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Vedanta Vandanam-II 8_ ¯ AV G ? RRk<9 R@; A \ $_ B Brahmasutrasankarabhashyasangrahah (Adisankara with his four disciples) FU 1 A: Y 1 6 U <R 0 R 5R :R =; \ "À 0 R =;: Q 5 : R: 9 $ >1 6R3\ ?k <\ =RW "? k <: Q

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Page 1: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

Vedanta Vandanam-II

8�_ ¯�A�V G�?RRk<9�R@;�A�\ $�_B�Brahmasutrasankarabhashyasangrahah

(Adisankara with his four disciples)

FU� 1 � A:�Y � 1� 6�U <R 0� R 5 �R :�R =; �\ ��" �À 0� R =; �:�Q ����5 � :� R � :� �9 � $� > �1 6�R 3\ ��? � k <\��=R W " �?� k <:�Q ��

Page 2: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

II

8�_ ¯�A�V G�?�Rk<9�R@;�A�\ $�_ B�Brahmasutrasankarabhashyasamgrahah

Compiled byV. Swaminathan

and published on the occasion ofthe shastiabhdapurti celebrations ofDr. R. Krishnamurthi Sastrigal.

(12th January 2005)

Under the guidance of

Dr. R. Krishnamurthi Sastrigal, M. A., Phd. Rtd. Principal, Madras Sanskrit College,

Mylapore, Chennai 600004.

Published bySaradambal Seva Samiti Trust,

"Sankara Nilayam", 3, Sankaranarayana St.,

Tamabaram Sanatorium East, Chennai. 600047( Ph: 22233790 )

Page 3: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

January 2005

3S Publication No : 9

Price Rs. 50.00

Typeset by :G. Periaswamy,C\o. Dr. R. Krishnamurthi Sastrigal,No.2 Sanskrit college Road,Chennai - 4.

Printed at :Hindi Prachar PressT. NagarChennai - 17

Page 4: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

i

Table of Contents

9 �V � :� " �R � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �Preface.................................................................................................................REALITY ........................................................................................................1

� � �8 �_ ¯� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 3

�� �8 �_ ¯� � =mR� 5 � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �14

�� �)� T > � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �17

�� �)� $ � 1�Q � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �22

�� �Ì 4 ; �R A� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �25

�� �Ì � > � }R � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �30REFUTATION ..............................................................................................32

� � �A� R l×:�Q � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �35

�� �; � RW $ � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �44

�� �> � X ?�W � @ � " �5 ; �R ;� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �44

�� �8 � RX �� �A� R XG � Rt 5 1� " ��> �X 9 � R� @ �" �RX � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �50

�� �8 � RX �� ��; � RW $ � R '� R <�� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �55

�� �:� R 4 ;� � :�" �� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �57

�� �)� X5 R � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �58

�� �Ò] ? > � <�� 5� � :� H �" �R <0� �>� R 3� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �60

�� �9 � R $� > �1 � :� 1� :�Q� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �62

� �� �' � R> � R] " �� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �65

� � � �6�V > �] :� T :�R\ A� R � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �67

� �� �A7�R W , > � R 3� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �71

� �� �E� R 5 � "�:�] A� :� Uc� ; � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �72

� �� �9 �W 3R 9�W 3� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �72

� �� �6� _6� b � 6�_ � > � =; �� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �73R E F L E C T I O N .....................................................................................75

� � �Ì � 4� " �R <T � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �77

�� �A� R 4 � 5� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �78

Page 5: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

ii

�� �$ � U0� �Í6� A�\ B R <� � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � � �84

R E S U L T....................................................................................................88

APPENDIX I.................................................................................................. 99APPENDIX II ..............................................................................................100APPENDIX III .............................................................................................103APPENDIX IV.............................................................................................107

Page 6: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

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Page 7: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

Prefaceby

Dr. R. Krishnamurthi Sastri

1. The Vedic heritage of Sanatana Dharma (called Hinduism ) is a disciplineand way of life for the development of both the individual and the society withemphazis on character, competence, commitment.and concern for excellence.Adi Sankara Bhagavadpada's commentary on the Brahma Sutras (byBadarayana, the most important text of Vedanta) is a comprehensive treatise onthe philosophical and theological elucidation of this Dharma. For its clarityand brevity, it has no parallels in the world literature. Of his logic andlanguage, which is more beautiful, it is difficult to decide. TheSarvamatasamarasya (reconcili ation of all religions) cannot be better

summarised than through his own words. �Ï> � \�Ï" �:� � 6� � 8�_ ¯� �Ì 6�W � D� 1� �Í6� R� 4 � �A�\ 8 �5 4 �\� 5 � <A1� �Í6� RS 4 � A�\ 8 �5 4 �\ � ' � � Í6� R A; �1 >�W 5 � � E�W ; � 1 >�W 5 � � ' � � > �W 3R 5 1�W @ � U� Í6� � 3? ;� 1� � Ò� 1 � � �� �� ��� � theteaching of Vedanta is that although Brahman is one, it has to be meditatedupon or known with or without the relationship of the adjuncts respectively.

2. There is an enormous literature explaining the minutest points of theBhagavatpada's Sutra Bhasya. The Vivarana and Bhamati schools -commentaries on commentaries - are well known. (Panchapadika-Vivarana-Tatvadipana and Bhamati Kalpataru and Parimala). There are also otherindependent commentaries on Bhasya - Prakatartha Vivarana, Anandagiri,Ratna Prabha, and Brahmavidyabharana etc,)

3. At the same time, there has been attempts to summarise the Bhashya foreasier understanding and recapitulation. Of such works, the most importantone is Vyasika Nyayamala of Sri Bhaaratitheerta, the 11th Pontiff of SringeriMutt. This has been translated in Tamil by Sri Jnanananda Bharati. The otherwell known summaries. are:

i. Brahmasutra Vritti by Sri Sadasivendra Saraswatiii . Sastra Darpana (By Amalananda - author of Kalpataru)iii . A summary of lectures in Tamil by Sri Veppattur Subrahmanya

Sastrigaliv. A summary of lectures upto Chatussutri by Thethiyur Subrahmanya

����������Sastrigal.

4. A slightly different attempt to summarise the Bhashya has been made in thisbooklet. The topics in the Bhashya are explained :- "Bhagavatpada in his ownwords"

Page 8: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

It is hoped that this will give a bird's eye view of the Bhashya for those whohave no time to study the Bhashya from a competant teacher .

Our thanks are due in no small measure to Dr. Mani Dravid for his valuablesuggestions to improve the presentation of the Acharya's Bhashya and for theBhumika. Our thanks are also due to Sri. Satish for his help in the proofreading and the corrections.

5. A summary of Adhikaranas subjectwise is given in Appendix. I. The otherappendices are: II . Bhagavatpada's quotable quotes. Appendix III .. Slokas onBhagavatpada. Appendix IV Purva Mimamsa.

6.This is the ninth publication in the Vandanam series: Sandya, Devata, Guru,Gita, Upanishad, Nama and Vedanta I (Advaitasiddhisarasamgrahaha), NamaII (Stutimanimala of Sridhara Ayyaval).

Page 9: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

REALITY

Page 10: Bramhasutra Bhashya of Shankara

3

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���8�_¯�

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1. Brahman

1. That omnisicient and omnipotent source must be Brahman from whichoccur the birth, continuance and dissolution of this universe that is manifestedthrough name and form, that is associated with diverse agents and experiences ,that provides the support for actions and results, having well regulated space,time and causation and that defies all thoughts about the real nature of thiscreation.

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2. And the sentence defining this is: "From Bliss certainly all these beingsoriginate; they live by Bliss after being born; and towards Bliss they proceedand into Bliss they get merged, (Tai III .vi)

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3. That Brahman, again, will have to be either famili ar or unfamiliar. If it befamili ar, it need not be deliberated for knowledge. Again if it be totallyunfamili ar, it cannot be deliberated upon.

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This is explained - BRAHMAN DOES EXIST as a well known entity -always, pure, intell igent, free by nature, omniscient and omnipotent.

From the very derivation of the word Brahman, the meanings of eternality andpurity etc are known, this being in accord with the root-verb brah. Moreover,the existence of Brahman is well known from the fact of its being the Self ofall , for everyone feels that "I exist", and he never feels "I do not exist" Andthat Self is Brahman.

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4. With the help of the Upanishads, the nature of Brahman with which theindividual soul becomes unified in sleep when its limiting adjuncts becomequiescent, is now being ascertained.... The Supreme Brahman, considered initself cannot logically have both the characteristics, for it cannot be admittedthat the very same thing is naturall y possessed of attributes like form etc., andthat it is also without these, for that is self-contradictory. ..Therefore, it isestablished that Brahman is without any distinguishing feature and has butone aspect and not two or an opposite one.

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5. Reply - Brahman is known in two aspects-one possessed of the limitingadjunct of diversities because of modification, name and form and the other

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devoid of all adjuncts, Thousands of Srutis show the two aspects of Brahmandue to the difference of Vidya and Avidya. Thus

i. Where there is duali ty as it were, then one sees something else; forone where everything has become the Self, then what one would seeand with what ? (Br,4-4-15)

ii . Where one does not see anything else,does not hear anything does notknow anything , it is Infinite, where one sees something, hearssomething, knows something, it is finite. That which is infinite isimmortal and that which is finite is mortal. (Ch.7-24-1)

iii . The Supreme Self after creating all forms and then giving them names,it utters those names " (Tai-A-3-7-7)

iv. It is without parts, without action, without change, without defect andwithout virtue or vice. It is the supreme bridge to immortali ty. It islike the fire which has burnt its fuel. (Sv.6-19).

v. Not this, Not this " (Br,2-3-6), "It is neither gross nor minute (Br.3-8-8)That which is less is different and that which is full i s different.

Therefore, in the state of Avidya, all activity comprises of the meditated andmeditator of Brahman.

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6. Thus, although the knowledge of the Self is the cause of immediate libera-tion, when it is imparted through special adjuncts, (their relation is notintended) the doubt that arises whether it refers to Para or Apara Brahman ,has to be decided by considering their purport.... Thus, the next portion of theBrahma Sutra is begun to show that the teaching of Vedantas is that althoughBrahman is one, It has to be meditated upon or known with or without therelationship of the adjuncts respectively

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7. Nothing is possible to exist separate from Brahman, as there is no proof. Infact, we are not able to find any proof for the existence of anything else, It hasbeen established that the birth etc. of everything which has origin is fromBrahman. The effect is non-different from the cause. And anything which isbirthless and which is different from Brahman is not possible. Because it isunderstood from Sruti "O amiable one, in the beginning, Sat alone was, onewithout a second." (Ch.6-2-1) Because of the assertion that when one is known,everything is known, the existence of anything other than Brahman cannot beconceived.

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8. Of that Btahman itself, in its empirical existence, where there is a divisionof ruler and the ruled, another characteristic is being described. (3-2-8-38)

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9. The individual soul is a part of Iswara just a spark is of fire. Part is meantas apparent, as the partless can have no part in the literal sense, We declarethat Iswara does not suffer just like the Jive suffers the misery of theSamsara. The individual soul due to ignorance seem to become identifiedwith the body etc. and it suffers the misery occurring to the body due to itsbelief that the misery created by ignornace is its own. But Iswara has neithersuch Atma-body identity nor the attachment to the misery. Even though theSelf is one, this kind of injunction and prohibition are possible owing to the"body-association" "Body-association " means the contact with the bodies.

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10. Although there is difference between Upanishads while creating spaceetc., there is no difference about the Creator. How? The Omniscient,Omnipotent, Omnipresent, the one without a second is declared as the causein one Upanishad. In the same way, it is declared in other Upanishads......Therefore , it follows that because the word Sat is used in common parlance toimply things manifested through name and form, Brahman which existedbefore creation is mentioned here as Asat before creation in a secondarysense owing to the absence of manifestation.

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11. Brahman has to be admitted as the material cause as well as the eff icientcause. It is not merely the efficient cause. Why ? Because the proposition andthe il lustration may not be contradicted. Like this, the proposition and theill ustration will not be contradicted in the Srutis.

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12. The objection to the view that Brahman is the material as well as the effi-cient cause of the universe, that was raised from the stand point of the Smritishas been disposed of. The objection from the standpoint of logic is now beingmet. What was said that this universe does not have Brahman as its materialcause, since its characteristics are different, is not wholl y true. For it is amatter of common experience that from a man, well known as a consciousbeing , originate hair, nail etc., that are different in nature (being insentient)and scorpion etc. grow in cow-dung etc. known to be insentient,.....Objection:.If Brahman, that is conscious , pure and free from sound etc. be accepted asthe cause of the effect that is opposed to It, being unconscious, impure, andpossessed of sound etc., then it comes to this that the effect was non-existentbefore creation, This is not desirable for you (vedantin) who maintain Sat-Karya. Reply: This is not objectionable. This is only a denial. and there isno denial of that which is denied. This denial is not capable to deny theexistence of the effect before creation..........There is nothing incongruous inour Darsana. What was said that when the effect merges with the cause, it willtarnish the cause with its attributes, is not an objection. How? There areexamples. There are instances where the effects merge with the cause; theydo not pollute the latter with their peculiarities. For instance, plates etc., clay-transfigurations having high medium and flat differences in their separatestate, do not pollute the original substance with their attributes....There isanother example, As a magician is not himself affected at any time, past ,present and future, by the magic conjured up by himself, it being not a Vastu,so also the Supreme Self is not affected by the world which is non-real......Therefore, it stands firm that in accordance with the Vedas and reasoningconforming to the Vedas, conscious Brahman is the material and efficientcause of the universe.

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13. Hereby, by the reasons advanced for refuting the theory of Pradhana as thecause; it is to be understood that the theories of atoms etc as the causes,whichare not accepted by the wise people like Manu, Vyasa, and others, are alsoexplained as not to be accepted.

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14. Objection: Therefore, the assertion that Brahman is the material cause isimpro-per, for it leads to a denial of the well known division between theexperiencer and the thing experienced. Should anyone raise such an objection:This is the reply: It can exist as seen in the world. This division can beupheld from our point of view as well ., as it is seen in the world. Thus, thoughfoam, ripple, wave, bubble, etc, which are different modifications of the sea,consisting of water, are non-different from the sea, still amongst themselves,action in the form separation and coalescence is possible. And yet the foam,wave etc, do not lose their individuali ty in relation to one another , even thoughthey are modifications of the sea and non-different from it which is but water.Again even though they do not lose their identity they never become differentfrom the sea.....Thus it is said that though all things are non-different from thesupereme cause, Brahman, still there can be such distinction as the experi-encer and the things experienced on the analogy of the sea and its waves.

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15. Assuming, for the sake of argument, an empirical difference between theexperiencer and the things experienced, the refutation under the previousaphorism was advanced by holding that the distinction can well exist as obser-ved in common experience. But in reali ty the difference does not exist, since anon-difference between the cause and effect is recognised. The effect is theuniverse, diversified as space etc., and the cause is the Supreme Brahman. Inreali ty, it is known that the effect has nondifference from i.e, non-existence inisolation from, that cause. How? From the text "about origin etc". About theword "origin" --It is said after the assertion that the knowledge of all followsfrom one" "As, O amiable one, all things made of clay are known when a lumpof clay is known, since a modification has speech as its origin and exists onlyin name, as clay alone is true. The idea implied is : When a lump of clay isknown as nothing but clay in reali ty, all things made of clay, for instance, pot,plate, jar, etc., become known since they are non-different from clay, becauseof speech it is said.

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16. We speak of that entity as the creator of the universe which is by natureeternal, pure, intelligent and which is greater than and different from theembodied being. With regard to that Brahman, the faults of not doing what isbeneficial and the like cannot arise, for there is nothing beneficial to beachieved or harmful to be eschewed by It, which is by nature eternally free.Nor there is anything to debar its knowledge or power since it is omniscientand omnipotent.

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17. For on the authority of mantras, corroborative statements, Ithihasas andPuranas, it is known that Devas, Pithrus, Rishis and others, very powerful andsentient as they are create by themselves through mere will and without anyexternal help, many such things as bodies, palace,chariots etc. of variousshapes . The spider also creates its threads by itself. the cranes become preg-nant within itself; the lotus stalk moves from one lake to another withoutwaiting for any vehicle; Similarly, sentient by Itself may well create theuniverse by itself without the help of external means.

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18. There is no possibili ty of change of Brahman as a whole. Why? Becauseof Srutis. It is said that it is transcendent of modification just like the crea-tion of the world by Brahman, for the material cause and its product are men-tioned separatly - That Deity that was such, deliberated, let this be so, that Imanifest name and form after myself entering into these three Gods as theindividual soul.

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19. As in the world it is seen that though a King or some councill or of theking whohas got all his desires fulfill ed, may still without any aim in viewindulge in activities in the form of sports and pastimes, as a sort of diversionor as inhala-tion,exhalation etc.proceed spontaneously without depending onexternal motive, so also God can have activities of the nature of mere pastimeout of his spontaneity without any extraneous motive. For any motive imputedto God can have neither the support of logic or Sruti. Similarly even in the sameBrahman there can be a diverse creation without any destruction of its nature.

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20. No partiality or mercilessness can be charged agsinst God. Because ofdepen-dence. Had God done the creation with differences merely on his own,then there will be charge of partiali ty and cruelty. For who is not dependent,creatorship will not happen. God does this unequal creation depending onother factors, What is the dependent factor ? We say it is dependent on meritand demerit. Therefore , it is not the fault of the God, since the unequalwould-be creation is dependent on the merits and demerits of the beings.

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21. It is God Himself abiding in these elements as thier Self, that creates everyeffect through profound meditation...........shows that He alone is omniscient.

��� �6� <A; � X> � �8 �_ ¯� 0� RW �> ; � R " �1 �] Y 1> � :�Q �ÒB �Í6� � 3? ; �1 �W ��� � � � � �������������

22. It is taught here that the agency is of the Supreme Brahman. ....It is to beunderstood that the products of water and fire also develop similarly.

���� � 1 � 2� R �B � �� rFR W 1� >; �RW � :� 5 1� > ;� � s � 8 �Y � ������� Ò� 1 � � FU� 1 � � � r6�t 0& 1 � RW � :� W4 � R >� T � � $ � 5 4� R <R5 �Q �Ï> � �Í6� A�\ 6� }W 1 � �Ï> � :�Q �Ï> � �ÒB �Ì R' � R; �] > � R 5�Q �6� UÀ @ �RW � � > � W3� s ( R 5 3RW � � ��� ����� Ò� 1 � � ' � � � 6�U À @ � �8 �U � �A� R B R; ;� :�Q �Ì R 1 :� 5 �RW �3? �] ; � � 1� ���� �5�� 4�:�] �)�E�RA�R;�R�:�>�� � FU 1;�R3;�� Ï>�� 6�_ :�R0�\� � 8� _ ¯���)�E�R�

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A�R;�R:�Q � � � � �"\ �1�U� FU 1;�R3;�RW 5�U9�>�R3;�?'� � ;�2�RA� \ 9�>�:�Q �ÒB� 6�_ :�R0�:�Q � � Ì 5�U9�>��Ì >�A�R5�1>�R1�Q �9�V1�>�A1�U�>�@�;�1>�Rc��� 8�_ ¯�E�R5�A;������ �� �����

23. That is - "To be heard of, to be reflected on (Br.2-4-5), and "A manwell informed and intell igent can reach the countries of the Gandharas;similarly in this world, a man who has a teacher attains knowledge" (Ch-6-14-2), these Srutis show that the help of intell igence of man is required. Like thedelibe-ration on Dharma for knowledge, Srutis are not the sole means of validknow-ledge in the deliberation on Brahman for knowledge. But, the Srutisand also the personal experience as applica-ble are means of valid knowledge'because the knowledge of Brahman is the culmi-nation of personal experienceand also the subject is about an entity.which already exists.

��� � Ì 2� > � R � ;� 2�RW x�:�Q �K�$ >�W 3R�3?�R� \ � ;�RW �5��� "�R<0�\ � 6�_:�R0�\� � Ì A;�� 8� _ ¯�0�RW � � ;�2 �R>�1A>�Á�6�R��4�$ �:�W ������ �� �����

24. Or, the Sastra, Rig veda etc, as enumerated is the valid means of knowingthe real nature of Brahman.

���� � 1�1�Q �8�_̄ �� A�>�]E�\� A�>�]?��x�� )�$�3U16��H�tA2��1�=;�"�R<0�\ � >�W 3R51R?�R�R3W >��Ì>�$�:;�1�W������������ rA� 3W > � � A� RW :; � �Ò3:� $�_ � � Ì R A� T1 �Q � � Ï" �:� W> � R� � 1� T ;� :�Q s � ( R 5 3RW � ��� ���� � � Ì R 1 :� R> � R � Ò3:�W " �� Ï> � R $�_ � � Ì R A� T 1 �Q s � ÏW 1� � � ���� �� � r1� 3W 1� � ¯� �Ì6�V > � ]:�Q �Ì 5� 6� <:�Q �Ì 5 � 51 � <:�Q �Ì 8� R Å:�QÌ ; � :� R1 :� R � 8 �_ ¯� � A� > � R] 5 �U 9 � V �s � 8�Y B � ����� ��� � r8 �_ ¯�X > �W 3:� :�Y 1 �\ � 6� U<A1 � R1 �Q s � :� U0. � ����� � �Ò1 ; � R 3T � 5� � �� 5 � � '� � 1 �~ 1� R 5� R\ � 6� 3R 5 �R\ � 8 �_ ¯� A> � Á �6�� >� @ �; �W � � 5 � t ?'� 1�W � � A� :� 5 > �; �W > � $ � :;� :� R5 �W 2� R ]5 1� <�" �º6� 5� R � ; �U x�R � � FU 1 � �B R� 5 � �Ì FU 1 � " �º6�5 �R �6�_ A� mR 1 �Q � �� 5 � � ' � � 1 �W @ � R\ � " �1 �] YA> � Á �6� 6�_ � 1� 6� R 35 � 6� <1 �R �> � A� T; �1 �W � � r1 � 1"W �5 � � "\ �� � 6� ? ; �W 1 �Q s � 8 �Y B � ����� ��� Ò1 ; �R � 3��"_ �; � R " �R <" �7�=� 5� <R " �<0�FU 1 �W � � �� 5�� '�6�S<�5��@- 1�>�A1�U A>�Á�6�1>�W �6�� 6�_1;�D �R�3�>�@�;�1>�\ � 8�_ ¯�0���� r1�1>�:��A�s( R53RW�������� Ò�1�8�_ ¯�R1:�9�R>�A;��?�R� :�51�<W0��Ì 5�>�$ �:;�:�R5�1>�R1�Q����� �� �����

25. That Brahman, which is omnisicient and omnipotent, the cause of theorigin, existence and dissolution of the universe is known from the VedantaSastra only....."O Somya, this universe, in the beginning, was Sat only, one,only one and without a second "(Ch.6-2-1)," In the beginning, this only oneSelf was " (Ai-1-1-1) "There is nothing prior or posterior, nothing interior orexterior to that this Brahman. This Self is Brahman, the all experiencer, " Inthe beginning this Brahman alone was immortal" (Mun2-2-11) etc. When thenature of Brahman has been decided .correctly, correlated and understood

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from those words, it is not proper to imagine some other meaning, for thatwill result in rejecting what Sruti says and imagine what Sruti does notintend. Nor do those words have their purport in establishing the nature of theagent, as "What That will see and through what? "(Br,2-4-14), this Srutinegates action, instrument and result. Brahman is not an object of perception,even though it is an established positive entity, "Thou art That" (Ch.6-8-7),without this Sruti, the unity of Self and Brahman cannot be known.

��� � Ì 1 � RW � 5 � � 6� U À@� > ;� R 6�R <1� 5 G� R � 8�_ ¯� � >� }R � �� � "\ �� 1 � � B] � 6�_ 1 ;� D� R � 36�_ :� R 0� � >� @� ; � >� A1�U E� R 5 � >� 1�Q �> � A1�U �1 � 5G �X > � � �� Ï> �\ 9 �V 1 � A;� � 8 �_ ¯� 0� � � 1 � )E� R 5� A; � � >� R � 5� � " �;� R �' �1 �Q �; �U ²; � R � ? � ·;� � � " �R ;� R] 5 � U6�_ > �W ? � � � " �º6� � ;� 1�U :� Q� �5�� '�� �>��3�" _ �;�R"�:�] 1>�W5�� � "�R ;�R] 5�U 6�_ >�W ?�RW � 8�_ ¯�0��� rÌ 5 ;� 3W > � � 1 � �� � 31� R 32� RW � � Ì � > � � 31 �R 3� 4� s" �W 5 � �� ���� Ò� 1� � � >� � 3�"_ �; �R " �:�] 1 >� 6�_ � 1 � @�W 4 � R 1�Q � � r; � W5 �W 3\ � A� > �̂� � > � )� R 5� R �1 � � 1 �\ � " W�5 � � � > � )�R 5� T ;� R1 �Q s8 �Y � ����� ��� Ò� 1 � � ' � � �� 1�2�R�Í6�RtA1��"_;�R"�:�] 1>�6�_�1�@�W 4�RW�6�� 9 � > �� 1� ��r; � �R '� R 5� 9; �U � 31 �\ � ; � W5 �> � R $� 9; �U }1 �W s � Ò� 1 � �Ì� > �@ � ;� 1> �\ � 8 �_ ¯� 0� � � Í6� 5; � A;� � � r1� 3W > � � 8�_ ¯� � 1 > �\ � � > � � �� 5 �W 3\� ; � � 33\ :�U 6� R A� 1�W s" W�5 � �� ����Ò� 1 � ���� �� �����

26. Hence the knowledge of Brahman is not dependent on human action.What then? It is on the thing itself, like the knowledge of a thing got throughthe valid means , such as direct perception etc. It is not possible to imaginesuch a Brahman or its knowledge to be brought into contact with work by anylogic. Nor such a contact with work of Brahman is possible by virtue of itsbeing the object of the act of knowing.,as from the Srutis, "It is different fromthe known and also different from the unknown" (Ke.1.4), "Through what oneshould know That by which all this is known." (Br,2-4-14), the object of the actof knowing is denied. Smilarly, the object of the action of meditation is alsodenied. The Sruti "That which is not revealed by speech , by which speech isrevealed " after declaring that Brahman is not an object, says "Know thatalone as Brahman and not what people medidate."(Ke1-1)

���8�_̄ ��=mR�5�

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1. It was shown that certain words which have famili ar other meanings andwere in doubt, in fact meant Brahman as the sentences have clear indicationsof Brahman, Again, some other sentences which are not-very clear meaningof Brahman are in doubt about whether they speak of the Supreme Brahmanor any other entity. The second and third Padas are begun to ascertain this.

Note: The following table lists the words which have been determined to refer to Saguna or NirgunaBrahman as the case may be in the context in which they appear. In Kata, 1-3-9, the word refersto Brahman and Jiva. Those in 1-1 are Spashta (clear) and others are Aspashta. (not very clear)

Í6� � 5 �@ �1 �Q 6� 3� >� R ·;� 8 �_ ¯� A� V G�

� � �" �-

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����� � Ì mN® :� RG � � �6�U À @� � � �������

����� 6� _ R 0� �Ï)� �1 � � ���� ����

� ���� � Ì > ; � x�:�Q � ���� ��

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�� �:� U0. " �

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����� }U9 > � R}R ;� 1� 5 � :�Q � ���� ��

����� � 1 � :�W > � 9� R 51 � :� 5�U 9 �R �1 � � �������

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�� �1 �X � H� <T ; �

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��� � �� > �X ? >� R 5� <� � �������

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��� ��� ); � RW � 1 � � � ���� � ���

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�� �8 �Y B 3R <0;� " �

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������� Ì D � <\ � �� ���� �

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����� � > � E�R 5 � :� ;� � � ���� ����

����� Ì R 1 :� R �>� R �Ì <W �Ç ­ > ; � � � ������� �

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��� Ì )� R :�W " �R\ �=R W � B1 � �?�U � �" Y�@ 0� � � ������

���)�T>��

��� �5�1;�1>�\ � �B�Ì A;�� FU�1�9;�RW >�$ �:;�1�W� 1�2�R�Ì )�1>�\�Ì �>�"�RS<1>�\ �Ì �>�"Y�1�A;�X >�� 8�_ ¯�0�RW)�T>�R1:�5�R�Ì >�A2�R5�\ � 8�_ ¯�R1:�1�R� '��Ò�1�� �� 5 � � ' � �Ï> �\ Á �6� A; � �Í1 6� � H� � �Í6� 6� }1�W � �� 1 � R � � " �R�FU1 � ;� � !� r5 � � )� T >� RW � � � :� _; � 1�W � s � ( R � ��� � ���� � rA� � > � R � Ï@� � :� BR 5 � )� � � Ì R 1 :�R )� <RW :� <R W�:� Y 1�RW 9 � ;� RW � 8 � _̄ � s � 8�Y � �������� � r5 � � )� R ; � 1 �W � � :�_ ; �1 �W � > � R � � >� 6� �? '� 1�Q s � " �- � ��� ��� rÌ )� RW� 5 �1 ; �� � ? �R ? >� 1� RW ; � \� 6� U<R 0� � s � " �- � ��� ��� � 1 � 1 A�Y @ ¬ R � 1 � 3W > �R 5 �U 6� _ R� >� ?� 1�Q � 1 �X � �� �� � �� � rÌ 5 �W 5 �)� T > �W 5 � R1 :� 5� R 5�U 6� _� > � ?; � �5� R :�Á �6�W � > ; � R " �<>� R� 0� s ( R � ������� � rA� � Ï@ � � ÒB � 6� _� > � ­ � Ì R � 5 � #� R $�_ W 9 ;� � s8 �Y � � ������ r� 1 � 1 >� :�� A� s � ( R � ������� � Ì B \� 8 �_ ¯� R t A:� � 8�Y � � ���� ��� � Ì ;� :�R 1 :� R � 8�_ ¯�A� > � R] 5 �U 9 � V � � 8 �Y � ����� ��� Ò1 ; � W> � :�R }R � �5 �1 ; �1 >� > �R � 35; � � � A�1 ;� RW � )� T > � A; � �Í1 6� �H �\ � � 6� _ � 1� 8� 4 �P t 5 1� � ������ � �� ��

1. From the Srutis, it is understood that Jiva is eternal; Similarly, thebirthlessness, changelessness; it is the unchanging Brahman itself exists as theSelf and it is Brahman. What are those Srutis? "The individual self does not

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die" (Chand.U..6-11-3) "That Self is undecaying, immortal,undying, fearlessand Brahman" (Br.U.4-4-25) The intelli gent one is not born and does not die;This ancient one is birthless, eternal and unchanging (Kat.U,1-2-18) "Havingcreated that, He entered into that (Tai.U.2-6-1) "Let me manifest myself asname and form entering as the individual self" (Chan.U.6-3-2) "This Selfpermeates those bodies upto the tips and nails (Br.1-4-7) "Thou art That "(Chan.U.6-8-7) "I am Brahman " (Br,1-4-10) "This Self , the perceiver ofeverything, is Brahman" (Br,U.2-5-19) These and other Srutis speak ofeternali ty deny the origin of the individual Self.

�� �9 � R x�A1 >�W @ � �)� T> � A;� �)� 5 :� :� <0� > ;� 6� 3W ? � � ������ ��� ��

2. This reference to birth and death of the individual Self is in secondarysense.

��� 6�<:�W >�� 8�_ ¯��Ì�>�"Y �1�:�Q �Í6�R�4�A�\ 6�"�R] 1�Q�)�T>�9�R>�W 5��Ì>��1�@- 1�W� �� 6� <A; � � � B � 8�_ ¯� 0� � � ' �X 1 � 5; � �A> � Á �6�1 > � :�Q �Ì R :�P R 1 � :�Q � ��r� > � E� R5 � :� R 5� 5 3\ � 8 � _̄ � � r� 8 �Y � �������� r A� 1 ; �\ � � E� R 5 � :� 5� 5 1�\ � 8 � _̄ � s1 �X � ��� �� �� � Ì 5 �5 1� <RW 8 � R Å� � "Y �1 £� 6�_ E� R 5� %� 5 � � Ï>� s � 8�Y � ����� ��� Ò1 ; � R � 3@ �U � FU� 1 � @�U � ��1�3W >�'�W 16�<\� 8�_ ¯�� )�T>���1�A:�Rd�T>�A;�R�6�� �5�1;�'�X 1�5;�A>�Á�6�1>�:�Q �Ì°;�RX @0;�6�_ "�R?�>��3�1�� $�:;�1�W� ������� ��� ��

3. It is only the Supreme Brahman itself which while remaining immutableappears to exist as an individual soul owing to its association with limitingadjuncts. The eternal consciousness of the Supreme Brahman is mentioned inthese Srutis "Knowledge, Bliss, Brahman " (Br.3-9-28) "Brahman is Truth,knowledge, Infinite" (Tai,2-1-1) " Without interior or exterior, entire, pureintell igence alone" (4-5-13) If the individual Self is but the Supreme BrahmanItself, then it can be understood that like fire possessing heat and light, theJiva is also possessed of eternal Conscious-ness by its very nature.

�� � 6� <:� W> � � ' �W 1 �Q �� 8 �_ ¯� � )� T >� � �1 � A:�R 1�Q �; �R > �1 �Q �6� <\� 8 �_ ¯� � 1 � R >� R 5�W > � � )� T > �RW � 9 � �> �1 �U :� B] � 1� � �� 6� <A; � � '�8 �_ ¯� 0� � ��> � 9�U 1 > � :�Q �Ì R :�P R 1� :�Q � �� � 1�A:�R1�Q ��>�9�U ��)�T>��� �� 1 � 2� R � '� � r� A� � > � R � Ï@� � :� BR 5 � )� � � ÌR 1 :� R; � RW ; � \� � > � E� R5 � :� ; �� � 6�_ R0�W @�Ur� 8�Y��������� Ò1;�W >�\)�R1�T;�"�R� )�T>��>�@�;�R� �>�9�U 1>�>�R3R�� FRX 1�R�A:�R1�R] ?'��A�:��2�] 1�R�9�>�t51���� ������ ��� ��� ��

4. Now if the individual soul be none other than the Supreme Brahman thenthe soul should have the same magnitude as that of the Brahman' and as it it is

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mentioned in the Srutis that the supreme Brahman is omnipresent, so the soulalso should be omnipresent. Thus only will those statements stand vindicatedthat are made in the Srutis and Smritis about the omnipresence of the soul as"That Self is great and birthless which remains identified with the intellect andin the midst of the organs" (Br.4-4-22)

��� Ì B\ "�R<6�V�>�] "�R;�R� Ï>�� 6�_ >�YH�W�� A�>�] G�� 3?�] 5�R1�Q�� �� Ì B \� $ � ' ( R � :� �ÌB :�Q �Ì R $�' ( R � :� �Ì B\9 �U a� WB \� � 6� 8 � R� :� �Ò�1 � � ' � � �� 1� A; � R? '� � " �1 �] Y? � � x�; �U x�R ; �R � � A� > �R] 2� ]" �R S <� " �<0� :�Q �Ì 5 ;� 1�Q �" �º6� S; � �1 � >; � :�Q � �� ? � x�RW � 6� � � B � A� 5 " �1 �R] � " �<0� :� U6� R 3R ;� � � "_ �; � R A�U � 6� _> � 1�] :� R5 � RW � �? ; � 1�W � � Ò� 1 � � �� 1 � 1 �? '� � A�\ E� R :�R G�W� > � >� R 3� � A; � R1 �Q �5 � � > � A1�U 9 �W 3� � " �t ?' �1 �Q � �� " �<0� > ; �� 1� S <x�A; � � " �1 �] Y1 > � �Ì9 ;�U 6� $ � :� R1 �Q � �� ��� ��� �����

5. Everywhere it is seen, the tendency to activity is preceded by the ego-consciousness. As in I go, I come, I eat, I drink . Again for the intellect that isequipped with the power of the agent and possessed of the abili ty of doingeverything, we have to create some other instrument that can be used foraccomplishing everything. . For despite the abili ty possessed by an agent, he isseen to engage in works with the help of some instruments. In that case, theargument is only about the term and not about the thing itself., since agentshipis conceded for one who is different from the instrument.

�� � 5 � � A> � R 9� R �> �"\ �� " �1�] Y 1> � :�Q �Ì R 1 :�5 � � � A�\ 9 � >� �1 � � � Ì� 5� :� RW ]D � 6�_ A� mR 1 �Q � �� � " �1 �Y ] 1> � A9 � R> �1 > �W � � B �Ì R1 :�5 �RW5 � � " �1�Y ] 1 >� R1 �Q �� 5 � :�RW ] D �� � A� \ 9� >� �1 � � � Ì °�W S <> � RX @ 0; � R1 �Q � �� 5 � � ' � � " �1�Y ] 1 >� R1 �Q �Ì � 5 � :�U ] x�A; � R � A1 � � 6�U À @ �R 2�] �� A� � ��� �" �1�Y ] 1> � A;� �3N � #� Á �6� 1> � R1 �Q �������� �����

6. It is not possible for the agent to have natural agentship, as it will result innegation of liberation. If agentship is the nature of the Self, there can be nofreedom from it as fire can have no freedom from heat. For one who has notgot rid of agentship, there cannot be the achievement of the highest humangoal, for agentship is misery.

��� Ì �>�} R>�A2�R;�R\ � "�R;�] "�<0�A�\%�R1��Ì �>�>�W "�3�?�] 5�RW � )�T>�A;��Ì �>�} R��1��:�<R54�A;�� A�1��6�<A:�R1�Q�Ì R1:�5��� "�:�R] 4;�D �R1�Q�A�>�] 9�V 1�R�4�>�RA�R1�Q �A�R�D �0���' �W 1 � � ;� 1�U � �Ò]? > � <R 1�Q �1 � 35 �U E� ; � R"��1�] Y1>�9�RW xY�1>��=D�0�A;�� A�\A�R<A;�� �A������ 1�35�U$�_ BBW 1�U "W�5�X>�� '�� �>�E�R5�W 5�� :�RWD��A���9�] �>�1�U :�B]�1�� �� � � � "Y �1 �RW � ; � � � 6�_ ; � ±�RW � )� T > � A; � � 4 � :� R] 4 � :�] =D � 0� � � 1 � 36�W D � � Ï>� �Ï5 � :�Q �Ò] ? > � <� � " �R <; �� 1� � �� � 1 � 1� � �' ��Ï1�W

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' � RW � 31� R � � 3RW @ �R � 5 � � 6�_ A� ); � 5 1�W � �� )� T > �"Y �1 �4 � :� R] 4 � :�] > � X @� :;� R 6�W D � ;� R � Ï>� � � 1 � H� 1 7�=R � 5� � � � > � @� :�\ � � > � 9� )�W 1 �Q �6� )�] 5 ; �> �1 �Q �Ò] ? > � <RW ��� 5 � � :� H �1 >� :� RG �W 0� �������� ���� ����7. During the state of ignorance,when the individual soul is blinded by thedarkness of ignorance, Samsra consisting of the agent and the experiencerresults from the behest of the Iswara, who presides over all activities, residesin all beings, who is the witness, imparts intell igence and is the Supreme soul.Only by his grace, liberation from knowledge is possible.......Iswara makes theindividual soul do according to the efforts of Dharma or adharma alreadydone by him. Therefore the defects pointed out do not arise. Iswara is onlythe efficient cause just like the rain in allocating the inequality of the resultswhich depends on the inequali ty of the Dharma and Adharma done by theindividual soul.

�� � )� T > � RW � :� U#; � 6�_ R 0� A� � '� >� � � A�W t 5 Ç ; �� � A� :� 5� A" �� �Ì� >� }R" �:�] 6� V> �] 6� _E� R 6� S <$�_ B � � 6�V > �] 3W B\ � S > � B R; �3WB R 5 1� <\ � 6� _ �1� 6� }1 � � � Ò1 ; �W 1 � 3> � $� 1� :�Q � � �� � � 1 � 35 1� <6�_ � 1 � 6� H �RX � 3W B R 1�Q �3W B R 51 � <6�_ � 1� 6� H� RX � 3WB8�T)�X�� 9�V 1��A�VD :�X��A�\6�S<@>�x�RW �<\ B�1��$ �'( �1��Ò�1��Ì >�$ �51�>;�:�Q������ �� �� ���

8. It has been understood that when the individual leaves the previous body,itattains another with the help of the chief Prana, accompanied by the sensesand the mind, and also the tendencies of the previous birth resulting frompast actions due to ignorance...It is to be understood that when it acquiresanother body, it goes with the subtle parts of the elements.

�� � ; � W5 � � " �:�] 8Y � 5 3W5 � � '� 5 3_ :� A� :� R Á �/ R � � 7�=9 � RW $ � R; � � 1� t A:�¿�U 6� 9 �RW $ �W 5 � � D � �; �1 �W � 1 �W @ � R\ � ; � 1�Q � Ì ::� ; �\ � ? � <T <\' � 5Ç :� � A� � � Í6� 9 � RW $ � R; � � ÌR <8 4�\ � 1 � 3N 6� 9 � RW $ � D� ;� 3? �] 5 � ?� RW " �R � °� A�\ 6� " �R] 1 �Q � 6� _ � > � =T ;� 1 �W � �� A� � > �1 �Y � " �<0� �A� \6� " �R] � 3> � � �B :� "�<"W �� � BN 1 � 9�U $ �� '�] � A�\ 6� " �R] � 3> � � ' � � � %�Y 1 �" �R� - 5 ; � :�Q � �� 1 � 1 � � � "Y �1 �R 1; � ;�W � " Y �1� A; � � Ò­ R 3W�" �:�] 0� � �7�=�Í6�9�RW $ �W 5��Í6�D �;�W �A��1��A�R5�U ?�;�R�Ï>��Ò:�:� Q �Ì >�<RW Bt51������� ������ � �

9. When the results of those works for enjoying which the soul had ascendedto the lunar world, get exhausted through enjoyment, then the watery body thathad been produced for that soul for enjoyment in the lunar world getsmelted by the touch of the fire of sorrow enkindled at the sight of theexhaustion of enjoyment , like snow and hail melting at the touch of the sun'srays or the solidity of ghee being removed by the touch of the flames of fire.

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� �� � 5 �X 1 � 3t A1 � � A�> �] W� ' � 5 3_ :� A�\ � $ � ' ( 5 1 �T �1 � � �� � �� � � �1 �W � 1 �U � A� \ ; � :�5 �\ � ; � :� R =;� :�> � $ �R Å�A>�3N @"Y�1�R5�U Á�6�R;�R:�T�;� R] 1�5�R�Ì 5�U9�V;��6�U 5�<W>�W :�\��=RW "\��6�_1;�>�<RW Bt51�������� ���� ���� �10. It is not that all go to moon.........As for others (evil doers) they enter intothe place of Yama (hell ) and suffer the torments by Yama in accordance withtheir own misdeeds, and then descend to this world.

� � � � ' �5 3_ :� 0. =W � ; � 3::�; �\ � ? � <T <:�Q �Í6� 9 �RW $ � R 2�] :� Q�Ì R <84 �\ � 1 � 3N 6� 9� RW $ � D �; �W � A� � 1 � � 6�_ � > � =T; � :� R 5�\ � A� VD :�\Ì R"�R?�A�:�\ � 9�>��1��� 1 � 1� RW � > � R ; �RW > � ]? � :�W � 1� � � � 1 �1 �RW � 4 � V:� R � 3�9 �� � A�\ 6�Y ' ;� 1� � Ò� 1� � � � � � � Ì1 � � � Ì R" �R? �R �� 31 �U º; � 1� R 6� � H� <W > � �ÌG � �Ì R" �R? �R � 39� R >� �Ò1 ;�U 6� '� ;�] 1 �W ������ ������

11. As the liquid body formed in the lunar world for the sake of enjoymentstarts to melt after the exhaustion of enjoyment, it becomes subtle like Akasa.Then it comes under the influence of air. Then it comes in contact with smokeetc....Hence in this context the attainment of a state of similarity with spaceetc. is meant figuratively here by "becoming space" etc.

� �� �Ì º6� :� º6�\ �" �R =:� R" �R? �R � 39� R >�W 5 � �Ì >� A2� R ;� �>�@�]4�R<R�9��� A�BW:�R\ � 9�U>�:�R6�1�t51�� � �� ��� ������

12. The souls descend to this earth with the showers of rain after staying in theakasa -like state for short intervals.

� �� � 1 � t A:�¿�W > � R >� <RW B W� 6� _> � @ �] 0� R 5 1� <\ � 6� É1 �W � � � � Ì 5 ;�X � �)� T > �X � �Ì S 4� �® 1 �W @ �U �>�_TÅR�3@�U � A�\A�$ �]:�RG�:�Q�Ì 5�U?��;�5��� 6�_ �1�6�} 51�W� 5 � � 1 � 1 A�U #� 3N � #� 9� R )�RW � 9 � >� t 51 � � �� 6�V > �] > �1 �Q � �� ; � 2� R � > �R ;�U 4 �V :� R � 39� R> � RW 5 �U �? � �; � 5� R\ �1 � 1 A�\ ? =W@ � :�R G� :�Q ������ ���� �����

13. In the same descent, what happens after the shower is read.....The soulsmerely comes into contact with paddy etc which are inhabited by other souls.,just like the contact with air, smoke etc as before.

� �� �Ò3R 5 � T\ � 1 � U� 1 � A; �X > � �Ì> � A2�R 9 �W 3� � 6� _6� +' ;� 1�W � �� � � � 5 �X 1 � 3t A1� � ; � 3N x\ �� A� \4 ; �W � A� Y t @ , � � 6� R <:� R� 2�] " �u � 1� � �:� R ;� R :�; ;�W > � � A�\ 4 ; �W � A� Y� ­ � �5 � � � 6� <:� R 2�] $ � 5 4 �RW 6; � t A1 � � �� "U �1 � � � �� " �R1 A5 ;�W ] 5� �Ì5 �� 9 �> ; � x�A>� Á �6�1 >� R1 �Q � �5�� �B� "�R1A5;�W ]5�� 6�<:�R2�] >�A1�U 4�:�W ]0��Ì �9�>;�x�� A>�Á�6��� A>�6�P�� �� � � " \ �� 6�U 5 � � �Ì G� � � "�R 1 A5; �] :� Q�Ì � 9� 6�_ W1 � :�Q ���3W ? � " �R =� 5� � :� H � A�\ 6� � H� � �Ì 8 �R 4 �? '� �������� �� ���

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14. Now, the different states of the souls are elaborated. ...What was saidthat the creation in the intervening state is real is not so. The creation in theintervening state is the product of Maya , there being not the slightest touch ofreali ty in it. Why? Because of the nature of swapna not being a completemanifestation of the totali ty of attributes of a real entity. What again is meantby totality? It means the adequate space, time and circumstances and also itsnot being sublated.

� �� � A> � 6�P R >� A2� R � 6� <T� D� 1� R � �� A�U@�Uª�R>�A2�R�Ò3R5� T\ � 6�<TD ;�1�W� �� � � � � 1 � A;� � 6�_ " Y�1 � A; � � A>�6�P 3?�]5�A;��Ì 9�R>��� A�U@�U ª�:�Q�Ò1 ; � 2�] � � �� 5 � R . T @ > �R 1 :� � 5� � ' �W � 1� � A� :�U c� ; � W5 � �Ï1 �R � 5� � 5 � R ÊR 3T �5 � � A> �R 6�R ; � �Í6�X � 1� � 5 ��>�"�º6�W 5��Ò1;�2�] ��� ���;�A:�Rc�R1:�X >�� A�U �ª�A2�R5�:�Q �Ì1�� Ï>�� '�� "�R<0�R1�Q��5�1;�>�3W>��ÌA:�R1�Q�ÌR1:�5��6�_8�RW4��������A��Ï>��1�U �)�T>���A�U61���A>�RA2;�\ �$�1���6�U 5���Í�H�® �1��5�R5;�����������������

15. The dream state was considered. Now the state of sleep is being conside-red. The absence of dream is called sleep. This occurs in the nerves and theSelf collectively and not alternatively. Since the Self itself is the locus ofsleep, for that reason that wakefulness occurs from the self always... It is thevery same soul which had gone to sleep and attained its own self, that wakesup again and none else.

���� Ì tA1�� :�U $4�RW � 5�R:�� ;�\ � :�V �( ]1�� Ò�1�� =RX �"�"�R� � "�2�;�t51�� �� A� � 1 � U� � " �:� > � A2� � Ò� 1 � � 6� <TD �R ;� R :�Q �Í' ; �1 �W � �� 5 � � 1 � R >� 1�Q �:� U$ 4 � RW � )� R $ � S <1 � R> � A2�RW � 9 � � > �1 �U :� B] � 1 � � �� 5 � � �B �Ì ;�\ �Òt 5 Ç ; �X � �� > �@ � ;� R5 �Q �Ò]D � 1 �W � �� �5 � � ' � � =RW " W�t A1 � � 6�_ � A� t �� �:�U $ 4 �� � A�U ª� � Ò� 1� � �� 6� S <?�W @ � R1 �Q �Ì 4 �] A� \6� � H� � �:�U $ 4 � 1� R�Ò1 ;� > �$ �' ( R :� � �� 5 � � A�\ E� 1 >� R1 �Q �A� \6� ¿� �� �Ò1 � <A:� R1 �Q �> �X =D � 0; � R1 �Q �Ì A�\ 6� ¿� �Ò� 1 � ���������� ��

16. People call one as unconscious , in a "swoon" state. When this is exami-ned, it is said that unconscious state cannot be the waking state. He does notperceive objects with his senses. It is not ackwnoledged that one who is un-conscious sleeps. By process of elimination we realise that swoon is a state ofhalf sleep; because of unconsciousness he is asleep and because it is different,he is not asleep.

���)�$�1�Q

� � � > �W 3R 5 1 �W @ RU � 1 � G� � � 1 �G � � �9 � ¿� 6�_ A2� R 5 �R � Í1 6� �H � FU 1 � ;� � Í6� =9 ;� 5 1�W � �� " W �� '� 1�Q �Ì R " �R? � A;� �Í1 6�� H � :�Q �Ì R :� �5� t5 1� � � "W �� ' �¿� � �� � � �� � A� >�] > �W 3R 5 1� $ �1 � A�Y � ­ FU 1;� 2�] � 5 � :�] =1 > �R ; � � 6� <� � 6�_ 6� b� � � ÌR <9 ; �1 �W � �� � � � � �

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1 � }}R " �R ? �\ � 5 � � 8 �_ ¯� " �R; �̂� A; � R 1�Q �5 � � 8�_ ¯� � 0� � � > � E� R 1� � Ì R" �R? �\ � � > � E� R; �W 1 � � � 1� 1� � �' �� 6�_ � 1 � E� R �5 � � � A;� R1 �Q � �5 � � ' � � 6�_ � 1� E� RB R 5; � R � >�W 3A; � �Ì 6�_ :� R 0; �\ � � ; � Ux\ �� " �1�U ]:�Q � �� 1 � A:� R1 �Q �)> � =5 � R� 3>� 3W > � � $ �$ � 5� :�Q �Ì � 6� �Í1 6� }1�W ������1�A:�R1�Q�8�_ ¯�"�R;�^ ��>�;��3�1���A�� :�Q�������� �� ���1. In the Upanishads, it is seen that Srutis dealing with creation are different.Some say that Akasa originates others not. In order to clarify the meaning ofSruti with regard to creation in all Upanishads, the succeeding section isbegun. ....Now if Akasa is not the product of Brahman, it will remain unknowneven when Brahman is known. This is not proper as it will i nvalidate theUpanishads........ Therefore Akasa also originates like fire and the rest.....Therefore it is established that Akasa is a product of Brahman.

�� Ï1 �W 5 � �� > �; � �R #; �R 5 �W 5 � �:� R1� S <? >� R� 6� �� > �; � 3R F;� RW �>�R;�U> ; � R] #; � R 1� � ���������

2. By tbis explanation of space, it has been explained that air is supportedby space

����1�W )���Ì1 � � �:� R1 �S <? > �5 � � �)� R ;� 1� �Ò� 1 � ��������� ��

�� ��Fire comes from air.

����Ì R6���Ì 1� � �1�W )� A� � �)� R; � 51 �W ���������� � �

4. Water comes from fire.

���6�Y �2�>;�W>�W ;�:�Q�Ì ¿� ?� 8 3W 5 � �Ì¢ RW �)� R ; � :� R 5� R �S >� >� D ;� 1� �Ò� 1� ���������� ��

5. Earth, by the word food, comes from water - this is the intention.

�� � 9 �V :�W t AG �> �Y 1 "Y �1 � R ;� R� � 6�U À @�W 0� �Í6� 9 �U ); � �:� R 5� R ;� R � :�R\ A� R � 3" �R; �̂� ; � 2� R? �8 3\ � � � 5 � @ 6�}1�W � �� � � � � Ï>�\ � �Ò1 � <; �RW � �Ì ª�W )� A� RW � �; � 2�R ?� 8 3\ �" �R ; �] :�Q �Ì > �$ � 51 �> ; � :�Q �������� ������

6. Such products as flesh are generated from earth after it has become tripartiteand is eaten by men.

�� � ; � � 3� 1� R >� 1�Q �9 �RX � 1� " �R � 5� �" �<0�R � 5� � 1 �1� RW � 9 � V1 � RW 1 6� �H � 6�_ =; � R9 ;� R :�Q �Ï> � �Ï@� R :�Q �Í1 6�� H � 6�_ =; � RX9 � >� 1� � � Ò� 1�� � 5 � �Ï1� ; �RW � � "_ �:� R 5 1� <\ � � :� Y$ ; � :�Q � �� 9 � > �� 1� � ' � � 9� RX � 1 �" �1> �W � � =m\ � " �<0� R 5� R :�Q � �� � � � � Ì 2� � 1 �U �Ì 9 �RX � 1� " �R � 5� � � " �<0� R �5 � � � 1� 2� R� 6� � 9�V 1 � RW1 6� � H� "_ �:� RW � 5 � � " �<0� X� �� > �? �W @ ; �1 �W � � 6� _ 2� :�\ � " �<0� R � 5� �Í1 6�}5 1�W' � <:�\ �9 �V 1 �R � 5� �6�_ 2� :�\ �> � R �9�V 1 �R � 5� �Í1 6� }51 �W �' � <:�\ �" �<0� R �5 � �Ò� 1� ���������� ��

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7. If the senses have come out of the elements, then their creation anddissolution follow as a matter of course from the creation and dissolution ofthe elements and so no other order need be searched for these. There isevidence to show that the senses are of elements,............Again even if thesenses are not the products of elements, still the order of the creation of theelements is not disturbed by the senses; it can be either that the sensesoriginate first and the elements later or that the elements comes out first and thesenses later.

�� � 1 � G � � ;� 2�R � =RW " �R 3; � � � 6� <A:� R 1�Q �8 �_ ¯� 0�� � � Í1 6� }5 1�W � 1 � 2� R� 6�_ R0�R��Ì � 6� �Ò� 1� �Ì 2�] � � � � � #� R� 3�> � 1�Q �6� _R 0� R 5 �R :�Q �Í1 6� � H� � �Ò�1 � �Ç ­ > ; � :�Q ���������� �

8. Just as it is understood that world etc come from Brahman,so also theorgans are from the Supreme Brahman, ....In these, it is to be construed thatPranas come from Supreme Brahman just as space.

�� �1 � A:� R1 �Q �Ï"�R3?�X >��6�_R0�R��? � 8 31 �� �" �R ; �] 1 �? '�W � 1� �� A� �:�Q �����������

9. Therefore, it is proved that Pranas are eleven by name and form.

� �� �Ì 0� > �? '�X 1 �W �6� _" Y�1 �R � �6�_ R 0� R � �6�_ � 1� 6� H� > ;� R � ���Ì 0�U 1 >�\ �' �X @ � R\ �A� R XD :; � 6�S <' ( W 3RX � 5 � � 6� <:�R 0�U 1 �U º; �1 > �\ �" Y�1 £3W B > ;� R� 6� " �R ;� R] 5 � U6� 6� �H � 6�_ A� mR 1�Q ������������

10. The Pranas under consideration are to be understood as atomic. The atomi-city is subtle and limited and not like the ultimate atom, as it would thenmake the activities over the entire body impossible.

� � � �:�U #; � ? '� �6�_ R 0� � �Ò1� <6�_ R 0� > �1 �Q �8 �_ ¯� � > �" �R <�Ò� 1� �Ì �1 �� 3?� �1 � �����������

11. Like other Pranas, the chief Prana is the product of Brahman - extends.

� �� �5 � �> � R; �U � �6� _R 0� RW �5 � R � 6� �" �<0� > ;� R 6� R<� �����������

12. Prana is neither air nor the function of the organs.

� �� � Ì 0�U ? '� R ;�\ � :� U#; � � � 6�_ R 0� � � 6�_ 1 ;�W 1 � >; �� � Ò1 � <6�_ R 0� > �1 �Q � �� Ì 0� U 1> �\ � ' � �ÒB R� 6� � A� RX D :; � 6� S <' ( W3R X� 5 �6� <:� R 0�U 1 �U º; � 1 >� :�Q �� �������� ��

13. This chief Prana must be considered to be atomic. (subtle and limited)

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� �� � ); � RW � 1� <R S 3� 9� � �Ì °; � R� 3�Ì� 9 � :� RS 5 �5 �T � 9� � �3W > � 1� R �9 �� �Ì �4 � �® 1 �\ � � > � R $ �R � 3� " �<0� )�R 1�\ � A> � �" �R ;�W ]@ �U �6� _> � 1 �] 1 � �Ò� 1� �6�_ � 1 � )�R 5 �T 1�W ���������� ��14. It is said that the organs of speech etc, engage in their respective workswhen they are presided over by the deities identifying themselves with fire etci.e, with light etc.

����1�H>�R51�<R0;�W >��6�_R0�R1�Q�>�R$ �R3T�5��Ò �1��������� �� ��

15. Speech etc, are really independent entities different from Prana.

� �� � � > � 6�; �] ; �W 0� � 1 �U � 6� _=; � " �_ :� � �Ì1 � � � Í1 6� �H � "_ �:� R1 �Q �9 � � >� 1�U :� Q�Ì B] � 1� � �� 1 � 2� R� B � =RW " W�� 3Y ? ;� 1�W � ; �W 5 �" _�:�W 0� �A� RW 6� R 5 � :�Q �Ì R Á �/ � �1� 1� RW ��� > � 6� <T 1�W 5 � �" _�:�W 0� �Ì > � <RW B � 1� �Ò� 1� ���������� ��

16. Dissolution is in the reverse order as compared to creation. It is seen inthe world that a man descends in the ladder in a reverse order of ascendence.

���� 5�� '�� �>�;�3R�3A�$�] A;��Ì�6��ÌR1;�t51�"�:�Q � A�1;�1>�:�SA1�� 6�_ �1�6�R�31�\� �B� r1 � 35 � 5; �1 > � :� R <:9� 0� �? � 8 3R � 39 ; �� r� Ò1 ; � G� � A� :� A1 � A;� � 6�_ 6� b� A; � � :�R ;� R :�R G� 1 >� :�Q � �� 6� _R " Q�� 1 �U � � 8 � _̄ � R 1 :� 1 >� 3?�] 5 � R 1�Q � � > � ; � 3R� 3�6� _6� b� RW ��> ; � > � t A2�1 �Á �6�RW �9 � >� � 1� ���������

17. And yet the creation of space etc. also also has no absolute reali ty; forunder the aphorism "the effect is non-different from the cause since terms like'origin' etc are met with, we showed that the whole creation is but Maya.

���Ì4;�RA��

� � ; �U @ :� 1 �Q �Ì A:� 1�Q �6�_ 1 ; � ;� $ �RW ' � <; �RW � �� >� @� ; � ��> �@ �� ; � 0� RW � �1 � :� � 6�_ " �R ?� >� 1�Q �� > �À �� A> � 9� R >� ;� RW � �Ò1 � <W 1� <�9� R >� �Ì5 �U 6� 6� H �RX � � � A� �R ; � R :�Q � � ��� 1 � �:� R] 0� R :�� 6� � � A�U 1 � <R :�Q �Ò1 � <W1 � <�9 �R >� R 5�U 6� 6�� H �� �Ò1 ; � 1� � ��� Ì A:�1 6�_ 1 ; �; � $� RW ' � <W � � > � @ �� ; �� 0� � �' � 3R 1 :�"W �� � ; � U@ :� 1 6�_ 1 ; �; � $� RW ' � <A; � � �> � @� ;� A; � � 1� �:�R] 0� R\' � �Ì4 ; �R A� � ��� 1� � � 6� ;�] ; �W 0� � � > � @� �; � 0�� �1� �:� R] 0� R\ � � ' � � � > � @� ; �W �Ì 4 ;� R A� RW � ��� :� 2; �W � 1� � 9 � �> �1 �U \; �U x�:� Q� �� ��� � 1 � 2� R� 6� �Ì5 ; �RW 5 ;� t A:� 5 �Q�Ì 5; � RW 5 ; �R 1 :� " �1 � R :�Q �Ì 5 ; � RW 5 ; �4 � :�R] 5 � Q�' � �Ì 4;� A; � �Ò1� <W �1 � <�Ì� > �> �W " W�5 � � ��� Ì 1 ;� 5 1� �> � �> � x�;� RW � �4�:�] 4��:�]0�RW �� �:�2;�RE�R5��5��:�H��� A�1;�R5�Y 1�W � �:�2�U5�T"Y�1;����rÌB:�Q �Ò3:�Q �s�r:�:��Ò3:�Q s�Ò�1���5 � XA� � $ �] " �� �Ì ;�\ ��=R W " �> ;� >� B R <�

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1. (1) When it is established that it is incompatible that the object and subjectwhich are the contents of "you" and "we" and which are contradictory innature like darkness and light can have mutual identity.1 (2) it is all the more incompatible for their attributes to have mutual iden-tity

1 (3) the super-imposition of the object which is the content of the concept"you" and its attributes, on the subject which is the content of the concept"we" and which is the nature of Consciousness

1 (4) and contrarily, the superimposition of the subject and its attributes onthe object.

1 (5) are possible logically to be not -real (non-real, Mithya)

1 (6) Still , after super-imposing the nature and its attributes on one another,because of non-discrimination.

1 (7 ) after mixing up the Real with non-real. which is due to the non-realknowledge of the substance and its attributes which are absolutely discernible.

1 (8) the worldly behaviour continues "I am this" and "This is mine".

�� Ì R B � �� " �RW ; � :� 4; �R A� RW � 5 � R :�W � 1 � � �� Í' ;� 1�W � �� A:�Y �1�Á�6��� 6�<G�� 6�V>�]�­ R>�9� RA��� �� 1 � \� " W�� ' �1 �QÌ 5 ; �G � �Ì 5 ;� 4 � :� R] 4 ; � R A� � Ò� 1 � � >� 3t 51 � � �� "W �� '� 1�Q � � 1 �U � ; � G� � ; � 34; �R A� � � 1� � �> �W " ��Ì $�_ B � 5� 8� 5 4 �5� RW � 9 � _:�Ò� 1 � � �� Ì 5 ;�W � 1 � U� ; � G � � ;� 34 ;� R A� � � 1� A; �X > � � � > � 6� <T 1� 4� :�] 1 > � � " �º6� 5 �R :�Q �Ì R '� D� 1�W � �� A� > � R] 2� R � 6� � 1 �U � Ì 5 ; � A;� �Ì 5 ; �4 � :� R] > � 9 �R A� 1� R\ � � 5 � � > ; � �9 �' � <�1 � � �� 1 �2�R � ' � � =RW " W�5 �U 9 � >� � � �� ?�U�x�"�R� �B� <)�1�>�1�Q �Ì >�9�RA�1�W�Ï"�?'�5Ç��A���1�T;�>� �3�1������ �� �� �

2. What is super-imposition? It is awareness of what was seen in anotherlocus and is the form of memory. Some say that it is superimposition of theattributes of one thing on another. Some also say that the superimposition onanother is an il lusion because of its non-discrimination. Some others also saythat the superimposition on another is imagination of opposite attributes thereitself. In any case there is no straying away from the awareness of one thingas something else. Similar is the worldly experience - shell appears likesilver and a single moon appears as two.

�� " �2�\ � 6� U5 � � � 6�_ 1 ;� $� R 1 :� �5 � �Ì� >� @ �; �W � Ì 4 ; � R A� RW � � > � @ �; �1 � �:�R] 0� R :�Q � �� � A� > � RW ] � � B � 6�U <R W> � t A2� 1� � Ï> �� > � @� ;�W � � > � @� ;� R 51 � <:� 4 ;� A; �� 1� � � ; �U @ :� 1 6�_ 1 ; � ;� R 6�W 1 � A; � � '� � 6�_ 1 ;� $ �R 1 :� 5 �� � Ì �> � @� ;� 1 >�\ � 8 � _> � T� @ � � �� � Í' ;� 1�W � �� 5 �1 � R> �1 �Q �Ì ; � :�Q �Ï" �R5 1�W 5 � �Ì� >� @ �; � �� � Ì A:�1 6�_ 1 ; � ;� � >� @� ; �1 >� R1 �Q � Ì 6� <RW D �1 > �R c� � � 6�_ 1 ;� $ �R 1 :� 6�_ � A� �W �� � � 5 �

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' � R; � :� t A1� � � 5� ; � :� � �6�U <R W> � t A2�1 � � Ï>� � � > �@ � ;�W � � > � @ �; � R5 1� <:�Q �Ì 4 ; � � A� 1� > ;� � :� � 1� � � � Ì 6�_ 1;�D �W�6�� �BÌ R"�R?�W � 8�R=R�� 1�=:��=5�1�R�3� Ì 4;�A;�t51�� � Ï> � :�Q �Ì � >�À �� � 6�_ 1 ; � $� R1 :� �5 � �Ì �6� � Ì5 �R 1 :� �Ì 4 ; �R A� � ����� �� �� ��

3. How then can there be any superimposition of any object and its attributeson the Self which is not an object.? Everyone superimposes something elseonly on the object before him. You assert that Self cannot be an object andcannot be referred to as "you". The reply - The Self is not absolutely beyondcomprehension as an object,; because it is comprehended as the object of"I"., it is an immediately perceived entity and it is well known as the innerSelf. There is no rule that any object has to be superimposed only on an-other object in front. Though the space is not an object, children superimposeon it ideas like surface and dirt. Similarly, there is no contradiction in thesuperimposition of non-self on the inner Self.

�� 1 � 2�R � � B � �� r8�_ R ¯� 0� RW � ; � )� W 1� � s � Ò1 ;� R 3T� 5� � ? � R AG � R� 0� � ÌR 1 :� � 5� � � > � 0� R] F:� > �; �RW > � A2�R � 3�> �? �W @ � �Ì 4 ; �R A� :�Q �Ì R �F1 ;� �6�_ > � 1 �] 5 1 �W ���Ì 4;�RA�RW�5�R:��Ì 1�tA:�A1��N�� S<1;�>�RW '�R:����� �� �� �4. The Sastras like "A Brahmin shall perform sacrifice" etc become operativebased on the superimposition of caste, stage of life, age, condition etc. on theinner Self. Superimposition, we have said, is cognising something as some-thing else.

�� 1 � }2� R � �� 6�U G � 9 �R ; �R] � 3@�U � � > �" �=W @ �U � A� " �=W@ �U � > � R � ÌB :�W > � � � > �" �=� � A� " �=RW � > � R �Ò� 1� � 8� R Å4� :�R] 5 �Q �Ì R 1 :� � 5� �Ì4 ; � A;� �1 �� � 1 � 2� R � 3W B 4 � :�R] 5 �Q �rA2� V=R WB \� " �Y? � RW B \� $ � R X<R WB \� � 1 � ® R � :� � $ �' ( R � :� � =n; � R� :�' � r� � Ò� 1 � � � � 1 � 2� R �Òt 5Ç ; �4 � :� R] 5 � Q�r:�V " �� � "R 0� � � � �u 8� � � 8� � 4� <RW 5 4 � RW B :� Qr� Ò� 1 � � � � 1 � 2� R �Ì 51� � "�<0� �4 � :�R] 5 �Q � � " �R :� A�\ " �º6� �� > �� '� �" �1 A�R 4 ;� >� A� R ;� R 3T 5 �Q � �� � Ï> � \:� Q�Ì B\ 6� _ 1; �� ; �5 � :�Q �Ì ?�W @ � A>� 6�_ ' � R <A�R � D� � 0�6� _ 1; �$ �R 1 :� � 5� �Ì 4; � A;� � 1 �\ � ' � � 6�_ 1 ; � $� R1 :� R5 �\ � A� > �] A� R �D � 0�\ � 1 � � � 6� ;�] ; �W 0� �Ì 5 1� �" �<0� R� 3@ �U �Ì 4 ;� A; � �1 � � �Ï> � :�Q �Ì ; � :�Q �Ì 5� R � 3� �Ì 5� 51 �RW � 5 �X A� � $�] " �R W_4 ; � R A�RW � � :� 2;� R 6�_ 1 ; �; �Á �6� � � "�1�] Y 1> � 9�RW xY�1 > � 6�_ > �1 �] " ��A� > �] =R W" �6�_ 1 ;� D� � ���� �� �� �

5. Thus - One superimposes external characteristics on the Self - like onethinks� �"I am healthy, " " I am injured", when one one's wife or children arehealthy or injured. Similarly, one superimposes the characteristics of thebody, on the Self - I am fat, I am thin, I am fair, I stand, I go, I jump - etc.;Likewise the characteristics of the senses on the Self - I am dumb, I have oneeye, I am a eunuch, I am deaf, I am blind ; Similarly the characteristics of

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Anthahkarana like desire, will , doubt, perseverence etc. are superimposed onthe Self. Thus one superimposes the notion of "I" on that Self which is thewitness of all manifestations and conversely superimposes that Self which isthe witness of everything on the Anthahkarana etc. Thus this superimposition,which has neither beginning nor end, which flows eternally, in the form of amystery, which propels the agentship or enjoyership, is experienced by all.

�� 1�:�W 1�:�Q�Ï>�:�Q �=D�0�:�Q �Ì4;�RA�\ � 6�t0& 1�R� Ì�>�}W �1�� :�5;�51�W� �� 1���>�W "W�5�� '�� > � A1 �U A> � Á �6�R >� �4 � R <0�\ � � > � }R :� RBN � � �� 1 � G�X > � \� A� � 1 � � � � ;� G� � ; � 34; �R A� � � � 1 �1 "Y �1 �W 5 � � 3RW @ �W 0� � $ �U 0�W 5 � � >� R � � Ì 0�U :� R G �W 0� R � 6� � A� � 5 �A� \ 8� 4; �1 �W � �� 1 � :�W1�:�Q�Ì�>�}R#;�:�Q �ÌR1:��Ì5�R1:�5�RW ��Ò1�<W1�<�Ì4;�RA�\ � � 6�U<A"Y �1;�� A�>�W ]� 6�_ :�R0��6�_:�W ;�>;�>�BR<R�� =RX � " �" �R � � >�X � 3" �R ? '� � 6�_ > �Y H � R� � � A� >� R] � 0� � ' � � ?� R �R � 0� � �> � �4 � �6�_ � 1� @ �W 4 � �:�RW D � 6� <R � 0� � �� �� �� �

6. Learned men consider this Superimpositin as defined as avidya, nescie-nce. They said that the realisation of the real nature of that entity by discri-mination as Vidya. When this is so, the locus on which there is a superim-position, is not connected to the bad or good characteristics of that which issuperimposed, With this understanding of the superimposition mutuall y on theSelf and non-Self, known thus as avidya, nescience, all worldly behaviour orvalid means of knowledge and objects is engaged in; similarly, all Sastrascontaining injunctions, prohibitions and liberation.

�� " �2�\ � 6� U5 � � �Ì �> � }R > �� � @� ; �R � 0� � 6�_ 1 ;� D� R 3T� 5 � � 6�_ :� R 0�R � 5� � ? �R � R� 0� � '�W � 1 � � � Í'; �1 �W � �� 3W B W t5 Ç �; � R� 3@ �U � � Ì B \:� :� R� 9� :� R5 � <�B 1� A; � � 6�_ :� R 1�Y 1 > � �Ì5 �U 6� 6� H �RX � 6� _ :� R 0� 6�_ > � YH ; � 5�U 6� 6� H �W � � �� 5 � � � B �Òt 5 Ç;� R � 0� �Ì5�U 6�R3R;��6�_1;�D�R�3��>;�>�BR<��A�\9�>��1�����5�� '�� Ì�4�® R5�:�51�<W 0�� Òt5Ç;�R0�R\� >;�R6�R<�� A�\9�>��1�� �� 5 �' � �Ì5 � 4; � A1� �ÌR 1 :� 9� R >�W 5 � � 3W B W5 � � " �t ?'� � R� 6�_ ; � 1�W � �� 5 � � ' � �Ï1 �t A:� 5�Q �A� > �] t A:� 5 �Q �Ì A� �1 � � Ì A� mA;� �Ì R 1 :� 5� � � 6�_ :� R 1�Y 1 >� :�Q �Í6� 6� }1�W � �� 5 � � ' � � 6�_ :� R 1�Y 1 > � :�5 1� <W0� � 6� _:� R 0� 6�_ > � Y� H � <t A1 � � �� � 1 � A:�R 1�Q �Ì � > � }R �> � � �@ � ;� R 0;�W > � �6� _ 1; �D �R 3T �5 � �6�_ :� R 0�R � 5� �? �R � R� 0� �'�W � 1� ���� �� �� �

7. How then can the perception which is the valid means of knowledge andthe Sastras be the object of one with Avidya? The answer: - For one who hasno notions of "I" and Mine" in the the body and the senses , cognisership isincompatible and hence the incompatibili ty of the activity and the validmeans of kn owledge. Without the help of the senses, no perceptual functionis possible. The function of the senses is not possible without a base. With-out the superimposition of the base (body) on the Self, no one can funtion.When all these are not present, cognisership is not compatible. Without the

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cognisership, perceptual funtioning is not possible. Therefore, perception andthe Sastras are for the one who has avidya.

�� 6�?>�R�3�9���'�� �Ì�>�?�W @�R1�Q� � �� ;�2�R� �B� 6�?>�R3;��� ?�83R�3�9��� FRW G�R3T5�R\� A�\8�54�W� A��1�� ? � 8 3R �� 3� > � E� R 5�W � 6� _ � 1� "V �=W� )� R 1 �W � � 1 � 1 � RW � � 5 � >� 1�] 5 1�W � � Ì 5�U "V �=W� ' � � 6�_ > � 1 �] 5 1 �W � � � ; � 2�R � 30. RW }1� " �<\ � 6� U À @� :�Q �Ì � 9� :�U #� :�U 6� =9 ;� � � r:� R\ � B 5 1 �U :� Q�Ì ; � :�Q �Ò' ( � 1 � r� Ò�1 � � 6� =R� ; � 1�U :�Q �Ì R <9� 51 �W � � B S <1� 1�Y 0� 6�V 0� ]6� R � 0� �:� U6� =9 ;� � 1 �\ � 6� _� 1 � � Ì� 9� :�U #� T 9 �> � t5 1� � � Ï>�\ � 6�U À @� R � Ì � 6� � > ;�U 1 6�¿� �' �H �R � � "_ V �<�­ T 5 �Q �Ì R "_ �RW ? � 1� �#� .Q $ � RW }" �<R 58 � =>� 1� � Í6� =9 ;� � 1 �1 �RW � � 5 � >� 1�] 5 1 �W � � 1 � � � 6� <T 1� R 5 6�_ � 1 � � 6�_ > � 1�] 5 1�W � �� Ì 1 �� � A� :� R5 � � � 6�? >� R �S 3� 9� � � 6�U À @ �R 0� R\ � � 6� _ :� R 0� 6�_ :� W; � > ;� >� B R <� � �� 6�? > �R 3T 5� R\ � ' � � 6�_ � A� �� Ï> � � Ì � >� >�W " �6�U <� A� <� � 6� _ 1; �D �R � 3�> ; � >� BR <� � �� 1 �1 A� R :� R 5; � 3? �] 5 � R 1�Q �> ; �U 1 6� �H� :�1 � R :� � 6� � � 6� U À@ �R 0�R\ � 6� _ 1; �D �R � 3>; � >� B R <� �1 �1" �R =� � A� :� R 5�Ò� 1 � �� 5� ?' �T ; �1 �W ���� �� �� �

8. This behaviour is not different from that of animals. It is just like thatanimals when they hear sounds which are unfavourable turn away and whenfavourable move towards them: - Just like by noticing a man approachingthem with a raised stick, they begin to run away thinking "This man wants tohurt me" but they approach another carrying green grass in his hands ;Similarly, knowledgable men when they see strong, uproarious people withevil l ooks and upraised swords turn away and are attracted by men withopposite traits. Therefore, the behaviour of men and that of animals withregard to the means and objects of knowledge are similar. It is well knownthat the behaviour of animals presupposes lack of discrimination. Therefore itis concluded that the behaviour of the knowledgable men because of thesimilarity with animals is the same for that time

�� ? � R �T ;�W � 1 �U � > ; � > �B R <W � ; � }� 6� � 8�U � �6�V > �] " �R <T � 5� �Ì� > �� 31 >� R � ÌR 1 :� 5 �� � 6� <=RW " �A� :8 �5 4 � :�Q �Ì � 4 � �� "_ �; �1 �W � � 1 � 2� R � 6� � 5 � � >�W 3R 51 � >�W }:� Q�Ì ? � 5 �R; � R}1� T1 � :�Q �Ì 6�W 1 � 8�_ ¯� D � G� R� 39 �W 3:�Q �Ì A�\ A� R <T �Ì R1 :� �1 �1 > � :�Q �Ì �4 � "�R <W �Ì 6�W D ; �1 �W � Ì 5 �U 6� ; �RW $ � R 1�Q � Ì � 4� " �R <� > � <RW 4 � R c� � �� 6�_ R "Q �� ' � � 1 � 2� R 9�V 1 � �Ì R1 :�� > � E� R 5� R1 �Q6� _> � 1�] :� R 5 �\ �? � R � :�Q �Ì � >� }R> �� � @ �; �1 > �\ �5 � �Ì �1 �> �1 �] 1 �W ��

9. Although a man acting intell igently becomes fit for Sastric duties notwithout knowing the relationship of his Self with a different world, still thefitness does not require the knowledge of the reali ty of the Self, which is notof this Samsara, devoid of the differences due to Brahmana , Kshatriya etc,.beyond hunger and thirst and known only from Vedanta., because it is notnecessary and it is contradictory to fitness. Also before the dawn of such

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knowledge of the Self, the operation of the Sastras does not preclude theman with avidya.

����>�}R

� � 6� <:�W ? > � <R 4 �T 5 �R � 1�U �Ò; � :�Q �Ì A:� R �9 � � � 6�_ R $ �> � A2�R � )� $ �1 �RW 9 ; �U 6� $ � :;� 1�W � � 5 � � A> � 1 � 5G� R � � � A� R � '� �Ì > �? ; �R 9 ;�U 6� $ � 51 � >; � R� � Ì 2�] > � 1� T � �B � A� R � � � 5� � � B � 1� ;� R � � >� 5 �R � 6� <:�W ? > � <A; � � �­Y 1 > �\ � � A� 4 ; �� 1� � � ?� � x��<� B 1� A; � � 1� A; � � 6�_ > �Y � H � �Ì 5�U 6� 6� H �W � � � � :�U x�R 5 �R\ � ' � � � 6�U 5 � <5 �U 1 6� � H� � � � "U �1 �� !� � > � };�R � 1 � A;� R � 8� T )�? � xW �� �3R B R1 �Q � � Ì �>�} R�1:�"�R� �B� A�R� 8�T)�?��x�<>;�x�?�83�5�3] W?;�R� 6�<:�W ?>�<RF;�R� :�R;�R:�;�T� :�BR�A�U@�U �ª����;�A;�R\ �A>�Á�6�6�_�1�8�RW 4�<�B1�R����?�W <1 �W �A� \A� R S <0� RW �)� T > � R � � �����

1. But this primal state is held by us to be subject to the supreme Lod but notas an independent thing. That state has to be admitted because it serves apurpose. Without that latent state, the creatorship of God cannot have anymeaning, in as much as God cannot act without his power (of Maya) andwithout that latent state, the absence of birth for the freed souls cannot beexplained, Why? Because liberation comes when the potentital power (ofMaya) is burnt away by knowlewdge. That potential power, constituted bynescience is mentioned by the word 'unmanifest' It rests on God and iscomparable to magic. It is a kind of deep slumber in which the transmigratingsouls sleep without any consciousness of their real nature.

�� 1 � 3W 1 � 3> ;� ·1� :�Q � © �� '� 1�Q � Ì R " �R ?� ?� 8 3�5 � �3] ­ :� Q� � � � �� © �� '� 1�Q � Ì D � <? �8 3RW � 3:�Q � Q� � � � � � � ©��' �1 �Q �:� R ;�W � 1� �A�V � ' �1 � :�Q � � �Ì > ;� x�R �� B �A�R ��:� R ;� R � �1�H>�R5;�1>��5�Á�6�0�A;��Ì ?�·;�1>�R1�Q��� �����

2. This thing, that is avyakta, is sometimes referred to by the word space........Sometimes it is called immutable......sometimes it is called Maya......That Mayais surely unmanifest....for it can neither be ascertained as real nor as unreal.

�� 1 � 2�R �ÒB R� 6� � r8�_ ¯� >� R � 35 �RW � > � 3t 51 � r�� � "\� �" �R <0�\ � 8 �_ ¯� r� Ò1 ; �U 6� "_ �:; � � r1 �W � 4 ; � R 5� ; �RW $ � R 5�U $ �1 � RÌ 6� ?; � 5�Q � 3W> � R1 :� ?� � x\ �� A> � $ �U 0�X � 5 �] $ �V / R :� Qr� Ò� 1 � � 6� R <:�W ? > �; �R] � � ? � xW �� � A� :� A1 � )�$ � �� 4 �R � ;� 5 ;� R � >� R ·;� RW �6� "_ �:� W> � $ � :�R 1�Q � � � > � R ·; � ?�W @ � W� 6� � r:� R ;� R\ � 1 �U � 6�_ "Y �� 1�\ � � > � }R 5 :� R �; � 5�\ � 1 � U� :� BW ? > � <:�Q r� Ò� 1 � � r; � RW � ; � R W �5 �\; � RW � 5 � :�� 4� �1 � ® 1 ; �W " �� r� Ò� 1 � � 1 � A;� R � Ï> � �Ì>� $ � :� R1 �Q � � � � �� � � 6�_ " �<0� R H�U � A� X > � � 3X > � T � ? �� x�<> ; � R"Y �1 � �5 � R :� Á �6�R �5 �R :� Á �6� ;� RW � �6� _R $ � >� A2� R �Ì5 �W 5 � R � 6� �:� 5 G�W 0� �Ì R :�P R ; �1 � �Ò1 ;�U ' ; � 1�W ���� �����

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3. So also here (in the Swetaswetara)."The teachers of Brahman say "IsBrahman the cause (of the universe)?" Making the start with this, it is said"They entered into Brahman through the Yoga of meditation, saw the hiddenpower, existing identified with the Deity Himself and remaining hidden (ie.superimposed on Brahman) together with its constituents. Thus it is the powerof the Supreme Lord which creates the universe that we come across in thevery beginning of the text. Towards the end of the topic also that very power ismet with in the text, "Know Maya to be Nature and the master of Maya is to bethe great Lord and "He who, though one , presides over every source"- by thisthat power is understood.........From the trend of the context it is held by us thatthis very divine power in which names and forms remain undifferentiated andwhich is the latent form of names and forms is mentioned by this mantra.

�� :�R;�R:�RG�\ � �B�Ï1�1�Q �6�<:�R1:�5���Ì>�A2�RG�;�R1:�5�R�Ì>�9�RA�:�R5�\ � <d>�R� Ò>�� A� 6�R]�39�R>�W 5�W �1�� �Ì G �RW x\���> � W3R 5 1 �R 2�] A� \6� _3R ; �� > �� �� �Ì R' �R ;�X ]� ��rÌ 5 �R � 3:� R ;� ;� R �A�U ª� RW �; � 3R �)� T> � � �6�_ 8 �U 4 ; �1 �W ���Ì )� :� Q�Ì � 5� Ç :�Q �Ì A> � 6�P :�Q �Ì �X 1 �\ �8 �U 4 ; � 1�W �1 � 3R ����r�$ � RX . 6� R 3� "�R � � �� ������ ���

4. This appearance of the supreme Self in identity with the three states is amere superimposition, as in the case of the rope appearing as a snake etc. Withregard to this it is said by teacher Gaudapada versed in the traditional views ofVedanta -"When the individual sleeping under the influence of beginninglessMaya is awakened , then he realizes the birthless, sleepless, dreamless, non-dual,

�� Ì 5 �U 9 � > �R >� A� R 5�\ � ' � � 8 �_ ¯� � > � E� R 5� :�Q �Ì � > � }R ;� R � � 5� >� 1�] " �\ � :� R WD � A� R4 � 5�\ � ' � � �@ , 7�=1 � ; �R �Ò@ ; �1 �W � ���� ���

5. It is held that the knowledge of Brahman, culminating in personal reali-sation, has a perceived (or tangible) result in the form of removing ignoranceand leading to liberation.

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REFUTATION

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���A�Rl×:�Q

� � � A� R l×R 3;� A1 �U � 6� S <� 5� t @ - 1 �\ � > � A1 �U � 6� _:� R 0� R5 1� <$ � :;� :�W > �W � 1 � � :� 5; � :� R 5� R � � 6�_ 4 � R 5�R 3T �5 � � " �R <0� R �5 1 � <R� 0� �Ì 5 �U � :� :�R 5 �R � �1 �1 6� <1� ;� R �Ï>� � > �W 3R 5 1� > �R ·; �R � 5� � ; �RW )� ; � t 51 � � �� � A� > �W ]@ � U�Ï> � � > �W 3R 5 1� >� R ·;�W @ �UA� Y� ­ � > � @� ;�W @ �U �Ì 5 �U :� R 5 �W 5 �X > � � " �R ;�W ]0� � " �R <0�\ � � ==D � � ;� � @� 1� :�Q � �� 6� _4 � R 5� 6�U À @ � A�\ ; � RW $ � R � � 5� 1; �R 5 �U :�W ; � R � Ò�1 �A� R\ #; � R �:�5 ; �5 1�W ���� ���� �

1. Samkhyas and others , holding the view that a pre-existing entity can beknown through other means, and inferring Pradhana (Primoridal nature)andother entities as the source of the universe, intrepret the sentences of Vedantaaccordingly. They think proper to define the cause of creation in the senten-ces of the Vedanta through the effect with inference only. Samkhyas also thinkthat the contacts between Purushas (sentients) and the Pradhana (insentient)have always to be inferred.

�� � Ò3\ � � 1�U� �Ò3R5�T\ �Ì>��?�­ :�Q �ÌR?�k×1�W � �� ;�3N x\ �� � 6�_ 4�R5�A;��Ì?�831>�\� 1�1�Q�Ì�A��\ �� " �R A�U � ' � 1�Q �? � R #� R A�U � 6� _4 � R 5� A� :� 6�] 0� �ÌR 9 �R A� R5 � R\ � ? � 8 3R 5 �R\ � FV ; � :�R 0�1 > �R 1�Q � �� Ì 1 �� 6�_ 4 � R 5� A; � � " �R <0� 1> �\ � > � W3� A� �:�W > �:� B �� � � 6� <:�� @ �] � 9 �� � " �� 6� =6�_ 9 �Y � 1� �9 � � � 6�S <$ �Y B T 1� � :� �1 � � 6�_ A� ); � 1�W � �� � � � � � �� Ì R 5�U :� R � 5� " �:� � 6� �Ì 5 �U :� R 5 � �� 5� Á �S 6� 1� :�� 6� � 6�_ 4 � R 5� :�Q �Ï" �W @ � R\ � ? � R� #� 5� R\ � ? � 8 3> � 3N 6� =9 ;� 1�W � �� " �R - " �W� � B � 6� È1�W ��r:� B1 ��6� <:�Q �Ì > ;� x�:�Q �Ì > ; � x�R1 �Q �6�U À @� � � 6� <� � � ���� � �� 1 � G� � ; � � Ï>� � ; � ¿� R :� R 5� RW � ; � 1 "_ �:� R? '� � :� B1 �Q �Ì > ; � x��6�U À @� R � � A:�Y � 1 � �6�_ � A� �R � �1�W �Ï> � �ÒB � 6�_ 1 ;� � 9� E� R; �5 1�W � �� 1 � G� �Ì >; � x�� :� �1 � � A:� Y�1 � 6�_ � A� �W � �? � 8 3R � 3B T 5� 1> � R c� � 5� � > ;� x�:�Q �Ì > ; � x�:�Q �Ò� 1 � � � > ; �U 1 6�� H � A�\ 9 � >� R1 �Q � � � A:� Y� 1 � 6�_ � A� �\ � � 6� _4 � R 5� :�Q �Ì � 9� 4 �T �; � 1�W ���� ���� �� �

2. Now, the remaining is questioned. what was said that Pradhana is notmentioned is not establisheed ; Because in some recensions of the Vedanta, itis heard words which are suggestive of Pradhana. Therefore, it results that thecause Pradhana is established in Veda itself and has been adopted by thegreat Rishis like Kapila and others............Although it is an inferred entity,Pradhana , is seen in some recensions by the word. It is read in the KataUpanishad, "The unmanifest (Avyakta) is higher than Mahat, Purusha ishigher than Avyakta" , Where , the Mahat, Avyakta, Purusha, which are wellknown in the Smritis are themselves recollected here by the same name andorder . Pradhana is mentioned which is well known in the Smritis, because thederivation, which is not manifest is unmanifest, is possible, it is devoid ofsound , and Avyakta is well known in Smritis as Pradhana.

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�� � rÌ )� R :�W " �R\ � =R W� B 1� ?�U � �"Y �@ 0� R\ � 8 � iT � � 6�_ )� R � � A�Y )� :� R 5 �R\ � A� Á �6� R� � �� Ì )� RW � ÅW " �RW � )� U @ � :� R 0�RW 5 �U ? � W 1�W)� B R 1; �W 5 � R\ � 9 � Ux�9 � RW $ � R :� )� RW 5 ; � � ?> �W � ������ r� Ì G � � � B � :� 5 G�W � =R W � B1 �? �U � �"Y �@ 0�? �8 3X � � <)� � �A� 1> � �1 � :�R\ � A� � Ì � 9� 4 �T ; �5 1�W � �� =R W� B 1�\ � <)� R W � <+)� 5 � R 1 :� " �1 > �R 1�Q � � �� ? � U �\ �� A� H > �\ � 6� _" �R ?� R 1:�" �1 >� R1 �Q � �� " Y�@ 0� \1 � :� � Ì R >� <0� R1 :� "�1 >� R1 �Q � �� 1 � W @� R\ � A� R :; � �Ì> � A2�R �Ì >� ;� > �4 � :�X ] ��> ;� 6� � 3? ;� 1�W � =R WB 1 �"Y �@ 0� W� 1 � � �� � � ��1 � A:�R 1�Q �FU� 1 � :�V =X > � �6�_ 4 � R 5� R � 3" �º6� 5� R �" �R � 6� =R 5� R � :� �1 � ���� �������

3. "One goat (birthless entity - Feminine) gives birth to many being akin toitself of the colours red, white and black `- One goat (masculine) lies by herside enjoying and another goat leaves her after enjoyment " In this Mantra,by the colours red, white and black are meant the qualiti es rajas (activity),satva (tranquili ty) and tamas (inertia) The red is rajas since it is pleasing;white is Satva, since it is of il lumination; black is tamas, since it hides. Thestate of equal balance by the qualities of its constituents is mentioned as"red-black etc"........Therefore, the postulation of Pradhana by the followers ofKapila is of the Vedic source only.

�� �r; � t A:� 5�Q 6� +'� �6� +' � )� 5 �R �Ì R "�R ?� ?' � �6�_ � 1� � ® 1 � � � �� 1� :�W > � � :� 5 ;� � Ì R1 :�R 5 �\ � � > � � R5 �Q �8 � _̄ � �Ì :�Y 1 � RW �:� Y 1� :�Q � �� 8 �Y � Í� ����� ��� Ò� 1 � � �� Ì t A:� 5 �Q �:� 5 G�W � 6� +' � � 6� +' � � )� 5� R � Ò� 1� � 6�\ +' � A�\ #; � R� > �@ �; � R 6� <R6� +' � A�\ #; � R � FV ; � 1 �W � 6� +' � ?�8 3� ; � 3? �] 5 � R 1�Q � �� 1 � � Ï1 �W � 6� +' � 6� +' � "�R � � 6� +' �� > �\ ? � �1 �� � A�\ 6� }51 �W � �� 1 � ; �R6� +' �� > �\ ? � �1 � � A�\ #; � ; �R � ; �R > �5 1� � � A�\ #; �W ; � R � Ì R" �R&Q Q D ; �5 1�W � 1 �R > �5 1 ;�W > � � ' � � 1� H >� R �5 � � A� R\ #; �X � � A� \ #; � R; � 51 �W � �r:� V=6� _" Y�� 1� <� >� "Y �� 1 � :�] B 3R }R � � 6�_ " Y�S 1� S >� "Y �1 � ;� � � A� ª� � �� @ � RW . ? � " �? '� � � >� " �R <RW � 5 � � 6�_ " Y�� 1 �5 �] � � > � "Y �� 1 ��6� U À@� � � s � A� R\ #; � �" �R ���� Ò� 1� � �� 1 �; � R � FU � 1 � 6�_ � A� �; � R � 6� +' �� > �\ ? � �1 � A�\ #; � ;� R � 1 �W @ �R\ � A:� Y� 1 � 6�_ � A� �R 5 � R\6� +' �� > �\ ? � �1 �1 �H > �R 5 �R :�Q �Í6� A� \$ �_ B R 1�Q �6�_ R ª� \�6� U5 � � �FU � 1 � :� H >� :�W > � �6�_ 4 � R5 �R 3T 5� R :�Q ���� ������ � �

4. "That in which the pancha pancha janah and space are placed, that very SelfI regard as the immortal Brahman. Having known Brahman, I am immortal,In this mantra, one number five is heard of in connection with another numberfive., for the number five is used twice. These constitute twentyfive. By thesethe number of things that can be enumerated as twentyfive corresponds exactlyto the number of categories mentioned by the Sankhyas. "Primordial Nature isthe undifferentiated; seven counting from mahat are both sources of others andare themselves modifications of Nature, and sixteen are the evolved products.But Purusha is neither a source nor a modification of it". Since the numbertwentyfive, known from the Sruti stands for the twentyfive categories,Pradhana and the rest have the Sruti authority.

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��� � " �� 6� =6�_ 9 � Y 1�T 5 �R\ � � ' � �Ì R @ �̂� E� R 5 � :�Q �Ì 6�_ � 1 �B 1�\ � A:� ; � ] 1�W � �� FU � 1� ? '� � 9 �> �� 1� � � rK �� @�\ � 6�_ A�V 1 �\ � " �� 6� =\ �; � � �1 � :�Q �Ì $�_ W� E� R 5 �X ]� 8 � 9� �1 �] � )� R ; � :�R 5 �\ � ' � � 6� ?; �W 1 �Q � r� ? > � W� Í� ����� �� 1 � A:� R 1�Q �5 � �Ï@ �R\ � :� 1 � :�Q �Ì ; � 2� R 2�̂ � ? � ·;�\ � A� \9 � R >� �; �1 �U :� Q� �� 1 � " �R] > � ­ :9 �W 5 � � ' � �Ï1�W �Ì 2�̂� 6� _� 1 �@ - R 6� ; �t 5 1� � �� 1 � A:� R 3� 6� � A:�Y � 1� 8� =W 5 �> �W 3R 51 �R �> ; �R #; �W ; � R �Ò� 1� �6�U 5 � <R D �W 6� � ������ �� ��

5. The pure knowledge of the seers like Kapila is regarded as unobstructed..There is also the Sruti. Who saw Kapila emerging out in the beginning ofcreation and filled him with knowledge after birth, Therefore it is not proper tomake their view appear as wrong. Moreover they establish their interpretationwith the help of logic, For that reason also the Vedanta has to be explainedwith the help of the Smritis.

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6. Sankhyas think - Just as it is seen in this world, the pots, plates etc. whichseparately are made of earth have earth as their common substance before;similarly things with external or internal differences are of happiness ,misery, and delusion; it is logical that they were of common happiness,misery and delusion before. That which is of common happiness, misery anddelusion, is Pradhana, insentient like earth, and which engages in activity onits own nature in a diverse transformation to serve a sentient being. . So theyinfer Pradhana on the grounds of limitation etc.

(Note : The above six are the summary of the Sankhya system by Bhashyakara. What follows isthe refutation. The same procedure is followed for the refutation of other systems)

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7. From the Upanishads `It is not possible to have the conclusion that theinsentient Pradhana projected by Sankhyas is the cause of the Universe,Because it is not mentioned. How? Because of the fact of "seeing". The cause

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has the quali ty of agent of seeing. It is heard " That saw(thought). Let mebecome many "

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8. What was said that the insentient Pradhana is referred to by the wordExistence and that "seeing" is ascribed to it in a secondary sense just as in thecase of water and fire is wrong. Why? Because of the word "Self"....."Let memanifest name and form by Myself entering as the Jiva that is butMyself".........Jiva is sentient...... Self is the same as one's very essence.....Theinsentient Pradhana cannot be the essence of sentient Self.

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9. The insentient Pradhana cannot be implied by the word 'Self'" . Because -the super-sensuous Existence forming the topic under discussion is referred toin the text as "That is the Self" and then saying "That thou art", the need fordevotedness to "It" is advised for a sentient being who has to be liberated.Still l ater, liberation itself is taught "One who has a teacher knows, For himthat much delay as is needed for freedom; then he comes identified withReali ty" If by saying "Thou are That" the Sastra can make one understand theinsentient Pradhana to be the meaning of the word "Reali ty", then it means toa sentient being desirous of liberation, "Thou are insentient" and the Sastraspeaking contrarywise, will become invalid because it means evil for a man.

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10. If in the text it has been taught that the not-self Pradhana is "That Self -Thou art That", the teacher desiring to teach the Primary Self should havespoken later "Do not cling to it as it is the non-Self" and advised itsrejection.He did not say thus...Therefore, Pradhana is not referred to by theword "Existence".

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11. It is heard in the context of the "Existence" being the cause.........When thePurusha is called swapiti , (he sleeps)..........he becomes his own Self. By theword, swa, the Self is meant. .....Therefore that in which all sentient beingsmerge is the sentient "Existence" which is the cause of the world and notPradhana.

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12. How Pradhana is not the cause of the Universe, In all the Upanishads,uniformly, it is known that the sentient is the cause of the universe.

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13. By the word swa, it is heard the omniscient Iswara is the cause of theUniverse. ... Therefore, the Omniscient Brahman is the cause of the Universeand not Pradhana or anything else.

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14. This sentence of the Katha Upanishad is not meant for proving theexistence of the avyaktha and mahat of Sankhyas. For we do not come acrosshere the very same Pradhana, as it is taught in the Sankhya Smritis as anindependent cause constituted by its three attributes. The only identical thingwe come across is the word only - avyaktha.....From a consideration of thecontext also, the Pradhana postulated by others does not emerge as themeaning, because the word is recognised as occurring in a simile ill ustratingthe body. Here in the simile of the chariot, the body is understood by the wordavyaktha.. Thus when we run through the context, preceding and succeding,there remains no scope for Pradhana postulated by others. ....An additionalreason why Pradhana is not meant by avyaktha or is it to be known is thatthree things alone, Fire, Jiva and Paramatma are met with in the Kathaupanishad. in conformity with what has to be said for the granting of boons.The way in which the word mahat is used by Sankhyas to mean Pradhana's firstevolved effect is not what is in evidence in Vedic use. Similarly, the wordavyaktha cannot mean Pradhana in Vedic use. Therefore, the inferredPradhana has no Vedic authority.

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15. By relying on this mantra, it is not possible to infer that the argument ofSankhyas have Vedic basis. Nor does this mantra independently justify anyargument at all . This aja is to be understood as the material source of the fourclasses of beings (born of eggs, moisture, uterus and earth) and consisting ofthe elements counting from fire, viz, fire, water and food (i.e, earth) and not asthe three attributes (of sattva, rajas and tamas.)..Thus, the followers of certainVedic recension say that the origin of fire water and earth is from the SupremeLord and also their colours as red etc. "That the red colour that (gross fire)has is the colour of the (unmixed element ) of light; that which is the white

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colour is of water., that which is the black colour is of food, (Ch,6-4-1) ..Therefore it is not incongruent to apply the word , aja, to fire, water and food(earth).

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16. Even by the mention of the number, no inference can be made that thePradhana etc has Vedic sanction. Why? Because they are many. Thesetwentyfive entities are diverse, they do not have five common qualiti es to formfive groups, by which alone one could split up the number twentyfive intoanother five groups,..... Because there is an excess, the twentyfive categoriesare not meant. The excess from the twentyfive categories are the Self andspace, -Therefore, by denotative sense only, some beings are meant bypanchajana and not the categories of Sankhyas. ... Just like seven sages areseven In the verse following "That in which of the five quintuplets", the fivePranas are enumerated for proving the swarupa of Brahman.

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17. The diff iculty is , No, because, there will arise a defect of there beingno scope for other Smritis. If by arguing under the fear of some Smritishaving no scope, the theory of God as the cause is objected to, then otherSmritis speaking God as the cause will be left without scope. Therefore theKapila Tantra is contrary to Veda and also contrary to the teachings of Manuwhich follows Veda, not merely because it assumes an independent Prakriti but

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also because of multiplicity of souls. Vedas are an authority by themselvea inwhat they reveal, just as the sun is with regard to its colour. Whereas thewords of human being is dependent on other source and has the interventionof the memory of the author. Therefore it does not matter if the Smritis haveno application in matters contrary to Veda.

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18. Sankhyas and others cite the texts of Vedanta and intrepret them insupport of their views. What was done before was just to prove that theirinterpretations are mere fallacies and not the correct explanations. But herefollows a refutation of their reasonings independently of the texts. This is thedifference.

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18 (1) If this has to be decided on the strength of the analogy alone. then it isnot seen in the world that any independent insentient being that is not guidedby some sentient being can produce modifications to serve some specialpurpose of man; because what is noticed in the world is that houses, palaces,beds, seats, recreation grounds etc., are made by the intell igent engineers andothers at the proper time and in a way suitable for ensuring comfort or avoi-ding discomfort,.....Therefore, by reason of impossibili ty of design as well , theinsentient Pradhana should not be inferred to be the cause of the universe.

18 (2) For instance, a magnet though possessing no tendency to act by itself,still induces that tendency to iron; Therefore , action can happen only in thecase of an omniscient cause but not in the case of an insentient cause.

18 (3) Because we infer that even in those cases , the milk and water develop atendency to act when they are under the guidance of some sentient beings.

18 (4) Of the Iswara with omniscience, omnipotence and the great power ofMaya, action or inaction present no contradiction.

18 (5) For the grass etc eaten by a cow alone changes into milk, but not sowhen rejected or eaten by a bull etc... Hence the modifications in thePradhana cannot occur naturally on the analogy of grass.

18 (6) Hence it is wrong to say that Pradhana acts for the sake of the Soul.

18 (7) Of the Supreme Being, there is the greater advantage that It hasinactivity from Its own point of view and has action from the stand point ofview of Maya,

18 (8) And since there is no external factor to excite them there can be noorigin of mahat and the rest that results from the disturbance of the balance ofthe three constituents.

18 (9) The theory of Sankhyas is self-contradictory. Because, sometime theyenumerate seven organs and some times eleven... From this also, the SamkhyaDarsana is incoherent.

18 (10) So it has to be understood that this state of one being the afflicted andthe other the afflictor is a creation of nescience and it does not exist in the realsense.... But from the Upanishadic point of view,one should not doubt even in adream the absence of liberation, because it is admitted that that the Self is one ,that the one cannot be both the subject and the object and that all the differentmodifications are mentioned in the Upanishad to be based on mere speech. Inthe empirical experiences the state of one being the tormentor and another thetormented is to be accepted as it is., and it is not either an object to bequestioned about or explained.

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1. By the refutation of the theory of Sankhya, it should be construed that thetheory of Yoga has also been refuted , ..Their refutation centres around onlythe claim that liberation can be attained through Sankhya knowledge or thepath of Yoga independently of the Vedas. For the Upanishads reject the claimthat there can be anything apart from the Vedic knowledge of the Unity of theSelf that can bring about liberation. ...But the followers of Samkhya and Yogaare dualists and they do not pereceive the unity of the Self. Vedic knowledgeand meditation are referred to by the words Sankhya and Yoga for these latterhave an affinity of meaning to the former. Sankhya and Yoga have theirapplication in so far as those features which are not antagonistic to the Vedas.If through inference and supporting reason they are conducive to theknowledge of the Reali ty, let them be so conducive, But the knowledge of theReali ty springs from the Upanishadic texts alone....

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1. The postulation of Vaisesika is this: - The qualiti es inhering in the causalsubstance reproduce the same new qualiti es in the effect., as it is seen that

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white cloth is born out of the white yarns and the contrary is not seen.Therefore, if the sentient Brahman is accepted as the cause of the world, thenin the world, which is the effect, sentience will inhere in it.

�� � Ï@ � R � 1�W @ �R\ � 6� _ �"_ �; � R �6� <:� R 0� >� � � �" �=� "\ ��' �1 " �R =:� 5 �R <8 4� " �R ;� R] � ; � 2� R ;� RW $ �\ � Á �6� R� 3:� 51 �� � 6� R S <:� R �0. º; � 6�S <:� R 0�R ?' � � �1 �® t 5 1� � �� 1 �W � ' � � 6� ?' �R 1�Q �Ì �­ R � 36�U <� A� <R � � A�\ ; � RW $ � A�� '� >� R ?' � � A� 51 �RW � � U 0� �" �R � 3"_ �:�W 0� � " Y�1 £\� " �R ; �] )� R 1� :�Q �Ì R <9 � 51 �W � �� " �R <0� $ �U 0� R ?' � � " �R ;�W ]� $ �U 0� R 51 � <:�Q � �� ; � 3R � � RX � 6� <:� R 0�V� 0�U " �:�R <9 �W 1 �W � 1 � 3R � 6� <:� R 0�U $ � 1 �R � Á �6�R � 3$�U 0� � >� ?�W @ � R � � ?�U � �R 3;� RW � � 0� U" W�� ? �U � �R 3T 5�Q �Ì 6� <R5 �Q �Ì R <9 �5 1�W � �� 6� <:� R 0�U $ �U 0� � >� ?�W @ � A1 �U � 6� R S <:� R 0. º; �\ � � 5 � � � 0� U" W�� 6� R S <:� R 0. º; � :�Q �Ì 6� <:�Q �Ì R <9� 1�W ��0�U"�A;�� 6�S<:�R0�R51�<;�RW $��Ì9;�U 6�$�:�R1�Q � �� Ì0�U 1>�ÃA>�1>�W � �B� �0�U "�>��1�] 5�T� 6�S<:�R0�W� >�0�];�t51�� �; � 3R� 6� � �W � � 0� U" W�� ' � 1 �U <0� U" �:�Q �Ì R <9 �W 1 � W� 1 � 3R � 6� � A� :� R5 �\ � � 0� U" �A� :� >� R �; � 5� R\ � ? �U � �R 3T 5 �R :�Q �Ì R <:9 � �" �1 >� :�Q � �� Ì 0� U1 > �à A> � 1> �W � 1 �U � � 0�U " �A� :� > �R � ; �5� T � Ì � 6� � 5 �X > � �Ì R <9 �W 1 �W � � � ' � 1 �U <0� U" �A; � � :� B1 >� 3T %�] 1 > � �6� S <:� R 0� ; �RW $ � �Ì 9 ;�U 6� $ � :�R 1�Q � �� � ; � 3R � 6� � 8 �B > �� � 6� <:� R 0� > �RW � 8 � BO � 5� � > � R � � 0�U " �R� 5 � � � 0�U " �A� �B 1� RW � > � R6� <:� R 0�U � �" �R ;�̂ �Ì R <9� 1�W �1 � 3R � 6� �A� :� R 5 �X@ �R �; �RW )� 5 �R ���������� � �

2. This is their process. The ultimate atoms with colour and atomicity remainfor sometime without producing an effect . They then with adrishta and aidedby conjunction begin the entire effect starting from the dyads; Qualiti es in thecause produce new qualiti es in the effect; When two ultimate atoms producea dyad , then the colour and qualiti es inhering in the ultimate atom like white-ness etc produce in the dyad other whiteness etc. But the special characte-ristic - the atomicity - is not produced in the dyad, for they postulate that adyad comes to possess a new magnitude. They say that dyad is microscopic in

size and short in length� � �When two dyads produce a tetrad (four atoms), thenthe whiteness etc. inhering in the dyad, produce other whiteness etc. in asimilar way. But the microscopic size and short in length inhering in the dyaddo not produce their counter-parts, as they postulate that tetrads have greatmagnitude and have length. The same line of argument ensues even if manyatoms or many dyads or the atoms in combination with the dyads produce aneffect. ��� ��� ��� ��� ���

�� � A� � ' � � > � R 3� Ò1 2�\ � A� :�U � H� ® 1 �W � �� 6� , R 3T � 5� � � B � =RW " W�� A� R > � ;� >� R �5 � � Ç >; �R � 0� � A> �R 5 �U $ � 1�X <W > � � A�\ ; � RW $ � �A� � '� > �X � �1 �5 1 >� R� 3� 9� � �Ç > ;�X � � Ì R <9; � :� R 0�R � 5� � �­ R � 5 � � �� 1� 1 A�R :�R 5 ;�W 5 � � ;� R >� t 1 "\��' �1 �Q �A� R > �; � >�\1 �1 A� > �̂�A> � R 5 �U $ � 1�X <W > � �A�\ ; � RW $ � A� � '� >�X � �1�X � �1 �X � �Ç > ; �X � �Ì R <8 4 � :�Q �Ò� 1� �$ � :;� 1�W � �� � A� � ' � �Ì ;� :�Q �Ì > � ;� >� �Ì > � ;� �> � ��> � 9� R$ � RW � ; � 1� RW � � 5 � > �1 �] 1 �W � � A� � �Ì 6� " �@�] 6� ; �] 5 1 � $� 1� � � 6� <:�R 0�U � � �� � A� > � �̂ ' � �Ò3\ � )� $ � 1 �Q �� $ �S <�

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A� :�U Ç � 3"\ �� A� R > �; � >�\ � � A� R > � ;� > �1 >� R1 �Q �' � � � ÌR }51 � >� 1�Q � �� 5 � �' � �Ì" �R <0�W 5 � � " �R; �W ]0� � 9 � � > �1 �> ; � :�Q �Ò� 1 � �Ì 1��� 6�<:�R0�>�RW� )�$ �1��� "�R<0��:��1�� "�0�9�U $ ��9�6�_R;��� �� 1 � R � 5� �Ò:� R� 5 � � '� 1> �R S <� 9 �V 1 � R� 5� � 9 �V � :� �Í3" ��1 �W )� � �6� >� 5 �R #; �R � 5� � A� R >� ;� > �R � 5 ��Í6� =9 ; �� '� 1�U � >�] 4 � R� � 6� <:� R 0� > �� � 6� S <" �º6; � 51 �W � � 1 �W @ � R\ � ' � �Ì 6� " �@ �] 6� ; �] 5 1 � $� 1� 1> �W 5 � � � 6� <1 � RW � � > � 9� R $� �Ì A�\ 9 � >� R1 �Q �� > � 5� ?; �1 � R\ � 6� Y� 2� > ;� R 3T 5 �R\ � 6� <:� R 0�U 6� ; �] 5 1� RW � � > � 9 �R $ �RW9 � >� � 1� � � A� � 6�_ =; � " �R =� � �� 1 �1 �� � A� $ �] " �R =W � ' � � � > �R ; �> � T; �W @ �U �Ì 0� U@ �U �Ì �­ R 6�W D �\ � " �:�] �Í1 6� }1�W � 1 �1 " �:�]A> � R F;� :�Q �Ì 0> � 51 � <W 0� � A� \; � U5 � � x�� 1� 1� RW � � 0� U" �R � 3� "_ �:�W 0� � > � R; �U À 1 6�}1�W � �� Ï> � :�Q �Ì � °�� �Ï> � :�Q �Ì R 6� �Ï> �\ � 6� Y � 2�> � T � �� Ï>� :�W > � � ? � <T <\ � A� W t 5 Ç; �� :� �1 � � �� Ï>�\ � A� > � ]� :� 3\ � )� $ � 1 �Q �Ì 0�U 9 ; �� � A�\ 9 � >� �1 � � �� � Ì 0�U $ � 1�W 9 ; � ?' �Á �6� R� 39 ;� RW �� 0� U" �R � 3$� 1� R� 5 � �Á �6� R 3T � 5� �A�\ 9 � >� t 51� ��1 � 51 �U 6� , 5 ; � R; �W 5 �W W � 1� �" �R 0� R 3R� �:� 5 ;� 51 �W ��

3. That doctrine is like this, It is seen in the world that the cloth etc. which arepossessed of parts are produced from yarns etc, which they inhere and arehelped by conjunction. On this analogy, things that are composed of parts areproduced from those things in which they inhere and are helped byconjunction. When this whole and part division ceases, it is the ultimateatom, the last of the process of cessation. This whole world-mountain-oceanetc is a composite thing, because it has the characteristic of compositeness,just like that which has a beginning and end. As an effect is not producedwithout a cause, minute aroms are the cause of the world - This is the opinionof Kanabhug. These four elements - earth-water-fire and air - are assumed tohave four different minute atoms. When they reach the ultimate disintegrationand since further division is not possible, they become ultimate atoms. This isthe time of dissolution. Then in creation, some action depending on adrishtais produced and that action unites with another atom, Then in the process ofdyads, air oriiginates, Just like this, fire, water and earth. The same is withthe body with its senses. Thus,the entire universe originates from atoms. Fromthe colour etc. inherent in the atoms, the colour of the dyads etc. are producedas in the case of yarn and cloth. Kanadas (Vaiseshikas) think thus.

(the refutation of Vaiseshika theory)

�� � 1 � 3W > �\ � ; � 2� R � 6� <:�R 0�RW � � 6� S <:� 0. =R 1�Q �A� 1� � �Ì 0�U � à A> �\ � ' � � � 0� U "\ �� )� R ; �1 �W � � :� B �T %�̂� ' � � G ; � 0�U " �R � 35 � � 6� S <:� 0. =\� � ; � 2�R � > � R � � 0�U " �R1 �Q �Ì 0� RW � �à A> � R1 �Q �' � � A�1 � RW � :� B �T% �̂' � � G ;� 0�U " \�� )� R ; � 1�W � 5 � �Ì 0�U � 5 � R WÃA>�:�Q�� � Ï>�\ � '�W 1�5�R1�Q �8�_ _ ¯�0���Ì'�W1�5�\� )�$�1�Q � )��5�@;�1�� Ò�1��Ì9;�U 6�$�:�W� �"\ �� 1�>�� t'( ¿�:�Q� � ����1�A:�R1�Q �A>�9�R>�R3W >��6�RS<:�R0. º;�R3T5�R:�Q �Ì5�R<:9�"�1>�\ ��1�2�R�'�W 1�5�R;�R�Ì�6��Ò�1��Ç­ >;�:�Q��

4. Like this, even from the ultimate atoms, which are minute, arise dyadswhich are microscopic in size and have no length, and triads which have

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both magnitude and length but not the minuteness, or from dyads which areminute and have no length arise the triads which have magnitude and lengthbut not minuteness and absence of length. Similarly, if the insentient universeemerges out of intelligent Brahman, what do you lose? Therefore, by naturethe atomicity (minuteness) does not reproduce itself: it is to be understoodthat such is the case with the sentient Brahman.

�� � � 1 � G �W 3:� Q�Ì � 9� 4� T ;� 1�W � �� � > � 9� R $�R> � A2�R 5 �R\ � 1 �R > �1 �Q �Ì 0�V 5 �R\ � � A� \; � RW $ � � � " �:�R] 6�W D � � �Ì 9; �U 6� $ �5 1� > ;� � � �" �:�] > � 1 �R\ � 1 � 5 1 >� R 3T 5 �R\ � A� \; � RW $ � 3?�] 5 � R1�Q � �� " �:�] 0� ?' � � " �R ;�] 1 >� R 1�Q �� 5 � � :� H �\ � � " �:�� 6� �Ì 9; �U 6� $ �5 1� > ;� :�Q � �Ì 5 �9 ; �U 6� $ � :�W � � 5 �� :� H� �Ì9 � R> �R 1�Q �5 � �Ì 0�U @ � U�Ì R }\ � " �:� ]� A; � R 1�Q � �� � Ì 9 ; �U 6� $ � :�W � 6� � ; �� 3� 6�_ ; � ±� � �Ì � 9� % �R 1� R� 3� �>� R � � ; � 2� R ��­ \� � " �:� � 6� � " �:�] 0� RW � � 5 � � :�H � :�Q �Ì 9 ;�U 6� $ � :; �W 1 �� � 1 � A; ��Ì A�\ 9 � >� R1 �Q �5 � �Ï> � �Ì 0�U @ �U �Ì R }\ �" �:� ]�A; � R 1�Q ��� � 5 � � � B � 1� A; � R :�Q �Ì > � A2� R; � R :�Q �Ì R 1 :�$ �U 0� � � 6�_ ; � ±� � � A�\ 9 � > �� 1� � ? � <T <�Ì 9�R �> � R1 �Q � �� ? � <T <6�_ � 1� ® W � � B � � :� 5 �� A� �ÌR 1 :� 5 �� � A�\ ; �RW $ �W � A� � 1 � �ÌR1 :� $�U 0� � � 6�_ ; � ±�RW � )� R ; �1 �W � �� Ï1 �W 5 � �Ì � 9� %� R �1 � R� 3�Ì� 6� � 3Y ­ \� � 5 � � :�H �\ � 6� _1 ; � R #;� R1 �> ; � :�Q � �� A� $ � R W]H � <" �R =\ � � B � 1 �1 A� >�̂ � � 5 � �Ì R }A;� � " �:�] 0� RW � � 5 � � :�H �\A� \9 � >� � 1� � �� � Ì 2� �Ì �­ :� Q�Ì R }A; � � "�:�] 0� R W� � 5 � � :� H� :�Q �Ò� 1 � �Í' ;�W 1 � � � 1 �1 6�U 5 � � �Ì R1 :� A� :� >� R� ;� � > � RA; � R 1�Q �Ì 0� UA� :� >� R �; � � > �R � �� Í9 � ;� 2�R � 6� � 5� �Ì �­ �� 5 � � :�H � :�Q �Ì 0�U @ �U � " �:�] �Ì > � " �º6�W 1 � �Ì �­ A; � �Ì ' �W 1 � 5� 1> �R 1�Q � �� 5 � � � B �Ì '�W 1 �5 �\ � ' �W 1 �5 �W 5 � �Ì 5� � 4� �® 1 �\ � A> � 5 G�\ � 6� _> � 1�] 1 �W � 6�_ > �1 �] ; � �1 � � > �R �Ò� 1� � � A� R\ #; � �6� _ �"_ �; � R ;� R :�Q �Ì �9 � �B 1� :�Q ��������� ��� ��

5. This is said here - It has to be admitted that the conjunction of the atomsexisting in their isolation is dependent on action; since this is seen in theconjunction of yarns depending on action. It has to be admitted that somecause is assumed, since action is an effect. If this is not admitted, there canbe no cause, and there will be no initial action . Even if this is admitted, andsome cause is assumed for action like effort, impact, etc. as is commonexperience, this is not possible, and there will be no initial action in the atoms.For in that state, no effort which is a quality of the soul can happen, as thereis no body, Effort which is of the quali ty of the atman springs when there isthe conjunction of the mind and atman established in a body. By this also, theseen cause like effort etc. has to be rejected. For all these come after creationand hence cannot be the causes of the initial action. Again if it be said that theinitial action in the atoms is due to adrishta, then it has to inhere in the atmaor in the atoms. In either case, adrishta cannot be the action in atoms, sinceadrishta is insentient. It has been proved in the examination of Sankhya theorythat an independent insentient being which is not dependent on an sentientbeing neither acts nor makes anything else act.

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�� � ; � 2� R �Ï> � � �B �Ì 0�U 9 ; �R :�Q �Ì 1 ;� 5 1� �9 � ¿�\ � A� 3Q �� 0�U " \�� A� :� > � R; � =D� 0�W 5 � � A� \ 8� 54 �W 5 � � 1 �R 9 ;� R\ � A� \8 � 4 ;� 1�Ï> �\ � A� :� > � R ;� RW � 6� � A� :� > �R S ;� 9; �RW 1 ; � 51� � 9� ¿�� � A� 5 �Q �A� :� >� R ;� =D � 0�W 5 � �Ì5 ;�W 5 � �Ï>� � A�\ 8 � 5 4�W 5 � � � A� :� >� R �� ; �� 9 �� � A�\ 8 �4 ; �W 1 � �Ì 1 ;� 51 �9 �W 3A� R :; �R 1�Q � �� 1 � 1� ?' � � 1� A; � � 1 � A;� �Ì 5; � RW 5 ; �� � A� \ 8� 54 � � � " �º6� �; �1 �> ; � � Ò�1 � �Ì 5 � >� A2� R �Ï> � �6�_ A� ); �W 1� ���������� ��

6. Just as the dyad, which is absolutely dissimilar from two atoms, becomescon-nected with them through the relationship of inherence, similarlyinherence also which is absolutely dissimilar to the inhering things should beconnected with the inhereing things through a separate relationship ofinherence, since similarity of absolute difference exists. Therefore, it followsthat for successive relationships of inherence, other relationships of inherencehave to be imagined; thus infinite regress results.

�� � Ì � 6� � '� �Ì 0�> � � � 6�_ > �Y � H � A> �9 � R> �R � > � R � �5 � >�Y � H � A> � 9� R> � R � >� R �Í9� ;� A> � 9� R> � R � > �R 5�U 9 � ;� A> �9 �R > �R> � R 9 ;�U 6� �$ � :;�W <5 �Q � $ � 1 ; �5 1� <R 9� R >� R1 �Q � �� ' � 1 �U 4 � R] � 6� � 5 � �Í6� 6� }1�W � �� � � � � 5 �1 ; � :�W > � � � � 6�_ =; � �Ì 9�R > ��� � � � �� � � �� A� $�] �Ì 9� R >� � �� � � >� <RW 4 � R1 �Q � � � �Ì � 5� 1; � 6�_ > �Y � H � 6�_ A� mR 1 �Q ���������� ��

7. Atoms have to be accepted as naturally active, inactive, both active andinactive and neither active or inactive, as no other alternative is possible. Allthe four alternatives cannot fit. .....because they are eternal..there will be nodissolution, ....there will be no creation..... mutually contradictory.....and non-eternal activity will result.

�� � A� R > � ;� > �R 5� R\ � � Ç > ; � R 0�R\ �Ì > �; � >� ?� RW � � > � 9� ); � :�R 5� R 5� R\ � ; � 1 �� � 6� <RW � � > � 9 �R $ �RW � 5 � � A�\ 9 �> � �1 � � 1 �W � ' � 1�U � > �] 4 � RÁ �6� R� 3�:� 51 �� � 6� <:� R 0� > �� �'� 1�U � >�] 4 � A; � � Á�6� R� 3:�1 R RW � 9 �V 1 � 9 �RX � 1 � " �A;� �ÌR <:9 � "�R � � 5� 1; �R � �' ��Ò�1 �; � �X ? �W � @� " �R � Ì9 ;�U 6� $� ' ( t 5 1 � � A� � 1�W @ � R :�Q �Ì 9 ; �U 6� $ � :� RW � � 5 � <R =:8� 5 � � Ï>� � �� � ; � 1� � � Á �6� R � 3:� 1> �R 1�Q �6� <:� R 0�V 5 � R :�Q �Ì 0�U 1 > � �� 5 �1 ;� 1 >� �� >� 6�; �] ; � � � 6�_ A� ); � W 1� � �� 6� <:�" �R <0�R 6�W D � ; �R � A2�V =1 >� :�Q �Ì � 5 �1 ;� 1 >�\ � ' �1 �W @ � R :�Q �Ì � 9� 6�_ W1 � � >� 6� <T1 � :�Q �Ì R 6� }W 1 � �Ò� 1� �Ì 2�] � ���������� ��

8. The Vaiseshikas assert that the ultimate atoms stand at the last limit of aprocess of breaking up of composite things till there can be no furtherdivision, that these atoms are of four kinds possessed of colour etc, that theyare the constituents of the four elements and the modifiations of the elementsendowed with the qualiti es of colour etc. and they are eternal. This tenet oftheir is baseless. For by virtue of possessing colour etc., the atomicity andeverlastingness of the atoms stand contradicted; that is to say the atoms

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become grosser and less eternal than the ultimate cause, a position that isopposite of what the atomists intend.

�� � $ � 5 4 � <A�Á �6� A6�? �] $ �U 0� R � A2�V =R � 6� Y� 2� > �T � � Á �6� <A� A6� ? �] $ �U 0� R � � A�V D :�R � Ì R 6� � � � Á �6� A6� ?�] $ �U 0� \� A� VD :� 1 � <\1 �W )� � � � A6� ? �] $ �U 0� � � A� VD :� 1� :� RW � > � R ;�U � �Ò� 1 � �Ï>� :�Q �Ï1 �R � 5� � ' �1 >� R S <9�V 1 � R �5 � �Í6�� '� 1� �Ì 6� �' �1 � �$ �U0� R� 5 �A2� V=�A� VD :� �A�V D :� 1 � <�A�V D :�1 � :� �1 �R <1 �:; � �Í6�W 1 �R � 5� � '� � =R W "W �� =D ; � 51 �W � �� 1 � � 1 �Q�6� <:�R 0� >� � �Ì �6� �Í6� � '� 1� �Ì 6�� '� 1� �$�U 0� R � �"�º6; �W <5 � Q�5 � �> �R ���Í9 � ;� 2� R� 6� �'� �3RW @ � �Ì 5�U @ � m� �Ì 6� S <B R ;�] �Ï> � ��A; � R 1�Q ��" �º6; � :� R 5�W � � �� � � � � Ì 6� <:� R 0�U 1 >� 6�_ A� m� � �� Ì " �º6; � :� R 5�W � � � � � � � �1�W )� � A� � A6� ? �]A; � �Í6� =t 8 4� � � 5�A; � R 1�Q ������� ��� ��

9. Earth is gross, with quali ties of smell , taste, colour and touch; water issubtle with qualities of colour, taste and touch; fire is subtler with qualiti es ofcolour and touch; air is subtlest with quali ty of touch - this is how it is seen inthe world. - four elements have greater or less number of qualities and withdifferences of the characteristics of gross, subtle, subtler and subtlest. Are theultimate atoms considered likewise with greater or lesser qualiti es or not? Inboth the cases, the defects cannot be explained. If they are likewise........non-atomicity will result......if they are not, .....in fire , touch will not be present etc.

� �� � 6� _4 � R 5� " �R <0� >� R 3RW � > � W3� > �� � <� 6� � " X �t ? '�5 :� 5> � R� 3�9 � � � A�1 " �R ; �] 1 > �R � 3�Ì\ ? � �Í6� )� T >� 5 � �Ì �9� �6� _ R; �W 0� �Í6� � 5� 8� �� � �� Ì ;�\ � 1�U� 6�<:�R0�U"�R<0�>�R3RW � 5�� "X �t?' �3�6�� �?�­ X �� � "W �5��'�1�Q �Ì �6��Ì \?�W5�6�S<$ �Y BT1���Ò�1��Ì 1;�51�:�W>��Ì 5�R3<0�T;�RW �>�W 3>�R�3�9������������ ��

10. The theory of Pradhana as the cause has been partially accepted even bythe Vedic scholars like Manu with the view that it is helpful in some aspects asSatkarya vada etc. But this atomic theory is not accepted by any worthyperson in any aspect. Therefore, this should not be taken in any aspect bythe followers of Veda.

� � � � Ì � 6� � ' � � >�X ? �W � @ �" �R � �1 �5 G �R 2�] 9 �V 1 � R 5�Q �@ � ,Q 6� 3R 2� R] 5 �Q �Ç > ; � �$�U 0� �" �:�] �A� R :� R 5; � �� >�? �W @ � �A� :� >� R; � �Ì R #; �R 5 �Q �Ì 1 ;� 51 �� 9 �¿�R 5 �Q �� 9 �¿� =D� 0� R5 �Q �Ì 9 ; �U 6� $ �' ( t 51 � � �� ; � 2� R � :�5 �U @ ; � � �Ì ?>� � � ?� ?� � Ò� 1 � � �1 � 2�R 1> �\ �' � � Ì 9; �U 6� $ � :;� � 1 �� �À �\ � Ç > ; �R 4 �T 5� 1 >�\ � ? � W@ � R 0�R :�Q �Ì 9 ;�U 6� $ �' ( t 51 � � �� 1 �5 5� RW 6� 6� }1�W � �� � � � � � �5 � �' � �>�X ? � W �@ �"X �� �" �t º6� 1�W 9 ; � � �@� .Q 9 ;� � � 6� 3R 2�] W 9 ;� � � Ì 5; �W � Ì � 4 � " �R � � � ? �1 �\ � A� B �\� > � R � Ì 2�R] � � 5 � � " �º6� � ;� �1 � >; � R �Ò�1 � ��� 5� > �R <" �RW �B W1 �U � �Ì t A1 � ���������� ��

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11. Moreover, Vaiseshikas admit as the subject matter of their scriptures, sixcategories - viz, substance, qualiy, action,class, distinction and inherencewhich differ from one another like, man , horse, hare. Having defined them tobe so, they admit contrary to their own theory, that on substance alone the othercategories are dependent. But this is not tenable...... here is no such overridingreason that apart from six categories imagined by the Vaiseshikas, other cate-gories greater in number - say a hundred or thousand - are not to be imagined.

� �� � 1 � 3W > � :�Q �Ì A� R <1 � <�1 � "] ��A�\ �8 4 �1 >� R1 �Q �Ò] ?>�<"�R<0��FU �1��>�À� 1>�R1�Q�FU� 1 � 6�_ > � 0�X ? '� � � ? � ­ X� �:� 5 > �R � 3� 9 �� � Ì 6�S <$ �Y B T 1� 1 >� R1 �Q �Ì 1 ;� 5 1� :�Q �Ï> � �Ì5 � 6�W D � R �Ìt A:� 5 �Q � 6� <:� R 0�U " �R <0� >� R 3W � " �R ; � R]FW; � RW � 2�] � 9� � �Ò�1 � �> �R ·;� ? �W @ � � ���������� ��

12. Since this doctrine of atoms is based on the poorest logic, it iscontradictory to the Sruti with God as the cause, and it is not accepted byworthy persons like Manu etc, who abide by the Vedas, the atom-cause theoryhas to be ignored by persons wishing highest good,

���8�RX���A�RXG�Rt51�"��>�X9�R�@�"�RX�

� � � > �X ? � W �@ �" �<R �R5 1� RW � 3N ; �] U � x�; �RW $ � R 1�Q �> � W3� > � <RW 4 � R1 �Q �� ? � ­ �Ì 6� S <$ �_ B R' '� � 5 � � Ì 6�W � D� 1� > ;� � �Ò� 1� �Íx�:� Q� �� A� � �Ì 4 �] > � X5 � R� ?� " �� �Ò�1 � � >�X 5 � R �? � " �A� R :;� R1 �Q �A� > �] > � X5 � R� ?� " �<R �R5 1� RW � � 5 � 1 � <R :�Q �Ì 6�W � D �1 � >; �Ò� 1 � �Ò3:�Q �Ò3R 5 � T :�Q �Í6� 6� R 3; � R :� � �� � A� � '� � 8 �BN 6�_ " �R <" �� � 6�_ � 1 � 6� � H� 9�W 3R 1�Q �� > � 5 �W ; � 9�W 3R 1 �Q �> � R � �� 1 �G �X 1 �WG � ;� RW � > � R � 35� RW � 9 � > � t5 1� ��"W �� ' �1 �Q �A� > � R] t A1 �1 >� > �R � 35� � � � "W �� '� 1�Q �� > � E� R 5� Rt A1 �1 > �:� RG �> � R� 35� � � � Ì5 ; �W6� U5 � � � A� >�] ? � V5 ; �1 >� > �R � 35� � � Ò� 1� � �� � 1 � G� � ; �W � A� > � R] t A1 � 1> � >� R� 35 �RW � 8 � R Å:�Q �Ì R5 1� <\� ' � � � > � A1�U �Ì 9 ;�U 6� �$ � ' ( t 5 1 � � 9�V 1 �\ � 9 � R X �1� "\ �� ' � � � � � '� H �\ � ' �X H � \� ' � � � � 1 �R 5�Q �1 �R > �1 �Q �6�_ � 1� 8_ �V :� � �� 1 � G� � 9 �V 1 �\ � 6� Y� 2� > �T 4 �R 1> � R 3; �� �9 � RX � 1 �"\ �� Á �6� R 3; �� �'� D �U <R 3; � � �'� � � �� ' � 1�U ­ ; �W � ' � � 6� Y �2� >; � R� 36� <:�R 0� >� � � #� <�A5 �W B �Í@ 0� �Ò] <0� �A> � 9 �R > �R � �1 �W � 6� Y� 2� > ;� R � 39 �R > �W 5 � � A�\ B 5 ;� 51 � � Ò� 1� � :� 5; � 51 �W W� �� 1 � 2� R � Á �6� �� >� E� R5 � �> �W 35 �R �A�\ E� R �A� \A" �R <�A� \E� " �R � �6�b � A"�5 4� R � ���1�W � 6� �Ì 4 ; �R 1 :�\ �A� > � ]> ; � >� BR <�Ì R A6� 39 � R> �W 5 � ��A� \B 5 ; � 51� �Ò� 1 � �:� 5 ;� 5 1�W ��

1. It has been said that the doctrine of Vaiseshika is not to be relied uponsince it is built on wrong logic , it is contrary to Vedas and is not accepted byworthy people. He is a half-nihil ist having an affinity with nihilism. It is nowexplained that the full-nihilists are not to be relied upon all the more. Theyare of various kinds, depen-ding upon the differences in the doctrine or of the

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persons who are taught. Among them there are three schools - i) Sarvastitva-vadins (Soutrantikas and Vaibhashikas). ii ) Vijnavadins (Yogacharas) and iii )Sarvasunyavadins (Madyamikas) The Sarvastit-vavadins, accept both externaland internal things. External are the elements and elementals. Internal are thecitta and caittas. Elements are earth etc. Elementals are colour etc. and organsof sight etc. The four kinds of ultimate atoms of earth etc., have the charac-teristics of solidity, fluidity, heat and motion and get massed together in theform of earth . Similarly, there are five skandhas (groups), like, i) colour, ii )the idea of "I", (iii ) feelings, iv) conceptual knowledge, and v) attitude. Theyalso combine to form the basis of internal dealings.

�� � ; � }� 6� � 9� RW x�R � 6� _? � R� A� 1� R � >� R � " �t ? '� c�W 1 � 5� � � A�\ B 5 1 �R � t A2� <� �5� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :;�1 �W � � 1 � 2�R � 6� �Ì �>� }R �3T 5 � R :�Q �Ò1 � <W1 � <" �R <0� 1 >� R1 �Q �Í6� 6� }1�W � =R W " �; �R G� R � �� � 1 � A;� R\ � ' � �Í6� 6� }:� R 5� R; � R\ � 5 � � � "\ �� ' �1 �Q �Ì 6� <:�Q �Ì 6�W � D � 1� > ;� :�t A1 � � �� � �� � � �� � �� � � �� � 1� 3W > � :�Q �Ì � > � }R � 3"�=R 6�W � 6� <A6� <� 5 � � :� H �5 �X � :� � H� " �9 � R> �W 5 �% � , T ; � 5 G� > �1�Q �Ì � 5� ?� :�Q �Ì R > �1 �] :� R 5�W �Ì 2� R] � D � ª� �Í6� 6� ¿�� �A�\ % � R1 � �Ò�1 � ����������� ��

2. Although no sentient permanent experiencer or ruler is accepted, the worldly transaction is possible because of mutual causes due to nescience. Whenthis is accepted, nothing else is required. Thus the combination of things ispossible by the mutual cause and effect revolving like a wheel always.

�� � Ì � 6� � '� � > �X 5 � R �? � "�R � � " �º6� ;� t 51 � � 8�U � �8 � RW 4 ; �\ � G � ; �R 1�Q �Ì 5 ;� 1�Q �A� \A" Y �1�\ � D � � 0� "\ ��' � �Ò� 1� � �� 1 � 3� 6� � '�G � ;�\ � 6� _ �1� A�\ #; � R �Ì 6�_ � 1 � A�\ #; � R� 5� <RW 4 �RX �Ì R "�R ?�\ � ' � �Ò� 1 � �ÌR' �D �1 �W � �� G � ; � :�� 6� �' ��Ï1�1 �Q �Ì > � A1�U �Ì 9 �R > � :� RG �\ � � 5 � À 6� R #; � :�Q ��Ò� 1 � � :� 5; � 51 �W � � � 8 �U � �6� V> �] " �� � �" �=� � > �5 �R ? �RW � 9 � R > �R 5 �R\ � 6�_ � 1� A�\ #; � R � 5� <RW 4 � RW5 � R :� � 9 � R@ ;� 1�W � � 1 �� � 6� <T1 �RW 6� _ � 1� A�\ #; � R � 5� <RW 4 � � � � ÌR > � <0� �Ì9� R >� :�R G � :�Q �Ì R " �R? � :�Q �Ò� 1 � � �� ���������

3. Moreover, the nihili sts say that whatever becomes an object of knowledgeand is different from the three categories, has an origination and is momentary.As for the three, they say they are - pratisamkhya-nirodha (artificial annihila-tion), aprati-samkhya-nirodha (opposite of pratisamkhya nirodhanatural anni-hilation) and akasa is the mere absence of any obstruction.

(The above three are the view points of realist school of Buddhism--Soutrantika and Vaibhashika. This is being refuted.)

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; �W � 9 � 6�_ W ; � :� R 0�W � 1 � 1�Q �Ì 6� _R � ª�� A; �R 1�Q �A� :�U 3R ; � �Ì 6�_ R t 61 �� � �� A� :�U 3R ; � 9� R >� �Ì 5�U 6� 6� � H �� �Ò� 1� �Ì 2�] � � �" U�1 �� !� A� :�U 3R � ;� 5� R :�Q �Ì '�W 1 � 5 �1 >� R 1�Q � �� � ' � H �R � 9� )> � =5� A; � � ' � � � A� :�U 3R ; � � A� � ��Ì 4� T5 �1 > �R 1�Q � �Ì 5 ; � A;� � '� � " �A; �� '� 1�Q �'�W 1 �5 � A;� � 9 � RW xU�� � 6� _? � R� A� 1�U � �> � R � t A2� <A; � � A�\ B 5 1�U � �Ì 5 � 9; �U 6� $ � :� R1 �Q � � � 5 � <6� W D� �6� _> �Y � H � �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :�W � ' � � 6�_ > �Y � H� �Ì 5�U 6� <:� 6�_ A� mR 1�Q � �� Ì R ?� ; � A;� �Ì� 6� �Ì5 ; �1 >� �Ì 5� 5 ;� 1> �R 9 ;� R :�Q �Ì � 5� Á �6;� 1 >� R1 �Q � �� D � � 0� "�1 >� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :� R c� � �5 � >; � R] 6� R <1 >� R1 �Q �6� _ >�Y � H � �Ì5 �U 6� 6� H �W � � �� 1 � A:� R1�Q �� A� :�U �3R ; � �Ì 5 �U 6� 6� �H � � ���A� :�U 3R ; � �Ì 5�U 6� 6� H� RX �' � �1 � 3R F;� R �=RW " �; � RG �R �=U6; �W 1 � ��

4. This is being said here. The combination will not emerge.(is not possible)from the two types of combination which are postulated by Buddhists - acombination of the elements and the elementals arising from the atoms or acombination of the five groups of things arising from those groups. Why?Because the components of the combination are insentient and consciousnesscan flash only if a combination of things is already there, Since no othersteady sentient , which is experiencer or a ruler is accepted, and activity isaccepted independent of any agent, it will result in the non-stopping activity .Also, the currents of consciousness cannot be determined to be different ornon-different, and as momentariness has been accepted, no activity ispossible. Therefore, combination is not possible. When combination is notpossible, the mundane transactions will be null ified.

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5. A combination may be if any cause for the combination can be ascertained;but it cannot be ascertained; For although nescience can be the cause for oneanother, the earlier ones will merely give rise to the later ones.............So evenif nescience etc. be the sources of the emergence of one another, let them beso; still no combination will be achieved thereby, for there is none to expe-rience. That is the opinion.

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6� V> � RW ]H � <; � RW � � D � 0�; �RW � �BW 1 �U 7�=9 � R > �� � ? � ·;� 1�W � A� \ 6� R 3� ; �1 �U :�Q �� � � 5 � À4 ;� :� R5 � A;� � � 5 � À�A; � � >� R � 6�V > �] D � 0� A; � �Ì 9 �R > �$ �_ A1 � 1 >� R1 �Q �ÍH � <D � 0�BW 1 �U 1 >� �Ì 5�U 6� 6� H �W � ������������ �

6. It has been said that since nescience etc. are merely the causes for the originof one another, the formation of an combination cannot be achieved. Now thecompatibility of even this assumption of being the cause of origin is nottenable. This is being proved. This is the postulate of those who argue bymomentariness. With the emergence of the entity of the succeeding moment,the entity of the earlier moment is obliterated. By such a postulation it is notpossible to establish a cause and effect relationship between the preceding andsucceeding entities. It is incompatible for the succeeding moment to have itscause the preceding moment which is either already obliterated or is beingobliterated because it is non-existent.

�� � Ì 2� �Ì A�1 ; �W > � � � BW 1 � RX � 7�=R W 1 6�� H �\ � � 8 � _V; � R1 �Q � � 1 � 1� � � 6�_ � 1 � E� R �Í6� <RW 4 � � � A; �R 1�Q � �� ' �1 �U � > �] 4 � R 5�Q �B W 1�V 5 �Q �6� _ 1�T 1 ;� � � '� H� '�X H � R � Í1 6� }51 � � Ò1� T ;�\ � 6� _� 1 � E� R � B T ;�W 1 � � �� � 5 �BW ] 1�U " �R ;� R\ � ' � �Í1 6� H� RX �Ì 6�_ � 1 � 8� 54 � R1 �Q �A� > �̂A� > �] G � �Í1 6� }W 1 � ��������� �

7. If then you say that effect is produced without a cause, their own postulationwill be nullified. viz, the perception of colour etc. and happiness etc. as aresult of acquiring four kinds of causes. And if origination is without a cause,then anything may originate anywhere as there is no hindrance.

�� � 6� _� 1 � A�\ #; � R �Ì 6�_ � 1 � A�\ #; � R ��5 � <RW 4 � ; �RW � �Ì 6�_ R � ª� � � �� Ì A� :9 � >� � � Ò1 ;� 2�] � � �� " �A:� R 1�Q � �� Ì � > � ' ( W�3R 1 �Q � �� � � � � 5 � � 1 �R > �1 A�\ 1 � R 5� $� RW ' � <RX � A� :9 � > �1 � �� � � �5 �R � 6� � 9� R> � $� RW ' � <RW � A� :9 � > �1 �� � � �1 � A:� R 1�Q �6� <6� S <�" �t º6�1 � A;� �S 5� <RW 4 � �; � A;� �Ì 5�U 6� 6� � H �� ������������

8. There is no possibili ty for both ariti ficial and natural annihilation. ...How:?Because there can be no cessation........They cannot relate to the chain..... itcannot also relate to the individuals,.....Therefore, there is no possibili ty forboth the annihilations postulated.

�� � ; � c� � 1 �W @ � R :�Q �Ï> � �Ì � 9� 6�W _1 �\ � � 5 � <R W 4� � ;� :�Q �Ì R " �R ?�\ � ' � � � 5�À 6� R #;� � :� �1 � �� � � �� � �� � ÌR " �R? �W � ' � �Ì ; �U x�R W� � 5 � À 6� R #;� 1 >� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :� � � � �� 6�_ � 1� A�\ #; � R 6_ ��1 � A�\ #; � R �5 � <RW 4 � ; �RW � �Ò> � � > � A1 �U 1 > � 6�_ � 1 � 6�H �W � �Ì � >� ? �W @ � R1 �Q � �� Ì R $ � :� 6�_ R :� R 0;� R 1�Q �1 � R >� 1�Q � rÌ R 1 :� 5� � Ì R "�R ?� � � A�\ 9 �V 1 �� r1�X � ��� �� Ò1 ; � R � 3FU S 1 �9 ;� �Ì R " �R ?� A; � �'� �> � A1�U 1 > � �6�_ � A� � �� ������������

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9. As for their view that the two kinds of destruction and akasa have noreali ty......It is ill ogical to say that akasa is a non-entity., it is not differentfrom the ariti ficial and natural destructions as an entity. Vedic authority(Tai.2-1) "From the Atman, Akasa was born" and others, it is known thatakasa is a substance.

� �� � Ì � 6� � '� � > �X 5 � R �? �" �� � A� >�] A; � � > � A1 �U 5 � � � D �� 0� "�1� R :�Q �Ì 9 ;�U 6� ; � 5 �Q �Í6� =8 4�U <� 6� � D �� 0� "�1� R :�Q �Ì 9 ;�U 6�W ; �R 1�Q � �� � 5 � � ' � � A� R � A�\ 9 � > �� 1� � �� Ì 5 �U A:� Y 1�W � � � Ì 5 �U 9 � > � :�Q �Í6� =t 84 � :�Q �Ì 5 �V 1 6� }:� R 5�\ � � A:� <0� :� W > � �Ì 5 �U A:� Y� 1 �� � �� A� R � ' � � Í6� =8 4 ;�W " �" �1 �Y ]" �R � A� 1� T � A�\ 9 � > �� 1� � �� � � � 1� G�X > � \� A� � 1 � �Ï" �A; � � 3?�] 5 � A:� <0� =D � 0� �D � 0� �; � A�\ 8 � 54 �W �D � � 0� "�1 >� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :� �BR � 5� � �Ì 6� S <BR ;� R] �> � X5 � R �? �" �A; � �A; �R 1�Q ����������� �

10. Moreover, when the Nihil ist asserts all things to be momentary, he willhave to assert the perceiver also to be momentary. That will not be possible.Remembrance means recall ing to mind something after its experience. and thatcan happen only when the agent of perception and memory is thesame.......When this is so, and one and the same person is present during thetwo moments of experience and remem-brance, then the momentariness theorycannot be sustained by the nihil ist.

� � � � Ò1 � ?' � �Ì 5�U 6� 6� ¿� RW � > � X5 � R� ?� " �A� :� ; �� � ;� 1� � � t A2� <:�Q �Ì 5�U ; �R � ;� " �R <0� :�Q �Ì 5 � 9; �U 6� $ �' ( 1 � R :�Q �Ì 9 �R > �R 1�Q �9 � R > �RW 1 6� � H� � �Ò�1 � � Ï1� 1�Q �Ì R 6� }1 �W � �� � � � � � 5 � � Ì9 �R > �R 1�Q �9 � R > �� � Í1 6� }1 �W � �� � � � � � � �1 � A:�R 1�Q �Ì A� 3Q 9 ; � � � ?� ?� � >� @ �R 0�R � 39; � � A� 1�Q �Í1 6�� H � �Ì3?�] 5 � R1 �Q �A� 3Q 9; �? '� � A�U > � 0�R] � 39 ; � � � A�1 �Q �Í1 6� � H� �3?�] 5 �R 1�Q �Ì 5�U 6� 6� ¿� RW ; � :�Q �Ì 9 � R >� R1 �Q �9 � R> � �Í1 6� � H� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :� � ������������

11. The nihil ist theory is untenable for the additional reason that, by notaccepting a lasting and persisting cause, it amounts to saying that somethingcomes out of nothing. ....Therefore, since it is not seen that originationcomes from absolute non-entities like hare's horn etc. and it is seen thatorigination comes from existing things like gold etc. , the assertion thatsomething comes out of nothing is not tenable.

����;��3�'��Ì9�R>�R1�Q �9�R>�RW 16��H���Ì9;�U 6�$�:;�W1���Ï>�\ �A��1��Í3RA�T5�R5�R:�Q �Ì 5�TB:�R5�R5�R\ �Ì �6��)�5�R5�R:�Q�Ì �9�:�1��A�S� ��A;�R1�Q�� �Ì 9�R>�A;��A�U=9�1>�R1�Q ������������

12. If it is accepted thar something can come out of nothing, then people whodo not make any effort and keeping quiet can get their desired results.Because doing nothing is easy.

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� � � Ï> �\ � 8 � R ÅR 2�] > � R 3:� R �F1 ;� � A� :�U 3R ; �R 6�_ R ª; � R� 3@ �U � 3O@ � 0�W @ � U� Í� R � > �1 �W @ �U � � > � E� R 5� > �R 3T � � 8� RX �� Ò3R 5 � T \6� _ 1; �> �� 1� ® 1 �W � �� " W�@ � R\ � ' �t 1" �=� � > �5 �W ; � R 5� R\ � 8 � R ÅW � > � A1 �U � 5� �Ì �9 �� 5 �> �W ? � :�Q �Ì R =D ;� � 1 � 35 �U <R W4 �W 5 �8 � R ÅR 2�] > � R 36�_ � "_ �; � W ;�\ � � > � <� '� 1� R � �� 5 � �Ì A� RX �A� U$ � 1� �Ì� 9 � 6�_ R ; � � � � �� 1 � A;� � 1 �U � � > � E� R5 �X " �A" �5 4� > �R 3� � Ï>� �Ì � 9� 6�_ W1 � � � �� � 1 � t A:� ?' � � � >� E� R5 � >� R 3W � 8 �U 4 }R Á�/ W5 � � Á �6�W 0� �Ì 51 � A2� � Ï>� � 6�_ :� R 0� 6�_ :� W; � 7�=> ;� > �B R <� � A� >�]Í6�6�}1�W���A�1;��6��8�RÅW2�W]�8�U4}R<RW B:�51�<W 0��6�_:�R0�R�3>;�>�BR<�Ì5�>�1�R<R1�Q ��������������

1. Thus, when the defects of the impossibil ity of combination based on theexternal things were pointed out, now the Vijnanavadi Buddhist stands.Seeing that some of the students who have attachment to the external things,the theory of the existence of external things was taught This is not the view ofBuddha. His view is only of group-consciousness alone. In that Vijnanavada,the dealings of the means and objects of knowledge are possible internallyonly by the colour superimposed on consciousness. Although external thingsmay exist, means of knowledge etc dealings are not possible without thesuperimposition on consciousness.

�� � " �2�\ � 6� U5 � � �Ì > �$ � :;� 1�W �Ì 5 1 � A2� � Ï> � �Ì; �\ � A� > �] > ; �> �B R <RW � 5 � � � > � E�R 5 �> ; �� 1� S <x�RW � 8 � R ÅRW 2� R W]Ì t A1� �Ò� 1� � �� 1 �1 �Q �Ì A� \ 9� >� R1 �Q �Ò� 1 � �ÌR B � �� � �� � � �� � A> � 6�P R � 3>� 1�Q �' � �Ò3\�Ç ­ > ; � :�Q � �� ; � 2� R� BA> � 6�P :� R ; �R :� <T' ;�U 3" ��$� 5 4� > �] 5 � $ � <R � 36�_ 1 ; � ;�R � � � >� 5 �R �Ï>� � 8 �R ÅW 5� �Ì 2�] W 5 � � $�_ R Å$ �_ R B " �R " �R <R � 9 � >� t 5 1��Ï> �\ � )� R $ � S <1� $ �RW ' � <R � Ì � 6� � A1 � :9� R� 36�_ 1 ; � ;� R� � 9 � �> �1 �U :� Q�Ì B] t 5 1 � �Ò�1� �Ì >� $ � :;�1 �W � �� � � � � � � Ì 51 � <W 0�1 �U � > � R A� 5 �R :�Q �Ì 2�] � 5 � � :� H � A;� � E� R 5� >�X � '� G ;� A; � � � :� ;� R �Ì5 �9 ;�U 6� $� :; � :� R 5� 1> � R1 �Q � �� � 1 � A:� R 1 �Q�Ì � 6�Ì 9 �R > �RW �8 � R ÅR 2�] A; � �Ò� 1 � ����������

2. How again it is known that there are no external things apart from thesubjective cognition and all these transactions are only internal? Because it isnot possible. ......This is also to be seen like a dream. Just like in a dream, themagic, mirage water, phantom city in the sky become perceptions without theexternal things, similarly, it is known that the perceptions of a pill ar etc. in thewaking state are possible. ...It is not admitted by me that even without suchmental impression, knowledge can have a variety in conformity with externalobjects. Hence also, external objects do not exist.

(Refutation of Yogachara school)

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�� � 5 � � #� =U�Ì 9 �R > �� � 8 �R ÅA; � �Ì 2�] A; � �Ì 4 ;� > � ARR 1�U \ � ? � ·;� 1�W � �� " �A:� R 1�Q � !� Í 6� =8 4 �W � � �� Í6� =9 ; � 1�W � � B6� _ �1� �6�_ 1 ; � ;�\ � 8 � R ÅRW 2� ] � A1� :9 �� � "U �Ê\ � % � , � � 6� , � Ò� 1 � � �� 5 � �'� �Í6� =9 ;� :�R 5 � A;� �Ï>� �Ì 9� R> � RW9 � � >� 1�U :� Q�Ì B] � 1 � ������������

3. It cannot be asserted that external things do not exist Why? Because theyare perceived. Things like a pill ar, a wall , a pot, a cloth etc are perceived withevery act of cognition. It is not possible for perceived things to be non-existent,

�� �5 � �A> � 6�P R � 36�_ 1 ; � ;� > �1 �Q �)� R $ �_ _ 1 6�_ 1 ; � ;� R � �9 � �> �1 �U :� Q� �Ì B] t 51 � � �� " �A:�R 1�Q !� > � X 4� :;� R] 1 �Q � �� > � X4 � :; �̂� � B � 9 � >� �1 �A> � 6�P )� R $ � S <1 � ;� RW � � �� � " �\ � 6� U5 � >�X ]4 � :;�] :�Q !� 8 � R 4 � �Ì8� R 4� RX �Ò� 1 � � 8�_ V:� � � �� 8 �R 4 ;� 1�W � � B � A> � 6�P �Í6� =8 4�\ � > � A1 �U6� _ �1� 8�U �A; � � � :� 2; � R � :�; �R �Í6� =8 4� �� � � �� � 5�X > � � \ )� R $ � S <1� �Í6� =8 4 �\ � > � A1 �U � A1 � :9 � R� 3"\ �� " �A; � R\ � ' �1 �Q �Ì � 6� �Ì > � A2� R ;� R\ �8 � R 4 ;� 1�W ��������� ����

4. The perceptions of the waking state cannot be similar to those in the dreamstate. Why? Because of diffeerent characteristics. There are differences in cha-racteristics between the dream and waking states. What are the difference incharacteristics? We say it is sublation and non-sublation. When one is awake,the object seen in a dream is sublated "falsely perceived by me ..." Like this theobject like a pill ar etc perceived in a waking state is not sublated at any time.

�� � ; � 36; �U x\ �� � > �5 � R 6; � 2�W ]5 � � E� R 5� > �X � '� G ;�\ � > � R A� 5 �R > �X � '� G ;� R 3W > � �Ì >� " �º6;� 1� � Ò� 1� � �� 1 �1 6�_ � 1 � >� x�> ;� :� � Q �Ì G � �Í' ; �1 �W � �� 5 � � 9 � R >� RW � > � R A� 5� R 5� R :�Q �Í6� 6� }W 1� � 1 >� 1 6� D�W �Ì 5 �U 6� =8 4�W � �8 � R ÅR 5 �R :�Q �Ì 2� R] 5 � R :�Q � �Ì 2� RW ]6� =t 8 4� � 5� � :� H �R � � B � 6�_ 1 ; � 2�̂� 5 � R 5 �R Á �6�R � > �R A� 5 �R � 9 � >� t 51� � �� Ì 5 �U 6� =9 ;� :� R5 �W @ �U � � 1 �U �Ì 2� W]@ �U � � " �\ � ¿� �� :� H� R ��> � �' �G �R ��> � R A� 5 �R �9 � >�W ; �U � ������������

5. What was said that without the objects the diversity of experience can beexplained by the diversity in tendencies is to be refuted. It is said here. Thereis no exis-tence for tendencies in your view as external objects are notperceived. It is precisely owing to the perception of objects that a variety oftendencies can arise. How can a variety of tendencies arise when objects arenot perceived?

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6. The ego-consciusness that is assumed to be the abode of tendencies is notalso possible as momentariness has been accepted and it has no stable form.That cannot be the abode of the tendencies like the sense perception. Whenthere is nothing which runs through connecting all the three periods of time,or some unchanging witness, the worldly transactions involvong remembran-ce, recognition etc., contingent on past tendencies dependent on place .time.and causation etc are not possible.

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� � � Ï> � :�Q �Ï1 �RX �� R >� � 6� �> �X 5 � R� ? �" �6�D � RX � � 5 � <R"Y �1 �RX � 8 � R ÅR 2�] > � R� 36� D� RW � � > � E� R5 � > �R � 36� D� ?' � � �� ?�V 5 ; � �> � R � 36� D� A1 �U � A� > �] 6� _:� R 0� �> � 6_ � S 1� � @� �� Ò� 1 � � 1 �1 �Q �� 5 � <R "�<0� R ;� � 5 � �ÌR 3<� � � "_ �; �1 �W � �� � 5 � � � B �Ì ; �\ � A� > �] �6� _:� R 0� 6�_ � A� �RW � =R W" �> ; �> � BR <� �Ì5 ; �H � 1> � :�Q �Ì 5 � � 4� $� :; � � ?� ·;� 1�W �Ì 6�f RW 1 �U :� Q�Ì 6� > �R 3�Ì 9� R> �WÍ1 A� $ �] �6� _� A� �W� ������������

1. Thus both the postulates of Buddhists - those who believe in external thingsand those in consciousness. No effort is made to refute the absolute nihil istschool since it is opposed to all means of valid knowledge. The worldlytransaction conforming to all means of knowledge cannot be denied as long asa different order of reality is realised, for with no exceptions, the general ruleprevails.

�� � � " \�� 8 � BN 5 � R � �� A�>�] 6�_"�R<W 0�� ;�2�R;�2 �R� >�X 5�R�?�" �A�:�;��� Í6�6��H�:�1>�R;�� 6�<TD ;�1�W � 1�2�R� 1�2� R�A�"�1�R"V �6�>�1�Q��>�3T;�] 1��Ï>�� �� � 5 � � " �R \� ' �1 �Q �Ì � 6� �ÌG� �Í6� 6�� H �\ � 6� ? ; �R :�� � �� Ì 1 �� �' ��Ì 5�U 6� 6� ¿�RW> �X 5 �R � ?� " �1 �5 G �> ; �> �B R <� � �� � � �� � � �� � A� >�] 2� R �Ì � 6� �Ì 5� R 3<0�T ; �� �Ì ;�\ � A� U $ �1 � A� :� ;� � � FW ; � A" �R :�X � �Ò� 1 � �Ì� 9� 6�_ R ; � � ������������

2. No use of elaboration. From every point of view, when the Buddhist schoolis examined for its justification, it breaks down like a sand of well . We do notsee in this any justification. Therefore the nihilist school is unjustifiable. Itshould not be followed by those who seek the highest goal at any time.

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� � � � > � >� A� 5� A� :� ; � � Ò3R 5� T\ � � 5 � <A; � 1�W � �� � A� ª� � ' � �Ï@ �R\ � 6� 3R 2�R] � � A�\ :� 1� R � )� T> � �Ì )�T >� �Ì R �> � �A�\ > � <�� 5 � )�] <�8 � 5 4� �:�RW D �R � 5 � R :� � �� A\� D �W 6� A1 �U � � R > �W > � � 6� 3R 2�R] X� )� T > � �Ì )�T >� R #;� RX � �� ; � 2� R ;� RW $ � \� 1 � ;� RW <W > � �Ò1� <R �5 1 �9 � R] > � R1 �Q �Ò� 1 � � :�5 ; �5 1�W � �� 1 � ;� RW � �Ò:� :�Q �Ì 6� <\ �6� _6� b � :�Q �Ì R ' �D �1 �W � 6� b � Rt A1� " �R ;�R � 5 � R :� �� )� T >� R t A1� �" �R ;� � � � 6�U ~ =R t A1� " �R ; �� � � 4� :� R] t A1 �" �R ;� �� � Ì 4 � :� R] t A1 � "�R ;� � � � ÌR " �R ?� R t A1 � " �R ;� � �' �� '� � Ò� 1� � �A� > �W ] @ �R :�Q �Ì � 6� �Ï@� R :�Q �Ì > � R 51 � <�6�_ 9 �W 3R 5 �Q �8 � BN � > � 4� R 5�Q �A> � A� :� ;� 6� S <"�t º6�1 �R 5 �Q �> � 0�] ; � t 5 1� � �� � A� >�] G �' � �Ò:�\ � A� ª� 9 � mT5 � ;�\ � 5 � R :� � 5 ; �R ;� :�Q �Ì > �1 � R <;� t 51� � �� � �� A; � R 3t A1 � � ��� A; � R¿�R t A1� � ��� A; �R �3t A1 � � '� � 5 �R t A1� � ' � � � ��� A; �R 3>� x�> ; �� � ��� A; � R 3t A1� � ' � �Ì> � x�>; �? '� � ��� A; � R¿� Rt A1� � ' � �Ì > � x�> ;� ?' �� � � ��� A; � R 3t A1� � ' � � 5� R t A1 � � '� �Ì> � x�> ;� ?' � �Ò�1 � � �� � Ï> � :�Q �Ï> � �Ï�" �1 > � �� 5�1 ;� �1 > �R � 3@�U �Ì � 6� �Ò:�\ �A� ª� 9 � mT 5� ; �\ �; � RW )� ; � t 51 � ������������

1. The postulate of Jainas is being refuted. Theirs are seven substances. i)soul ii )non-soul iii ) attraction iv) control v) austerities vi) bondage and vii)liberation. In brief, they have two substances, soul and non-soul. They thinkthat others get included in these two accordingly. They also think of thesetwo substances in another way - called astikayas five in number. - soul, body,merit, demerit, and space. They describe many subsidiary divisions of each oneof these according to the assumptions of their own doctrine. And in all places,they apply this logic of what they call as seven facets. i) may be it exists ii )may be it does not exist iii ) may be it exists or may be it does not exist iv)may be it is indescribable v) may be it exists and is indescribable vi) may be itdoes not exist and is describable vii ) may be it exists, may be it does not existand is indescribable. Thus they apply this logic with seven facets (sapta-bhangi-naya) to unity and permanence as well.

(Refutation of Jaina theory)

�� � 5 � �Ì ;� :�Q �Ì 9 ; �U 6� $ � :� � �;�U x�� � Ò� 1 � � �� " U�1 �� � �� Ï" �t A:� 5�Q �Ì A� \9 � >� R1 �Q � �� 5 � � � B � Ï" �t A:�5 �Q �4 � � :�] � 0�; �U $ � 6� 1�Q �A� 1�Q �Ì A�1 > �R � 3��> �À �4 � :�] A� :� R > �W ? � � � A�\ 9 � >� � 1� � ?� T 1� RW @ 0� > �1 �Q � �� � ; � � Ï1 �W � A� ª� � 6� 3R 2� R] � S 5 � 4� R] S <1 � RÏ1 �R > � 51� � Ï> � :�Q �Á �6� R? '�W � 1 � � 1�W � 1 � 2�X > � � > � R� A; �U � � 5 �X > � � > �R � 1 � 2� R � A; �U � � �� Ò1 � <2� R � �B � 1 � 2� R � >� R � A; �U � �Ì 1� 2�R> � R �Ò�1 � �Ì � 5� 4 �R] S <1 � Á �6�\ �E� R 5 �\ �A� \? � ; � E�R 5� > �1 �Q �Ì 6�_ :� R 0� :�W > � �A; � R1 �Q ����������� �

2. This assumption is not justifiable. Why? Because of its impossibil ity inone and the same thing. It is not possible for such contradictory characteristicsas existence and non-existence etc, to be associated simultanously with the

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same thing., like cold and heat. These seven categories that are definitelyascertained to be so many in number and such in character, must either be justas they are described or they must not: Otherwise, the resulting knowledge ofsuch an indefinite nature, which may be either as it is described or may not beso, will certainly be unauthoritative like doubts.

�� � ; � 2� R �Ï" �t A:�5 �Q �4 � � :�] � 0� � � >� À �4 � :�] �Ì A�\ 9 � > �RW � 3R W@ � � � A; �R 1�Q �> � R 3W � 6� _A� x�� � Ï> � :�Q �Ì R1 :� 5� RW � 6�)� T > � A;� �Ì "�R1 A5 ; �] :� Q�Ì 6� <RW � 3R W@ � � � 6�_ A� ); � W 1� � �� " �2� :�Q !� ? � <T <6� S <:� R 0� RW � � � B � � )� T > � � � Ò� 1� � Ì R B] 1 �R:� 5 ; �5 1�W � �� ?� <T<�6�S<:�R0�1�R ;�R\ � '�� A�1;�R:� Q �Ì "Y �1£��Ì A�>�] $ �1��� 6�S<t'( ¿��� Ì R1:�R�Ò1;�1���%�, R�3>�1�Q �Ì �5�1;�1>�:�Q �Ì R1:�5���6�_ A�);�W 1������������ ��

3. Just as the defect of the impossibil ity of the contradictory characteristics inthe substratum arises, also there arises the defect of the embodied soulbecoming limited (or of a medium dimension). How? The Jains think that thesoul has the dimension of the body. When the soul has the dimension of thebody, then it becomes of medium dimension, non-omnipresent and limitedwherefore it will result in the soul's impermanence.

�� � 5 � � ' � � 6� ;� R] ; �W 0� �Ì � 6� �Ì > �; � >� �Í6� $� :� �Ì 6� $� :�R 9 ;� R :�Q �Ï1 �1 �Q �3WB 6� S <:�R 0� 1> � :�Q � )� T > � A; � �Ì �> � �<R W4 �W 5 � �Í6� 6� R 3�; �1 �U \� ? � ·; �1 �W � �� " U �1� � !� � > �" �R <R� 33RW @ � 6�_ A� mR 1 �Q � �� � Ì > � ; � >� �Í6� $� :� �Ì 6� $� :�R 9 ;� R\ � � B �Ì � 5� ? � :�Q �Ì R 6�V ; � ]:� R 0� A;� �Ì 6� D �T ;� :� R 0� A; � � '� � )� T >� A; � � �> � �"_ �; � R >� 1 >�\ � 1 � R > �1 �Q �Ì 6� S <B R ;�] :� Q�� > � �"_ �; � R >� 1 >�W � ' � � ' � :�R] � 3> � 1�Q �Ì � 5 �1 ; �1 > �\ � 6� _A� ); �W 1 � � �� 1 �1 �? '� � 8 � 54 � :� RW D � �Ì 9; �U 6� $ � :� RW � 8 � R 4 ;�W 1 �" �:� R] ­ " �6� S <> �W � ­ 1 � A;� � )� T > � A; � R =R 8�U > �1 �Q �A� \A� R <A� R $� <W� � 5 � :� °� A; � � 8� 5 4� 5� RW ' ( W3R 1 �Q �Î�4 > �] $ �� 1� 1 >�\9 � >� � 1� �Ò�1 � ������������

4. It is not possible to justify without contradiction the size of the body for thesoul even by assuming the increase or decrease of parts. Why? Then,thedefect of mutabili ty will result. Mutabili ty will become unexplainable, whenthe soul increases or decreases by the accession and depletion of the parts.When it is mutable like leather etc., impermanence will result. Then,assumption of bondage and liberation will get affected - which is that the soulsurrounded by eight kinds of karmas, remains sunk in the sea of this samsara;like a bottle gourd and it floats upwards when that bond is snapped.

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? � <T <6�S <:� R 0�1 �R �Ï>� � A; � R1 �Q �5 � �Í6� �' �1 � �Ì6�� '� 1� �? � <T <R 51 � <6�_ R � ª�� � �� Ì 2� >� R � Ì 51 ;� A; � � )� T> � 6�S <�:� R 0� A;� �Ì >� t A2�1 �1 >� R1 �Q �6� V> �] ; �RW � �Ì � 6� �Ì> � A2� ;� RW � �Ì >� t A2�1 � 6� S <:�R 0� � Ï> � � )�T > �� � A; � R1 �Q � � 1 � 1� ?' ��Ì � >� ? �W @ �W 0� � A� > �] 3R �Ï>� �Ì 0�U � �:� BR 5 �Q �> � R � )� T> �� �Ì 9; �U 6� $ � 51 � >; �� �5 � � ?� <T <6�S <:� R 0�� � �� Ì 1�?'�A�RX$ �1�>�1�Q�Ì RB] 1�:��6��:�1�:�Q�Ì A�\ $ �1�:�Q �Ò�1��Í6�W �D �1�>;�:�Q����������� �

5. Besides, the Jainas hold that the ultimate size attained by a soul on the eveof liberation becomes permanent. Similarly, the earlier initial and interveningsize of the soul can also be permanent and there will be no difference . Thusthe soul will have the size of one single body only and it will not acquire anyother inflated or deflated body. Or the explanation is: Since the ultimate sizeof the soul is permanent, its sizes in the earlier stages also must be the sameTherefore, as there is no difference the soul has to be admitted to be atomic orbig at all t imes and not of the size of the body. Then,the postulate of the Jainsalso like Buddhists is ill ogical and should be ignored.

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1. The Maheswaras (Saivas) however think that the five categories - effect,cause, union, observances and the end of sorrow have been taught by the LordSiva for the removal of bondage of the creatures. Pasupati is the Lord and isthe efficient cause.

(Refutation)

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2. For the Lord, there can be no causali ty for the world by being the Lord ofthe nature and souls. Why? Because of incongruity. What is incongruity?Non-lordship will result for the Lord like us as the defects of like and dislikewill have to be attributed to him., since his creations are of different grades,inferior, mediocre and superior.

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�� � 5 � � � B � � 6�_ 4 �R 5 � 6�U À @� > ;� �1 �S <x�� Ò] ? > � <RW 5 1 � <W 0� � A� \8 � 5 4�\ � 6� _ 4� R 5� 6�U À @� ; �RW � �Ò] � ?� 1 �R � �� 5 � � 1� R> �1 �Q �A� \; � RW $ � �=D � 0� � �A�\ 8 � 54 � � � A�\ 9 � >� � 1� � � 6�_ 4 � R 5� 6�U À @�W ? > � <R 0� R\ � A� > �] $ �1 �1 > �R 1�Q �� 5 � <> � ;� >� 1 >� R c� � �� 5� R � 6� � A� :� >� R ;� =D� 0� �A� \ 8� 5 4� �� � Ì R F; � �ÌR F�; � 9� R> � �Ì� 5� Á �6� 0� R1 �Q � �� 5 � �Ì � 6� �Ì5 ;� � � " �t ? '� 1�Q �" �R ; �] $ � :;� � � A�\ 8 � 5 4� �? � ·;� 1�W �" �º6� �; �1 �U \�" �R ; �] " �R <0� 9 �R >� A; � �Ï>� �Ì }R � 6� �Ì � A� �1 >� R1 �Q ����������� �

3. God who is different from nature and soul cannot become the ruler withoutsome relationship. But the relation of conjunction is not possible,since God,Nature and souls are all omnipresent and partless. Nor can be the relationshipof inherence, because it has not been proved which is the base and which isthat is based. Nor can any other relationship be inferred from the presence ofthe effect, since that very causal relationship has yet to be established.

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4. How is this for the Brahma-vadin? There is no diff iculty. Because an in -describable mutual identity relationship is sustainable. Moreover, the Brahma-vadin ascertains the cause etc. from the strength of the Veda..................Herelies the excellence...........Like this, the incongruity must be levelled againstother outside-Veda postulates of God accordingly.

�� � Ò1 � ? '� �Ì 5�U 6� 6� � H� � �1� R� "] �" �6� S <" �t º6�1 � A;� �Ò] ? > � <A;� � �� A� � � B � 6� S <" �º6; � :� R 5� � � "U �:9 � " �R <� Ò> �:� Y3R 3T �5 � � 6�_ 4 � R 5� R 3T � 5� �Ì �4 �® R ; � � 6�_ > � 1 �]; �W 1 �Q � �� 5 � �' � �Ï> � :�Q �Í6� 6� }1 �W � �� � 5 � � � B �Ì 6�_ 1 ; � D�\ � Á �6� R � 3BT 5 �\' � �6�_ 4 � R 5� :�Q �Ò] ? > � <A;� �Ì� 4 �® W; �\ �A� \9 � >� � 1� �:�Y 3R � 3> �X =D � 0;� R 1�Q �������� ����

5. For the additional reason, God imagined by the Tarkikas has nojustification. God is imagined to impel by having Nature etc. like the potterdoes with clay etc. Nature which is beyond perception etc and is devoid ofform etc. cannot come under God's direction., being different from clay etc.

�� � ; � 2� R � � " �<0� $�_ R :�\ � ' � D�U <R � 3" :�Q �Ì 6� _ 1;� D �\ � Á �6� R � 3B T5 �\ � ' � � 6�U À @� RW � 4 � �1 � ® � 1 � �Ï>�\ � 6� _4 � R 5� :� � 6�Ò] ? >� <RW � 4 �® R A; � �1 � �Ò�1 � � �� 1� 2�R � 6� � 5 � RW 6� 6� }1 �W � �� 9 � RW $ � R� 33?�] 5 � R 1�Q �� B � " �<0�$ �_ R :� A; � �Ì �4� �® 1 �1 > �\$ � :; �1�W � �� � 5 � � ' � �ÌG � � 9� RW $ � R 3;� RW � �? ; � 5 1�W � �� " �<0� $ �_ R :� A� R :; �W � > � R �Ì 9; �U 6� $ � :;� :� R5 �W � A� \A� R S <0� R :�Q �Ò> � �Ò] ? >� <A; � R� 6� �9 �RW $ � R 3;� � �6�_ A� ); � W<5 �Q ������������

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6. Just as the individual soul directs the senses counting from eye etc., whichcannot be perceived and which are without forms , so also God can directnature. Even then, it is not sustainable. It is by noticing such facts as theexperiencing that one is led to infer that the set of sense organs has a director.But in this case, such experience etc. are not in evidence. And if Nature can.be equated with the set of sense organs, then God will have the same kind ofexperience as the transmigrating souls.

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7. For this reason also, the postulate of God by Tarkikas is not sustainable. Bythem he is considered to be omniscient and infinite. So also , Nature and soulsas infinite and different from one another. Can the limits of Nature, Souls andHimself be determined by God or not ? In both the cases, there will be a defect,.........Thus also when other souls become free in succession, the transmigratoryexistence itself, as also those in that state of existence will become to an end...........then this will lead to the other defect that God will l ose his omniscience.

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1. The postulate of those who hold that God is both the material and efficientcause is being refuted. ..........Although a portion of this kind is common toboth (Brahma-vadi and Bhagavata) and should not be a matter of dispute,thereis another portion which is subject to disagreement - so that is being refuted.

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Ì � 5� À �>; �V B Á �6�W 0� � � ' � � �� � > � R A�U 3W > �RW � 5 � R :� � 6� <:� R1 :�R �Í' ;� 1�W � �� A� \" �@ �] 0� RW � 5 � R :� � )� T >� � � �� 6�_ }U :�P R W� 5 � R :�:� 5 �� � �� Ì � 5� À �RW � 5 � R :� �Ì B\ " �R <� � �� � 1 �W @ � R\ � > � R A�U 3W > � � � 6� <R 6�_ " Y�� 1 �� �Ò1 � <W � A� \" �@ �] 0� R 3; � � � " �R ;�] :�Q � �� 1 � :�Q �Ò1 2�\ �9 �V 1 �\ � 6� <:� W? > � <\ � 9 � $� > �5 1� :�Q �Ì � 9� $ � :� 5� �Í6� R 3R5 � �Ò); �R �A> � R4 ; �R ;� �; �RW $ � X� �> � @�] ? � 1� :�Q �Ò@ ¬ RD � T 0� �W �? � � �9� $ �> � 51 � :�W > � �6�_ � 1 � 6� }1 � �Ò�1 � ������������

2. Bhagavatas think: Bhagavan Vasudeva is one, pure consciousness by natureand the supreme reali ty; He has divided himself into four - in the form ofVasudeva, Sankarshana, Pradyumna, and Aniruddha. Vasudeva is the Supre-me Self. Sankar-shana is the individual Self, Pratyumna is the mind and Ani-ruddha is Ahamkara. Vasudeva is supreme material cause and other Sankar-shana etc are the effects. One attains the Lord Himself by becoming free frompain through worshipping Him by going to temples, acquiring the requisitesfor worship, actual worship, Japa, meditation for hundred years.

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3. We do not refute.........Supreme Self and Self of all ..........What is opined asexclusive meditation is also not refuted, because it is well known in Srutis andSmritis........From the Supreme Self Vasudeva is born Jiva by nameSankarshana, this is not possible, This will l ead to the defect ofimpermanence. Owing to this drawback, liberation cons0isting in attainingGod will not be possible for the soul, for an effect gets completely destroyedon reaching back to its source. The teacher (Vyasa) will deny any origin forthe individual soul in the aphorism "The individual soul has no origin, becausethe Vedic texts do not mention this and because the soul is known from them tobe eternal". Accordingly this assumption is unjustifiable,

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4. For this additional reason, this postulate is not compatible. In the world it isnot seen that from the agent, like Devadatta etc. the implement like axe etcoriginates. Bhagavatas describe that from the agent Jiva, Sankarshana, theimplement, mind , Pratyumna,is born.

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5. It may be that these Sankarshana and others are not considered to be theindividual souls and so on But they are believed to be Gods being endowedwith all suvh divine attributes as knowledge, divinity, strength, boldness,heroism etc. they are all Vasudeva himself, without defects, not born and freefrom destruction. Even then the defect of the impossibility of origin persists,The defect crops up from the other side. If the idea is that these four Godscounting from Vasudeva are different from one another and are yet possessedof equal attributes, and they do not constitute a single Self, it is unnecessaryto create many Gods since these divine functions can be accompanied by asingle one. Besides it is against their own conclusion that Vasudeva alone isthe Supreme Reality. .......Besides these forms cannot remain confined to four,since from Brahma to a blade of grass, in the world, all are his form..

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6. There are many contradictions in this Sastra, like qualities and the thingsquali -fied. .....It contradicts Veda..............Discredit of Veda is also seen....Therefore it is clear that this postulate is not logical.

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1. Here, materialists who see the body to be the soul think that there is nosoul apart from the body. They consider it possible that although sentience isnot seen to belong to external things like earth etc., taken either individually orcollectively,it may belong to the elements transformed into bodies . Like thepower of intoxication, sentience is consciousness arising from them and aman is nothing but the body endowed with sentience.. There is no soulseparate from the body with sentience given by soul to go to heaven or obtainliberation. Body itself is both sentience and soul.. The reason they give: "itsexistence being dependent on the existence of the body. That which existswhen the other exists and that wh1ich does not exist when the other does notexist - the former is ascertained to be the attribute of the latter, like the heatand light of the fire. As regards the attributes of the activities of vital force,sentience, memory etc., which are held to belong to the soul according to thebelievers in the soul, they are perceived within the body and not outside. andso long as any substance other than the body cannot be proved, they must bethe attributes of the body itself. Hence soul is not distinct from the body.

(Refutation)

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3WB 4 � :�R] ? ' � � Á �6�R 3;� � � 6� <X � �Ì � 6� �Í6� =9; � 51�W � 5 � � 1 �U �Ì R 1 :� 4� :� R] � �'�X 1 �5 ; � A:�Y 1 ;� R 3;� � �� Ì� 6� � '� � A� �1 �� B � 1� R >� �W BW � )� T > � 3> � A2� R ;� R :�Q �Ï@ �R\ � 9 � R > �� � ?� ·;� 1�W � � 5 � ?'�W 1 �U \� 5 � � 1 �U �Ì A� � 1� �Ì 9� R> � � � �� � 6� �1 �1 �W � 6�" �3R �' �1 �Q �Ì t A:� 5�Q �3W BW � 3W B R 51 � <A�\ ' � R <W 0� �Ì R 1 :� 4� :� R] � � Ì 5 �U > � 1�W ] <5 �Q � �� A� \ ? � ;� :�R G �W 0� R � 6� � 6� <6� D� �6� _ �1� � @� 4 ;� 1�W ���� ������� ��

2. The fact is not that the soul is not different from the body. It must bedistinct from the body since consciousness does not exist when the body isthere. If you think that the attributes of the soul exist when the body exists,then why should you not also infer that they are not attributes of the bodyowing to the non-existence of the attributes when the body exists. Becausethey are different from the characteristics of the body. The attributes of thebody like colour etc. exist as long as the body exists. But such activities ofPrana etc. do not exist even when the body exists but it is dead. The attributesof body like colour etc. are experienced by others but not the attributes of thesoul l ike consciousness, memory etc. Moreover, the existence of theseattributes of the soul can be conclusively determined when the body continuesduring a man's life, but their non-existence cannot be so determined from thenon-existence of the body. When this body has fallen, it is possible that theattributes of the soul may continue by transferring themselves into some otherbody. Even by this doubt, the opposite view is refuted.

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3. And the opponent has to be asked as to what he thinks the nature of thisconsciousness to be that he wishes to derive it from the elements. For thematerialists do not accept any principle over and above the four elements .Consciousness, they say, is nothing but experience of the elements and theirderivatives. In that case , the elements are objects of experience and hencesentience cannot be an attribute of those elements etc., since action is

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contradictory in itself........By the consciousness is perceived the elements andtheir derivatives both external and internal as objects. Hence just as theexistence of this experience of the elements and their derivatives is admitted,so also must be its separateness from them be admitted. According to us, thesoul is by nature knowledge itself, it is distinct from the body.. Consciousnessis eternal because it is uniform by nature. Although it is associated with otherstates, like 'I saw this' etc. as perception, it is recognised. It is also sustainableby memory etc.

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4. Thus, it is not possible for sentience to be the attribute of the body, becauseit occurs when the body is present and does not occur when the body is not present.It is justifiable for the body to be useful as instrument like light etc, Furthermore,the body is not absolutely necessary for perception, because when the bodyis inert in the dream, many kinds of perception are seen to take place.Therefore, the existence of soul apart from the body is beyond criticism.

����6�V>�]:�T:�R\A�R

� � � " �2�\ � 6� U5 � � �8�_ ¯� 0� � ?� R � 6�_ :� R 0�" �1> � :�Q �Í' ;� 1�W � � ; � R> �1 �R � � �� rÌ R :�P R ; � A;� � � "_ �; � R 2�] 1 >� R1 �Q �Ì R 5� 2�] ·; � :�Q �Ì 1 �1 �Q �Ì 2� R] 5 � R :�Q r� )� X� A� V� � ���� �� Ò� 1 � � �"_ �; �R 6� <1> �\ � ? � R � A; � � 6�_ 3� ?�] 1 � :�Q � � �� � Ì 1 � RW> �W 3R 51 �R 5 �R :�Q �Ì R 5 � 2�] ·; � \� � Ì � "_ �; � R 2�] 1 > � R1 �Q � �� ��� " �1 � Y]3W> � 1 �R � 36�_ " �R? � 5� �Ì 2�] 1 > �W 5 � � > � R � � "_ �; �R � >� � 4� �? �W @ � 1 >� :�Q � ��� Í6� R A� 5 � R � 3� "_ �; � R 51 � <� > �4 � R5 � R 2�̂� > � R � � �� � � �1 � A:� R 1�Q �" �:� R] 6� W� D �1 �" �1�] YA> � Á �6� 3W > � 1� R �� 36�_ " �R ? �5 �W 5 � �� "_ �; � R �> � �4 �? �W @ � 1 >� :�Q �> � W3R 5 1� R5 � R :�Q ����� �� �����

1. How is it again said that Scripture alone is the valid means of knowledgeof Brahman (1). Jaimini Sutra - "Since the Vedas enjoin action and thoseportion which do not enjoin action are not necessary," - shows that Sastraenjoins action. Therefore, Vedantas are not necessary, as they do not enjoinany action, (2) Or it is part of an injunction of action by way of revealing theagent, deity etc. of that action. (3) Or it may be meant for enjoining someother kind of action such as meditation.....Therefore, Vedanta becomes

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supplementary to injunction of action by revealing the nature of the agent andthe deities needed for the action.

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2. Here others submit - Although Brahman is known from Sastra alone , it ispresented as a factor involved in the injunction about meditation etc. .....Sincethere is an injunction - just like Agnihotra is enjoined for one desiring Swarga,- knowledge of Brahman is enjoined for one desiring immortali ty.

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3. With regard to the well-known results of actions of creatures, which fallunder three classes--the desirable, the undesirable and the mixed and belong tothe state of transmigration, the discussion arises whether these are from actionor Iswara......The result arises from apurva which is the effect of action,

(Refutations of the above postulates of Purva Mimamsa.)

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4. "O Sowmya, Before creation, this universe was but Existence, one without asecond" (Ch.U.6-1-2)..........."All that is in front is Brahman, the Immortal"(Mu.U.2-2-11) etc. When the words in the Upanishadic sentences have beenascertained to be revealing the nature of Brahman, and are understood to befully in agreement, it is not proper to imagine some other meaning as it willresult in rejecting what was intended by the Sruti and acceping what was notintended. It cannot be held that those words have for their ultimate purposeonly a delineation of the nature of the agent, because the Sruti " Whom It willsee by what" etc (Br,U,2-4-13) deny action, agent and result.

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�� � " �:�] 8 �_ ¯� � >� }R 7�=;� RW � �> �X =D � 0; � R1 �Q � �� � � � �� Ï> � :�Q �Ì � > � }R � 33RW @ � >� 1� R\ � 4 � :� R] 4 � :�] �1 � R <1 � :;� � 5� � :� H �\? � <T <RW 6� R 3R 5� 6�V > �] "\ �� A� U #� 3N � #�1 � R <1 � :;� � 5� � :� H�\ � A� \A� R <Á �6�\ � FU � 1� A:�Y � 1 � 5; �R ; � 6�_ � A� �:�Q � �� � � � r� Ì ?� <T <\> � R >� � A� 5 1�\ � 5 � � � 6�_ ; � R� 6�_ ; �W � A6� Y ? �1 � � r( R � Í� ��� ��� �� Ò� 1 � � � 6�_ _; � R� 6�_ ; � A6� ?�] 5 � 6�_ � 1� @ �W 4 � R1 �Q �' �RW 35 � R �=D � 0� 4� :�] " �R ;�] 1 >�\ � :� RW D � R #;� A; � �Ì? � <T <1 > � A;� � 6�_ � 1 �� @ �4 ; �1 � � Ò�1 � � $� :; �1 �W � �� � � � � Ì1 � � Ï>� �Ì 5�U ® W; � �" �:�] 7�=� > � =D � 0�\ � :� RW D � R #; � :�Q �Ì ? � <T <1> �\ � � 5 � 1 ;� � :� �1 � � � A� �:�Q � � �� � � � �� � � 1 �G �X > � \� A� � 1� � ; � 2� RW x�" �:�] �7�=W @ > �W > � � 1� R <1� :;� �Ì >� t A2�1 �W @ �U � Ì � 5 � 1 ;W � @�U � " �t ?' �1 �Q �Ì � 1� ?� ;� RW � :� R WD � � Ò� 1� � 6�_ A� ); �W 1 � � � � 5� 1; �? '� � :� RW D � �A�>�]X��:�RW D�>�R�3�9���Ì9;�U 6�$�:;�1�W �Ì1�RW �5��"�1�] >;�?�W @�1>�W 5���8�_ ¯��Í6�3W ?�RW �;�U x������ �������

5. Because the results of action and the knowledge of Brahman are different...Thus it is well known from the Sruti, Smriti and Nyaya that this Samsara isdependent on the gradation of sorrow and happiness, which is dependent onthe gradation of the virtuous and viscious deeds of the person with the bodywho are subject to the defects of ignorance etc. ..."Happiness and sorrow donot touch one who is bodiless "(Ch.U.8-12-1) - Because this Sruti deniescontact with happiness and sorrow. it is understood that the result of virtuousdeeds as per injunctions is denied for the bodilesness-emanicipation. Therefore,it is established that the bodilessness-emanicipation which is different from theresult of action to be performed is eternal.......Thus, if among the results ofaction which are not eternal and also in a graded order, emeanicpation is anexcellent result, then it will also become impermanent, but emanicipation isconsidered to be eternal by all who accept Moksha, therefore it is not logicalfor the teaching of Brahman as a factor of something to be acted upon.

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6. But this knowledge of the unity of the Self and Brahman is not a kind ofmeditation, Called Sampat, .....Nor is it a form of medidation, called Adhyasa,....Nor is it a meditation based on special activity. ..Nor is it a kind of

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purification which is part of a rite, as for instance the act of looking at theghee, oblation.....If the knowledge of the unity of the Self and Brahman isaccepted to be meditations like Sampat etc., then the meaning of the wordswhich establish the unity of the Brahman and Self from the sentences, like'Thou art That' and 'I am Brahman will get distorted. It will contradict the theSrutis, ' The knot of the heart isuntied ' etc which are definition of the resultfrom the cessation of Avidya. In the argument of Sampat, the sentences whichteach the attainment of Brahman, like "One who knowa Brahman becomesBrahman" cannot be full y justifiable. Therefore, the knowledge of the unityof Self and Brahman is not meditations like Sampat etc. Therefore , Brahmavidya is not dependent on human action.

(Notes. Sampat = When an inferior factor is meditated upon as non-different from a superiorfactor. Adhyasa =Meditation with importance to the locus,/symbol)

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7. Here it is established that the fruit of action is possible from the Iswara.Why? That is only logical. It is justifiable that He only ordains the fruits to allaccording to their action, as He is the Lord of all , as He knows the time, placeand environment , and lays down the different kinds of creation,preservationand dissolution. It is unjustifiable for the result to come out at a future timefrom action which get destroyed the next moment. Because something cannotcome out of nothing.........In all the Vedanta, the creations are by the Iswaraand He creates all beings according to their acts. The defects ofunjustifiabili ty of different creations do not accrue to Him, since the acts takeinto account the efforts made by the creatures.

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A2� R 5 � =D � 0�\ � " X�> � º;�\ � � > � 5� R� 6� � 8�_ ¯� R1 :�1 �; � R � Ï>�\ > � YH � ?' � � A�W 1 A; � �1 � � Ò�1 � ��1� 3A�1 �Q � �� 6� _:� R 0� R9 �R > �R 1�Q � �� 5 �� B ��Ï1� 1�Q ��? � R �W 0� �" W�5 � �' �1 �Q �6�_ � 1� 6�R � 31� :�Q �:� RW D � R 2�T] �Ò1 2� \�A� :� R ' � <W W� 3� 1 � �������� ��

8. There are some people who prattle thus: The obligatory and occasional ritesare performed for the sake of avoiding evil, the optional and prohibited ritesare given up for avoiding heaven and hell and the results of works which areto be experienced in the present body get exhausted by experiencing them , sothat when the presen t body falls, at the same time there is nothing to connectthe soul with a fresh body, a man who proceeds in this way wil l achieveliberation consisting in the continuance in his own real natural state evenwithout having realised the unity of the individual self with Brahman. This iswrong on account of any valid evidence, for it is not establi-shed by anyscripture that a man wanting liberation should act thus.

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1. What particular nature of the words is meant when it is asserted that creationcomes out of the words? They (grammarians) say it is the sphota.......... Therefore,the universe of actions, agents and results standing for the meaning of the word,emerges from the eternal word, conceived of as a sphota, which indicates it.

(Refutation)

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2. Whereas those holding the theory of sphota have to face the difficulties ofrejec-ting an obvious thing and imagining an unknown. Besides that theoryimagines roundabout things, in as much as these letters, apprehended insuccession reveal a sphota and then the sphota reveals the meaning.

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1. Qtn: Since knowledge and works produce divergent results, they cannotreasonably have the same result. Ans : That creates no difficulty; for justas curds and poison, known to produce fever and death respectively, becometasteful and nourishing when mixed with sugar and mantra, similarly(religious) work also, when associated with knowledge, may lead to liberation.Qtn: Since liberation has no beginning, how can it be said to be an effect ofwork? Ans: That objection is hollow, since work helps from a distance (i.e.indirectly) in producing the result. As work leads gradually to knowledge, it issaid by courtesy to lead to liberation itself. Accordingly, the statement thatknowledge and work produce the same result reffers to the work that hadpreceded knowledge, for the knower of Brahman can have no such rite asAgnibotra etc. after enlightenment, because as a result of the realization of theunity of the Self with Brahman that cannot be the object of any injunction, theman of enlightenment has walked out of the pale of scriptures.

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1. But Brahman consists of many things. As a tree has many branches, soBrahman has many powers and functions, Hence both unity and diversity arenecessarily true, even as a tree, considered as tree, is one but has diversity in itsaspect of branches. ........That being so, liberation can well be accomplishedthrough knowledge from the stand point of unity whereas social and Vedicactivities can be justified from the stand point of diversity, .....This cannot beso, since in the illustration the truth of the material cause alone is emphasizedby saying as 'clay alone is true'........... How can the unity of the Self,propounded by the scriptures about liberation, be true when they themselvesare false?........There is no defect. For earlier than the realisation of the identityof the Self with Brahman, all activities can justly be true like the activities indream before waking up. ........ How can the true kowledge of the identity ofthe Self with Brahman arise from the unreal Upanishadic texts, For a man doesnot die when bitten by a snake superimposed by him on a rope............Thatcreates no difficulty for death etc. are seen to result from the suspicion ofpoison etc.......true fulfilment is seen of a desire from seeing of a false dream,..Hence when all the old ideas of multiplicity become uprooted after theestablishment of the oneness of the Self by the ultmate means of validknowledge , there can be no fancying of Brahman as a composite thing.

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1. What is meant by this sublation of the universe of manifestations? Is theworld to be annihilated like the destruction of the solidity of ghee by contactwith fire; or is that the world of name and form created in Brahman bynescience like many moons created in the moon by the eye disease calledtimira, has to be destroyed through knowledge. From the very revelation of thenature of the rope, mistaken as a snake, follows the knowledge of its realnature, so also the removal of the manifestation of snake etc. on it broughtabout by superimposition through ignorance, ...........Knowledge arises,however, from its valid means (like perception etc) and it conforms to itsobject, just as it is. It can neither be produced by hundred injunctions nordebarred by a hundred prohibitions. For it is not a matter of personal option, itbeing dependent on the object itself. For this reason also, there is no scope forinjunction.

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R E F L E C T I O N

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1. Therefore someting has to be said about the condition after which thedeliberation on Brahman has to be begun. They are i) discrimination betweenthe eternal and the non-eternal ii) dispassion for the enjoyment of the result ofdeeds here and hereafter iii ) perfection of such practice as control of the mind,control of the sense organs etc., and (iv) desire to attain Moksha. Granting theexistence of these, Brahman can be deliberated upon or known even before orafter the enquiry into Dharma but not otherwise. Therefore, by the word , atha,is enjoined the succession to a perfection of the practices mentioned here.

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2. Hence it is proper to understand from the mantras etc. that the gods andothers have bodies. And since on that account, they can have aspiration etc.,their compe-tence for the knowledge of Brahman is justifiable. Moreover,such facts as gradual liberation, mentioned become logical when this is so. .

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3. But for those to whom knowledge dawns on account of the tendencies ofacions before, like Vidura and Dharmavyada, it is not possible for theknowledge to be withheld, for the result of knowledge is inevitable. 'Fourcastes should be read out '- The competence of the four castes to hear andacquire knowledge of Itihasa and Purana is revealed in this.

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1. The teacher Badarayana thinks that liberation results independently from this- from the knowledge of the Self, as imparted by the Upanishads. The Self, mydear is to be realised, ..........The Sruti speaks of knowledge alone as thecause of liberation.

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2. For this very reason, from the fact that knowledge is the cause of liberation,the ritualistic works like "lighting up a fire" etc, are not required by knowledgefor producing its own result. Thus the present topic restates the result of thediscussion raised under the first topic with a view to adding something more.

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3. This is what Jaimini Acharya thinks - Since the individual Self comes intosubservient relationship with religious acts by becoming their performer, theknowledge of the Self too, must form a part of the rites etc,even as the purifica-tion of paddy by sprinkling of water and the objects they are related to. Hencethe mention of any result that occurs in the Upanishads with regard to thisknowledge, whose purpose is ascertained to be this must be by way of eulogy.

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4. (No,2 is Purvapaksha) By the word "but", the purvapksha is rebutted.......Because of being taught to be greater. Had the transmigrating soul aloneinhabiting the body as the agent and experiencer, been taught in the Upani-shads as something distinct from the mere body, then the Upanishadic mentionof result could have been an eulogy as elaborated by the purvapakshin. Butover and above, the embodied soul, the birthless God,free from such mundaneattributes as agentship, the Supreme Self, possessed of such attributes asfreedom from sin, is taught in the Upanishads., as an object to be realised. AndHis knowledge cannot supply any impulsion for work; 0n the contrary ituproots all works. ........All this was elaborately ascertained by us earlier in theappropiate context.

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5. Knowledge is heard of in connection of Sanyasins (observation of continence),Knowledge cannot become subsidiary to rites in that order of Sanyasa, sincethe rites are absent and they do not have rites like agnihotra etc. ....For thisreason also, knowledge is independent of rites.

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6. Hence it is proved the existence of the stages of life for the continent andhence also it is proved the independence of knowledge , it having beenenjoined for the continent. because control of the body and mind are enjoinedas a means to the acquisition of knowledge and it is necessary to practice whatis prescribed.

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7. That fact is referred to by the aphorist in"without any display". That is tosay, without showing himself off by parading his wisdom, learning, virtuous-ness, etc,; he should be free from pride, conceit etc.

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�� � Ì 6� W D�1 �W � ' � � � > �}R � A� > �R] � 0� �Ì R F:� " �:� R] � 0� � 5 � �Ì1 ;� 5 1� :�Q �Ì 5 � 6�W D �X > � � �� � � �Ï> � :�Q �Ì R F:� "�:� R] S 0�� > � }; � R �7�=� A� �RX �5 � �Ì 6�W D ;� 5 1� �Í1 6� H� RX �' � �Ì 6�W D ;� 5 1� �Ò� 1 � �����������������

8. Knowldge needs the help of all the duties of the various stages of life, and itis not a fact that there is absolutely no dependence on them..........Thus theduties of the different stages of life are needed not for the fruition of the resultof knowledge, but for the emergence of knowledge itself.

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9. What is said is this: - It is only when in great calamity, one's life itself is indanger , that all kinds of food are permitted. .......Only when this is so. thetexts, when the food is pure, the mind becomes pure, which makes a divisionbetween what can be eaten and what should not be, will remain uncontradicted.

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10. The obligatory rights are to be performed even by one who simply sticks toan order of li fe without any wish for liberation, for these are enjoined by suchtexts as 'one shall perform Agnihotra as long as one lives'......These are meansto knowledge as they have been ordained...........In any case, whether they bethe normal duties of the different orders of life or the means to acquireknowledge, these very same religious acts , viz, Agnihotra and the rest are tobe performed.

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11. Question:Now the point to be considered is whether Agnihotra and otherrites, not just as they are but as associated with medidation, becomethe cause ofknowledge to an aspirant for liberation and thus come to produce the sameresult as knowledge or such rites do so, equally without distinction, either bythemselves or in association with knowledge......Answer:.Therefore, theobligatory rites like Agnihotra etc. both associated and unassociated withmedidation, either undertaken in this life or the previous life, before the dawnof kowledge, with a view to attaining liberation by one who hankers after itbecome the destroyers as far as possible of the accumulated sins that stand inthe way of the realization of Brahman. Thus indirectly, they become the causeof the realization of Brahman itself, so that in collaboration with suchproximate causes of enlightenment as hearing, reflection, faith, meditationdevotedness etc., they come to have the same result as the knowledge ofBrahman has..

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12. Even one occupying an intermediate stage , owing to being debarred fromany one of them, is also entitled to knowledge.

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13. In the case of widowers and others also, it is possible for knowledge to behelped by such virtuous acts as repetition of mantra, fasting, worshipping ofGod etc. which can be resorted to by men in general and which do not clashwith the fact of one's standing outside any stage of life.

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14. Just as the stories occurring in the ritualistic portion of the Vedas, forinstance, "He plucked out his own omentum etc, are meant for emphasizingthe proximate injunctions, so also is the case here, Hence they are not menatfor Pariplava (a ritualist act. - story tell ing )

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Ò1 ; �W 1 � � R ·; �\ � 1 > �\ �6� 3R 2�] A; � � 1� 1 6� 3R 2�] 9 � R >� :�Q �Ì R' � ­ W� � 1 � 1 6� 3W 5 � � '� � � � �� '�X 1 �5 ; � 6�_ " �R ? �R 1 :� " �1 > � :�Q �Íx�:� Q� � Ï@ � � > ;� R >�Y H � A�> �] A� \A� R <�4 � :�] " �� �Ì5 �U 9 � > �R 1 :� " �� �8�_ ¯� A�\ E� " �� �1� 1 6� 3R 2�RW ] � > �W 3R 5 1 �R � 9� ;�U x�R 5 �R\6� _ � A� �� � � 1 � 2� R � 1 >�\ 6� 3R 2� RW ]� 6� � 6� _ 1; �$ �R 1 :� R � �� � �' �X 1 � 5; � 6�; �] 5 1 �1 >�W 5 � �Ì> � 4� RS <1 �� � �� � � � 6� 3R 2�] E� R 5 � �6� V> �] " �1 > �R 1�Q �> � R ·; �R 2�] E� R 5 � A;� �Ò1 ;� 1� � � 1� R 5 6�_ � 1 � � Ï­ > ; �� � 6� 3R1 � 2�] � > �> �W " �6�_ ; � RW )� 5 � � � ? �R � ;�U ²; � 9; �R A� � � ���� ���

15. Thus it is noticed in the Chan dogya Upanishad that Uddalaka teaches hisson, "That thou art", O Svetaketu" (Ch.6-8-7) and then being requested by hisson again and again "O revered Sir, explain to me again", heremoves the respective causes of his misconception and teaches that very fact"That thou art" That very process is referred to by citing the text "It is to beheard, reflected on and meditated upon" (Br,4-4-6)............Again, the text"That thou art" speaks of the identity of the entity denoted by "thou" with theentity denoted by "That". By the word "That" is denoted...............the Brahmanis by natrure Consciousness and efflugence. This object called Brahman whichis denoted by the word "That" which is free from all mundane attributes andwhich by nature Consciousness is well known to the people who are adepts inVedanta. Equally well it has been known by them that inmost Self of thetaught is the meaning of the word "thou" which is the seer and the hearer andwhich is thought of as the inmost entity inhabitating the sheaths starting fromthe gross body and which is then ascertained as Consciousness itself. .....as themeaning of a sentence is dependent on the meaning of the words, it becomesdesirable to resort repeatedly to the scriptures.

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16. The mental act has to be repeated. Why? since the instruction is repeated.The texts like "should be heard of, reflected on and medidated upon" indicatesthe repetition of the mental act.

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17. The Supreme Lord is to be realised as one's Self. Thus it is the Jabalas inthe context of the Supreme Lord, present him as identical with the Self in..

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I am you and You are me....Vedic texts make us understand God as our verySelf.

� �� �1 � A:� R1 �Q �Ì � 6� �Í6� R A� 5� ��> � 4� R 5� �Ì 2� R] �Í~ T 2� R � 3FU 1 � ;� � ������������

18. From this also it follows that the texts about the Udgitha etc. are meant forenjoining meditation.

� �� � 5 � � 6�_ 1 �T "W �@ �U �Ì R 1 :� :� �1 �\ � 8 � 4 �P T ; �R 1�Q � �� 5 � � � B � A� � Í6� R A� " �� � 6�_ 1 �T " �R� 5� � > ; � A1 � R� 5 � �Ì R1:�1 >�W 5 � �Ì R " �=;�W 1 �Q ������ �����

19. One should not fix the idea of the Self on symbols, because an aspirantshould not treat the separate symbols as himself.

��� � 8 � _̄ � �� ­ � �Ï>� �Ì R� 31; � R� 3@�U � A; � R 1�Q �Ò� 1 � � �� " �A:� R1 �Q � !� Í1 " �@ � R] 1 �Q � �� Ï> � :� Q�Í1 " �@�W ]0� �Ì R � 31 ; �R 3;� RW ��­ R �9 � > �t 51 � ������ �����

20. The idea of Brahman Itself is to be superimposed on the sun and the rest.Why? Becaue of superiority. Thus the sun etc are seen to be superimposedwith a superior idea.

�� � � Ì R � 31 ; �R � 3:� 1� ; � � Ï>� �Ì mW @ �U �Í~ T 2�R � 3@�U � � D � 6; �W <5 � Q� �� " U�1 � � � !� Í6� 6� H�W � � �� � � � �1 � A:�R 1�Q �Ì 5 � mR F; �R �Ì R � 31 ;� R � 3:� 1� ;� � �Ì mW @ � U�Í~ T 2�R � 3@�U �� D � 6; �W <5 �Q �Ò� 1 � �� A� �:�Q ������ �����

21. The ideas of the sun etc alone are to be superimposed on such subsidiariesas Udgita etc. Why? Because of compatibili ty, ....Hence the conclusion is thatthe ideas of the sun etc. which are not auxili aries of rites, are to besuperimposed on the Udgita etc., which are the auxili aries of the rites.

��� � Ì R A� T 5� � Ï> � �Í6�R A� T1 � �Ò�1 � � �� " �U 1 � � !� � A�\ 9 � >� R1 �Q � �� � � � � Í6� R A�5 �\ � 5 � R :� � A� :�R 5� 6�_ 1 ; � ;� 6�_ > � RB " �<0�\� � � � � � Ì� 6� � '� � � 4 ; �R ; �� 1� �Ì 2�] � Ï@ � � ; �1�Q �A� :� R5 � 6�_ 1 ;� ; � 6�_ > �R B "�<0�\ � � � �Ì R A�T 5� � �' ��Ì 5� R; �R A� RW9 � >� � 1� ������ �������

22. One should worship mentally only in a sitting posture. Why? That isalone is possible.........Upasana is the flow of a current of similarthoughts..........Meditation means is that makes the flow of a current of similarthoughts. ..In sitting posture, Upasana becomes without any stress.

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��� � ; � G � �Ï>� �Ì A;� � � 3�? � �3W ? �W � " �R =W � > � R � :� 5 � A�� � A� RX " �; �W ]0� �Ï" �R $�_ 1 �R � 9 �> � �1 � � 1 � G� �Ï>� �Í6� R A� T 1�6� _ R'� T �� 3"Q ��6�V > � R] g�6_ R �_ ' � T 5� 6�_ > � 0�R � 3> �1�Q �� > �? �W @ � �Ì F> � 0�R 1�Q ������� �� �� � �

23. One should medidate there only where the becomes concentrated easily inrespect of direction, place and time. Special regulation like, eastern direction,forenoon., sloping down to the east etc is not mentioned.

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24. One should contemplate on the thoughts till death.

���$�U0��Í6�A�\BR<�

��� 1�2�R� A�>�]>�W 3R51��6�_ 1;�;�1>�W 5��Ì5;�G�� �>��B1�R5�R:�Q �Í·2�R3T5�R:�Q �Ì5;�G��Í6�RA�5���>�4�R5�R;��Í6�R3R�5�R1�Q �6�_R;�3?�] 5��5;�R;�W 5��Í6�RA�5�R5�R:�Q �Ì�6��A�>�]>�W3R51��6�_ 1;�;�1>���A���������������

1. Again, it is seen that by way of demonstrating the unity of the purport of allUpanishads, the Uktas (hymns) etc. enjoined in one Upanishad are adopted inother Upanishads.. And from this it can be concluded on the logic of frequentoccurrence that the medidations also are the same in all Upanishads.

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2. It having been established thus that all the Upanishads present the sameideas about all meditations, the qualiti es of any meditation in any oneUpanishad have to be combined with the same meditation everywhere else; fortheir applications are not different.

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3. Same Upasanas and qualiti es to be adopted between Upanishads.

3-3- Upasana Upanishads Quali ty to beadopted

4-9 Om Ch.U. 1-1-1 Udgita to bequali fied by Om

5-10 Prana Br.6-1-14 &

Kow.2-14)

Vasishtatva

6-11 Brahman All Upanishads Ananda etc;

8-16 Atma Ch.6-2-1 & Br.4-3-7

Identity of Jiva& Brahman

10-19 SandilyaAgni

Br.5-3-1 & All qualiti esmentioned.

18-31 Saguna All Upanishads Path of Gods

20-33 Immutabil ty All Upanishads Negation ofduali ty

21-34 Limitation &Duali ty

Mu.3-1-1 &Kata.3-2)

Sameconception

22-35 Inmost Self Br.3-3-2 & Br.3-5-1 Same Vidya

24-38 Satya Br,5-4-1 & 5-5-2 Satya

25-39 Dahara Ch.8-1-1 & 8-1-5Br.4-4-22

Satya Kama &conroller

31-55 UdgitaUpasana

Ch.1-1-1 Udgitaancill aries

32-57 Vaiswanara Ch.5-11-1) As a whole

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4. Different Upasanas: These are to be done separatly.

3-3 Upasana UpanishadReason forseparateness

3-6 Udgita -Prana Br.1-3-2 & Ch.1-.2.-1 Different context.

11-20 Satyam Br.5-5-1 & 5-5-2Different places

12-23 Sandilya Ranayaniya textof Sama Veda Special abodes

13-24 Purusha Tandins &Paingins

& Tai.A.6-3 &Nara, 80

Nosimilarity- seen

14-25Pravargya

Pravargya Atharva Veda,Tandins, Satya-

yanins, Taitti ryika

Because ofdifferent meaning

17-29 Path of Gods Mund.3-1-3 Different forSaguna &Nirguna

28-43 Prana & Vayu Br.1-5-21 & Ch.4-3-1

Adhyatma-Prana&

AdideivataVayu

33-58 Dahara &Sandilya

Ch.3-14-2,& 4-10-5. & 8-1-5etc.

Words different

29-44 Agnirahasya SatapathaBrahmana

Mind & Intellect

.........for meditation only

5. Determination of meaning etc.

3-3-7-14. The Purusha mentioned in Kata Upaishad (1-3-10) is meant formeditation and not for any gradation.

3-3-8-16. The word mentioned in the Aitereya Upanishad (1-1) refers to theSpreme Self and not to Hiranyagarbha..

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3-3-9-18. The achamana mentioned in Ch.5-2-2 and Br.6-1-14 is not a Vidhi(injunction), since the text alludes to this duty that is already enjoinedelsewhere.

3-3-15-26 The rejection mentioned in the Ch.8-13-1 and Mun.3-2-8 shouldalso include acceptance since it forms a counter part of rejection.

3-3-19-32 The Corporeal existence of the Apantaratamas and others (Vedicteachers} engaged in the mission of encompassing the world through suchworks as the promulgation of Vedas etc will continue till li beration.

3-3-23-37. The Purusha mentioned by Itareyins and Jabalas must be formeditation in a twofold way reciprocally.

3-3-26-40. The Prana ahuti mentioned in Ch.5-19-1 is omitted when there is noeating.

3-3-27-42. The Udgita upasanas mentioned in Ch.1-1-1 are not obligatory tobe connected with the rites.

3-3-34-59. The Upasanas mentioned in Ch.3-14-2 and 4-10-5 are to be doneindividually and no combination is needed.

3-3-35-60. The Upasanas through symbols for prosperity may or may not becombined at will .

3-3-36-61. The Udgita Upasanas as ancill ary to rites enjoined in the threeVedas can be undertaken collectively or alternatively at will .

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R E S U L T

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� � � 1 � 3� 4 �$ � :�W � 8 �_ ¯� �Ì � 4� $ � :�W � A� � 1 � � ÍH � <6�V > �] ; � RW � �Ì% � ;� RW � �Ì ? =W @ � �� >� 5 �R ?� RX � 9 � > � 1� � � ÍH� <A; � �Ì ? =W @ �� � 6�V > �] A; � � � > � 5� R? � � � �� " �A:� R 1�Q � !�� 1 � � 6� 3W ? �R 1�Q � �� 1 � 2�R �B � 8 �_ ¯� � >� }R �6�_ � "_ �; � �; � R\ � A� \9 � R >; � :� R 5� �A� \ 8� 5 4� A; � �Ì R$ � R� :� 5� � �3N S <1 � A; � �Ì 5� � 9� A� :8� 5 4�\ �� > � 3N @� RW �> ; � 6�� 3? �� 1� ������ ���� ��

1. When Brahman becomes realised, subsequent sins become non-attachedand earlier ones destroyed., Why? Because it is so declared in the scriptures.

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2. To the man of knowledge, non-attachment and destruction of virtues occuras in the case of sins.

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3. Those virtues and sins that have not begun to yield their fruits and that wereaccumulated in earlier lives or even in this life before the dawn of knowledgeare alone destroyed but not the virtues and sins whose results have alreadybegun this present life.......liberation is put off till the death of the body.

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4. The virtues and vices that have already begun to fructify are exhaustedthrough experiencing the results and then the aspirant becomes Brahman.

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5. The soul manifests itself just as it really is but not possessed of any otherquali ty. Why? Because of the word "own", which occurs in "becomesestablished in its own real form" .....The entity continues to be the pure Self,becoming free from its erstwhile bondage...... Since from the context, it isobvious that the Soul itself is presented here by the word "light"

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6. The liberated Soul becomes the Supreme Self without any separation.

�� � Ï> � :�Q �Ì � 6� � 6� R <:� R � 2�] " ��' �X 1 � 5 ;� :�R G� �A> � Á �6� �Ì9 ; �U 6� $ � :�W �Ì � 6� � > ; �> � BR <R 6�W D � ;� R � 6�V > �] A; � R � 6� �Í6� 5 ; �R �A� R� 39 ;� RW �Ì > � $� 1� A; � � 8�_ R ¯� A; � �ÏX ? > � ;�] Á �6� A; � �Ì 6�_ 1 ;� R #;� R 5� R1 �Q � � Ì � > � <RW 4 �\ � 8 � R 3<R; � 0�Ì R '� R; � RW ]�:� 5 ; �1 �W ��������� ��

7. Teacher Badarayana thinks - Even so, though it is admitted that the soulmanifests itself in its own real nature of pure Consciousness, still from theempirical point of view, the earlier form of the divine majesty of the Brahmanwhich is known from the teachings is not denied. Hence there is nocontradiction.

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8. Similarly, Apantaratamas and others, though they are divine, are entrustedwith their respective missions of God; and hence though they are possessed offull vision, leading to liberation, they continue in their bodies so long as theirmissions demand this and so long as their actions are not completed, and whenthat it is fulfill ed,they become freed. Thus there is no contradiction..........Hence liberation comes inevitably to a man of knowledge.

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9. The contact with the fathers and other comes about by will alone........Forthat reason, because his will cannot be infructuous, the man of knowledge hasno other lord to rule over him.

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10. With regard to liberation, the result of knowledge, there is no such rule.One must not entertain any misconception of any such rule being applicablewith individual variation in the matter of resulting liberation. Why? Because

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the Upanishads have definitely ascertained that state to be the same. For in allUpanishads, the state of liberation is determined to be uniform in nature, thestate of liberation being nothing but Brahman itself. Brahman cannot be ofmany sorts, since Its characteristic indication is declared to be uniform bysuch texts.

� � � �A�W ; � :�U 1 "_ R t 5 1� � ��"\ ��� > �� 3� >� 3N @ �RW � �A� :� R5 � R� �� "\ ��> � R �� >� ?�W @ � >� 1� T �� � � �� � A� :� R 5� R �'�X @ � R �Í1 "_ �R t 5 1� �r>�R& Q:�5��A�r�Ò1;�R}R��>��3�>�3N @�RW ��ÌRA�Y1;�U 6�"_�:�R1�Q �9�>�1�U :�B] �1���Ì�>�?�W @��F>�0�R1�Q ���������

11. Is this departure from the body the same for the enlightened and theunenligh-tened persons? Or is there any distinction? .............It is but properthat the departure as described in such texts as, "Speech is wihdrawn into themind (Ch.6-8-6) should be the same for the knower and the ignorant upto thepoint for they start for their respective separate paths, for this is spoken ofwithout any distinction.

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12. We assert. all those who would reach Brahman have to proceed along thepath of flames. Why? That is well known. That path is well known to allmen of meditation.

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13. They attain the position of air after the year and before the sun. How?Owing to the absence and presence of specification.

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14. After lightning, Varuna is to be connected.

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15. Those who pass along the path of flame etc., they have thier senses andorgans bunched up owing to separation from the body and so they are devoid

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of independent action. The flame etc. being insentient are also notindependent. So it can be understood that some deities who are sentient andidentify themselves with flame etc, are engaged in escorting.

� �� � 1 � G� � " �R; �] :� W> � � A� $ �U 0� :�Q �Ì 6� <\� 8 �_ ¯� �Ï5� R 5�Q �$ � :� ;� �1 � �Ì :� R 5� >� � � 6�U À @ �� � Ò� 1 � � 8� R 3S <� �Ì R'� R ;� RW ]:� 5 ; �1 � ����� � � �� � >� ?�W � @ �1 �1 >� R1 �Q �" �R ;�] 8 �_ ¯� � >� @ �; � �Ï> � �$ �� 1� S <�1 � �$� :;� 1�W �����������

16. The teacher Badari thinks, that they are led to the saguna Brahmanaalone.........In other text, it is understood that the path is related to the SagunaBrahman alone.

� �� � 6� _ 1� T" �R =:8 � 5� R5 �Q �> � )�] � ;� 1 >� R A�> � R] 5 �Q �Ì 5 ; �R 5 �Q �� > � "�R <R =:8� 5� R 5�Q �5 � ; � �1� � 8 �_ ¯� =RW " �� :� �1 � � 8� R 3�<R ; � 0� � ÌR '� R ;� RW ]� :� 5 ; � 1�W � �� 5 � � � B � Ï> � :�Q �Í9 � ;� 2� R9 �R > � �Ì9 ;�U 6� $ � :�W � " �t ?' �1 �Q �3R W@ � � �Ì t A1� � �� �� � �5 � R :� R � 3@ �U � 6� _1 � T "��Í6� R A�5 �W @ �U � 6� V> �] A:� R 1 �Q �6� V> �] A:� R 1 �Q � 7�=� > � ? �W @ �\ � ÍH � <t A:� 5 �Q �ÍH � <t A:� 5 �Q � Í6� R A� 5 �W � 3? � ]�; � �1 � ���������� ��

17. The teacher Badarayana thinks that leaving out those who meditate withthe help of symbols, the superhuman being leads all others, who meditate onSaguna Brahman to the Brahma Loka itself.......There is no contradiction toaccept this two fold division......... Besides, the Upanishad shows with regard tothe meditations based on such symbols as name etc. that the succeeding oneshave better results than the preceding ones.

� �� � rÌ :�Y 1 �1 >�\ � ' � R5 �U 6� RW @ ; � r� Ò1 ; �1 � RW � � > � ?�W @ � 0� R1 �Q � Ì R 1 ;� t 51 �" �W :� Y 1 �1 >�W � $ � 1; �U 1 "_ �R 5 1 ;� RW � �Ì 9 �R >� RW 9 ; �U �6� $ �1 � �� � � � �� � r5� � 1 � A:�R 1 6�_ R 0�R � Í1 "_ �R :� t 51 � r� Ò� 1� � ? �R #� R5 1� <W� 6� +' � :� T 6�_ ; � RW $ � R1 �Q � � � � � Ï>�\ � )� R 1� T ;� " �R �FU1 � ;� RW �$ � 1 ;�U 1 "_ �R 5 1; � RW � �Ì 9 �R >�\ �A� V '� ;� t 5 1� �������� ��� ��

18. From the reservation made under the aphorism "And the immortali tyspoken of is one that is attained without burning ignorance, it is admitted thatin the absolute immortality there is an absence of any course to be followedand any departure from the body, ....Because in the other Branch, the fifth case-ending is used.............And texts like "Attains Brahman in this very body"indicate the absence of departure and path for him.

� �� � r6� U0; � 6� R 6�W � � > � 4�V ; � � � 5 � <a�5 � � � 6� <:�\ � A� R :; � :�U 6� X� 1 � r� Ò1 ;� A; �R\ � FU1 � RX � 3W? � R 51 � <6�_ R 6� 0� T � $� �1 �� > �] À 4 ;�W 1 � �" �2�\ � � B � � 5 � <a� 5� RW $ � 5 1� R � 3W ? �R 5 1� <\ � $ � ' ( W1 �Q � � $ � 5 1� > ;�\ � � ' � � 6� <:�\ � A� R :; �\ � 5 � � 3W ? �R 5 1 �<6�_ R ª; �R ; �H � :�Q �Ò1 ; �R �5 � 2�] ·; � :�W > � R G� � $ �1 �W :� ]5 ; �R :�BW � ��� �������� 6� <8 � _̄ � � > � 3� � 1 �t A:� ¿�W > � � 6� <t A:�¿� R1 :�� 5 � � 6�_ =T ; �5 1� RW

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� � � � �� Ì �> � }R � 5� � :� H �R 5 �R\ � ' � � " �=R 5 �R\ � 5 � � � > � }R� 5 �� :� H�W � 6� _=; � W� A� R > � ?�W @ � RW 6� 6� � H � ��� 1� A:� R 3� > �9 � R$ �Ï> �W � 1 � �������� ��� ��

19. It will l ead to a contradiction, for instance any path leading to some regionwill stand opposed to the Upanisadic text "shakes of both virtue and vice,becomes taintless and attains absolute equali ty. For how can the taintless one,who has no motion reach a different region His goal is absolute unity which isnot contingent on reaching some other world.. so that according to us anycourse to be followed is meaningless in this context..........of the knower of thesupreme Brahman "merge in the supreme Self".........Besides, the constituentsthat spring from ignorance can have no remnant after their resorption throughknowledge. Accordingly they must become absolutely unified with Brahman.

��� � 1 � 1 �Q � � "\ :�Q � Ì � > � ?�W @ �W 0� X> � � � Ì B �5 � � <R G� RX � > � R � � :�_ ; � :� R 0� A; � � <? :;� 5�U A� R S <1 > � :�Q � � Ì R B RW t A> � 1�Q �Ì B 5 ;�W > � �Ò� 1 � � A�\ ? � ;�W � A� � 1 � � � Ì� > �? �W @ � F>� 0� R1 �Q � � Ì � >� ? �W @ �W 0� X> � � 1 �R > �1 �Q � <? :; � 5 �U A� R <T �1 � � 6�_ � 1 � E� R ;� 1�W � ������ ��

20. Now that doubt arises as to whether the soul follows the rays equally,irrespective of the occurrence of the death during the day-time or night, or itdoes so only when dying in the day-time. The aphorist declares that the soulprogresses by way of the rays irrespective of the time of death, for theUpanishad speaks in general times.

�� � � � Ì t A1 � � '� � Ì B� 5 � � 5� R. T <t ? :� A�\ 8 � 5 4� � Ò� 1 � � ÌB �5 � � :�Y 1 � A; � � A;� R1 �Q � <? :; � 5 �U A� R S <1 >� :�Q � � <R G � RX � 1 �U6� _W1 � A; � � 5� � A; � R1 �Q � � 5 � R. T <� ? :� A�\ 8 � 5 4� � >� ' ( W3R 1 �Q ��Ò� 1 � � '�W 1 �Q ��5 � � � 5� R. T <t ? :� A�\ 8 �5 4 � A;� � ; �R > ��W B �9 � R� > �1 >� R 1�Q � � � � �� � � �� � 1 � A:�R 1�Q � Ì � > � ? �W @ �W 0� X> � � Ò3\� <R � G �\ � 3> �\ � <? :; � 5�U A� R S <1 >� :�Q � �� ����� ��

3�D� 0� R;� 5�W �6� ��:� _;� :� R0� RW��>� � R5�Q � �6�_ R6� PRW 1;� W>� ��>� }R7�=:� Q������ ��21. The nerve and the sun's rays remain connected during the day. so that aman dying during the day may well follow the rays, but that is not possible fora man dying at night because the connection between the nerve and the rays isthen snapped, if this is so---Not so, for the connection between the nerve andthe rays lasts as long as the embodied continues..........Therefore the soul'spursuit of the rays is the same whether it departs at nightor the day. When aman knowledge even in Dakshinayana, he attains the result of knowledge.

��� � ; � 3R � A� ? � <T <1 �R\ � A� \" �º6� ;� �1 � � 1� 3R � A� ?� <T <RW � 9 � > � �1 � � ;� 3R � 1 �U �Ì ? � <T <1� R\ � � 1 � 3R �Ì ?� <T <� Ò� 1� � �A� 1 ;� A�\ " �º6�1 >� R1 �Q ���A� \ " �º6� �>�X � ' � G; � R1 �Q �' � �������� ��

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22. When a liberated soul wishes to have a body he gets one; and when hedesires to remain without it, he has none; for his will i s true and desires arediverse.

��� � 6� _3T 6� > �1 �Q �Ì R > �W ? � � Ò� 1� � �� ; � 2�R � 6�_ 3T 6� � Ï" �RW 5 � W" �6�_ 3T 6� 9 �R > � :�Q �Ì R 6� }1�W � � > � " �R <? � � x�;� RW $ � R1 � � Q �Ï> � :�Q �Ï" �RW � 6� � A� 5 �Q �� > � �R 5 �Q �ÏX? > � ;�] ; � RW $ � R 1�Q �Ì 5 �W " �9� R >� :�Q �Ì R 6� }� A�> � R] � 0� � ? � <T <R � 0� �Ì R�> �? �� 1� � �� � � � �� � � � A> �R 6; �; � � � A�U @ �U ª� :�Q � � � �� � � � A�\ 6� �H � � � "X �> � º;� :�Q � � � � �1 �; �RW � �Ì 5; �1 � <R :�Q �Ì >� A2� R :�Q �Ì 6�W D ; ��Ï1 �1 �Q �� > � ?�W @ � A�\ E� R 9� R >� >� '� 5 � :�Q � �� � © �� ' � 1�Q �A� U @ �U ª� R �Ì> � A2�R :�Q �Ì 6�W D ;� �Í' ;� 1 �W� © ��' �1 �Q �" X�> � º;� �Ì > � A2�R :�Q � �� � � � � A� $ �U 0� � >� }R �> � 6� R " ��Ì>� A2� R 5�\ � 1 � U�Ï1 �1 �Q �A> � $ �R] � 3> �1 �Q �Ì > � A2� R 51 � <\ � ; � G � �Ï1�1 �Q �ÏX? > � ;�] :� Q�Í6� > � 0; �] 1 �W ���������� ��

23. Just as a single lamp can appear to be many through its power oftransformation, so also the man of knowledge, though one, can through hisdivine power beome many and enter into all bodies........Svapyaya means deepsleep....... Sampatti means liberation. Having in view either of these two states,it is asserted thus that there is an absence of particularized knowledge. ....Thisis said sometimes with reference to the state of deep sleep and sometimes withreference to liberation. ..But the state in which the divine powers are assertedis a different state like heaven etc. that comes as a result of the maturity ofmeditation on the Saguna Brahman.

��� � ; � W� A� $ �U 0� 8�_ ¯� �Í6� R A� 5 �R 1 A� BX > � � :� 5 � A� R �Ò] ? > � <A�R ;�U ); �\ � > �_ )� t 5 1 � � �"\ �� 1 � W@ � R\ � � 5 � <> �$ �_ B :�Q �ÏX? > � ; �̂9 � >� � 1� �ÌR BRW t A> �1 �Q � � A� R > � $ �_ B � :�� 1� � A�\ ? �; � �� � �� � � �� � � �� Ï> �\ � 6� _R ª�W � 6� - � 1 � � � �� � )� $� 1�Q �Í1 ;� H ;� R � 3�> ; � R 6� R <\ � > � )� ]S ; �1 > �R �Ì 5; �1 �Q �Ì � 0� :� R � 3�ÌR1 :� "�:�Q � ÏX ? > �; �̂� :� Ux�R 5 � R\ � 9 � � >� 1�U :�Q �Ì B ] �1� � �� � � � � �� � ��Ì R � 4� " �R S <" �RW � ; � � � A� � > �1 �Y �:� 0. =R � 3@ �U� � > �? �W @ � �ÌR ; �1 �5 �W @ �U �Ì >� t A2�1 �� � 6� <� � Ò]? > � <� �1 �3R; � H�X > � �Ò; �\A> � R <R ); � 6_ � R � ª� � �Í' ; �1 �W � � � � � � >� " �R <R > �1 ;� S] 6� � ' � � � 5� 1; � :�U x\�� 6� R <:�W ? >� <\�Á �6�\ � 5 � � " �W> � =\ � � > � "�R <:�R G � �$ � RW ' � <\ �A� � > �1 �Y :� 0. =R }S 4 �® R 5 � :�Q ���1 � 2� R��B �Ì A; � �� � Á �6�R\ �t A2� � 1 � :�Q �Ì RB �Ì R :�P R ; � � ���� � �Ì 1� � �' �; � 2�R �Ï> � � � � Á �6�W � 6� <:�W ? > � <W � � 5 � $ �] U0� \� Á �6� :�Q �Ì 5 � >� R 6;� � A� $ �U 0� � Ï> � �Ì> � �1 �® 5 1� � Ï> �\ � A� $ � U0�W � 6� � � 5� <> � �$ �_ B :� X ?> �; �] :� Q�Ì 5 � >� R 6; � � A� R> � $�_ B � Ï> � �Ì >� �1 � ® 5 1 � � Ò� 1� � Ç ­ > ; � :�Q � �� � � 3?�] ; � 1 �? ' � � � >� " �R <�Ì >�� 1�] 1 >�\6� <A; � � ); � RW � 1 �@ � � � FU � 1 � A:�Y 1 �T � �� � � � � Ò1� ?' � � 5� � � 5 � <kN ? � \� � > � " �R <�Ì R =:8 � 5� R5 � R :�Q�ÏX ? > � ; �̂� ; � A:� R1 �Q �9 � RW $ � :�R G � :�W > � �Ï@ �R :�Q �Ì 5 � R� 3� A� �W 5 � �Ò] ? > � <W 0� � A� :� R 5 �� :�� 1� � FV ;�1 �W � �� � � � � � � ;�W � 8 �_ ¯� =RW "\ �� ? � R � RW x��� > � ?�W @ � 0�\ � $ � ' ( t 5 1� � �� � 1�W � 1 � \� 6_ � R 6;� � � 5 � � '� 5 Ç =RW " �R1 �Q �Ò> � � � 9 �U x�9 � RW $ � R � ÌR > �1 �] 5 1 �W � �� � � � A� :; �$ 3?�] 5 � �> � �4 > � A1� 1� :� A�R\ � 1 � U� � 5 � 1; � � A� �� 5� > �R] 0� 6� <R ; � 0�R 5� R\ � � A� �X> � �Ì 5 �R >�Y � H �� � 1 � 3R F;� 0�W 5 � X >� � �B � A� $ �U 0� ? � <0�R �5 � R :�Q �Ì � 6� �Ì 5� R >�Y � H � � A�� �� �Ò� 1� ���������� ��

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24. The doubt is : Do those people who attain union with God as a result ofSaguna Brahma meditation acquire unlimited or limited divine powers?......Answer is: It is proper that barring the power of creation etc of the universe,the liberated souls should have all the divine powers like becoming veryminute etc......It is declared that this bestowing of independent soverignty is atthe disposal of Iswara who ordains others to be the rulers of particular spheresand who resides in such special abodes as the orb of the sun......It is not a factthat Iswara eternall y liberated resides merely in the solar orb etc. as trasnsfor-med things. Thus the scripture speaks of His existence in two forms.....Hence,it is to be understood that Iswara is possesed of two aspects; one may continuein HIs qualified aspects possessing limited powers without attaining hisunqualified aspect, so also He can exist in his qualified aspect with limiteddivine powers without acquiring unfettered powers. The Srutis and Smritis saythat the Supreme Jyotis who does not abide in the effects......Therefore, they donot get unfettered powers and all that they have in common with the eternalIswara is the equality of experience only... Those who go to Brahma Loka asper the Sastra do not return as others do from the world of moon after enjoy-ment. For those from whom the ignorance has been completely dispelled as aresult of their real knowledge and who are established in their liberation, non-return is an accomplished fact; Also for those of Saguna Brahma meditationwho have their resort in the Nirguna Brahman , non-return is an accomplishedfact.

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APPENDIX I

Summary of the Adikaranas

Adyaya 1 2 3 4 Total

1. Brahman 4 5 9

2. Forms ofBrahman

26 26

3. Jiva 8 14 17 39

4.World-Creation

3 27 30

5. Refutation 4 12 16

6. Sadhana 10 9 19

7. Adhikari 2 5 7

8. Upasanas 31 31

9. Pala 2 12 14

10. Total 39 47 67 38 191

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APPENDIX II

Quotable Quotes from Sankara Bhagavatpada'sBrahmasutra Bhashya

� � ��A�1;�R5�Y 1�W ��:�2�U5�T"Y �1;��sÌB�:�3:�Q r��r:�:�W 3:�Qr�Ò�1��5�XA��$�]"�RW;�\�=RW"�>;�>�BR<����������

Mixing up the real with unreal, the inherent vyavahara is "I am this and thisis mine"

�� ��A:� Y � 1� Á �6�� �6� <G � �6�V > �] �­ R > �9 � R A� � ���� �� �� �

It is awareness of what was seen in another locus and the form of memory.(definition of Adhyasa)

�� �? �U � x�" �R ��B �<)� 1 �> � 3>� 9� R A�1 �W � �Ï" �?' � 5Ç � �A� � �1 �T ;� > �� 3�1 � ���� �� �� �

The shell appears like silver and a single moon appears as two.

�� �Ì 6� _ 1;� D �W � 6� �ÅR " �R? �W �8 � R =R� �1 � =:� � =5� 1� R � 3�Ì4 ; � A;� t 51� ���� �� �� �

Though space is not an object, still children superimpose on it ideas likesurface and dirt.

�� �1 � :�W 1 � :�W > �\ =D � 0� :� 4; �R A�\ �6� � 0. 1 � R �� > �}W � 1� �:� 5 ;� 51 �W ���� �� �� �

Learned men consider thissuperimposition as avidya.

�� �1 � G �X > �\ �A� � 1 � � �;� G� �; � 34; � R A� � � �1 �1 "Y �1 �W 5 � �3R W@ �W 0� �$ � U0� W 5� �> �R �Ì 0�U :� R G�W 0� R � 6� �A� ��5 � �A�\ 8 �4 ; �1 �W

This superimposition that is of this nature, is considered by the learned to beavidya, nescience,

�� �6� ? > �R � 3�9 �? '� R �> � ?�W @ � R 1�Q ���� �� �� �

Not different from animals (behaviour due to nescience)

�� � � 5 � 1; � R� 5� 1 ;� >� A1 �U � > � >�W " �� � � ÒB R :�U G � R 2�] 9 � RW $ � � >� <R $ �� � � � ? � :� 3:�R � 3A�R 4 �5 � A�\ 6� 1 �Q � � :�U :� UD � U 1> �\ � ' � � �� � �� �� �

Discrimination between the eternal and non-eternal, dispassion for theenjoyment of the result of deeds here and hereafter, perfection of suchpractice as conrol of the mind, sense organs etc., and desire to attain moksha.

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�� �A� > � RW ] ��ÅR 1 :� Rt A1 �1 >�\ �6�_ 1 ;�W � 1� � �5� �r5 � RB :� t A:� s �Ò� 1� ���� �� �� �

Everyone cognises "the existence of Atman" and not "I don't exist"

�� �Ì 5 �U 9 � > �R > � A�R 5� 1 >� R�O 1 �> � A1�U � > � @ �; �1 > �R c� �8�_ ¯� E� R5 � A;� ���� �� �� �

Knowledge of Brahman is the culmination of personal experience and also theof an object -entity which already exists.

� �� �r1 � H >� :�� A� �s �Ò� 1 � �8 �_ ¯� R 1 :� 9� R >� A; � �?� R � :� 51 � <W 0� R 5 � >� $ � :; � :� R 5� 1> � R1 �Q ���� �� ���

"Thou art Thar" - the unity of Self and Brahman cannot be known from otherthan the Sastra,

����Ì=\ "�R<RW �ÅA:�R"�:�Q �;��¯�R1:�R>�$�1�RX �A�1;�R\�A�>�]"�1�]>;�1�RBRS5���"Y�1�"Y�1;�1�R�'�W�1���������

Attainment of satisfaction and cessation of all duties on realisaton of Brah-man is to ourcreedit.

� �� � � � Á �6�\ � � B � 8 �_ ¯� R > �$ � :; �1 �W �5 � R :�Á �6�� > �" �R <9�W 3RW 6� R � 4� � >� � ?� @ ,\ � � � 1 � � � 6� <T 1 �\� ' � � A� >� RW ]6� R � 4� �� > � >� S )�] 1 � :�Q ���� �� �� � �

Brahman is known in two aspects--one possessed of the limiting adjuncts ofdiversities because of modification, name and form and the other devoid of alladjuncts.

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Thus, the next portion of the Brahma Sutra is begun to show that the teachingof Vedanta is that although Brahman is one, it has ro be meditated upon withor without the relationship of the adjuncts respectively.

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If through inference and supporting reason, they are conducive to theknowledge of the Reali ty, let them be so. But the knowledge of the Realitysprings from the Upanishads texts alone.

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By the logic of winning the imporant wrestler, he quotes (Sankhya is referred to)

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�Therefore, the effect is non-diffeerent from the cause, - effect does not existwithout the cause.

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By all means when the Buddhism is examined for the ultimate cause, it failslike the walls of sand of a well .

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We do n ot refute the view stated therein (Bhagavata) that Narayana,who issuperior to Nature and is well known to be the Supremem Self and the Self ofall has divided Himself by Himself into many forms. It is not also refuted thatwhich is intended for his propitiation, like visitng His temple, etc. withexclusive devotion,

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Not finding the highest good in he four Vedas, Sandilya studied this Sastra ,etc., such slur on the Veda is seen.

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What do you lose if you accept that this world is born out of a sentient Being.

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APPENDIX III

ÌR'�R;�]6_�?�tA1��

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I prostrate before Sri Sankara of revered feet ,who confers auspiciousness onthe whole world, who is the repository of Scripture, code of law, and epics andwho is the abode of compassion.

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Obeisance with body, mind and speech be to the glorious Sun that is SriSankara always; struck back by the lustre of whose knowledge the brilli ance ofthe solar orb was rendered dim like the moon and the effulgent renown ofwhose disciples enveloped (all the continents) from the mountains of the FarEast to those of the far West, thereby ridding the universe of darkness.

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I bow to that new Sankara, Lord Siva in humanform without Ganesa, withoutthe riches, without the serpent ornaments, without Uma in his half body.without his anger, without the black spot on his throat. (As an adjective toSankara, they mean without enjoyment, with attendants, without any wealth,a sanyasi, with grace, without any impediments,

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By the Sunlight of whose wisdom, the darkness of ignorance residing in myheart which is the cause of ceaselessly swinging between birth and death, hasbeen completely destroyed, by taking refuge at whose feet, groups of discipleshave become adorned with Scriptural learning, self control and humili ty andhave been instantly released-to that Great Sage I bow till the end of my life.

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I salute Sri Sankara , the author of the Bhashya which is free from anyblemish, who gave the knowledge of the Self raising from the ocean of Vedaswhich grants happiness to the entire world just as Lakshmi has been raisedfrom the Ocean and by whom Lord Vishnu, the source of the world isembraced and grants happiness to the entire world.

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I bow to Sri Sankara, whose feet were worshipped by all , and on obtainingwhom as the exponent, the eternal speech, namely the Veda, possessed of itstrue import because the fallacious reasoning consisting metaphorically of dirtand loose clay has been removed from it.

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My salutations to that wonderful Lord Sankara, who rescued the Upanishad,misinterpreted by the Purvamimamsakas, just as Garuda rescued (his mother)Vinata (from the slavery ) of the mother of serpants by the use of nectar.

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I always offer salutations to the Acharya by whom the teachings of theSastra has been put in the supreme result-the ocean of bliss, wherein meres likea river the state of becoming is Amsa which is favoured by manycommentaries and which results by reaching the respective celestial regionsthat are pleasing through prescribed and specific meditative exercises.

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Salutations to that Lord in the form of Sri Sankara to whom this knowledge ofVedanta has been taken from the ocean of the Veda.

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We adore Sri Sankara of revered feet--the best among those who cure thedisease of transmigratory existence and who has attained the praiseworthy stateof the sun that removes the multi tude of the darkness of delusion.

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Let the dust of the lotus feet of Bhavatpada always be the bridges which helpto cross the ocean of Samsara which has no bounds and which is useless.

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I offer salutations at the lotus feet of the preceptor, Sri Sankara, by whosegrace, I - a dull -witted one - have become an omniscient being.

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APPENDIX IV

1. Brahma Sutras is the main of the three Prasthana Thrayas (three importantplaces) for Vedanta - otherwise called Uttara Mimamsa. Five other theisticsystems have been discussed in the Brahma Sutras apart from Buddhism,Jainsism, etc.

System Author Theory

Nyaya Gauthama God is creator

Vaiseshika Kanada Atom

Sankhya Kapila Prakriti

Yoga Patanjali Iswara

Purvamimamsa Jaimini Karma

2. The author of the Purva Mimamsa Sutras is Jaimini Maharishi and itcontains 12 chapters and deals with the principles of interpretation of theVedas and their place in the rituals prescribed therein. Sabariswamin,Kumarila and Prabhakara have written commentaries on it. Othercommentators are Krishna Yajwa, Apodeva and Logakshi Bhaskara. BhattaPradipika is the traditional standard text book. Mimamsa Paribhasha byKrishna Yajva with an English translation is an easy introduction to Purvamimamsa.

3. Ancient Purvamimamsa has no place for God in their system and Karmaproduces all results. It is included in the theistic system beause they concedeSelf separate from the body. The main argument in Sankara Bhashya againstPurvamimasa is their contention that scriptures which are not directlyconnected to Karma have no validity at all

4. The principles of logic used by Purvamimamsa are used by Bhagavat padainthe Sutra Bhashya. Some of them are:

1 Three kinds of injunctions, Apurva, Niyama and Parisamkya

2. Sruti, Linga, Vakya, Prakarana, Sthana and Samakya - their validities

3. Utpatti, Apti, Vikruti, Samskriti - stages of changes

4. Kim, Kena and Katham - what, through what and how

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2, Sanskrit College Road, Mylapore - 4.

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