common visionWhat you hear from me today is based on my experience and is simply my view of things, related specifically to software development issues and to my research

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Blended Learning

    A learning programme where more than one delivery mode is being usedObjectives

    To optimise the learning and cost balanceThe matching of learning objectives, learning style/preference and delivery mode.

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    ObjectivesBlended Learning

    What is a blend and what is not oneBlended Learning and Learning TheoryHow does it all fit together?A framework for Blended LearningEvaluation of Blended LearningLearning ObjectsAssessment

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    HistoryOff-computer education in UK ~ 1066Computers used in education ~1960sProgrammed Instruction ~ 1970s and 1980sMultimedia for education un UK~1991 Windows 3.1Internet for education in UK~ 1992 Web for education in UK ~1995blended learning term used ~1997Managed Learning Environments ~ 1997Blended Learning term used ~2001Evidence for efficacy not seen any yet!

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    What constitutes a blendFor me, a blend involves a strategy which includes the selection of the delivery of the following things

    Learning activitiesTeaching and Learning methodsLearning materialsInformationStudy skillsLearning objectsLearning tasksLearning strategiesFormative and Summative Assessment

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    What is involvedOnline and offline (i.e. computer) workingMultimedia and other materials & toolsTasks and activities planned activitiesGroup and individual workingFlexibility self directed, self pacedStudent centred approachTutor as facilitator - managerConstructive approach to teachingReal life skills situated in contextStructured and unstructured learningSimulation in protected environments

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    What is a blend and what is not one

    In the past BL was considered simply using e-learning methods within a traditional delivery scheme this is not a blend in my viewA blend is the optimal mix of learning methods for a given situationJust having a random mix of on and off-line objects, tasks and activities is not in itself a blend.BL it is claimed facilitates the widest possible impact of a learning experience, using a wide range of tools and methods. Attends to individual style

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    How do we get the right mixCreating a blend is an evolutionary processThe objectives of a blend are to ensure as best as possible

    AttentionEngagementCommitmentRelevanceConfidenceMotivationSatisfactionSupport

    These should influenceall stages, especiallyrequirements and evaluation

    Learner

    Learning ObjectivesRequirements

    Designing a blend

    Implement

    Evaluate

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Approaches to a blend

    (Singh and Reed 2004)

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Reusable learning objects

    These are the goal of many BL enthusiastsProblems are many

    RelevanceContextStructureDeliveryInstructional intentions

    Lack of theory

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Theory what is relevant?Application to existing learning theories

    Constructive / Instructive mixCognitive / Behaviourist theory

    Theory of DesignMaterials multimedia, paper, web,Delivery various modes

    Theories of presentationTheories of distance learningLearning styles and preferencesTheories of integration

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Issues that influence a blend

    Audience, type, size and levelNeed for differentiationInfrastructure and supportContent and strategyMaterialsCost and efficiency

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Merrills 7 factors The following factors should be taken into consideration

    Problem-based LearningCollaborative Learning Activation of previous knowledge Demonstration of new knowledgeApplication of new knowledge Integration of new knowledge into the learner's world Assessment of the learning process and learners' progress

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    When is a BL approach the right one? - Checklist

    Audience expectation and experiencesAudience motivationContent complexityNeed to teach physical skillsTeam and group workingDevelopment time and cost for materialsStability of content over time

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    When is a BL approach the right one? - Checklist

    Timescale for training short or longLearner flexibility and distance issuesAccess to computers and online contentAvailability of support and instructional designersLearners are motivated to work online

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005 Bersin & Associates27 Blended Learning: What WorksBlended Learning: What Works

    The Blended Learning ProcessThe Blended Learning Process

    IdentifyIdentifyBusinessBusiness

    ChallengeChallenge

    DefineDefineLearningLearning

    ChallengeChallenge

    CharacterizeCharacterizeAudienceAudience

    DevelopDevelopLearning PlanLearning Plan

    DevelopDevelopMeasurementMeasurementStrategyStrategy

    ImplementImplementInfrastructureInfrastructure

    (see infrastructure(see infrastructureDiagram)Diagram)

    DevelopDevelopOrOr

    BuyBuyContentContent

    LaunchLaunchProgramProgram

    TrackTrackProgressProgress

    MeasureMeasureResultsResults

    11 22 33 44

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Organisation of Blended Learning

    Deployment and support is crucialManagement commitmentInstructional designMultimedia designHigh bandwidth connectionAccess to PCs and the internet for all learnersDevelopment choices: in-house - outsource

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Assessment

    Assessment objectsA mixture of summative methods

    Computer-Based Testing, group and peer assessment, practical work, examinations,

    Adaptive testingFormative assessmentAutomated feedbackProduction of learner profiles

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    EvaluationWhat is the evidence that BL works?

    Lots of anecdotal evidenceLots of championsLots of investment

    Needs a realistic approach to evaluationLooking at materials, strategies and methodsLooking at comparison with other approachesLooking at learning and evaluation frameworksWhat to evaluateWhat does it prove? be realisticAcademic as well as practical issuesThe influence of context

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Summary BL

  • T. Barker BLU 15 April 2005

    Experiences of Blended Learning - see later

    Multimedia materials developmentGroup working here and elsewhereOnline systems working with the OUIntelligent systems student modelsThe balance between constructive and instructive environments

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