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Lesson 1 Introduction to Baking Prepared by Arlyn Porras Bonifaciio TLE 7 Bread and Pastry The First Uniting Christian School

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Lesson 1

Introduction to Baking

Prepared by Arlyn Porras BonifaciioTLE 7Bread and PastryThe First Uniting Christian School

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1.Discuss the history of baking.2.Familiarize oneself with and

classify different baking tools and equipment and their uses.

3.Demonstrate an understanding of the basic introduction to baking, its ingredients, uses and storage.

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- is a food cooking method using prolonged dry heat acting by convection

- It is normally done in an oven but may also be done in hot ashes.

BREAD – is the most common baked item

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What is baking?As a process is an exciting field of cooking to explore.

To be successful in baking, one needs functional knowledge of the tools and equipment, baking terms, processes, techniques, and skills.

BAKER – a person who prepares baked good as a profession.

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The Roman Empire

Inevitably Greek culture influenced the Roman Empire ; bakery know-how was transformed and really flourished.

During the fourth century A.D., evidence also emerges of the first pastry-cook’s association or pastillarium” in those times nomenclature.

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Records show that already in the

years 2600-2100 B.C. bread was baked by who it is believed had learned the skill from the Babylonians.

A relief representing the royal bakery of Ramses features bread and cakes, some of these were shaped in the form of animals and used for sacrifices

The Egyptians

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The term baking means the use of heat in an oven to convert flour,

water, yeast, sugar and such, into baked goods.

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Baking is a way of preparing food by the process of conduction, generally in a closed oven.

In the process of baking, starch content in the food is processed usually decreased that provides the food a brown color which lends it an attractive and appetizing look.

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On today’s market there is a never ending variety of the most delicious sweets and pastries to please both the palate and the eyes.

Baking pastries are a little more complicated because everything is measured to the exact amount needed no more or less.

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The baked food even lasts long. It

does not stale easily, as it contains less moisture.

Caramelization of sugar is a reaction that gives the food a golden brown color.

Also when the baked goods are fully cooked they are usually light golden brown to a deep golden brown.

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Everything has to be perfect or the product being made

won’t come out the way it is suppose to be.

Cooking is much more different. It isn’t measured just added by eye or to the taste.

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• The French are Responsible for making several pastry dough's.

• They are the ones who created Puff Pastry which is a flour and water dough that has butter in between every layer.

• When the dough is being baked the dough rises because of the butter being evaporated, the steam from the water in the butter causes it to rise and that were the term puff pastry comes from.

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Danish pastry was created by the Austrians.

This is a yeast dough that has butter between each layer and is usually eaten for breakfast or as a dessert.

There are several types of Danish pastries.

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Pate Choux is a type of dough that is cooked twice.

The dough is made of flour, water, milk, eggs, and salt.

First it is cooked in a pot and then in the oven.

This dough is used for sweet and savory hors d'oeuvres.

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Petit Fours are small cakes, and cookies.

They are usually served at wedding and big parties or meetings.

They are many varieties of petit fours.

Petit Fours in French means little oven.

They are also they most expensive because they are so hard to decorate.

They range from $1.50-$4.00 a piece.

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WHEAT FLOUR or BREAD FLOUR- The most common type used in bread making because of its high protein content which makes available a larger amount of gluten for bread structure.


GLUTEN – gives framework to the dough and shape and form to the finished product.

a substance present in cereal grains, especially wheat, that is responsible for the elastic texture of dough.

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- This is known as General Flour.

It is used for almost all cooking purposes. This multi-purpose flour, produced from a blend of hard and soft wheat, can be used for bread and pastries but contains less protein and gluten than unbleached flours made for bread making.


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- This is known as soft flour. It is made from soft-ground wheat. It is highly refined, velvety, and has smooth feel and very silky to touch. It is used for making cakes, cookies, pastries, and other products like noodles.

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Pastry Flour

This is a white colored flour and

especially used for commercial pies and


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This is made from the

complete wheat kernel. It makes a fuller flavored, nutritious but denser load than all-purpose flour.


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This is also referred to as

bread flour. It is milled from hard wheat and has a higher proportion of gluten than all-purpose flour. It ensures an elastic dough and lighter loaf.

Unbleached flour

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This is a combination of

whole wheat, white, and rye flours mixed with soft malted grains. It makes a textured loaf with a nutty, naturally sweet flavor. It is found in specialty shops.


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This coarse, gritty

flour is milled from the endosperm of durum wheat, which is one of the hardest varieties of wheat. It is used in combination with all-purpose flour for making bread.

Coarse Semolina flour

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This flour contains

most of the wheat grains but has some of the bran removed. It produces a lighter loaf than other wheat flour.

Brown Flour

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Are “premixed” flour. Some ingredients such as salt, baking powder, milk solids

and sugar have been added

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Has about 6.5-7 protein and

does not form gluten. For people who do not tolerate gluten, rice flour is an acceptable substitute for wheat, barley, rye or oat flours. In baked products, 7/8 cup of non-waxy rice flour can be used in place of 1 cup all purpose wheat flour.


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Another non-gluten forming flour is usually used in combination with other flours. It has a mild potato taste. For substitutions, 5/8 cup of potato flour can be used for 1 cup of all purpose flour.


Contains 50 percent protein and is used primarily to boost the protein content of baked goods. Soy flour cannot form gluten and does not contain starch. Its use in large amounts affects the taste of baked goods and causes them to brown quickly. An acceptable substitution is to take 2 tablespoons flour out of each cup of flour in a recipe and add 2 tablespoons soy flour




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is often used in combination with

wheat flour for bread. Light rye flour can be successfully substituted for 40 percent of wheat flour in a recipe without loss of volume. Medium and dark rye flours should be limited to 30 percent and 20 percent, respectively, of the total flour amount


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has a relatively high protein content,

17 percent, but does not form gluten. Oat flour can be substituted for as much as 1/3 of wheat flour in bread.

Corn meal is coarsely ground dried corn. Corn flour is more finely ground corn. Neither corn meal nor corn flour will form gluten. A grainy texture in cornbread can be avoided by mixing the cornmeal with the liquid from the recipe, bringing to a boil, and cooling before mixing with the other ingredients.


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These leaveners release gas into the product. Generally, the gas released (from baking powder) is carbon dioxide. Baking powders come as single or double action baking powder. A single action baking powder gives off all its gas as soon as it is mixed with moisture. A double action baking powder releases only a small amount of gas when mixed with moisture. Most is released during the baking process. Double Action (like Blue Ribbon) baking powder is preferred in quantity cooking.




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produces gas for leavening when combined with an acidic ingredient such as vinegar, lemon juice, or molasses. The volume of quick breads, cookies, cakes, and some candies depends largely on the amount of baking soda added to the batter or dough. Reducing the amount of baking soda without replacing it with another leavening agent will reduce the volume and lightness of the finished product.

Baking Soda

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contains baking soda and the right

amount of acid to react with it. Batters made with double acting baking powder rise twice; once when dry and moist ingredients are mixed together, and again when the product is baked.


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Sourdough is made by bacterial action.

Yeast is a plant that is used as a leavener. Just as all plants, yeast requires air, warmth, moisture, and food for growth. Yeast produces an enzyme which splits the sugar molecule up into alcohol and carbon dioxide.

Biological Leavening Agents

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is a living microorganism until it is

destroyed by heat. As yeast grows and multiplies it gives off carbon dioxide which causes the dough to rise. Its action is affected by the addition or deletion of other ingredients such as salt and sugar. Using less yeast than specified in a recipe causes the dough to take longer to reach the desired volume in the rising stages.


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Cake yeast – This is

available from the bakery section of most supermarkets.

Kinds of Yeast

Dry and instant yeast– More concentrated and long-lasting; Activate dry yeast in lukewarm water.

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Water and air make a product rise by

physical means. Water makes up a big proportion of milk. Other ingredients such as eggs and butter also have water in them. When heated, water turns to steam. When water changes to steam, its volume increases by approximately 1600 times. Steam also rises when it heats. As it rises, the steam takes the product with it.

Physical Leavening Agents

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adds flavour to a product and controls

the rate of growth of yeast. Since yeast is a plant, its growth is affected by the concentration of salt.



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is the most recognized sweetener in the baking world. Sugar is available in different varieties; white, brown, powdered and even more exotic types, but all of these add sweetness to a recipe. Beyond being a sweetener, sugar actually maintains a complex role in baked goods. Sugar can contribute texture, including creaminess in frostings, crunchiness in cookies, and tender moistness in cakes. Sugar caramelizes when exposed to high heat.


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Granulated Sugar – This is also

known as refined sugar, or table sugar, processed from sugar cane or sugar beets syrup.

Kinds of Sugar

Confectioner’s sugar – This is used in icings. It contains about 3% cornstarch which retards lumping or crystallization

Brown Sugar – This a kind of sugar that has not been completely purified. It contains some caramel, mineral matter, moisture, and molasses.

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As with flour, eggs provide a structural ingredient in baked foods. They are often considered leaveners, much like yeast or baking powder, and they assist in binding ingredients in a recipe together and providing a structure for baked goods as they rise. Eggs also add color to baked goods, such as brioche, a golden egg-based bread. Eggs are important thickeners in custards and other creamy foods, and they are even used as glazes for pastries and breads.


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It is a single fat or oil or a

combination of fats and oils, which tenderizes the product by preventing the cohesion of gluten strands during mixing .


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is an ingredient of prime importance

when it comes to baking. Butter is the result of churning cream until the fat—butter—separates from the liquid—buttermilk. Butter adds flavor and texture to baked goods, and can help keep foods fresher longer. Recipes call for melted, softened, room temperature and even cold butter, depending on the end product.


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This is used in bread

making. Peanut, corn, and soybean oil are the common sources of this type of shortening, other than palm and coconut.


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Also known as

hydrogenated vegetable oil, this does not contain moisture. It comes from purified deodorized oil like coconut, corn, grain, and cotton seed.

Vegetable Shortening

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 is pig fat can be obtained from any part of

the pig as long as there is a high concentration of fatty tissue.

it ideal for use in baked goods, where it is valued for its ability to produce flaky, moist pie crusts. 


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is made from fat or oil that is

partially hydrogenated, water, milk solids, and salt. Vitamins and coloring are usually added also. The fat or oil can be of animal or vegetable origin. Margarine has the same ratio of fat to non-fat ingredients as butter (80:20), and can be used interchangeably with butter


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This is used for

confectionery purposes. It is added to chocolates and icings to give a finer luster to the chocolates and increase the tenderness of the icing or chocolate.

Cocoa butter

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Water Milk


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This is the cheapest

ingredient in baking. It enhances the shelf life by providing the proper moisture that will keep the baked product fresh longer.


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Soft water – this is

distilled or rainwater that is relatively free from minerals. It softens gluten, leading to sticky dough that tends t flatten out.

Types of water Hard Water– This

contains average amount of minerals salts, produces normal gas and retains good gas on dough

Alkaline water– This contains sodium bicarbonate. It dissolves or weakens the gluten and retards fermentation.

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contributes water and valuable

nutrients to baked goods. It helps browning to occur and adds flavor. When making yeast dough, milk should be scalded and cooled before adding to other ingredients. This is done to improve the quality of the dough and the volume of the bread.


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may be used as the liquid in a recipe. Because

fruit juices are acidic, they are probably best used in baked products which have baking soda as an ingredient.


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Salt – accentuates the flavor of

other ingredients, removes the flatness or lack of flavor in other foods, controls the action of yeast and the rate of fermentation, prevents the formation and growth of undesirable bacteria in yeast-raised dough, and modifies the crust of yeast-raised products.

Minor ingredients

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