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  • 1. Presents
    Sunny Cities Hibiscus2011-2012
    Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011

2. Historical Overview of Sunny Cities Series of Hibiscus

  • Premier Dutch breeding

3. Developed by 4 hibiscus growers from the Netherlands 4. Formed association called Hibiscus Workgroup 5. 17 years of breeding 6. In 1996 the workgroup started breeding their own varietiesBosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
7. Historical Overview of Sunny Cities Series of Hibiscus

  • Initial series introduced in the Netherlands and the USA had 9 varieties.

8. Today over 20 varieties are offered in 2 series of Sunny Cities Hibiscus. 9. Presently Sunny Cities has over 70% of the Dutch/German hibiscus market.Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
10. Introduction into the USA
Hibiscus brought into the US for introduction and production purposes must under go a two year quarantine period supervised by the State and National agencies (e.g. MDA and USDA).
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
11. Introduction into the USA

  • U.S. law prohibits free entry of hibiscus into the USA because of the six viruses that could affect cotton production.

Bosgraaf Greenhouses has been in and out of quarantine during the past 10 years, leading to the present varieties being approved and released for U.S. production.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
12. Introduction into the USA
Because Sunny Cities genetics produce free flowering in Michigan without extended days, the USDA has made the unusual exception of allowing the quarantine period to be shortened to 14 months. This means Sunny Cities Hibiscus is growing and flowering year round.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
13. Strengths of the Series

  • Free-flowering or flower power is outstanding!

14. Internodal compactness gives a full foliage look. 15. Longer lasting flowers 16. Vibrant Colors 17. Bud-drop resistant and extended shelf lifeBosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
18. Strengths of the Series

  • Series is a multi-purpose hibiscus for use in the garden, patio or indoors.

19. Can flower with as little as 10 to 12 hours of natural day length. 20. Because of the above attributes, this series could have application for Christmas, Valentines Day, spring, summer, fall, and winter all year round. 21. Container size can range from 4 to 16 or larger.Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
22. Presenting the Sunny Cities Hibiscus Series
Denver
Juneau
Charleston
New York
Fairbanks
Miami
San Diego
Las Vegas
Nashville
New Orleans
Chicago
Hilo
23. Nashville Dark Red
24. New York Scarlet Red
25. Chicago Golden Yellow
26. Juneau Creamy White
27. DenverTricolor Yellow, Orange, Pink
28. Charleston Bright Red
29. Santa Fe Sunset Red
30. HiloYellow/white throat
31. Miami Pink
32. San Diego Golden Yellow
33. New Orleans Apricot
34. Fairbanks White
35. Las Vegas Orange Blend
36. Presenting the Sunny Cities Pico Hibiscus Series
Pico Red
Pico Yellow
Pico Orange
Pico White
Pico Pink
Pico Apricot
37. Pico Red
38. Pico Pink
39. Pico Yellow
40. Pico White
41. Pico Orange
42. Pico Apricot
43. Timeline of Growing Culture
Week 1 & 2 after potting the maximum E.C. is 1.0
Week 3 roots are at the side of the pot (70 F.) pinch leaving 5 nodes.
Week 5 new shoots or breaks are visible, then increase E.C. from 1.5 to 2.5 depending on light levels and plant needs
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
44. Timeline of Growing Culture
Finish at an average E.C. of 1.5
Nota bene:
Lower light level means feed at a lower rate
Anticipating higher light levels allows you to preemptively feed at a higher rate.
Winter use mostly nitrate nitrogen & calcium nitrate
Spring (higher light and temperature) nitrogen can be composed of mostly nitrate nitrogen with low levels of urea and ammonium nitrate
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
45. Timeline of Growing Culture
Nota bene:

  • A high level of urea can cause stretch

46. A high level of ammonium can lower P.H.Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
47. Cultural Information
SOIL
Use a well drained, sterilized planting medium - pH of 5.5 to 6.0.
Most growers use a sphagnum peat-based soil.
PLANTING: FUNGICIDE
Unpack cuttings and water if needed
Plant as soon as possible in the final container.
A fungicide drench within one week of planting provides additional protection for the young plant.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
48. Cultural Information
FERTILIZATION AND PH
Many growers sub irrigate the hibiscus crop.Tube or hand watering can also be used.
Total salts can range from an E.C. of 1.5 to 2.5 finishing at 1.5.
Feed with equal amounts of nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus, adding more potassium during the last quarter of the crop time.
N:K = 2:1 during the first quarter (maximum E.C. is 1.0) of the pot culture
N:K = 2-3:1 during the second and third quarters of the pot culture (E.C. is from 1.5 to 2.5)
N:K = 1:2 during the final quarter of the pot culture (finish at a 1.5 average E.C.)
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
49. Cultural Information
FERTILIZATION AND PH
Iron is very important to Hibiscus growing.
iron chelatedp can be added at the rate of 4 oz. per 100 gallons of water.
iron deficiency is visible as chlorotic upper leaves.
Magnesium can be used at the rate of 20-35 ppm during the whole crop.
A high pH (6.5 - 7.5) can tie up iron and magnesium.Keep pH between 5.0 - 6.0.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
50. Cultural Information
TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY
Ideal growing conditions range from 70 - 80 F. during the day and68 - 70 F. at night.
Temperature is a factor in producing quality hibiscus.
Lower temperatures can extend crop time and compromise plant quality.
Humidity can range from 60% to 85%.
Ideally, average day - night temperatures should be a minimum of 68 - 70 F.
Additional pinches to any size pot adds time but also adds value and quality.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
51. 52. Cultural Information
LIGHT CONDITIONS
Grow hibiscus with a maximum amount of available light.
Year-round production of hibiscus can require shading when growing under high light and temperature.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
53. Cultural Information
FLOWERING - PHOTO PERIOD REQUIREMENTS
Hibiscus will flower under natural day-length conditions unless temperature and light levels are very low.
HID lights can be added if low light conditions persist.However, supplemental lighting is not needed for photo period requirements.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
54. Cultural Information
SPACING REQUIREMENTS
Spacing can be done after the last pinch.It allows more air movement and helps prevent fungal and stretching problems.
Plant quality is maintained and enhanced by proper spacing.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
55. Cultural Information
PEST AND DISEASE PREVENTION
Thrip, mite, aphid, and whitefly are potential pests.
Effective control can be achieved by using Marathon, Distance, Orthene, Tame, Avid, Talstar, Decathlon, Thiodan, and Duraguard.
A fungicide spray in combination with an insecticide spray can be effective.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
56. 57. Cultural Information
GROWTH REGULATORS
The Sunny Cities Series can be grown without any growth regulators, however, Cycocel can be used when growth is excessive. Rates for Cycocel range from 500 ppm 1500 ppm.
Cycocel as a spray can be used to tone and promote even bud-setting. Rate is 250 - 500 ppm (approximately 1/4 1/2 oz per 1 gallon water).
Florel is used at 350 ppm 7 days before and after the 1st pinch allowing breaks to grow evenly.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
58. 59. Cultural Information
SUCCESS IS MANY THINGS, BUT ESPECIALLY:
Good light levels
Minimum average day - night temperature of 68 to 70 F.Higher temperatures can increase growth.
A pH of 5.0 - 6.0
Good fertilization practices.
Evaluating often = every day.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
60. Finishing Options
4" to 5" pot ( Pico Series )
1 plant per pot - single pinch after 2 weeks
Pinch leaving 4-5 nodes which gives 3-5 branches. Use 350 ppm of Florel before and the pinch.
After pinching do not give excessive light until breaks are 1" long - shade may be necessary.
In Holland 4" are grown to a maximum of 18 per 1 square meter which is approximately 2 per square foot.Some spacing may enhance quality depending
on light levels and finish pricing.
Crop time is approximately 11 to 12 weeks after the pinch.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
61. Finishing Options
6" - 6 1/2" pot (2 pinches is also an option)
2 plants per pot spread apart with 1 pinch.
First pinch occurs 3 weeks after potting, leaving 5-6 nodes on each plant. ( Florel 7 days before & after the 1st pinch )
Second pinch can occur 3-4 weeks after the first pinch, leaving 2-3 nodes.
Crop time is approximately 15 weeks for a single pinch with 2 cuttings per 6" pot.
Bosgraaf Greenhouses, Inc. July 2011
62. Finishing Options
7" bush or pot
1 plant with 3