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  • 8/2/2019 Brasil and the Semi Periphery

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    Globaliation from a World-SystemPerspective: A New Phase in the CoreA NewDestiny for Brail and the Semiperiphery*

    journal of world-systems research, xii, , december , ://..

    issn 1076156x K C. Sz

    G . L , , -, . T z , ff , , , , .Bz z . I - , , , - , , q .

    I - z. M

    . M q (2005:2), fi z. T - ff . I - ff z fi. I .

    z, , -. I , I - - .

    W ,

    - - . I Bz , ,

    .

    abstract:* T R B, M B,

    H, W R, R R, -. T U AzF Offi V P R.

    K C. SzD SU AzS S B R 4, PO , AZ @.z.://.z.//_z.

    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn

    http://www.jwsr.org/mailto:[email protected]://fp.arizona.edu/soc/kathleen_schwartzman.htmhttp://www.jwsr.org/archive/vol12/number2/index.phphttp://www.jwsr.org/http://fp.arizona.edu/soc/kathleen_schwartzman.htmmailto:[email protected]
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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn266 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    T , z . T Bz ff q .

    G ff . W , ,

    z , , , . M - -z . I 1950, fi ( U S, C, G), 1988, oecd fl (Q I 1997: 805). E , -, , z, - .

    B , -

    z . T Gz D (1992) ff .T z ff / , , . M - -

    T , - . F-G B() ff , , -

    . F ( ) fi (:).

    T .S E () Q I () , , .H Mfi () z .

    T ff . T - . L , Gz D () . T z z , -. T ff

    , -, (, -, z , ).

    . P , , - - (S M 1993; M . 1997; B T 1999). F , ff-. I, , , ,

    z, . T / . T ( z, INGO, ),, , . I ,, , fl - - (S M 1993:90). T - , fi z(M 1993:97), z ff (1993:93). A

    , . T ff- - z, , (1993:95).Sfi , z ff fl - (1993:500).I -.

    W

    , . I - ff - (H Mfi 1999), M . (1997:17, 167). T

    T ff W, - , , z, q . W I z ff

    . W ff (:). I W , .

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn268 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    ( ), ( ), ( ) .

    P fi . P z q . P,

    , , - . S (1996) fi . I - q -, S - ( NC) - . O, P (1997) . H , ( ) , , , .H fi , imf -

    .C , Gz-D ,

    . I fi, z , , , . M , - , , , , , (Q I 1997). T

    , - , . I , - - . N z, ,

    S S () q S P.

    . B , I . C, , ff . T Gz-D ff .

    I ff z ff, . G, , A,S, S K. K W - z (2001). I , z M S -(J 2003). O, (S E 200).

    O z q

    q. T q q -. T , , . T . A, q q. T q z- ( z M . [1997:161]). I ff - - , , --

    . I - , ( ) . T

    T G . O z . T, - fi ff . F G, .

    G () B M.T (-

    z z) .F G M, .

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn270 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    - q z . F - , ( ) ( )(R 2000; B 1996).

    S

    q, fi . T -n - . S qfi z , .., (K W 2001). C --fi z z . T - (G 2001;S F-G 2001), (S 2005). S , z- . T -

    ff z (P1997). D , .

    Dff ff. . F, , .I , - z. T ff , ff - . A -

    (, , .), , . D fl ff - . R ff . P fi , z - z , . G, , - z ff z. H fi - fi -

    fi , fi, - . H , , ,

    fl. Q I fi - fi oecd fi, - 1980 (1997:793, 801). W z- , q . T -

    z . L, S z S (1998:137), . Gz ff .T z q , . T - q z .

    S, , - - . Gz

    q . C - q , q . S - . A - . O irg ( IR G, ), , G C R C, ff US W E (jcr-vis 2006). O

    . I z ( ) . W ff q, I q. Gz

    M fi . B even fi, .

    F (:). Q I () oecd .

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn272 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    . W q gnp, - q z .

    W ?I 1992 , Gz D -

    . T , z q . R . O , -N ff fi z q fi, - . C . I , fi . E . C

    , (B1991:2). W z , S - (2005). U z ff.

    H , z ff?T Bz -. I Bz ff .A -/- - , I ( -

    , ) ( 1). B Bz - q , ff . T q, Bz - , .

    E F-G B() ,

    G (), ff, H Mfi () I, C, M, S K.

    I 1, I fi . F, ; , / / ; , ; , - ff ; fi, - , . E z, , , Bz L A -

    . I , q .

    Tle 1 Two Idel Type

    Consensus (Diffusion) Model Coercion (Coercion) Model

    Social origins of new

    models

    New idea (typically) in developed

    nation

    New phase of globalization: ties

    core to semiperiphery/periphery in

    new way

    Frame offered by agents Superior theory, virtues in terms ofstandard notions of efficiency, justice

    or progress

    To reduce the transactionaluncertainty of international

    markets

    Agents/promoters Neutral: Disinterested (public)

    experts, technicians who are

    economists, theorists, with an

    abstract concern for better, more

    efficient models. Institutionalized,

    could be INGOs

    Vested interests: (Private)

    technicians are closely linked to

    actors with a vested interest in

    capital flows.

    Frame offered to

    potential adopters, the

    compelling logic

    Universal. Benefits include increased

    productivity or gains in national

    legitimacy.

    Country-specific. Exhort

    emerging markets with scores

    to conform under threat of lossof capital flows.

    Degree and nature of

    link between

    disseminators and

    adopters

    Agents and adopters weakly related,

    decoupled. Identify with others who

    are ultimately similar: adopters have

    a consensus regarding the models.

    Theorization may substitute for direct

    contact.

    Agents and adopters tightly

    linked. Promoters speak directly

    to prospective adopters.

    Penalty for ignoring Non-compliance may have

    observable outcomes of a

    nonmaterialist nature. Loss of

    legitimacy

    Non-compliance has observable

    outcomes of a materialist nature

    outlined by agents. Loss of

    capital

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn27 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    brazils convergence capital and rules

    I 2000, I R Mz . L-A q q , (PR N 2000). ; fi LA , , -

    . I z, . T , U S, z, ff, ,, . T ff fi () -. I z ff

    fl. G, 1980 1990 (M 200:28). N, , , , .

    Bz , z fl. Bz - . T Bz A . I 2001, B R, , fi -

    (B W 2002). A 55 Bz 1998 2000 8 1. I 1998 1999, . B 2000, 12.7 . T ff A (Az 2001). T . O

    Bz ( -) 2000 N M B.

    N M (N M), q q (V 2005). I ff . Cff N M fl Bz fi u.s. . Bz u.s. -

    (2002, 1806).T fi . A (, , ) - , . A - . B [] , fi Bz- - (petrobras) fi (G N W 1999).I 2000, C B

    , C B - (G N W 2001). N L A . A P H T , , (1999:361).

    Bz z . M (200) Bz , 1996 imf 1983. H fi 1983 1996 - 1997 (200:285). B, M ,

    -fi z , Bz 1 ( z) 1997, z 1992. I , . I 1995, , fl. G F, D C B 1995 .F fl 7 , , Bz (W 1995). T 1997 z P C N 2001. H Bz , ,

    () . I , Bz

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn276 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    .

    N, fi (1) (2) q . T Bz

    z fi , . F , I - , ( ) fi . I , q fi . T Bz fi ff , Bz - , q z -

    .

    i. the social origins of a new model: the new globalization

    New Ide

    W ? S - q ff , -fi. J, , ff M S , A (2003:120). H

    , - z (S M 1993:502). B , . I -, . I , ff - ff .

    O , ( - -) ;

    . I , - z . A A, fl . T -wwii fi : , z. T -

    (- ). A -, 1970 , 1985. T W C .I , (A nd:6). W , , - ff.

    The New Phe Conveing Dependen Nion ino Emeging Mke

    T z z fi. T z ff fl (fpei). P q fi . I .A L A A q. F 1990 199 fl fi fi , (C . 1996:123).

    F , z - . P - , fi . I - (fdi), - . I 1950 1960 - fl fl , ffi , . T -. A - 1970, z, imf. T -- 1970 1980 (B 1996:86).

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn278 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    I - , ff . T - z . A, , fi .W - , q fl . T

    K S fi (2003:35). A, C , 1990, - ( ) fdi - (1998:95). R u.s. -- , bea , - fi (2002). T bea 1990 fi- fi , fi q , (u.s. bea 2002).

    Bz . , ,

    , fpei. F Bz fl ( 71 1980 55 1990) (C 1998:99). C -, , - , -. B- (1998:8).I 1989, (C ) .5 gdp. I 199 9.. A , 3 1996, .C fl Bz fi S P

    (B). I S P, E- , B 1993 100- - (ML 1993). F B 15 1993 27 2001 31.9 2005. A - fl fl, fl .

    Why New Phe?

    W ? S -, -, . A U S ,

    . ff, . I . I 1993 L - , . T fl . B

    1992 1960[] - - A L A (C . 1996:126).

    S, u.s. ff , - A . F - , , , - (C . 1996:127).

    T,

    (C 2000). T , - . D 1950 gm fi . W fi , gm . B 1975,50,000 , 197, 30 u.s. . , 0 , -z

    (D 1996:106). T A - . D P S.U, q, :P D A, - fi (1996:259). T fi, , 16 1965 6 1990. A, u.s. . D,

    E , , ( R )

    L A fi ( US D) (C ).

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn280 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    , I Eq F J 1993[] P N, D , - . I u.s. I - (U 1996:263). T ,

    A (C 2000:3). T ff. L fl . D , .

    M z z fi (P H1999:355). T z , F-G B , - wwii (2002:537). T

    . F : A , (1995).H ff . P H z fi fi , ff , , - fi z (1999:355). O . U

    A 1990(A 9 fi J , 98 J ) (1996:263). B fi (1996:200). I , D 1960 fi (1992:36). W ff , 1990 fi .

    F - ().

    T z - . I q, fi . I . I z

    , fi , - ff . T q .

    ii. the frame: the social construction of emerging markets

    Peequiie fo Cpil Moiliy: Lielim nd Tnpeny

    T , , z - . A R

    , L -fi z (1990:16).E -. I q . A , , , , ff (B 1996:199). F fl 1997, R , - (2000:179). N

    fl . T q - : (1) , (2) . W z, , z ( ) -, / . P

    T fl . H C, uncitral ff -

    fi (:). T

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn282 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    z - . O - , . L .

    I z , , . F - q , , -

    . I 199, , E fi - . A , S M L ff ffi , fi , ff (C1995). T z q . L, Bz q . C Bz fi, PR N I - fi, z Bz fi ff B B,

    , P, , (1999). T Bz z (G V 2000:151).

    P , , fi . F L-A (B N Y S S,B B, C, S, ), , , . O fi z q. I . T - , , fi. T ; q . I 1992, , -C

    J.P. M C -

    z . R - ,

    . T , , (:).

    H K . H W I , , W (W 1992).T C 1983 W S C .

    T q ( )

    fi I. B 199, 0 E (C 1995). I fi fi I, fi q (PR N 2001). T I 80 , 22 1996 (PR N 1999). C - -. T, fi fi

    .A ff z -

    fl . T - z fi, z . T fi C E . T ( ) ( z) .

    Ceing Vouly fo Single Wold-Cpil Mke

    T fl q - . , . , , . T -

    C E, - -, . F, -, , (:). S, , ff - . A ,

    , , q (:).

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn28 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    -q q . W , q 1990. I

    . A : -, z, , , z, .

    O z z - fi . I (ti) PE 1993. D ffi W B L A A, .ti ,

    ffi (E 1993).F ti C P I (cpi), . 2 .

    T fl . gaap2001, fi, fi-- -q I

    Tle2 Refeene o he em Tnpeny*

    Year Frequency

    1985

    1990

    1995

    2000

    24

    106

    395

    2,283

    Note: The frequencies in Table 2 are based on a count of the word transparency when used in referenceto budgets or accounting practices of governments or companies. They were taken from the Businessnews sections of online LEXIS-NEXIS. These estimations are only suggestive because they are based onthe population of journals and news services included in the LEXIS-NEXIS data base.

    A Sz ().

    A S (ias). T - fi (ifa 2001). T IA S A - 62 - q (PR N 2001).

    T , ,

    - - . T z . A, ( ). I , .

    iii. the agents: the modern emissaries of globalization

    A fl - -, , , , q z- . D P , C I ( ) Bz A ( ) - . T C I, P Bz. T C , , ffi -. O q , z - fl z. I 1970, fl, / imf . T imf

    . B 1980 L A imf fi (B 1996:7780).W -

    ? U , , , -. F, z . E imf, W B, aid, u.s. , u.s. S ffi z , . I

    (

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn286 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    ). A 1996 oas, -, A. B [] u.s. - (1996). A. B oas P D , , . L F A A

    2005, U S z - . G, ned ffi (N E D), H I R C A $32 fy2000 q, - ffi - . I L A ned ffi (G1999:1,6). A g-20, z g-8. I 2000, M F M g-20, (B 2000). B

    F M g-20 fi fi , z, . I z , g-20 M . T , - fi .

    A z fi, fl. G fl - , fi . T M sp. O - , fi z, z, , , , . T , S , -

    I , U S (G C ).

    (EKN) fi (ifa) (2001:1).

    I fl , 1990 z fpei T W (L 1993). I 1996, sp

    fi -, (K 1996).K S M sp ( F ) u.s. (2003:38). N, z z. A L-A , fi . F , 50 U S, E, L A. dcr LA 1990 ffi C, M, P,

    Vz, A C. I 1996, L A, 87 u.s. fi . sr fi Bz 1993 , RP fl, Bz (PRN 1996). F 1996 2000, dcr.

    I , S ekn z (fi fi) . T fi fi M (ff E z-); I R z B ( L A - ) (PR N 2000); sp ( 1999, fi (BBB) M , M 1995 fi ff) (B W1999). T . I 2002, CPERS ( u.s. - ) C q. CPERS fi , , (B W 2002). I fi . T -

    -, z, - .

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn288 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    I , imf, wb, ned ffi , S&P, M, F, Dff P C R(dcr) . A q- , . T -

    , -, . T . O , -, L-A ,

    , , .

    T , , - z . T , fi . T z,

    .

    iv. the frame disseminated to the recipients

    T . T fi - -, . I , I ( ) q - z- . A ,

    , . A - , -fi. T - ; ,

    sp, , , , , (BW )

    S (EKN) - fi ( q , A fi , U

    S). T ff , (:).

    . T ff . S, , - .

    A New Kind of Soing

    S . S

    -. F 1930 1980, S E C z . I U S, q (S 2001:5).T fi - fi U S.T -1980 - . G . E fi , q . [W] fi - .T (PR N 1997). R , , , , fi , ,, . C ( ) . T , , . D , 1990 ff. I q ( EKN), (),

    ( q, qfi, -).

    Couny-Speifi Inepeion

    A fi , - z , , . H ? S q . A , , , fi . A

    - . T , . A

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn290 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    ( A A ). I - , : B P I(bpi) P C I (cpi). PC O-F, O I 2001 (B W 2001). B O-F, ( 35 ).S , z -

    Eq q . S, O R P . C . A PC (O LA ) usd$0 fdi ( Bz) . T L A - . S .

    Fme wih Pophei EdgeT , ,

    , . F, z - . S fi , . S, ff . A , ( ) q .F , A ,

    fi, (PR N 1999). A ff - . W F B R Bz bbb bbb, B R 2001 fi (B W 2002). T z, fi, .

    B , ? F , - . T -

    , . T q, S ,

    (2001:19). I - , . M . I B (1996), fi .

    Bzil Reeive Couny-peifi Fme wih he Pophei Edge

    T Bz. F,Bz ( , , , , ). A Bz 3. S, - , , q . T , , ff q .

    W C - fl. F MC, dcr Bz -, [R] , , q , , (PRN 1997). dcr MC : T Bz imf- , z , fi .H, 2000 (PR N 1999). R

    Bz fi ( 3.8 gdp 1999), fi, - (PR N 1999). O

    Tle 3 Smple Indie Evluing Bzil nd Sele Counie*

    Brazil Chile Mexico USA

    Growt h Competi tiv eness I ndex Ranki ng 2003 54 28 47 2

    35.5356.7456.5358.06)1002(xednIyticapO

    %5%51%5%52)1002(tnelaviuqExaT

    Opacity Risk Premium (2001) 645 3 308 0

    Corruption Perceptions Index (2002) 4.02 7.5 3.6 7.7

    Corruption Perceptions I ndex (1997) 3.56 6.05 2.66 7.61

    Note: See Appendix A for detail on these and other indices.

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn292 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    fl, , Bz fi , , - (PR N 1999). I , Bz .

    I B

    , B CM S P , , fi - (C 2000).

    T -fi - - . A - . I - ff, - z M E . O ,

    M E. I , M. H, fi z. T - -fi , z, -fi .

    v. degree and nature of link

    The Emeging Mke Repond o he Ulimum

    I - ff, ff - zz. S , , q - . H Mfi - - z ff (1999:35). I - . T -fi fl . T -

    / . T -fi -fi .

    L A fi -fi, z . C- fl fi ff .

    T . T q . B ? D ( ), Bz -

    . C - q qz, (C I 1999). T C I - fl , Bz , . I 2001, O Bz q . H , 1976 ,Bz Bz , fl . A 2001, B B (C B) . T 200 BA R Bz , 25 - . I 200, 27.3 (B 200).

    T B S P S

    E , B (O G ).

    Tle 4 Go Domei Sving Re Peen of GDP

    Brazil Latin America Mexico OECD

    1990 21.40 21.46 22.04 23.21

    1995 20.52 20.38 22.48 22.25

    1999 19.33 19.16 21.94

    Source: World Bank. 2001. World Development Indicators. CD-ROM.

    22.57

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn29 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    T , . T . T -fi . F, L A z (A, E E, .) - . S E z, - ff . T (,, ) (200:173177). T - . I, , , . F, , S 1998 Bz R (E 1988). I 1996, W

    S J S P , B, AANP-CBS G N, A M I, HK H S. I , sp ff - fi , -, , (S E 200).

    S ff . C - . A q , - ff z . S, q - , fi Bz.

    F A, fl

    L A E, A, M E (EM D R ).

    Conenu o Conen?

    T Bz . B, .T - (Bz P ), -

    (C 1998), (R 2002:1056). F-G B z - . I C, - A C (2002:52), M, fi (2002:557). I , () . S , . I, I fi : , ff , , ff , .

    conclusion and discussion

    F , . T -z fi . I ff . T , / -

    W , -, (S 2003:29). D ( ) z-. W ? O , ff . A - , ff - [] -

    q - ff- (M 1998:115). S

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn296 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    M z q ff- (1993:500). F M, I z q . H M L S11, 2001 u.s. fl (nyt 2001)?

    I / --fi. P , , , . I , , - . A - - z. F, fi fl fl. R, z. S, ff . T . T ff - , .

    Benefiil o Hmful?

    N . A M . , z-z - ff (1997:15). T q, ffi q. H, /

    . R . O, - fi ,

    A , , (S M :), . A I - ff . B -

    ff -- ( ) .

    . I , ff - .

    T fi fi . W fi ? C , - () z ( - ff , ). H, - ff , - . A, , .R , F , ff , - (2003:195). M q fi fl. E fi -fi .A A , , fi fi (B W2002). T

    ffi fi .P . P ( z) - fi .

    B . M F A , . T , , (1998). I L A, q . Pz Bz, , fi. A, , (R 2002). T , - -, - . I , P C S 1998 - fl, (C I1999). O q

    Q I () ff -q, .

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn298 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    (0 1998) - ff (C 1998). O , z . T q ffi , .

    The Remking of Dependeny Relion nd he Lul-Mee

    F - , .T ff z . I , quid-ro-quo - fl, ff , , .

    T q . S fi fi

    z , , fi (H Mfi 1999). R fi ( - , fi , ) ( - , -, ) (2000:180). T - , , , -z S z (1997:32), E . W q -, . A, . E , A-A (1997:6365). I , S - , , (2003:13).A z - -

    ( , , .), - fl.

    D , fl, ff Bz . W Bz fi , -z ( ) . W Pq W (1997). R, - fi , q, - Bz C .T 2002 . T EKN P (W P) : M L M S DW ; Bz B , C- 80 ; , JP M , 825 ( , 700 ); G S L-,

    fi L . I , . C Bz ff, B A.T , , Bz (R 2002). T W-S 2002 P . N, , , P L S - .

    T - P Lz I L S. F - (Q I 1997:773). A pt,

    G S ff C F R I R, R , , A , Bz . R Bz , F S. P, Bz S Bz S L S( ). I J S , S , , fi . T,

    , (R ).

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    Kthleen C. Schwrtzmn300 Globaliation from a World-System Perspective

    z. A P , . G - , L A fl. T Bz ( ) - . , .

    W - fi , , , z . Gz (K1998). T - z - , , - , . Bz , z

    : .

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    Appendix A Seleion of Indie

    Founded

    [or Year 1]

    Unfavorable

    Score

    Good score Source/ Brief description

    CPI Corruption

    Perceptions Index

    1993 0' h igh ly

    corrupt

    10' highly

    clean

    Transparency International

    GCI GrowthCompetitiveness

    Index

    2001/2002 102 [rankedworst -based

    on number of

    countries]

    1 [rankingmost

    competitive]

    Evaluates factors that will contributeto growth: environment, institutions,

    policies, technology, and structures.

    Based on Data and Executive Opinion

    Survey. World Economic Forum. Jeffrey

    Sachs & John McArthur (Blanke 2004).

    GCS Global Civil

    Society Yearbook

    2002 mul tipl e

    scores

    Evaluation of infrastructure needed to

    promote democracy and development.

    Anheier, Helmut. Study of Global

    Governance and the Centre for Civil

    Society at the LSE (with the Center for

    Civil Society at UCLA) p. 17.

    GCSI Johns Hopkins

    Global Civil

    Society Index

    2004 0 100 Scores countries for the capacity,

    sustainability and impact of their civil

    society (nonprofit) sectors. Lester

    Salamon and Wojciech Sokolowski. At

    John Hopkins University

    GI Globalization

    Index

    2001 62 ( lowest

    ranked)

    1 (highest

    ranked)

    Composite levels of international

    integration: 1) trade, payments and

    receipts, flows of FDI & portfolio flow,

    convergence of domestic & world

    prices; 2) personal contact: travel,

    tourism, telephones; and 3)

    technology. A.T. Kearney, ForeignPolicy Magazine and Global Business

    Policy Council.

    -trade policy,IEF Index of

    Economic

    Freedom

    1995 5 (most

    economically

    repressed)

    1 (freest) 10 categories measured

    fiscal burden of government,

    government intervention in the

    economy, monetary policy, capital

    flows and foreign investment, banking

    and finance, wages and prices,

    property rights, regulation and

    informal (or black) market

    activity-tend. Wall Street Journal and

    The Heritage F oundation. 155-161

    countries

    OI Opaci ty I ndex 1 /2001 150

    (completely

    opaque)

    0

    (completely

    transparent)

    The five-dimension scale is based on

    extensive interviews with global elites

    such as CFOs, bankers, equity

    analysts, and their own in-countryconsultants. PricewaterhouseCoopers.

    Opacity Risk

    Premium

    2001 Based on the OI. Indicates the

    increased cost of borrowing faced by

    national governments due to their own

    opacity (100 basic points = one

    percent point increase in interest).

    PricewaterhouseCoopers (PwC)

    Tax Equivalent 2001 Based on the OI. Opacity will raise the

    cost of doing business, an estimated

    amount called Tax Equivalentthe

    equivalent of a surtax on investment.PricewaterhouseCoopers.

    Appendix A Seleion of Indie (Coninued)

    Founded

    [or Year 1]

    Unfavorable

    Score

    Good Score Source/ Brief Description