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Eugene Schwartz


Page 1: Breakthrough Copywriting
Page 2: Breakthrough Copywriting


\\ elc'orrrc to tlre nrost sought afterdirect marketing n-iasterpiece. This lrook u rrs rec'errtlv selling for

over $900 dollars used-so I detirlt,rl to re-issrre it. It is a real

privilege to bring Gene Schu'artz's irrlr ertising u'isclorn back intoprint. \\ 'e built a wonderful busincss birse'cl on his lr' isdorn.

He was a special delight arirl ,r treat to knou,-(lene was6'2" and reminded rne of (iarr (iooper in l/ie Fountainhead. But

Gene liad much rnore charrr anrl n'it aud a fabulous, unforget-table srnile.

Exciting sight-watching the lrulti-talented geniuss fingersflving over the keyboard creatinq another brilliant ad. And thenhe'd sit btrck with that great snrile. reacl it over and enjov it moreancl rnore.

Gene r,vrote advertising c'op\ lbr the best direct marketersin Arnerica. And then he publishecl a book in 1964 titled Horr,'to Double \our Child's Grades irt Sr:lnol, follorving up u'ith Horr,to Double Your Pouer to Leanr ancl then Breakthrutgh Adoer-fislng in 1966.

He r,vas ver-v clever-he erchanged his copwvriting for ac-cess to rnailing list names and prornoted his orvn books to thern!

But then Gene had a stroke in 1978 and he had troubletlping . for it affected his right side. But he u,orked and


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\\ 'orked ,'ti l he beca'te cluite proficient trpirrg *..ith .just hislef t hand.

. NI)' big idea-Retaritr Gene as a lrusiriess c,onsultirnt insterrcl

,1 a copru'riter to g,ilrartee hirn a re$rrar ircorne. He becur'e'c ' rv i rnporta' t to,s in t l ' rat ne*, r ' l t ' . i r t , l relped'er ' rrr ,c lr intlre creirtion of the Bott.rrt Line/per'.ria1 c,,rc,ept ancl of orrr ecl-itorial stvle. Avesorne.

The' therre u'as cle'e III, the sc,it 'rrtist. al*,ar.s reilcli 'g trreleading-edge science.books a'cr berrrrgirrg t' ir rcr*upt,r.ii"ot"agroup that rnet *.eeklv to tlre, irrrPric,iitirns ,{:tl iclse sci-entific trclr.ances on socreh.r

- Finalhl there u'as Gene I \ ' -arr rrrrr .z irq talent,s an art col-

le.ct'r together *'itli his rvife Birrbirrir. u fir.'.s irrterior clesigner.The' built a fab,lous art coilecti,rr rrettirrq r. Hans Hoilhan,Nlorris Le'r'is, Frank stelrrr, Donrrrrl Jrrcrrl tt 'r[ \Ii lton A'erv u,elrbefore ar]\-orle else had hearcl of'th",ir. -flrt,ir. fir-st

""q,,iriti,rr, ,u",

b' the color-pioneer Hans Hoff.iari. It t,,k ,r," ,,"oi, to appre_ciiite Hoffr.rl 's *,ork. Barbara rrlsr rrelPe,rl rre l'ri lcl ,r' inirecli_ble collection of phrtrgraphs trrat n." ,u,,r irt the Art Instit.te of'Chicago.-On nn' f i rst gai lery torrr ui t f i t l rerp_I r l iscor.ered ac'r'rpled photo br the' starn h'i 's tli irt lrrrtl hrrr *-'rrls on rt_corfirsio./orcler. That is u,hiit I 'rr crerrrtt rr tr-lrr.irging or-clerlrorr corrfusio'. So Birrbara and I b,irt rr rt:r.r, ercitir tg Les,sor,sin Lifc collection. I *.as her first art ucl'is.ri c,lient. i ' i ,, ,,u'ith her generous pe''nission that *'e lrri 'g cJere.s crassic bookback into the uorltl.


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\Iartin EclelstonFouncler uncl presitlt,nt. Boarc!rcorn lrtc.

Publi,slrc r of' Bottortt Line/personal

Januarv 2004

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Tlris lrook \\' irs first nrrltl isheclin 1966-rvhat seen-rs to be three l i le ' t l r , r{ . \ i rdo. I t u 'as Prrt outbv Prentice-Hall, a marvelous horrst': it soltl orrlr ii f 'eu' thousanclcopies. But since it rvas pubhsherl I lrirrt lriul pc'rple conting trt rneregularlv to tell me that thel clirec,th c,rerlit rearLing this book rviththeir making rnillions of clollars.

This is amazing enough, ltut er err nrore remarkable is the factthat-u,hen I look back on it-rurt ir sinqle one of these peoplewas a cop\Nriter. Here is tr bcxrk tlrat is called Breakthrrnrgh Acl-Derti,\ing... ancl vet \\as usecl br rrrt'rr u.ho \\/ere not in tlie businessof advertising at all, to make nlore n'ronel' than most of us everdretur of accurnuladng.

Hou' did this happe.n? \\'hr \\'as a publisher, a financier. arnanuihcturer of novelties, able to rnrrke so verv rnuch rnoner, u'itha book that is irbout putting scrrtences together? (The finunciertold rne that, rvithin one vear rLfier obtaining the book. he hadraised his net u 'orth from f i l (X).000 to $10 rni l l ion). Are thesentences containecl in the paqes tliat fclllou'trctuallv that pou'er-fulP Can thev change tlie {brtunes of rnen so raclicallr.? Are tlier'firr rnore universalh' adaptable than I had first thought . . . so the'1-are no longer about adxefti,sirtg proclucts, but literallr-allorrt opcn-ing uhole neu: ntarkets for tlrcrrt.'

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Therefbre, eighteen rears rater. *-her Boarcrroom Books askednie to republish this text. I had to strrch it again, rvith the {resheves of a person *4. liacl 'ot it irr all tlrat tir'e. to see r,r4rat'r'as tlre renl content,l' '1,' book. a'd its rzzrl efl'ect on its r-eaclers.

I did. I discorered the sec.ret. -\ncl I arn risiug this;ntroduc_tion norv to adrrit '^' red-{hced sha'rt, \\'lritt I liaii thought I haclu'ritter those'ra'r'\"eilrs ago was u lrr.k <lrr acl'ertisini; rvhat Iactuall'put do*n.on these pages \\'as rLrr errtire.l 'clifferent book,on a far broacler thenre;

There is o tcrty ttt aeuerop an t'tttit 't 'rt1 trnrket f.r n neuor rLn olcl procltrct.,Thot;*aq inxctrtt:.s rt .t,t1 rrirt ttt,ti lter,f clearrtl-de.f ined stt :ps. Anrl in this book Lslr , , ,tho ,se ,s tep 's .

I I I L I lL : j 0 ( )oK l ' \ l l t l t t 111111 t , t :en1 ' s ing le one o f

As vorr rna' k.ou', all of us-n' rrrrLttt'r. r'hat ofiicial cresigna-tr'on we gi'e the indtrstrv *'e dt-r irr-irre trctuailr,, on acleeper le'el. i ' exactlr ih" ,o,r-r" Pri r[6,s5i1;11. \-"

"*"'rit-'sirnprycreating or exploiting market's fo, ot,, ltrtttrtr.t.s. \\'riern the rnarketis born. o'r b,siness is si'.ltaneorrsl'girt'rr lrirlh. \\,rren it gror,r,s,so cloe's ' 'r share of it. \\ ' l ie'it is rraitrrr-t.. ,,,,. r"r,1r.i*,ir' i;""r.0their first ac'es aucl pains. Ancr at triirt '.irt. if *'e crur cler.elop afiesh ne*' rua.ket fbr that olcr pr'rhrc.t. it is erirctl ' as if rveacliie'erl the Frlrrstian clre.m, a'.r'

"'r,,1,1,,,1 tlr,rt u,:,,i,;.a t,,,,klrom the pror.e.rbial ..Fountain

of Yrxrtlr.\\re are all prirra'ir'conceptuar rricl*'irt,s. rrerpirg gire birtrr to'ew 'arkets lbr 'rrr pr,clucts. Ail tlrc ,trrt,r rirrrctiu,ir'*, u. n*business, per{ i rrrn- lhe,,ra,ruf,rctrrr i r rg. t l istr . i l rut ion, sen, ice,linancing, arcl all the' rt'st--are sirnplr. .rljrrrrc.ts t, this vitar centr:rlprocess.

We are, in a sirgk: Phrase, ..Market_\lakers.,,\\,e

sense eachnerv market in its trrnt. \\'e test trnd evtihratc its size and scope. \Vegauge its_ tr-ue potentiirl financial strengtlr. a1d tfien .r" ibi.,, n]lthe people, all the' rnorle\- ancl tiil tlie cresire that rnakes it up o'c lrre rr l t i rnl t te ohjec.t : , , , , r , , . r . , prothu,t . r "

Nlost of tlte tinie, the rnarket exists befbre_, our product, andtve sitllph' tap its prest'rtt stre'gtli. B't. i' this er. of constant

Page 6: Breakthrough Copywriting


b, ' ,k ' inked

: : . : ] i t ' f i ' e s h' r ( ' ( ' \ \ ' ha t

: : . 11- i r ( lers.

: . Ur t ro(hrc-

: - l r t I l i ad

. : I r i ' l r i r t I' . : , . r r t l ) ook ,

' ' t ' ( t l l c t c. , ltrrrlU_

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. r t ul) on

, i , i t t . i tnc l' ( o l l \ t i l n t

P R t f \ C E T i i

change, \\/e ourseh'es rrru' help give. it its first viable finnncialfbnn. IVe rnay sense thtrt people \\-ant colltputers in their hornesas well as their offices . . . or \\'rutt to $ralk around all dav r.vithmrlsic plugged into their ears . . . or rvoulcl like to spend threeirir-conditioned hours in a f-arau'av galan., battling rvith light-s\\'ordsagainst evil and tvrannv.

Nlaking a market, then. is rlot. as I thought u4ren I originalh'\\'rote this book, simplv a miltt('r ol rnrrking iin ad. It is also thenrrrking of a product. And it is tlre' nraking o{'tr conduit throughu'hich that product can be obtrtinttl lx the people lrdrorn voll ha\-ernrtrle desire it more than an erruirirlcrrt srrur of their rnonev Thisl rook ouhverc l l v ta lks ahor r t t l re \e t r t ( . t r ( ( s t l r r r t r r r i rke r rp t l - re p r i -nlarv appeal of that prodrrct to tlrirt rniu'ket. Brrt its tnre anclrleeper rnessage is founcl u,hen it is irtt 'r1rt' as a ninrket-dir.iner,and n rnarket-intensifier. In other urrnls. its lnessitqe u'il l sliou vorrhor,r' to find \'our "dretrrn" milrkt't. rurtl lion to rlrive it ilrto ti ntt-tional "feeding fienzr:"

And I have also rnade un etlrritl lv irrrlulrtiurt cliscclr-erl' uponrevierving this book since it rvas first pulrlislred. Tlie examples in itspilges ha\e gro\\.n slightlv olcler. llrt the principles that these er-anrples rnanifest are timeless. For eranrple. i{' I u'ere writing thislrrxrk todar,, its examples u'clrkl slrou' more appreciation offeminisrn, enrrironntental au-trreness. lre'alth and fitness striving-even the blessed sexual rexrhrtion. Thev u.ould be niore open anclrnore fiank than thev could Lure lreen then.

All tlris is for the good-ht tli.: ltoolt i,s not abtnrt rt:tiercingtorlatl's ads, but creating front st:rutt:lt tcttnrrcnt':; rcinner.s./ Tltisbook is about avoiding the neetl lirr copving or imituting trnv utlierrproduct or aclveftisernent. So toclin'ls examples are rrs "outclatecl"

irs those of'hvo decacles ago. This l,tnrk is about lr4rat-happerrs-rrert. :urd the funclarnent:rl mles o1'rnakng a fbrtune out ol sliqht-lr redirecting that tornorrorv

\bu see, people clon't change: rinl'r' the direction of their de-sires clo. Ther..cannot be macle to s-unt anr,thing, rlor is it neces-sirrr-to create u.'ant. All that is necessarv is to be able to channel

Page 7: Breakthrough Copywriting


,n.r" *.*s into the prrper proclucts that of{'er legitimate satis-faction fbr the'. It takes ten rnillior . . . filieen rnillion , . . h'ern-five rillio'. . . fifh' rnillio' . . . one l'urch'erl a'cl fift' r'illio' p"upi.. . . to create a r-ir"st 'irrket fbr r.o'r grxrcls. But it tirkes onlr. oneslip of paper-{r its recitation bv tr series ,l sirlesrnen-to clirect allthose rnill ions of people to'oui st,res. {)r'olrr catalogues, or'ouru'holesalers.

Not one single thing has changed irr that regard since I rvrotethis book. Nor u'il l it ever alter in thc sliglrtest.

so this book is ,of about builcli 'q bc'tter rn.usetraps. It is,horvever, abo,t building larger ,,.,ict'. iurrl tlrt.n llri lding terrif 'r-ing f'ear r-rf thern in vour customers. Ir,tlrer rvclrds, it is abouthelping to sliape the largest a'd str,rgt'st .iarket possible. a'dthen intensif-1,ing that rnarket's reactio. t' rts basic need or prob-lenr . and to t l re "ex t .h rs i re " so lu t io r r r i ,u l r i r r , . to r l f l ' e r i t .

Ask Rodale Press-fbr *4rorn I srltl 'r 'er t*'entr.'rnill ion crrl-lars of a single book, The Practic'al F,ttt'tlt.lttpt,rtin ,rJ' XatttrnlHeoling.

Ask the publisher of thls book. lloiu.ilroonr Reports, Inc.-u4ro sttrrtecl out u,ith $3,500 in total ri,,r.kirrg r.rutitul. anrl u.hou'il l prclbablv clo more than 25 urill iorr tl,,l lrrrs irr gr-,,ss rohu.nenext verrr. u'ith I iun prorrd to sar,' at least rr little' bit ol irssistirncetror.n nte.

Ask the se'e'teen businesses I'r'e starterl ,r helped starr . . .(Tkentv-fi ', 'e percent of just one of thenr ries solcl ior close to trrnillion clollars in one dtir', )

These principles *,ork, Ther- disc.,rer urarkets. The' builclmarke ts . T l re ' in te r rs i l r r r ra rke t r . T l , , , r r ( , \ ' i ta l i ze r r r i r rke ts . T l re rper fonr r . in sLr rn . t l re i r r r a l r rab le func , t i r ' , r r , I ' g i t ' l r rg tJ ( )u ( - t t . \ lon t ( t : . \fbr the prodrrcts vou u'ant or have to sell.

And thats rvhat *'e all need. isn't it? Customers. This. there-fore, is a book firll of custorners-;frr r tlour procluct,s.

It is reallv nothing else. Just custorners, by the millions.Eighteen r-ears hur.e passed. Three lifetimes. Thev'r.e been

good vears, and goocl li'es. I htrdn't reacl the hook since then. b,t

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l i k t , t , ,[ , ] ,

l i r b r t

Page 8: Breakthrough Copywriting

l , t i t ._ F. \ ( iE

. r : r . \ i t t i S -

l " \ ( 'n f \ -

, : . ln 'oPle, ' : r i \ o l l e

, I r, 'c't all, , )r \'oltr

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: t t ' l ' r ' i f r -

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solte hidden part of rne had re.nreutberecl it, and I think it'.s ''r'orth

Voru reading now.If r.'ou agree with me, wllv rtot \\rrite and tell me so. I have

se\.ertrl rnilliclnaires, and multiutillirtnirires. to tn'u' credit no\\,. I'(l

like to n-rake the next one YOLI.

P lease he lp r r re .

Gene Schu'artz


TO Beneen-.\, u'l'ro souiehou', incretlilth. still loves ancl als'trvs inspires nle.

Page 9: Breakthrough Copywriting



for rei tsr,r ,ti icltres rtr rr lslatrt copr

S o r t , ,other artrrof the,ur Ithiit therbeen i i , , ,

( - l r r r :

N ' Iost i r : r r . :

coP\ ' \ \ i ' i t '

orc ler t t . t : . :

Tecl l l r r t , .

prove ' t l r i 'T ]I I l r ' : ' '

pers l ' r t , t t : '

i nq : 11 , , r .( ) P ( ' t t t t l t . '

( i v e i t t r ' ' . '

t t c ' t i L l r r . . , : :' l l ( ' t i l I r . . ' .

l t t t t t o . r L : .

T l , , . 'e l s t ' s ' , , ' - '

c l e t t l L t r r l ' r ,

l l ( ' \ \ . r l ) : ) :

l l t r r r , l t . .

T l r : .t l t t t t ' . , , : , , i

\ ' ( , r \ {r : ' . : . ,t r i t t ' .

aclvertising, stop here.

Creativity Can Be N{ade to OrderIf You Follow' This Simple Rule

If vou e\pcc,t a scholtirlr. tome on

his l ir ing bv pro-profit-{rorn the

I arn a n'rarl order cclpv rvriter u.iro rnakt.sducinq results-in carefullr,.measrrreci rkrllars ol\\'ritten tvorcl.

rv' irco'e-*\i standard of li ' ing-cleperrcls blu'tl ' and di_rect l ' upor 'r \ - abr l i t ' t ' sel l . A'd I '1r, , . . , , , , s i r les.en to helplne; no store-re'putation to help mer

" p'irrt-'f '-purchase re-

minders, no disc"rts. r'ro friencll' s,rles clc.,-ks tn girr, rn'procl-uc ts a p r rs l r .

I sell, or do .ot sell. o' the basis of rrie tr'r alone-'v acl.T l re re fo re- I I ra re r lo r re i r g rea t c lea l , f t r r i r rk i rq , ,n . r . ^p . r i , , , "n t -ing u'ith these acls. Ancl, si'ce I hrr'e hacr the go.d iortu'e toown lnv o*' 'ail orcler firms for trre last ele'en vears. I havehad far greater freedorn than most crp'*'riters to put rn1, ideasto a co'clnsi'e test a'cl to see rvhetrrer or not ther,i realhl u,ork.

I belie'e, as do uran' other advertisi'g rnen, that r,rair nrd",is the greatest cop' *'riting school irr tlie rvorld. In mail orcrer.

Page 10: Breakthrough Copywriting



l l r ( ' O l l

' . l)t 'o-

: : ' t l t e

: , , 1 r l i -i , t ' l p

. , ] ' e -

: . : .0C l -

, . .r(1.t . r . l t t -

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fbr reasons which I'll reveal later in this book. \'ou learn tech-niques and approaches to cop\'-especiallv neu-product and new-slant copv-that 1'ou learn in no other brancli of this business.

Some of these technioues I har-e never s€.€'l] discussed in an\'o ther a r t i c le o r book on co l l r u r i [ i11 , r - , , , r t l I t l r i r rk I ' r , ' r l i r c l rnos tof thern. I have explainecl these technirlres in detail rn the hopethat thev will prove as profitabie to other cop\ \\-riters as the\"\,ebeen for me.

Can they be used b)' t,utr-tttoil-order c'opr u'riters as u'ell?Most assuredlv. J. K. Lasker once saicl that nrail order rnakes acopy wdter, but his real pal-off corrcs s'hen he applie's his rnailorder techniques to general advertising, I tlrink that B.B.D. d{ O.,Ted Bates, Ogillr,l Young & Rubicrirr irnrl ir ckrzen other agencies

pror.'e this everv dav.Therefore I've rvritten this book not fl'onr the mail order

perspective alone-but frorn the rrrrirtrsiil problenr of all copv lr'rit-ing: Houo to torite a headline----<tncl rttr url tluft -fltllotc,s it-that rcillopen up on entirelq neu nmrk('t .fbr its prorluct. An ad that rvillgive a nerv product imrnecliate profit, tiiat ri'ill give an old prod-uct a brand-ner.v slant; that rvill qir t' rr c'onrpetitivelv-battered prod-uct a new \veapon-not onlv to protect itself against its imitators

but to actuallv damage or destrrn' the lovaltv of their follorving.These objectives cannot be achievecl bv follorving somebodr,'

elses ibrmula-no matter hos- strccessful it u'as for thern. Thevdernand creativitr,'. Thev dentarrtl ir lrrancl-neu, heaclline: er brarrcl-new approach to the market: a literiil iidvertising "breakthrough."

Hence the title of this book.This. then, is a practical book. of practical mles thut pro-

duce, and exploit, creativit\', ruxl that are meant to pa1 off on theverv first ad. To put then'i to ri'ork. vou start r.vith these basici'acts.

Page 11: Breakthrough Copywriting

xl tI \TROI) I ,C ]T ION

Basic Facts of Life for Crpy Writers

\\'ritirg cop' is like plal'ing the st,ck rrar-ket. ,r beiuq a'trtornic phvsicist.

B i l s ica lh ,a l l t l r ree< l f ' t l resepro1.ess i r l t rsul.tio' rulcl scie'ce-are ertrctlr-alike. Tlr. s,rrrii i,,r., ,, 'J"

"n"1,o n e o f ' t l ) e n r \ \ - o r k . . \ r r t l i l ' r r r r r r . e l r l i z e u l r i . i ( ) r r ( , i u r r L r r r l r l e t l r ee f fe r , t i re r ress o [ \1 ) r l r ( .o l ) \ o rern ig l r t .

Consicler these ilcts:All three of' therri detrl rvith i ' irrrerrst' rirtrrral {irrces-gar-

gant,a' frrrces thousarrds of ti,res 'ror(' Po\\er{irl tha, the 'ierr'n'ho use tlrerrn. In scie'ce, thev are tlrt' rir'rl iurcrtal e.ergies oi'the uni'erse. I' speculatio', ther are tlre lril l irrr-tlollar tides anclcurrents o{'the nrtrrketplace. In'cttptl ttt-il itrg. tltctl rtrt: tlrc ho|te,sand fear's and de,sire,s of nill ion,s u?tort ntil l itttts of tnirtt attl rcsrtrcrt,all oxer tltt: tcnrlcl.

The'en rvho use these {brces clirl rrrt c.reate- the'i; the'ci'ur neither turn thern on nor shrrt therrr of1: tht,r can neither cli-nrinislr tlreui nor acld to thern. Btft thttl t 'rttt lrtl rttt,;;.r f/rr,rrr/ Thescieritist clicl not crerrte the energv of tlre \llrl: l)ut lie cirn clirectthat t : t t t : rgry i r to the erpbsion o{ 'a ' at ,rr l r rrr l r . The speculatorclid rrt create the e'orrlous grou'th rf tlrr.,r.tnrriics indrsrrvafter the'*-ar: lnit hc. can ricle that t, Pr.rhrce a fifiv tirresincreaser in his capital. Ancl the copy n-r-it.r-rl,,es rrrt create thedesire of' rrii l l io.s rf'*'o'en all Aurericrr t, l,se *,eight; b,the ctrn chrnnel tlvft rle,sirc ont, rt pafti,tl.r ltrtrltrct, ancl nrakeits ou,ner a niil l ionirrrc.

Tliis, then, is the e.d goal-to trike thr,se qigantic 'aturalforces and harness ther. to our own'ses. Rrft rtortc do rce cio itlN. tr'r'o of these {orces are alike. Each is rrrir|re; eircrr operatesin a different *'ar'. Thc. srrrne forrn'Li. careflrllrlu,orkecl o.,i tu ...-Iease ato'ric. energ, lhils cornpletelr' t ' ,.ri" trr"-pr.rri"ln ,rrocket prop,lsron. The sarne pattern of i 'r 'cst'ent, that sp'ts theupturn in electronics a'cl urakes u, loses that fort'ne inurtrniur,, And the si'.e ircl'ertising rrPpetrl. that builds an in-


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Page 12: Breakthrough Copywriting

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dustrv in reducing, collapses corttpletelv rvhen appliecl to healtll

{bods, even though both tidr-ertisetttents lrla\r reach exactlv the

srune iludience.Whv? Because no fttnmia rcorks tu:ice. Each and e\ierv

{bnr-mlals sirnplv the rvritten sohttion to a particular problern that

occurred in the past. Changc e-\'eli olle Part of that problern, trncl

vou need an entireh' different ftrrltrrla. Thatls whv luenrorizing

theories won't make \rou tt scielltist. ttr strrclvir-rg chtrrts won't lllake

vou a llarket u'iztrrd, or re\\:ritillg sonlellclclv else's heacllines u'on't

rnake Volr a copY lvriter.

\\rhat will work'i Innor-irtititi. oI' c'ttt trse. Cltlntinuous, rePeated

innovation. A steaclv strealll o{' tt('\\' itleas-{}esh rte'r'r' solutiorts trl

new problems, Created-rrot ltr tltt ' irlrpossill le rollte of lneln-

orv-but bv analvsis.In a feld in uhich tlut nit',: rtrt' t 'ottslatttltl rJturtgirrg-uhere

tlrc force,s that cletennine thc ottt(ottk' (tt '( ' ('()ttttotrtltl slifting-

rclrcre neu problentls are const(tttltl ltt ' ittgotcLttLttt(r((l nenl clay-

ntles, fonntrlas and principlc.s sitt4ilt1 rcill ttttt tcork. Tlrcq arc too

rigid-too tiglttly bcntnrl to tltt' Ttttsl. 'flru1 nru'st be repktced by

tlrc only knotcrt nrctlnd ttf rlt'rilitrg tt:itlt the Con,stantlq Neto-

anahJ,sit.Arrcl r,r'hat is analvsis? lt is u,st, rl.'s of meawring rods, check-

point,s, ,signpo,st que,stiolts tlmt sltotc rlotr rhere a 7taftiuilar fttrceis goittg, ancl enoble yorr to get ilrcrt' Jirst, It is a series of rough

guesses, based on past successcs. tltat entrbles I'ou to cut through

the surface of a problerrt to see u'hat tnakes it tick. Artalr''sis is

the art of asking the right qtt'stions ancl letting the problenr clic-

t:ite the right ansrvers. It is tlre technique of the break-through.

And it can be learnecl-iust as sltreh' as gralnlnar, tnathel]ltrtics

or spelling.The first part of this book is arbttut analvsis, applied to the

profession r f copr'' u,riting. Its btisic thesis is this:

Evert' neu' market-e\:erv ner'v product-e\/erv ne\\'aclvertisernent is a lresh neu.'problem that never eristeclbefore on the fzrce of this earth. Past advertising successes

Page 13: Breakthrough Copywriting

I ) ( ( - T I O N

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The Forces of Change 6

How to Channel Mass Desire Onto Your Particular Product 7The Analysis of Your Product: What It Is-and What It Does I

2 YOIJR PROSPECT'S STATE OF AWARENESLHOW TOCAPITALZE ON IT WHEN YOU \IRITE YOUR HEADLINEYour Headline's Real Job 11What Your Prospect's State ofAwareness Demands From Your Headline 1,5The Most Aware 16

The Customer Knows of theProduct But Doesn't Yet Want It 16How to Introduce New Products 19How to Introduce Products That Solve Needs 21How to Open Up a Completely Unaware Market t,lGiving Words to a Hidden Dream 26Exploiting a Hidden Feiu 27Leading Into an Unacceptable Problem byStarting With a Universally Accepted Image 28To Proiect a Hidden DesireWhich Cannot Be Put Bluntly Into Words 29Using a Common Resentment or Unvoiced Protestto Capture a Far Greater Market Than the DirectStatement of the Solution of That Resentment Would Produce 30Projecting an Ultimate Triumph That the Prospect Will Identify With



Page 14: Breakthrough Copywriting


O"r.r,,,U *e Resulr of a problem in Such a WayThat It Will Be Identified With by people Who WouldReject a Direct Statement of the Froblem ltself j,jProjecting the Result of an Accomplishrnentto Attract People Who Would Be Frightened Awavby the Work Implied to Achieve It I-lThe List Never Ends ,:]lA Final Word on Style in Advertising Cop1, .j;

3 THE SOPHISTICAION OF YOUR II{.{RKET:HOW MANY PRODUCTS IIAVE BEEN THERE BEFORE YOU? 37If You Are First in your Marker 37If You're Second, Do This 39The Third Stage of Sophistication 1jThe Fourth Stage '11

How to Revive a "Dead" product J.5Let's Look at an Industry That WentThrough All Five Stages of Sophistication J{)A Personal Note ,i0


5 STMNI,{RY: THE ART OF CREATI!'E PLA,N\-ING_HOW TO MAKI AN IDEA GROW 59The Three Levels of Creativity ,59on Motivation Research and Its Reration t. the Copr writer 6IOn Expressing the personality of a prociucr in \irur Headline 63On the Only Type of prevention Headline That \\'ill Sell ()1On the Selection of Splinter Markets to Ar..oicl Contpetition 6jIn Summary 66





Thirteen Ways t,

Your First Prescr

Put the Claims r

Bring In the Rc.

Show Him Hou

Stretch Out YoLrr

Bring In an Autt

Show Experts .-\

Compare, Contr.

Picture the Bll. i

Show How Ea'r

Use MetaPhol'. I

Before You'rc I)

Put Your Guarar'

How to Apph I


How to Bui ld . ,

A Personal \, '1.

The Roles ) i ,Lr :

Character R, ,1. .

Achievenrent R

How to Put . l : r .

I den t i f i ca t i , , n :

The Pr i r t tur r l ' :

Hou to BLrr i . : \

On thc- [ - r r r : - :

On S l l cab l r i . : :the Phr . i . . r . [ ' : ,


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\ \ 'hat I - , r . r . t . ' l .- l

hr ' \ re hr t r . : . - : -

Page 15: Breakthrough Copywriting


( O \TE \TS



Thirteen Ways to Strengthen Desire 77

Your First Presentation of Your Claims E0

Put the Claims in Action 8'3

Bring In the Reader E'5

Show Him How to Test Your Claims E6

Stretch Out Your Benefits in Time E7

Br ing In an Audience 59

Show Experrs APProving 90

Compare, Contrast, Prove Superiority' 91

Picture the Black Side. Too 92

Show How Easy lt Is To Get These Benetlts !) j

Use Metaphor. Analogy. Imaginut ion t t I

Before You're Done. Summarize 9'j

Put Your Guarantee to Work 9{)

How to Apply These Principles of lntensification to the Campaign 101


How to Build a Saleable Personality Into Your Product 107

A Personal Note 108

The Roles Your Prospect Desires 109

Character Roles 110

Achievement Roles 11'3

How to Put These Longings fbrldentilication to Work for Your Product 111

The Primary Image of Your Product 117

How to Build New Images Into Your Product 111)

on the Limits to the Images Your Prospects will Identify with 12J

On Saleable Identifications Springing Fromthe Physical Product Itself 125


How to Make Your Prospect Believe YourClaims Befbre You State Them 129

What Exactly ls Belief? 130

The Architecture of Belief 133

Page 16: Breakthrough Copywriting


A New Definition of Awareness iSJA Detailed Example 135How Belief Was Built Into the Opening I37Goal Conclusions t3gThe Ultimate Objective jlj

A Restatement of Our Basic Theory I llThe Inclusion Question ll5Detailedldenrif icarion lJ,5Contradiction of Present (False) Beliefs lJr)The Language of Logic Il7Syllogistic Thinking jt9

Other Belief Forms 150

r0 Tm FOURTH TECHMQUE OFBREAKTHROUGH COPY: REDEFINITION I53How to Remove Ob.lections to your product l,j,:)Simplif ication lSsEscalation 160Price Reduction 162

il TrIE FIFTH TECHMQI.T'E OFBREAKTHROUGH COpy: MECIfANTZATTON 165Hou, to Verbally Prove That your product Does WhatYou Claim 16iVerbal Proof i67Stage One: Name the Mechanism 167Stage Two: Describe the Mechanism 166Stage Three: Fearure the Mechanism l7()On the Importance of Mechanism When you Wantto Convince Your Reader That you're Giving Him a Bargain

D TIIE sxTH TECHNIQL'E OFBREAKTHROUGH COPY CONCENTR{TION I75How to Destroy Alternate Ways forYour Prospect ro Sarisfl His besire t; jWhat Concentration Is 177Let's See How He Does It l7gA Second Strategl, 18jOne Final Word on Concentration igL



Hou t

Let's I

The S,




Reinlof FoL

IntenrImageSensi tWhatS q r r r n -




See H

Motr-.,Rcl.irN'ltrr r':E tc t : .




Page 17: Breakthrough Copywriting

{ ) \ T E \ T S CONTENTS


How to Borrow Conviction for Your Copy 185

Let's Look at a Few ExamPles 186

The Second Way to Borrow Believability 190

Believability-Borrowing Strategy #3 191


Verification-How to Offer Authorities and Proof 196

Reinforcement-How to Make Two Claims Do the Workof Four 200Interweaving-How to Blend Emotion.Image and Logic lnto the Same Sentence 202

Sensitivity-How to Give Your ReaderWhat He'Demands Step by Step Throughout the Copy 205

Sample Ad #1 206Sample Ad #2 210

Sample Ad #3 210Sample Ad #4 211See How the Structure Differs 211

Momentum-How to Draw YourReader Deeper and Deeper Into \bur Copy 215

Mood-How to Pack Your Copy With Drama'i*.it t.nt, Sincerity or Any Oiher Emotion You Wish 222


INDEX 2:29


Page 18: Breakthrough Copywriting

PART TTHE BASIC STRAIEGYOF PERSUASIONHow to rvrite a winningheadline that no one hasever rwitten before

Page 19: Breakthrough Copywriting


Let's get right down to the heart

of the matter. The poli,er, the fbrce. the overwhelming urge to

onn that rnakes advertising rr'ork. r'orttss from the market itself,

ancl not from the copr'. Copr canttot create desire for a prodrrct'

It can onlv take the hopes, clre,tnrs. I'ears and desires that already

c.rl.sf in the hearts of rnillions of people, and focus tho'se already-

nisting desire,s ontl a pafiiuilur product. This is the copv rvriter'.s

ttrsk: not to create this mass clesire-but to channel and direct it.

Actuallv. it r,r'ould be iltpossible for any one advertiser to

spend enough monev to actuallr create this mass desire. He can

onlv erploit it. And he dies u'hen he tries to run against it.

This has been shor,r.n time and tirne again in the arttotl.totive

field. for exan-rple. In 1948, in orcler to displav tlieir rising stan-

rlard of livlng, the Arnerican public decided thev r.vanted a longer'

Iou'er, n'ider car. Chrl'sler choselo buck the trend; nnd offered a


Page 20: Breakthrough Copywriting


fine. functisllnl s;1r'-1r'itli rnore head. leq ancl shoulcler roonron the inside-brrt shorter aucl srprirtter on tlre outsicler. Anrultinrill ion-dollar crrnrpaign \\'as plcpured lrr one of the mostcreative rlgetrcies irr Anterica. But the 1'q'511115-ilgtiinst the tide o{'nrirss desire-\\rer(r catrtstrophic.

hr 195-1, cars ltricl becorne rrniverstrllr loriql itncl drivers rveretappraising each other'.s car in terrns of'lrorst,pou'er. Here u'as therise to clourinance of a r.rrst 11s11, public,tk'rnrurcl. Tlie T\r,in-HHrrdson Lhnret. the h'ir-erhaLrst claclil l.c'. tlre chrvsler 300-allin tu' crplortecl this tre'cl. and rrcle it t, gtrirr nrill ions o{'dol-lars irr ertrir sales. The F'rd crrnptu^' rlt 'c'rtlt 'rl t, plav it cl'urr.ancl clevotecl rnill ions o{'ach'ertising clolliu's io sell saf'etri Again.the aclvertising rtrn into tr u'all of clisirrtt'rt,st: rcsults \\rere non-eristent; and the nc.rt veAr Forcl prcchrc,r,rl. irrrrl aclr.ertisecl, thehighest-horsepo\\.er engines in their histon'.

Br'rt pc'r\rrrps t\re rnost pai.fir\ pr*f * .s tl re E t'[st,]. Ilere r.r,asn goocl cirr, backecl bv a clehrge of fint irtlr t.r.tising. tlrtrt died trv_i t r q t , f i g l r t t l r e o \ e 1 1 \ l r r ' l r r r i n q s r r i t t . l r i r r t l , . r r * r r r t l t o i r t . l r e i r p .sinrple'. itierperrsive-ro-run coutpact crir.

[ ,e t , r . r t 'Peat . T l r i s 'ass des i re r r r rs t i r l r t ' . c l r -be there . l t' r 'st alread'er ist . \ rrr cannot create i t . rLrrr l , r , , r . l , , , rnot f ight i t .But qou 66111-.q111 nur,st-rlirect it, clmttttt,l it '. .fttr:tt,; it onto tlrtrrpnftiuilar pntrlur:t.

What Is This N{ass Desire_and Horv Is It Created?

\\ 'e can def ire this Desire qrr i t t 's i rrplv. I t i ,s the pub-lic spread of a pritatt, rcctnt.

Ad'ertisi'q is a b'si'ess of statistics. \\t- cle.r r.r.itrr Dercent-ages of population. \\-e aclclress our arl: t, i.clir-ichrals; irncl r,.etthe success o{'our acl'ertising clepends

" tlr'.sands, or

"r."r, ,-,ril-

l ions, of these inrli ' iduals sharing the silr.e resporse to theseads-the resporse of *'anting our product enough to pa' us theprice u'e ask for it.

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Page 21: Breakthrough Copywriting

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Befbre these indi ' id 'als ciur share this br^irrg response.ther'' must first shirle t]re desire rrpon u4rich ,rrr ir(l is i)asecl.Pr iv ir telr ' ' , each of thern *ants t l re si l lne thing. I rrr l r l ic. l r . thereare enough of thern to reptrv us the c,ost of ' i r rht ,r t is i rrg. ln iul l l -I -ac t r r r ing anc l se l l ing , p lus a p ro f i t l t i s t l t t ,n t ( )n t ( 'n t r t l t t , r t , r l t r r -xate r le,sire is shared bry r t .str t t i . : t icr t l l t l s igrt i f i t r t t t l t t rutr l t t , r o. f 'people, large entntgh to pn\fitti l i lt1 r(p(ttl st,ll irt,l tltt,st, 1tt,o1tlt',.that a nmrket is bcsrn. This nrrrrket rrrav c,onsist ol rr r l t ,s i r t , shrrrer lbv onl' a feu' tho'sand peoPle. srr,lr irs tlrt,' t, ,*' firretrnt iques. or i t rnav be shurecl br terrs ol rrrr i l iorrs. i rs t l rc,clesireto lose rve igh t . Bu t i t i s therc . ( l ( . r r r l r ( l ing t , l r t ' s r r t i s f ied . u ,a i t -ing onlY for the infbnrtat ion that r i i l l r l i r t ' r . t i t orr te rr t ) i r r t ic l l lurl l ro<luct.

Since these rnass desires i , ' t ' s l rrr ' t , r I l^ r . i l ] i , rs , f ' Perple.thev take r'-ears to cler,elop. anrl tlrt,r r' 't,r.r'r.irtt 't l l^ src,ial. t,c'-nomic and technological t i r r grt , rr t t , r ' t l r r t rr i t t l r , , r . t is i rrg i tst , l fctln comlnand. It is this frlct. u'lrt.rr rrst'rl r.or-n' tl rirt qives acl-vertising its enonnous poterrtiirl tirr Profit. Ilr sirrrplt directingthis gigantic, alreadr-eristirrg nrrLss tlt.sire-ratlrer thirn being re-cluired to create it-adxeftirllq l/rrrs (.()nntr(tnd,\ ttn econontic forceI t t t t t r l r t ' t l s , , [ t i t t rc : ; n t ( ) rc l ) t ) t t . t t l i t l l l t , r t t l l t , , t t t t . t . t , n t t t t l t c r , , y ,1 , ,1 -lars that the adxeftiser can sp(,n(lor ft. This is the ArnplifcationE-ffcct of successful tidr.ertisinq-the reitson that $1 spent Ln suchildvertising can create $50 or er-r'tr Sl(X) in sales.

But this Arnplification Eflect tttkes pltrce only *,hen ticl'ertis-ing erploits alreadr-eristing clesire. \\ 'hen it tries to creatc this cle-sire, it is no longer adr.'ertisirg lrrrt echrcation. Ancl, ils can produce at best onl'

"e' drllar i. sales for e.r'en. rlollirr

spent on advertising. No sinqle iul'e'rtist,r can aifonl to edrrcatethe Arnerican public. He n'rust n'l 'on lbrces far greuter than a'r,i td r e r t i s inq hr rdget t . l r r r i k l t l r i s r r r i rss t les i re . Anc l t l r t , r r 1 , , , , .n , ,n'rake those ibrces *,'ork {br hirn-lx' clirecting thtrt desire onto hisparlic'ular prodr rc.t.

\\lhat are these nation-*'icle fbrces that create this r'assclesireP There are man' of the'rn. But the' fall into hvo general

Page 22: Breakthrough Copywriting


categories-each presenting its distinct problem to the copv rvriter.Here are these hl'o categories, r,r'ith a ferv specific eramples ofeach.

l. Permanent Forces

X,Iass ln,stincf. The desire of u'onren to lte trttractive. or ntento be virile, or rnen and women both to keen their liealth. Inthis case, the instinct never facles-the clesire n"r'". chtinges. Thecopv r.vriterls problem here is not to pick orrt the trend-it isthere ibr evervone to see. His job is to tlistinquish his productfrom the others thtrt r,r.'ere there befirrc it-to cretrte a fresh ao-peal-to bLrilcl a stronger believabilitr-to shi{t clesire frorri thefulfillment o{fered bv one product to thiLt off'ered bv another.Horv this is clotre, we shall see in a nrtirnent.

A mas.s technological problent Bad television reception, orcorroding automobile rnufflers, or the tirue it takes {br aspirin tobring relief. Until the problem is finalh soh.ed, the custornersn'ill bur and trr.-buv and trv again. Ancl here the copv r,vriterhas the strrne protrlgm-fo ofI'er the s:rnie clairn of relief as hisconrpetitors. but of'fer it in a new wa\'.

2. The Forces of Change

The beginning, the fulfillnrcnt, rnrcl tlrc rexersal of o trend.Stvle. The sudden rntrss decision to shon' ofT a pal. raise bv in-stalling a su'irnrning pool in the back r-ard, instead of buvirrg abigger car. The horsepor.ver appeal o{'the Fifiies, and its suddensubordination to F{tts econoniv. Here thc. copv r,vriter is dealingrvith the strarvs in the wind that rnar-inclicate a hurricane. Herehe neecls sensitivitr', foresight. intuition. He rnust be able to seeand catch the rising tide ri,hen it's illnrost irnperceptiltle-sensewhich of the several appeals that are built into his product heshould stress nt anv particular rnoment, itnd u'hen to shi{i to arr-other-ancl, ,ilrtavr, irou' to be there first.

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Page 23: Breakthrough Copywriting

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X,Iass Educotion,. The school primer and the Iriovie screen.

The tastes and appearances of societ\, wolnen, television stars,

presidential candidates, trickling clolrn to everv hamlet in

-\rnerica. Group pressure; back--vard gossip; comn-Iunitv product

pioneers. And equallv important, the sutn total of a// advertis-

ing-in its unconscious, unplanned and overall effect of rnulti-

pl-ving people'.s dreams and desires, and thus raising their sttrn-

clard of living. Here again the problern is tin'ring. When does the

slri{t become sttrtisticallr.'significant? \Vhen do enough people :make

the change? When should the autornotive por.verhouse, for er-

arnple, change its irnage to become the cornrnon tnttn'.s gas saver?

The copv rvriter is firced r.r'ith a societv cont:rining clozens-

er-en hundreds-of these alreadv-existing niass desires. His fr,st

-job therefire i,s to detect thent-inveutorl- thetn-chart their fbrce

and clirection. This is a studv that u'ill occnpv part of every rvork-

ing dav for the rest of his life.His second job is to harness his products onto their backs.

He does this in this u-ar':

How to Channel Mass DesireOnto Your Particular Product

The copv rvriter in his u'ork uses three tools: his orvn knolr4-

eclge of peoplels hopes, clrettms, clesires ernd ernotions; his clients

product; and the advertising rnessage. r'r4rich connects the hvo.

The copv lr,riter perfolrns his r.r'ork in three stages. In gen-

eral, thel' go something like this:L Choose the nutst pou:erfttl de,sire ilmt carr 1tossilth1 be a7:-

plied to qour Ttrnduct.Er.erv rnass desire has three vital dimensions. The first is ur-

gency, intensitli degree of dernand to be satisfiecl. For example,

constant arthritic pains comparecl to a tninor headaclie. The sec-

ond dirnension is staving po\ver, degree of repetition, the inabil-

itv to becorne satiated. For erarnple, ralr' hunger compared to a

craving fbr gourmet foods. And the third dimension is scope-

Page 24: Breakthrough Copywriting


the ',rnber o1'people r.vho share this clesire. For ertunple, thenurnber of men ii ' i l l ing to pa1- $10 fbr rllr automotive accessorr..that sa'es gils-rrs co'parecl to thost' u'illing to pa1. the sarneprice fbr one thtrt rnerelr. prevents firtrrre repair bills.

Everv product appeals to tu'o. three r_rr iour o{'these rnassdesire's. But onlv one can predornirati,: olriv one can reach outthrough vour heaclli 'e to vour custorrrer. o'i ' one is the kev thatunlocks the nraximurn econornic po*'er at the particular tirne youraclr-ertisenrent is published. Your choir:t, tnt()ng the,se alternate cle-sires is tlrc rnctst important ,step yott lL:,ll tuk' in rcriting rlottr ad.If it is wrong, 'othing else that vo. cl, irr th. arl rvill rnatter. Thischoice is ernbodied in vour heaclline. It is lirr this reason thar rvespencl so milnv chapters on heridlinc's lrrtt.r orr.

To surn,p the f i rst stage ther. rr ' r t rr . t 'choose the rnassdesire that gives vou the most pou'c'r in all tliree dirnensions. yorrtrv to tap a single or.envhelrning desirc eristinq todirv in the heartsand nrincls of rnillions of people r,r.ho irrt, ac,ti'elr. seeking to sat-isfv it at this r.erv uroment.

2. A.Arrorclerlge tlmt de,sire-rt,inJor.t' it-rurrl/ctr offer trret)u.otl't to satis.fil it-in a single strftt:rttt 'rrt irt the headline oft l0ur 0(t .

This headli'e is the bridge behr.eeu \()rrr prospect and *-,urprocluct. It touches \our prospect at the point of a'uvareness thathe has arrir.'ecl at todar,'. If he is ilwilre of r.ur procluct, and re-alizes that it can satisfv his clesire. r',rLrr herrrll ine-stafts with vorrrproduct. If he is not arr"'are of r,,otrr prodrct. b,t onll, of the cle-sire itself, r'our headline starts with tlie rlesire. And, if 'he is notyet arvare of rvhat he reallv seeks, but is concerned onh, *,ith ageneral problem, vour headline sttrrts u'ith thttt problern ond crur-tallizes it into a specific need.

In rrnv cilse, vour headline-tho'gh it rna' never rnentionyour product-is the first vital step in recognizing this rnass cle-sire-justifl.i'g and intensifving it-ancl clirecting its solution alongone spec.ifir. path.

3. And then yon take the series of perfonncmce,s that are

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Page 25: Breakthrough Copywriting

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lnilt into Llour pro(htct-tchat yolu^ product does---<trrcl ry1ru shou;

tlour pro.spect horc the,se prochrct Petfornrance,s itt(L'ittililq sati'sfy

tlmt clesire. Here's horv:

The Analvsis of \bur Product:\\'hat It Is-and \\'hat It Does

In realitr', everv product \ou ar€' givelr to st'll is acttrallr- hr-ct

products. One o{'therr-r is the p/rrysfu'a1 prothrc't-the' steel. glass,

paper or tobacco that the rrii l)u1:tc'tlu'€'r llas slrrqtt'tl irtto a ptrr-

t icular pattern, of u,hich he is j rrst l r prout l . f l r t 'ot l rcr is thefrrrc-

tiLtnol product-the procluct in ac'tiort tlre st'rit 's ol benefits that

vour product perfbms {or vottr ('ollslll l l( 'r. itl l(l oll the bttsis of

ivhich he buvs vour product.The phvsical product cloes ttot sell. Peoplt' tLr not llur- the

steel in a car, the glass in i1 \'ase. tlte tolritc'c'o irt a c'iqttre'tte, or

t l re paper in a book .The phvsical part of vour protluc't is o1'r'ahte ottlv because

it enables your product to r/o 1/rlrrgs lirr people. The irnportant

part of vour product is rclmt it docs The rest-the steel skele-

ton-the chrome or rnetrrl c'ase tlrat votr actuallv deliver to vour

clrstomer-is onlv vour excuse lor charging them vour price. What

thev are reallv paving votr {br is u-hat the product r,r'ill do.

No phvsical part of vour prodttct can ever become a head-

line. No one rvill buv the size o1'rortr clients plant, the weight

of vour client'.s steel, the care of vour client'.s constmcticln. All

these {ircts can onlv be usecl. later on. to document and reinforce

the prirnary performance that vou prornise vour reader itt vour

lreadl ine. in the fol lorving u'avs:

By ju,stifying tlour price. This is the colnrnon-sense theorv

that the longer the car, the tnore tubes in the television set, the

nrore stitches per inch in the srrit, tl ien the greater the nutnber

of' dollars vour product can conul)ancl-if that procluct first cle-

ln'ers the performar"rce that \'our prospect dernands.

Bry rloannenting the quulittJ of your perfonnance. Tell I 'our

Page 26: Breakthrough Copywriting


prospect the u'eight of steel in vour cart door, and he's rnore

Iikelv to believe that vour car rvill protect his hfe if he shouldhave an accident on the highrvar: Tell vour prospect the number

of tirnes vour plant relroves the impurities in r.-our face crealr,and she's more likeh'to believe that vorrr crenm will remove thei rnpur i t ies i r l re r sk in .

By a,sstLring qatr pro,spect that tlnt pctJitnnance rcill con-

tinue throughout tlrc years. Cerarnic nrulllers nrean no repair billsfor the li{'e of vour car. Chemicallr.'-protec'te'cl paper rrreans voucan hancl rrmr prize books dorvn to rour c'hilclren. Quick-frozenfood means vou can retain taste anil r itanrins for months rrliervour purchase.

By ,sharyening the reoder's rrrctftul pit'tttre o.f that pefor-rlance. The Rolls-Royce rnust give vou perf'ect riding silence be-

cause everv metal part of the chussis is slrieklt'cl {rorn everv othermetal part bv ir protective coat of nrbber. Helenil Rubensteinsnerv ftrce crean'r rnust rnake your skir krok vorrnger because itcontirins the plrrcenta of living animrrls.

Anrl, aboue aLl, bq gixing ytntr ytntdttct'l t:luirn of petfonnancea fresh rrctt' busis Jbr belieuability. lhis is the nrost important use

of the phvsical prochrct in fields rvhere A re\\' finn or product is

attenipting to inr.acle an established Nlass hrstirrct field. Otherslirrve nracle the stune clairn before. Your prochrct. in order to pullstrles au,av f}on thern, nust introduce A ne\\' rriechanisrn that per-fonns the clairn, or a new qualitv thtrt rrssrrres its per{omnance,or a new freedorn frorn old lirnitations thilt improves the perfbr-rrlance. This is the point of difl'erence-olten conceived bv thecopv lr,riter, and built bv the nranufircturer into the product athis reconimendation. \\re shall discuss this point of' difT'erence

quite thoroughh'in the next fer.r' chapters,So rnuch for the phvsical product. It is alrvavs suborclinated

to the functional procluct-the procluct in action-u'hat the prod-uct cloes.

It i,s the petformance of your procluct, sati,sfying the nm,sstlesire of tlour nmr*et. that proxicles the salling poLner of tlour ad.

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Page 27: Breakthrough Copywriting

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\our first task, then, in \-our product, is to list the

number of diff'erent perionnances it cont:rins-to group these

performrlnces agilinst the mass clesires thrit errch o{' thenr satis-

fies-ancl then to f'eature the one perfonnancer that u'ill htrrnessthe greirtest sales po$'er orlto \I)ur product at that ptirticular tir))e.

Take the iiutomobile, fbr ertrrnple. Everr automobile o{I'ersits prospective owner several di11'erent and distinct sets of'

perfbrmilnces:It offers ltin tran,spoftation Tlre alril itv to carn-hinrself, his

fantilr', his luggtrge. irncl perhiips rin the ctrse o1'station \vagorls)

his pets ancl his llrlniture lrorrr plirc'r' to plac'e.It crffers hin dependabilitry. Tlrt' l l 't 't 'tknI ll 'on breakclou'n.

stal l ing, poor pei lbr lnr lnce. repair l r i l ls. t ' r rr l rarr i rssnrert an( l i r rcon-Venience.

I t of fers l t int econott i r i . ]ne\p( 'nsir t ' t r l r t ts l lot ' t i t t iot t : s in ' i t tgs in

lroth gas ancl oi l : l reedorn l i r r tn t ' t 'p i t i r l r i l ls. seen t l r is t i r rr t ' l l r r r t t

the point o{ ' r . - ieu, of the pocki ' t l rool i , t l r rr i r l r i l i t i . l r ig lr t rar le- invirlue. lou' insurance cos{.

It ofli:rs hin potccr. Nrurlrt'r of lrorscs at his corrrnrancl take-off at the lights; acceleratiun on lril ls iLnd in trafTic; top speecl,

even if he never uses it. All rrddirrq rtp to ti f 'eeling of dominatrce

on the highu.avIt of'fers hin recogrtlffurrr. ,\rhniration. stiltus, subtle arxl ric-

cepted blagging, en\r':, the {'eeline o1'hil'ing ilrrived. The ohs anclahs o{' his neiglibors, ther first rirle. tlre ver}' smcll of il ne\\r crlr.

It o{fers tirn uthrc. The nunrber o1'f'eet of steerl hc' ciur com-nrand {br the price. High tracle-in vahre o\.er the vears. The {iict

thirt the car calr last fcrr 100.000 utilt's. even if he catr afTbrd tcr

trade it in everv vear.It of-fers ltin noaelil7. Pou'er steering fir'e r-ears ago-elec-

tric cloor locks todi,n'. Three-tone paint jobs ves1sr6la\'-iritlesceut

paints nou,'. The thrill of' being the leacler, the pace-setter, the

proven pioneer.And rntrnv r'nore. Sonre of thern hiclclen, ne\-er acLrittecl,

discor.'ered onll' 1,,""trth' bv motivatiorr research. Dozens o1'

Page 28: Breakthrough Copywriting

12 trASS DESIRE: TrIE F-.RCF. l.'{r. \r_\KES AD\-ERTISTN(; \\,,oRK

clif{'erent perfo"ances. b,ilt into th. sarne prrduct. each oftherr reachi.g out rr'cl tappi'g ir rli l ier.errt riesire-er clistinctpubl ic.

Ancl yet r''o'r acl cnn f'eature orl' ,rrt' rf these per{brrntrrrces;t 'a t t e l fe r . t i reh tap on l r one rnass t l , ' , s i r . , . r r l rL t i r r re .

Yo'r headline is li ' ited bv pl^ sic.trl sPrrce. \b, har.e o'l 'one glrurce r{'the reuder's eye to strp lrirr. h" i, preoccupied-he is not looki 'g fo.n'our prod,ct, , ,1 . . , , , , . , , , , , r rng"_the span ofhis attention u.'i]l adurit onh' one thorrglrt to penetrate his indif'_lerence clurinq that qlirnce't thought h.kl.s lint. ltc u'il l ra,rl tlte 'ecortd. Iftlte sccrtnrl lnlrl,s hhn, he toill rend tltt, tltirrl Arrl if the tltiri lthought hold,s hin, he rcill probably n,rrtl tlrr.rrgh tlrit,r ad.

Er. 'er 'prcldrrct gi 'es r , 'o 'c lozers , l k. is, Brrt , u. i l lfit the lock. Your job is to find that orrt, tl,rr'rirriurt per{br'ra'ce-s.queeze e\ierv dlop of power orrt o{'it irr rorrr Presentation-ar-rdthen con'ince vollr retrcler that that pt,r-1i,r-'rr,r,rc,e rrnd t]rrrt satis-fhction

",rn ",r,,," clnlv frorn Vo.,, Dr..,^,I,,,.t,

The nert lbur clrtqrters will rlinr,', ',,,, lrou'to krcilte thrrt orreclonriniurt Per{ i rnnarc.e, and ho*- to l i ,s l , l , , , r i t i r t ' rour heacl l ine.once rorr ha'e *r ' i t ten that headl ine. t l r , . rr t , rer.r , ther perior-mturce c'Ontairrecl in Yorrr product sirrrplr reirrlirrces ancl docu-r r te r r ts t l ra t r r l r i r r l tppe i t l . i r r ex i tc , th t1 , , . r , , , , , , , \ \ i r \ i r s t l re phvs ic .a lp rodr rc . t l i r< ' t s l i s te t l i t l ro re .

rro( .

I try

Page 29: Breakthrough Copywriting


\iru liave nou'completed the first

hvo stages in r,r,riting rorrr itcl. You liave defined the rnzrss desire

that uri*es up your rntrrket-lbr errurtple. the desire to lose ri'eight,

sharecl bv rnillions of u,otttett lrll tlr-er Atnericit. Ancl vou ha','e se-

lectecl the one perfornltrnce irl vortr product that satisfies thnt de-

sire u]ost deeplr'-for ertrmple. a lir|ricl nreal in a glass, clelicious,

filline. alreadi, rneasured for Vou. irs eas\- and pleasant tO tlrink

as a chocolate malted.

This definitiorr of vour ntiirket, ancl the selection of the procl-

rrc,t perfonnance most likelv to capture thiit rnarket, fortns the

c()t-c C()trcepf, or thelte. of your acl. You ttolv knou' .,r'here votr

iire qoing to start-rvit| rour rntrrket; and q,fiere vou trre goirrg

t<r eircl-rvith vour procluct. Tlrc bridge bettoeen trco-their

rr tr ' t ' l i r tg pl t tct ' - ' is r1, , t t r r t t l .yotur arl alu;ctt1s begin's uith your nmrket, anfl lauJ's that

t 3

Page 30: Breakthrough Copywriting

1,1 youR pnospEcr's srATFt oF A\\ARLNltss

nutr*et ineritably into rlour 1:rodtrc:t. The beginnir-rg of vour ttd-r-our headline-is the first step in tlris process. Therefbre it con-cems itself entirelv u'ith vour rlarket. It rrrav ne\:er even rnentionrrlrr prorhrct or its pcrfnrntrnce. It is lrrrsr.rl entirelv on the trn-su,er to these three rnrcstions:

I. \\4ut i.s l/rc lirr,r,r tlclirt 'tltat t't 'trttt,.s tlti,s rnarkeft (\\rhichu'c have alrc.zrclr drscoverecl.)

2. IIott' ttutt-lt rlo Tteopk, A'rr,,rr. torlrtrl about the rcrn1

ryottr prorluct satis.fie.s thi.s cle.sirel (7'lrcir Strftt, o.f Au,orertcs,s.)3. Horc tttonrl othcr products lrttt 't, ltt 't 'tt prcscnterl tct thent

lx,fitn' t1ottr,s.) (Tlrcir State o.f Sophi,stitrrtrtttt,Tlie unsu'err to qrrestion 1 gir-es rorr tlrt, rration-u,ide force

tltitt c'reates vour rnurket. The ans\\'er t, rlrrcstirtns 2 ancl 3 gir-esrrru the location o{'that rnarket in relirtiorr to rorrr procluct. Yourstriltegr, lbr erploiting or overcorninq tlrt, iuts*'t 'rs to these lasthvo clrestions rvill gil-e r.-ou the cortt,rrt ,f 'rrrrrr heaclline. Let'.sfirst re-clefine the job u,e rrre. going to irsk orrr heaclline to do,ancl then see huu' each of these lirst t*'o rluestions tells us rvhattlrtrt lreaclline shoukl-and should 1111-5111'.

Your Headline's Real job

Tliere has beer ' c''{i lsi" irl,rrt lrrl*' r'ruch of a sell-ing job vorrr heaclline shoulcl be rerpriretl to clo. Actttally, qorrheoclline does not rteed to sell nt all. k ckr.s riot ha'e to 'entionr.'our product. It dcles not even har-e to nrention vour mairr ap-peal. To clemand that a l-reaclline slioulcl rlo anr-'of these is toplace the full selline llrrden on approrimatelv l0% to 20Va ofthe total ph'sical space of

"u,,, ".f .-. . that phrsical space take'

up bv ther heaclline itself.)'our headline has only one job-to sto1t tlour pro.spect ancl

corrrytel hint to rcad the ,second ,sentcLtc(. of qour acl. rn exactlythe strrne \\/A\', yorlr second sentence htrs onh' one job-to forcehirn to read the thircl sentence of vorrr acl. And the third sentence

Page 31: Breakthrough Copywriting


-and everl' additional sentence in your ad-has extrctlr, the

sarne job.

It is simplv colrrlrlon sense that the more of vour storl- \'oucan {brce your prospect to read, tht nore thoroughlv vou can sellhirn. To attempt to do the sarne selling job in ten lvords. instc'aclo{'a hundred, or a thousancl. is to shoot craps r'vith r,our clientlsnrone\... You might as u'ell buv rinlv enough space to print vourheadline, and use the rest of tlie brrclqet for repeat inseftions.

It is the copl' r.vriter's job to firrce the prospect to reacl hisclient'.s full story-not just tr skinrrrecl version of it. Only toprospects actively seeking the c'lierrt's specific' brand-name prod-trct, and in a case where )'ou ciur <if1er them ir special price re-cluction, can vour headline clo the lirll selling job. To atternpt ac'omplete selhng job u'ith anv other kind o1'heaclline is sirnplv toaclmit def'eat.

\I'hat Your Prospect's State ofAwareness Demands From Your Headline

We have already assumed that the onlv reader vou are look-ing for is the prospect fbr vour procluct. That means that heshares a defined desire u'ith thousiurcls, and perhaps even rnil-lions, of other people all or,'er Anrerica. But hou; much au;are isthat prospect of that desirejJ Hott' clo,se is it to the wface o.f hisc()nsciou,snes,sP I,s he au;are onhl tlmt a problent or need exist.s,Ltr i,s he au)are if they can be satisfied'i And if he i,s au;are thatu nrcans of satisfaction exists, doe,s he reali;e that it lie,s in tlour

lrarp of product,s, or specifically in your product bry nanrc, ornnre ,s1tecificalh1 in your product ut a giuen price'l

The answer to these questions u,ill help vou detennine theSttrte of Ag.areness of vour rntrrket-their present state of knou'l-t'rlqe about vour product and the sertisfaction that vour productperlbrms. It is at this precise point of awareness that r,our head-l ine begins.

Page 32: Breakthrough Copywriting


In its natural developrnent, ever\- urarket's awareness passesthrough several stages. The rnore a\\.ure vour rnarket, the easierthe selling job, the less vou need to sar,. Let.s go the arvare-ness scale step bl' step. \\/e'll start at the Nlost Alvare-the rnostrnechanical selhng job-and proceecl to nrore and rnore difficLrltproblerns, requiring rnore and more creative solutions.

1. The Most Aware

The custotrter knoto,s of your product-ktntc,s u:hat it does-knor.cs lrc tcant,s lf. At this point, he just hirsri't gotten around tobuving it vet. Your headline-in fact, rorrr entire acl-need statelittle rnore except the narne of vour prochrc,t ancl tr bargain price.For example:

"Revere Zomar Lens, Electric E).' Ctunera-Formerlv$149.50-Now Onlv $1 19.95."

The remainder of the ctrn sulnlnarize ouicklvthe rnos t des i ra l r le se l l ing po in ts . T l re r r r r t l r l t l re r r i i rne o f a s to re .or a coupon, and close.

This is tlie trpical clepartrnent store. cliscount store, rnuil-order-bargain-catalog of adr,'erlisinq. lt takes advantage ofthe full rveight of all the advertising tliat has been done on thesarne product before it. Its addition-its ne\\.s-is the price-ora free gift-or instant delil.en'-or prorinritv in the neighbor-hood. Its prospect is .fitlly o12511's-1rc has all the inforrnation heneeds. Here the copv rvriter is nothing rnore thun the merchan-dise rnanager's phrase-rraker. The price is the rnost irnportantpart of his headline. There is nothing crerative about his job, andhe should receive the lor,vest possible scale of'par,:

2. The Customer Knows of the ProductBut Doesn't Yet Want It

Here, qour prospect isn't contpletelry arcare of all tlour prod-uct does, or isn't conxincecl o.f lnu: rcell it doe,s it, or hasn't qetbeen told lunc mtclt better it does it rtotc.

Page 33: Breakthrough Copywriting

. t _ss

' ses

\ iC l '

rre-r ( )s t. r r l t


I t o:.rtel ( ' t .

' r l )

klr) f e .

. r i l -of



iu l -


uctr I t

r t t l -

r1t ' t


Here-in the approach to this rnarket-is the great brilk of

all advertising. Here vou are dealing 'nvith a procluct u hic'h is

knoum-r,vhich has established a brand nnlns-11'hich has alrt'iitlr'

hnked itself rvith an acknou'ledged public desire, and has proverl

that it satisfied that desire.Here r,'our headline is facecl u,ith one of seven tasks:(a) To reinforce vour prospect's desire for vour procluct:(b) To sharpen his image of the \\'av vour product satisfies

tl-rat desire:(c) To extend his irnage of u-liere atrd u'hen vour product

sirtisfies that desire:(d) To introduce nerv prooi. tletails. clocun'ientution of ltorv

rvell vour product satisfies that clesire:(e) To announce a new n'iechanisr.t-t in thirt prclcluct to en-

able it to satisfy that desire even better;(f) To allnounce a new mechanism in vour procluc't thrlt elim-

inates fonner lirnitationsr(g) Or to cornpletely change the irnage or the ruechanism o{'

that product, in order to remove it frorn the competition o{'other

products claiming to satisfv the satne desire.In all sever] cases, the approach is the sarne. You clisplav the of the product-either in the headline or in an equallr-

large logo-and use the remainder of the headline to point out

its superiorih, Tl-re bodv of the acl is then an elaboration of thttt

s uperiorih'-including visualization, docu rnentrrtion, t t te'cl i ttnizer-

tion. When you have finished u'eaviug in even' strantl of vour

products superiorih', vour ad is tlone.Here are sample headlines presenting solutions to all seveu

of the problerns of this state of' a\\rareness:

(a) ?o reinforce Uour pro,spt:ct',s tle,sire for ytrur prLtthtct-ll ' using:


"steinrvav-The Instmrnent of the hlrnortals.""Jo1.-The Costliest Periume in the \\rorld."

Page 34: Breakthrough Copywriting



"\\'hich T\r'in Hrrs the Toni?""I{air Cokrring So Natural Onh' I{er Flitirclresser

Knou,s For Sure-\Iiss Cliiirol."

SENSORY SI {AI IP} ] \ I \ ( ] :

"Tirstes l ike rou just picked it-l)ole.""The skin rrxr lor.e to touch-\\irorl lrrrrr."


(An'o'e o1'the thousands of supe'rir 1-'c.t'rirLl acls in the {bod,fashior. cosrnetic, je'.'elry and sirnila. i 'rhrst.ies. perhaps bestsunnned up b1' Lif-e'.s classic lrt,rullirre. "please clon't lickthis page.")

(b) To shnrymt tJortr pro,spect's inutgt' t,i tltt rotl yaff 1:roductsatisfes tlmt de,sirc (Nluch like the sensor' sharperring illustratedabove: btrt conce'ntrtrting here on the phr sic.irl proch.rct itself, or onthe rnechanisnt ltr-u'hich it u'orks):

"At 60 nriles iln hour, the lourlest rroise ir-r a RollsRor-ce is the electric clock."

"The arnazing storv of a Zippo that uorkecl afierbeing taken froni tlie bellv of a fish."

(c) Io extend l'tis image of u;lrcrr: und rclrcn ycnrr productsati.s-fies that d r, re :

"Anr,rvhere von go. Hertz is alu'avs nearbr,,.""Thirst knou's no season"-in a u'ilter ad, at tr

u'hen cold drinks u'ere onlv consrrrne,cl cluring the surn-11ig1-"( leqi1 Cola."

(d) ?., intrcclucc netu proof, detuil.s. docttnrcntrtti.n of ltou;tcell your product satisfie.s that cle,sirc:

"9 otrt of l0 screen stars use l,rrr hilet Sotrp fortheir priceless smootli skins."

Page 35: Breakthrough Copywriting

| \ l i l \ t . s s

i , , . t i roc l .

rp. l )est, : r t l i c k

; r,,t l ttr-t

: . t rrttt'cl

. : . , r t ' t l n

) t ' , ) ( l l tC t

i l r t t tc


"Jake La Motta, 160-lb fightea i-ails to flatten Nlono

paper cup.""In Boston, the #1 tea-cirinking citv, the #1 tea is


(e) ?o ann(niltce o nelc nrcclmni,srtt in that ytrocluct to ermble

it to .satisfy that desire euen bettcr:

"Hoo.,'er'.s nerv invention u'itshes floors and vacuttlns

up the scrub rvater.""\\brlds onh' dog {'oocl that rttrtkes its or'l'n graT--

Caines Crar,'r' Train."

([) To ttnnounce o netc nucltrutl.vrt lrt Llrntr prodrtct that elim-

i t t at es fonne r lintit at io ns :

"You breathe no dustv otlors u.lit 'rt rrttt clo it u'ith

Leur't.""A nerv Zenith heirring aitl-inc'onspicttotts ltcrortcl


(g) Ot to completely t' lutttgt' thc irtmge or the ntechanisrn of

tltt, product, in nrder to rt:trrtttt ' it .frortt thc cornpetition of other

products claiming to ,satisfq tltt' ,surrtt' de,';irc.

Here r,r'e are dealing ri.ith the State of Sophistication of our

niirrket-the amount of' exposrtre ther- har''e alreadl' had to sirni-

lar products. Every product cluring its life history encounters this

problem. All of Chapter 3 ri'ill be clevoted to some of the ap-

pr,rac'hes to i ts solut ion.We norv lrlove on to the less au'trre markets-rvith their rnore

difficult copv challenges, and their greater dernand for the unpre-


3. How to Introduce New Products

The prospect either knou:s, or recogni:e,s imnrcdiately, that

lrc rants uhat the product cloe.s; but he cl,oesn't yet knou that

tlrcre is a pmchtct-yrnt procluct-lhat uill clo it for him.

Page 36: Breakthrough Copywriting

20 youR pROSpECT's sfATFt oF A\\ARENESS

Here the problem is tli 'o-fbld. First. to pinpoint the ill-defined. as-r.'et-uncrvstirll izecl desire tlrat is slciu,'ir- spreaclingthrough great masses of people all ovcr Arnericir. Ancl seconcl,to crr'stallize thtrt clesire. trnd its solutiorr. so sharplv and so dra-maticallv that euclr ancl everv prospt'c.t u il l re'cognize it nt trglance.

The three steps in the process rirc sirnple. \anre the. clesirear-rd/or its sohrtirln in vorrr headline. Prrl'r, tlrrrt that solution canbe accomplishecl. Anri shorv that thc rrrt,t,lrrLrrisnr of thtrt acconl-plishnrent is contiriled in vour prochrc,t.

Hou'ever. starting rvith a market irr tlris stil l-arnorphous statteof au'areness, and continuing rvith each ol tlre nrore dill icult chal-lerrges to conie, the execution becontc.s ttrttrr (ntl ntore in4toftantthun the nrcchanic.s. Here the copv u'ritt,r' c,orrtribrrtes more anclrnore to the value of t l ie product in t l r t , prr l r l ic. t ' r 'e, and to i tstotal volunre of sales. Here the inurxr i t , r 'c 'orn( 's into plar, . Herethe ratio of salarv of copv rvriter to pr'tlr.ti,,r, r,,p",.' iroi shootsup allmptlr-. For this is the clomain lt'tl,r, irlerL rnan.

\\'liat are tlie' irttributes he needs?First,,s. As 11 copv u'riter \1)ll \\ i l l fird it necessttrt' to

clefiue tlte particular rurrrket most rect,y'ltir t, to rorrr product, itslocittion in relation to vour procluct in ttrrns of rru.areness andsophistication, and the driving emotionirl firrc,es tirat have cretrtedboth that rrarket ancl the pote'tial firr tlre sales of r.our productu'itliin it.

Seco'd, intuiticttt, lvl-rich rnav be rk,scriirt 'cl as the abilitv tosense a trend at its start, gauge its fbrc.e ilncl cltrection, deter-rnine the precise rrornent u'hen it burgt'or-rs into a profitablerliarket.

Ancl third, ucrbal creatiuity, us cliscrrssecl in the nert threecliapters, ancl thro'ghout the rest of the b"k. The abilit' to qir.erl name to the stil l-unclefined, To captrrrc a teeling, a hope. a de-sire, a f'ear in u'orcls. To create a catclrurrrcl or a slogan. To foarenntion, and gi--e it a goal.

Let us see horv great rvriters in the past have taken these

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Page 37: Breakthrough Copywriting

I , \ [ -SS

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anior?hous desires, trnd brought tltern into riizrtr-sharp fbcus

a single statement in t]'reir heaclline:

"Light a Lucky, trnd r' 'ctu'I l uliss sn'et'ts t l lat trrrrkt'

vou fat."

"\Vho else u,ants tl nfi i ter u'asll-s' ith rto l lrtrcl rit lrki"

"Horv to u'in friencls i ind infltrt 'nc'e yteoplt '. '

"To men rvho n'ant tct t lrt i t i t,rt-A' sotl lt ' t lrtr."

"\\ 'hen dttctLtrs {'eel rotterl-t lr is is u'hrit 1/i i 'ry clt l."

"\orv! Run -vour car s' ithtlttt sperk l l l lrqsl

"\\ 'ho ever heard of'- l -.()()()

l i ,,,trtr 1l 'ottt rt sirrgle plautl"

And dozens more. Here. trttttltplttltts tlesire' ltits lleetl cn's-

tallized in the headline. Then sharperrt,d iurrl t 'rp,urclt'cl in the

first f'erv paragraphs; satisfiecl rur(l (lor.unlcrrte'rl ur the lrodr- of the

acl: and fbcussed inevitablr ttrt tlte protittc't tltrttuqitottt.

Sometirnes the siniplest strrterttetrt rll tl ie clesire is the best."Holr' to rvin friencls aucl infltrertce petlple" uee'cls no verbal tlr'ist

to increase its impact. At other tinrcs. tire desire itself must be

reinforced by fresh proo{'that it can be uchievecl, "\\"hen doctors

{'eel rotten-this is u'hat f/ir:ry tlo". Or llr tnrsten-, "Norvl Run

vour car r.vithout spark plugsl'' Or llr' \\'onderlrent, "\\'ho ever

heard of 17,000 bloonn frot'u a single plant?". The next hvo chap-

ters r.vill discuss, first, the striitegv of cleterrnining r'r'hen trl use a

li-esh approach; and second. liou' to sharpen that first strrtetnent

of desire rvith verbalization.

4. How to Introduce Products That Solve Needs

The prospect has-nrtt u de'sire-but o need. He rer:ogtti:r"s

tlrc need inrnecliately. But he rlLtc,sn't yet realize the conrtcction

lrcttceen the fulfllment of that need and your product.

This is the problem-solvirtg ad. It rnight be thoueht of as a

special case of the desire ad ttrentioned abor,'e, since the tech-

2 l


Page 38: Breakthrough Copywriting

22 youR pRospECT,s sr,\TE or- A\\ARI;NESS

niqle of writing it is so similar. Here 'ou start bv r-rami'g theneed and/or its solution in your heaclline. Then clrarnatize theneed so vividll ' that the prospect reulizes jrrst hou,badh..he neeclsthe solution. And then present r-our procluct as the inevitablesolution.

Again, this flpe of ad ru's frorn tlie ',st naked staternento{'the need alone, to the most complicatecl 'erbtrr hvists to bringit to the peak oi'irnpact. To start at the begirrning. the rnost ef-fectir,'e possible headline for vour particrrla. pr.,rblern rnar- be assimple as this:


Here, only the problem itself is 'e.tio'ecl-'othing lnore.or it mav be necessarl' to state both proble' t'rd solution irn-rnediatelv:

"Stops rnaddening itch."

NIan' headlines in this categorv prornise the re'iovar of pre-'ioLrsly unconquerable limitations. Thev are especialh'popular incatalog selling:

_ - _ "Lets portable transistor radios plav on orclintrrv house_

hold current."

And many cornbine all three ele'rents-the problem, its so-lution, and the rernoval of the us,ally expectecl fimitations:

"Shrinks henicirrhoids',vithout sllrger\,. "

There are headlines rvhich prornise s'bstitutes firr unpleas-ant or expensive tasks:

"Nowl A ring and piston job in a tubel,'

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t l o o r F - r r ' ' .l -

t t t t t s t l l t , t

r i o r r l t l , ,j 1 1 1 ; 1 i 1 1 , - 1 r ' ,

{ l\ l l r i

l r t ' l i r r t . ' , :

t i r t ' r ' t ' l t r r t I :

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. l

- 1 i l / / ' :

' i t L ( l l ' t I i l ' ,

l t ! t t r \ t l l t L : '

- t l t r l l l l t , r ,

, ' r t t t t l l i r t ,- f l r i '

r '

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, . t ' t . i r r t l , , :

. t t t t ' l t t r r g '

[ - t ' t r .

: l r t ' ' t ' i i r , ' '

: t ' o t r r t i r r . ' , '

: . i r r r l i l l , : .

Page 39: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ \ \ \R ! :NESS

r i . r r n i r ) q t he

r r r r . r t i ze t he

. ' . l r t ' needs' : r r t ' r i t i ib le

i . t . r t t 'nrent

. : . to l r r ing' . , . l l t os t e f -

r r r . r \ l )e aS

l , : t r g rno re .

. r r t i on i t n -

, , . . ,1 of pre-

:)( ) i ) l t lar in

. , r ' i l 1 . l t s s o -

- r : : r ) l l S :

' r r rpleas-


And there are headlines u'l:rich prorllise to prerent a titture

problern, be{bre it can occur:

"Look. \{orn! Ncl cil ' it iesl"

B't tliany times the problern is Irot so clearl' clefined, not

so obviouslv on the surflrce. You rnay ktrorv the general urea rlf'

the problern-fbr exatnple, peoples elnbarrassrrent trt speaking

poor English. But vou lraY not be sure of rifiich il\renue is the

inost effective in reaching them. Here the ernphasis of a single

u'ord-the ernotional sharpening of an illreadv easilv-identified

ilnilge-pror.ides the Answer:

"Do vou niake f/rc,se rri 'stakcs in Eriglish?"

And, u,here the solution to tlie neecl ltils lleen prorr-rised

before-r.r4rere the clirect staternent of' the soltttion has lost its

tbrce and freshness-then verbal hvists are neecled to restore that


"Hor'l' tr bald-heacletl barber helped save rnv hair."

5. How to Open Up a Completely Unaware Market

Anrl .ftnclly-the most dffiuilt. The prospect i,s eiilter nttt

(ncare of his desire or his need.-or he u:on't hone'stly odnilt it to

hinaself u;ithtnLt being leacl. into it by qour od-or the neetl is s,t

general ancl amoryhous tl'tat it resi,sts being srtnuned up in tt 'single

lrcarlline-or it's a secret that iu'st crult be xerbali:etl.

This is the outer reach of the ar','areness sc:rle. These ttre the

people u4ro are still the logical prospects for -vour procluct; and

vet, in their olr,n minds, thev are hunclreds of rniles awitv fronl

accepting that product. It is vour job to briclge that gap'

Let me repeat rvhat I said u4ren rve first began to explore

these five stages of au'areness. Each of these stages is separated

lrorn the others bv a psvchological r.vall. On one side of that u'all

is indifference; on the other. intense interest. A headline that

Page 40: Breakthrough Copywriting


u,ill u'ork rvonders in the,first stage_fbr e.rarnple, ..Dial Soap_gg

u 1sfts"-1vill fail co'rpreterr' ,rlrre,i acrclr"rr"d t,, u thi.,l-rtug"rnarket, r'vhere vour prospecf cl0esn't er.err reirlize trrat soaps canbe nrade rvith tuirt-in deodorants. And a thircr-stage tr"""ar,r"-fbr example, "\\'rro erse rvants a *,hiter *,ash *.itr'o hzrrcl work?,,-rvill be old-hat, no-news to toda'ls h'rrse*'i{b. rvho has beenbarraged bl' u'hiter-than-u'hite advertising lor hr.entv vears.

To sum-rrp, then: a headrine u,hicli *.ii l \\,ork to';;;rket inone stage of au'areness rvill not rvork tcl a niarket in anotherstage of awareness. Nor rvilr it rvork, e'e. t, a'rarket in rvhich

;tlt,3:::rll'"""rrt ,, once that market passes on to tr neu,stage

_ Most products are designecl to satrstv a specific need ordesire' Thev are born into markets thiit art i, at least the thirclor fourth stages of arvareness. The' r-ra' therefore ,ever be facedwith the problern ol'an unaware nrarket.Holl'e'er' rnanv products actualh'pass ,ut rf public aware-ness-or out of public acceptance-at so'rt' tirire or other dur_i'g their life histories. The iesire the' satis{r. clries rrp, or otherproducts sen'e it better. or the' are brarcrecl "oid-{'ashioned.,'Again, \\'e are, dealing rvith a rnatter cir statistics. when aprocluct begins to slip ' ' . *h"n 'orurne {irils ,ff,

"rl"r-ii"rgr, "a-vertising bLrdgets are increased . . . u,rren the rarne of the prod-uct no longer sells as much . . . ufien a direct statement of theproductt firnction no ronger seils as rnuch . . . rvhen a direct state-ment of the desire or the need that the p.oduct fulfits n, rongersell,s a,s nruch-then that procfuct need,s tu) bn ,rborn, "ra-i,

p_U-lem is the probletn of opening up an unarare market.Again' this is the most drfficurt, the rnost crra,enging prob-lem of all. There are ferv positi'e -ri"*,n,-,", to guide vou. But,fortunatelv, there are ro-:

:o,lpletelv .self_e'ide,r?,n 'r,rf",

that can eliminateagain st vou r tas k'TlTi: JI [ *i?:' ;i i :k;:,ff :,l;_];or resistant rnarket' then, is first of all a process o' erimination.Here are the first paths:


Ip ro r l r r r 'o f p n t ,trpe.

lu,ho 1,. ,i f ro r r Isocratt-rant. Ti ,€ X I I C l l r t '

u,ith rr I' )

of rrr r r .rvhtrt tltu,ork. \,has p,r . .sire tophist ic. t :i t r . T l r t :i t sat isfr ,in rr t ru '

S r r\\'hat rl,poss ib i l r :functior rvotrr t l r i lcrerisc t]

( ) r r t

o f ac l . t l ,


YOUI - l l l . r l

\ \ ' l r . ,

uol tr nt / ; ,inq ar r i , ino th ing .

Page 41: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ \ \ \RENESS

.'l :oap-99t lr i rd-stage

r: .() i lPS Can

l,c,rtll ine-i,.,rtl s'ork?"

, , , l t r ts been\ r ' . l l 'S .

.r lt l i trket in

:lr ir,nother

., t i tt u'hich

.i l l t ' \ \ ' Stage

:... t leed Or

..r tlre third' . , ' r he faced

': i ' l ic i rs 'are-: , , t l r e r d u r -' : : r . or other

r l r l o l l C d . "

: . . \ \ 'hen a

. : l ,orrqh ad-' , : the prod-: r . r ' l i t o f the

t l l r t 'ct state-

r : ' . r / { ) longer, . , ,11 i ts prob-

' ' : r { inq prob-, i t - r 'oLt. But,

,,-l.rtrr.e rules:.1(c to face

: t ' . r t t t l t l$ 'afe,

r , ' luni t tat ion.


l. Price means notliing to a person u'ho does not kno\\r vour

product, or \\'lant your proiuct' Therefore' eliminate all rnention

of price, or price reduction, in t'our headline or prime clisplav

nDe.) L 2. Tlie name of vour product means nothing to a person

r,vho has never seen it before, ancl rnav trctuallV damage vour ad

if you have had a bad model the vear before' or if it is no$' as-

sociatecl with the antiquatecl, the unfashionable' or the unpleas-

ant. Therefore, keep vot" ptotlttct out of the headline' and be

e*tremelv nuurl''b,"ukl'lg the rnood or disguise of votrr ad

with a prorninent logo.

3. And this is the harclest iact of ,rl1 to accept' At this stage

of vour rnarket, a direct statetlrent of u'hat vour product does'

,r1,"i a"rrc it satisfies, or rv6at proltle''r it sol'es, sirnpl' r'vill not

r v o r k . Y o u r p r o d u c t e i t h e r h i r s t l c l t r e a c l r e c l t l r a t c l i r e c t s t a g e , o rhu, purr"d b",rorrd it. Ancl vou catrnot strnplr shili lrorn one de-

s i r e t o a n o t h e r . Y o u a r e n o t { a c e d l i e r e r i . i t l r t r p r c l b l e r n o f s o -phistication, but one of cornplete..incli{'ference' or unacceptabil-

itv. Therefore, the perfo'n'"t'li"e of vour product' and the desire

titruifi"r, "ut

onlui" brought i' Iater' You cannot mention them

in vour headline'

So vou cannot mention price' product' function or desire'

rvhai do yo,, have left? lounnot*et, of coursel fnd the distinct

posslbihtr,:that by broadening vour appeal bevond price' product'

iunction'o, ,p""ifi" desire, 'n,tt "o'''

reach the maximum limits of

vour full r;oiential rnarket; consolidate splinter appeals; ancl in-

creAse the sales of vour product at a fantastic rate'

Once vou ho,r" u"""pted the challenge of -rvriting

this kind

of ad, then vour produ"i ancl its attributes f'ade into the back-

ground,andvouc^oncent ra teexc lus ive l -vonthes ta teo f rn indofior, -"tk"t at this particular moment'

What vou are doi''g essentiallf in this fifth stage is calling

yorr, ,rorklt together in the headline of vour ad.' You are rvrit-

irrg ,.,'t identlfication headline' You are selling nothing' promising

no"thirrg, satisfving nothing' Instead, vou are echoing an emotion'

Page 42: Breakthrough Copywriting

26 youR pRospECT,s srATE oF_ _{\\,.ARENESS

an attitude. a r/lssatisfaction that picks people out fiom the cro*d,and binds them together in a single statenent.

In this-tr,pe of headri'e, you'are teiling them rvhat trrev are.You are de f tn inq t l re rn fo r ther r rsehes . \b r r r r re q i r ing , f , " , i l f r "information they need and rvant, aborrt a problein ,tiil ,o vaglrethat vou are the first to put it into .uvorcls.

Here, above all, rs the tlpe o{'heaclline tliat ne,u,er atternptsto sell a product or a perforriron"", but si'pr' tries to sell trieremaincler of the ad itself-the infor'rati,' trrat fbilorvs on thepage. The only function of this headline is to set the prospect toread the next paragraph. And this secrncl pn.,rn.uplr'p.,fi, nrointo the third; and the third into the tourth,

""i ,,grr,Tr'.ln*n

the ptrge, paragraph after paragraph.Meanr.vhile these paragraphs are bLrilclirrg tr steadl.progres_

sion o{'logical irnages, fro'r thl first icle'tificutio' ri,itrr trie head_

:]-". ,u,.u grorving awareness of the problern or the desire, rotre rea'zation trrat a solution is at rr.nrl, i l 'cl to the inevitabre

foc rssing of' that desire and that solutror rnto 'o'r particularproduct.

This, then, is the general strategy of dealiriq r.r.ith an unawaremarket',The-application of thrs strateg, *4re. alr crirect rr-iethodshave {ailed.has proclucecr hundrerls oi headli'es. It r.vourdoe rmpossible to classify all of them, since each solution estab_lishes its own new pattern. However, there are clef ite lanclmarksa'd directions we can distinguish. Here are so'e of thern-start-ing with

-the general principle thev usecr, then the p.ot r"- ,tr"usolved' then the headline itsel{, and then the rnost t-p"*ristructural paragraph of body copv:

Giving Words to a Hidden Dream

Problem: to expand the market fbr horne correspondencecourses, be'ond that obtainecl by "Earn rnore money" and ..Gainrnore ski l l " headl ines. Tlre solrr t ion:

l ' i '

af ier ' 1, ,{hi lct lthat rr

The t, ,

Page 43: Breakthrough Copywriting

. i \ \ \ . \RENESS

r : t l r t ' c ' ro rvd ,

i , . , t t l rev a re .: . - t l r t ' r r r the. : i , l ro vague

'. , -r ' . i t tempts. to st l l the.1, r ' . r : t l t t th€

ir r( )sPect to, i . Prr l ls hirn

-i,t or tlor'vn

.,, lr progres-: t , t l r c head-r, t l t 's i t 'e, to, , ' r r r t ' r ' i t t rb le:: ir.rrticular

r . r l t l l l l t lWt : l f€

, t t rnethods,, \ I t uouldl r : t ron es tab-: , l . r rrc lrnarks1 i , , . 1 1 1 - q f 2 1 { -

r, ,l ,lertt thev.l I I i l l)ortant

den Dream

l- . . .P, , r rc lence

. t r r t l "Gain



The vcmng Lincoln, pclring over borro\\'ecl scliclol-ltooks

far into tlie night-seeking in tlte dlm hght of bis loq fire

the transfilnning liglit of ktion'leclge-eilger to gro\\'-eiLg('r

to clo . . . liere is an extrnlple l'llich has inspired tlle ruarr

rvlro strives against the odcls tlf 'circuustauces to rnakt' his

nlace in the rvorld.To-night, in cities turcl tomrs arrcl villages . ' . thotr-sarxls

o{' men .t'ill drop their daih' lilbors to fiqlrt' beneirt}i tht'

larnp, the battle that Lincoln ftxrght . . .

Up fiom the tnines, clou'n lrtllll the masts o{'sliips .

from Jl the places r'vhere trtett u'ork. thev n'ili go horl're

arrd take up their books beciluse' ther' \-erLttl t<-r qrou'. lle-

cause thev seek l-righer trairlilg. qreatel' skill' rnore re-

snonsiLr i l i t i . . .- Sonle of thern are lrert u'hrl u'tlrk itl otte fieltl u'hereas

their talents and desires are it l allothcr. Stlt lte . . . i lre haitecl

in their progress because tl ier. dtl l)ot l l l l( lerstitrrcl t l te l i iqher

principles of their business or 1lrof'essioti. S<iti ie leti school

in bor.'hood becartse povertr- rtlrLtle it llecessilr\' . . .

F ift.' vears ago thc'se rllelt . . . s'ould have hacl no plac'e

to turn foi the cotlrses of stuclv arlcl lbr the personal guicl-

ance that thev neecl.Thirh' vears ago there u'as lbundecl a school to help

them-a school created {br their needs alxl circtlrlstances-

a school that goe,s to thettt llcl tnatter u'here tltev are-ir

schoo l . . .Created in response to tl need. the Illterr.rational C-lor-

respondert t 'e St 'hoois l r i t r e d. t c l t - ,ped t l re i r sc 'opr- i t t r t l t tse-

{irlness to the grouth o{'that need . . .

Exploiting a Hidden Fear

Problern: To re-r'italize the sales of a cofl'ee srr|stitlte', lgng

after health heacllines and pep headlines etnd taste headlines hacl

{'ailed. Secondary problem: Trt overconte a slipping brancl nilnre'

that r,r,as no longer an asset in either the heaclline or tlie loqo.

The solution:

Page 44: Breakthrough Copywriting

28 youR pRospEcir.s srATE oF A\\ARENESS

\ \ . H \ ' \ I E N C R . \ ( ; K . . .

An authorit' of international starciing recentr' *,rote;"You har.e or,'ereaten and pluggecl .,,,r. oiqon, luiih ,nod_erate stimulants. the ,"orri of rvhich are not onl', alcoholancl tobacco. but caffeine ancl sugar . . ..-

You knou' then-r. Strong rnen. r.igorous rnen, robustrrien-men rvho ha'e ne'er hird a sicl cla' in their ri'es.Ther'' drive. Thel' dril'e themselyes t9 the ii,"it. fl

"rl loril

thernselves u"u, ih" limit rvith ,ti,r-i*rtr. ifr""'.r""t. Of.i*,thev crash.

You have seen them aftenvards. pitifirl shells. The zestgone, the fire gone. Burnt-out {'urnaces o1 energ\..

"He u.o.s .s t tc l t o lva l tht l_ l , ,o l ; i t tg t t r t r l l - ' .He u'as. His health his trncloirrg. His constitution

absorbed punishment. Otherrvise l ie lnieht t ,,.." 1"",,rvarned in time.

. .."!:, e.xery action

.tl.tere i,s ctn erlurtl und contrary reac_fiori." lbu learned the lau, in phr.sici. It rrpplies to blclies.

For even' ounce of eneqg,; gainerl lli stirnulation, bvlvhipping-the nerves to action, an b,,n"" nl'."r"r-r," ,t;;-,his drained . . . But repeated u,ithdrar.vrrls erliiurst n". .;;ri;.Phvsical bankrupto,r Then the crash . . .

t ine^to get back to nonnal, to close the drafts, tol-rank sorne of'the fires , . .

A'oid stirnulants. \\hat is good fbr the bov is good fort h e m a n . . .

Borroued Energy Jlust Be ReTtaid.lTwo million Arnerican farnilies a'oicl caffeine bv clrink-

in^g Postum. And h'o million A'erican fiu.ilies are bettero f f f o r i t . . .

Leading Into an Unacceptable proble* by StartingWith a Universally Accepted Image

^ Problem: To gain both publisher and prospect acceptance

for a u'oman's deodorant. A direct stertemeniof th" p"rfo.-"r""or product would not onlv offend, but *,ourcl re'er be published.The solution:

\ ( ) t I t l , l t ( t .

1, , , ' . ,

\ r , , l

t i l t , . .

i l l l l

l , ) i "

l l \ .

l i r t : . .

I t , , t ,

( , t l l \ ,

t i o i r

. i . l l ,

t l r t ' r : .

t i t t . r : '

I t ' t '

o f r ^ :

i t 1 r ! . '

P r t , l ,. r ret tc\ { : '- \ rrr r t ' r l ,

st i t t t t l r t ' , '

T l r t .

l r< l r s . r ' i tc l :

Page 45: Breakthrough Copywriting

" i \ \ \ \ R E N E S S

'. ..,. r( )t(':: : , r r rOc l -

, . t , , l t r l l

: - , , l r t ts t. : : l i r t , s .i , . . r l . r s I r, ( ) t t ( ,11.

I ' i , r - z e s t

. i : : r r t i o n

. . i r ee r t

- , t ' t ( l ( ' -

. < i r t . s ,i : , r r . l r r -: : . ' . l r { t h: ' \ r -11 e .

' . r : : . . t o

. ' r l l o r

i : : r i k -i ' r ' f t t ' f

,r startingted Image

-1( c (,Ptilltce

: - : : ( ) l ' l l l t tnce

l r r l ) l i shed.



A frank discrrssion of a subject too o{ie.n rrvoirled.A u,oman's ann: Poets lirrve sunq of its gract., artists

have painted its beauq:It should be the ciairrt icst, su'eetest thing in tlre sorlcl.

And vet, unfortun:rtelr'. it isn't, alu'avs.There's an olcl offender in this quest for perfect clain-

tinss5-at1 offender of u4rich \\'e ourseh'es lriav be ever s<runconscious. but rvhich is just i ls tmh'p."r"t 'r i.

Sliall rl.'e discuss it {ranklv?Nlanv a woman u'ho strvs. "No. I arl'l never annoved

br- perspi rat ion." does r )ot kno\ \ ' t l rc {acts . . .Of course. u,e aren't to blan're becarrse nature has nrade

us so that tlie perspiration glands under the irrrls are moreactive than anr' else. Nor are \\:e to blan-re because . . .have made norlnal evtrporirtion there irnpossible.

\\buld vou be absolutelv sure of vour (laintiness?

It is the chemicals of the bodr. not uncleanliness. thatcause odor. And even though theie is no active perspira-tion-no apparent rnoisture-there rnav be uncler the annsan ooo r . . .

Fastidious wonlen g'lio u'ant to be absolutelv sure oftheir daintiness have fbund that thev could not trust totheir ol'nn consciousnessl thev have felt the need of a toi-Iet rvater u,hich rvould insure then-r against anv of this kindof underarm unpleasantness, either r"r.roisture or odor.

To meet this neecl" a nhvsiciirn forn-rulated Odorono-a perfectlv harmless and cielightful toilet n,ater . . .

To Project a Hidden Desire WhichCannot Be Put Bluntly Into Words

Problem: To capitalize on research findings that smoking cig-arettes gives rnen a feeling of virilitr; irnportance, sexual strength.Anv verbal erpression of these themes, hou'ever, u.ould be in-stantlv rejected as absurd ancl o{I'ensive. The solution:

The NIARLBORO TATTOO AD: \\rith its virile men (co\\L

bovs, racing car drivers, sh'divers, etc.) r.r4rose appearance alone

Page 46: Breakthrough Copywriting

30 youR pR()spECT's s'rATE oF A\\ARENESS

projected more of'an image of rau' r'irilitv than anr,- nurnber ofrvords coulcl erver con\-e\'.

Using a Common Resentment or Unvoiced Protestto Capture a Far Greater Nlarket Than the Direct

Statement of the Solution of That ResentmentWould Produce

Ploblerri: To sell a do-it-r-ourself book on telcvision reDairs.Although all orvners of TV sets rvere the poterrtial market,'onlv-a small frnction considered themselves interestecl enough or ca-pable enough to responcl to a direct prornise lreatlline: "Sar.e upto $100 a vear on vour TV reptrirs!" Most u-ere afriricl thev couldrtot rnake the repairs thernselves. Thert,fore. tlre rrrarket rntrstbe broadened to include the nonhandunen o\\-ners, bv exploit-ing the existing resentnient against TV si.n'ice contrtrcts. Thesolution:


\\'zrs vour set purchased after the sprinq of'19,17? Tlienliere is tlie full. rincensorecl storr.' of i,,r,l vo,, can al,oiclthose $;15-S20 repit i r bi l ls-uroid ihose S3U .56{ ) i t rei t r ser-vice fees-and still get the perfect. rrovie-cierr'ou've dreamecl aboutl

Holv ur:rnv tirnes this u'eek have t-orr liiicl to get up tofix n jrunpv fii picture'P . . . Holr, u'rr,nr; ti,r'r", have'r.ou'hacllo p r r t r rp rv i t l r g l tos ts l . . .

907o of 'flrcse Breakdotu'rs Arc Llrtrtccessanl .tAII these breakdor,r,ns rlal'har.e seerned tragic to vorr

i r t t l te r r ro r r ren t t l re r ' l r r rpper re i -h r r t l re re i s t l re re rL l t iag-edr'! Do r-ou knor.v that the sarne eract set thirt r-o,r nuit'liar.'e irr vcxrr {i'ont rooln . . . hirs been plavirrg in rnanu-ll"cturer! test roonrs {br rnonths-and plirving'per{'ectlvl

These sets I'rave been subjectecl to "BreakdourrTests" . . . These sets h:rve been tested agtrinst everv con-ceivable of vieu,ing hazard . And, in ahnost everrone of these cases, tliese sets har,'e prodrrc.ccl perf'ect. rnor-ie-

Y O U R P R O S I ' I t I .

clertr pit t .one f i r l l ' . '

\ \ ' / r , . 'I i r

wer€' . .:v e a r . . .

l T \ r

t'tltt 1lt rt, ,

the ve.Lr '

. \ n , . ]

t l ia t r orr :orclt 'r t, ,

, ) \ , i .

T l

I l r r ' . '

a grc iLt ,1 'rv:tnrin{ .:

\ r ' ' . i

a d j t r s t r r ' , : .cor t l t l t , , t . : '

1 1 r '. I t

wil l \ \ r ' , r : . ,

I t . . ,h is r i , rLeclge'

" " '

t la l l . . .

\ r ' " ' '

24 hor r r ' .

f l ickt 'r . , , : .

k n o l , , , t ,

S r t l ' ' '

ghostsmec' l t , t t ' : , .

\ i , .this erp, :-

. \ 11 . .l - l , r '

O\\ '\ I: I.

Page 47: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ \ \ \ I I I ] \ESS

r r l r n l ) e r O f

ced Protestthe Direct

lerentmentld Produce

. : , , : r l ' e p i l i r S .

: . . , 1 k t ' t . o n l v

, ' r 1 t l 1 1 . , t " U -, S.rvc up

i : i , , ' r ' c 'ou ld. . , : -k t ' t nt t tsti r t . rploi t -

. : : . t c ts . The


- ' l - l r t ' t t

, ' . . i t l- l : \ ( ' l ' -

. . : t i r | s

' : i t t ' t' . I r , r t l

' \ ( ) l l

. : l ( ) \ \ '

' l . t l i l l -


clear pictures, r'vithout major breakdowns. for as rruch asone full vearl Here are some of the reasons \\4r\':

\Yhat T\/ Expert,s Houe Leanted Abotft )irrrr S.'1.I{' your set were properlv cared ibr, as these sets

were . . . it need break onlv once during the entirevea r . . .-

If y-our set were properlv cared for, it can actuallv gir''evou perfect, rnovie-clear reception the other 364 davs ofthe vear . . .

And most il-iportant, these experts have discoveredthat vou do not have to be a handvn-ran or a mechanic inordei to coar this perforrnance . . . Here's lvht':

5 L[inute,s a Week for Perfect Reception.These TV experts have discovered that vour TV set is

a great deal l ike iour bodl in t l r is respecl - l l t rL l i t g ivesrvarning signals before it has a nraior breakdorvn . . .

Norv, if you had the knos4eclge to ntrke a fer,v minoradjustments, on the outside controis of th:rt set, then voucould correct those svmptoms . . .

If lou do not liave this knorviedge . . . then vour setrvill weaken, vou u,ill have a constantlv bad pictuie . . .

It's as simple as that, You pa1' a repairman-not forhis rvork-but for his knou4eclge, If vou had that knorvl-edge yourself-then vou u'ould not have to pa1' hin'r ata l l . . .

Now suppose that vou had tr T\t erpert at vour elbor'v24 hours a day. Suppose that everv time your set began toflicker, or jump . . . this expert r.vould shorv you exactlv whatknob on the outside of vour set vou could turn . . .

Suppose that ",'"i,

titre vou were annovecl br-ghosts . . . this expeft rvould sho"v 1'ou a simple non-rnec 'hanical t r ick . .

Yes, and suppose that even u'hen vour set u'ent black,this expert coulcl shor.v vou . . .

Lit the lnfonnation )i.rrr .\'dcr1 Abottt \ixtr T\/ Set!This is extrctlv rvhat a ner.v book. the TELEVISION

O\\NER'S CUIDE dt- ,es f t r r \ou . . .


Page 48: Breakthrough Copywriting


Projecting an Ultimate Triumph Thatthe Prospect Will Identify With

Problern: To sell music lessons bv corresponclence to a greateraudience than u'ould respond to a direct "PIav Real Tunes on thePiano in Five Davs" approach. Tlie solution:



Arthur had just played "The Rosirrr." Tlie roor.n rangu'ith trpplause. I decided that this u,orrlcl be a clran'ratic nro-rrent for me to make rnv debut. To the irnrazerrient of allrnr' friends, I strode confidentlv over to tlie piano and satoown.

"Jack is up to his old tricks," sonrelrorlr chuckled. Thecror , r 'd laughed. . .

"Can he realll'plar,'?" I lieard a girl u'hisper to Arthur."Heavens, no!" Arthur exclaimed. "He never plaved a

note in his life. But r,'ou just r,vatch hinr. This is qoing tob e g o o c l . " . . .

Tlrcn I Stafted to Plot1.Instantlv a tense silence fell on the quests. The laugh-

ter diecl on their lips as if bv magic . . . t ]ieard gasps'ofamazernent. \' lv friends sat breathless-snellbound.

I plaved on and on and as I plaved I li;rgot the peoplearound rne. I forgot the hour, the place. the lrreathless lis-teners. The little rvorld I lived in seenrecl to {'ade-seemedto grorv dim-unreal. Onlv the music u,as reirl . . . It seerredas if the master rnusician himself rvere speaking to rne . . .not in rvords but in chords. Not in sentences but in ex-ouisite melodies!

A Complete Triuntph!As the last notes of the Moonlight Sonata died arvar.',

the room resounded witli a sudden roar of applause. I foundrnvself surrounded bv excited faces. Hou, mv friendscarr ier l onl Men sl ,ool rne br the l rund-ui ldlr


lated rne-pounded me on the back u'ith their enthuiiasm!Evervbodv rvas exclaiming lr,ith delight-ph'ing me r,r,ith


raPid clLrL' ':

p lar . l ik t ' : :

Itave vort '" I I 1 . , "

j us t a s l r r ' : -" ( ) r r r '

plishecl Pr," l L . .

" I deci t l , :

folks."r ll l l t ' : .

I 1 , t . '

I l tsK( ' ( I

i 1 t . '

sc l i r l t i l . l ' :

F - \ ' r .

rne th t i t l : :

i l ' t i t lst . , :

Projecting tl

Will Be I

Prol l l , . r r

tl gerlli tl l t ' l l

the ulore r trr :

in its cliret t :

taken br t l ' ,


L. ' . l :\ \ 1 ) l l l i i l ,

g i r l s r r , :

Pt )sst ' " '

\ :th i r t r - : :

eler.: l .

Page 49: Breakthrough Copywriting

iunrph That

entifr \ltth

. t ( ) . t q r e a t e r

[-r i r r t 's on the

. . t r r qh -...11s 1rf

i ' ..oll le. , . . . i i s -. r ' r I I l € C l

. : ' r - l t I t ( l

: . . r '

r t \ -

I .r\\ i1\..

I : , , r r nc l: : : r ' l l ( 1 S

: . : r . r I l l -

. . : - 1 i l l l .

. ..r it l t


rapid questions . . . "Jackl \\'h1'-didn't.vou tell us \-ou could

olly like that?" . . .'iVh"." did t'ou learn?" ' ' ' "Hos' long

i-rur1" r,ou stllcliecl?" . . . "\\'ho \\'/as vour teacher?"-'- - ''I have ne"'er even ,scen tnv teacher," I replied "Ancl

iust a short while ago I couldn't even plav a note.''..Qriit .,our hdciing," Iaughed Arthur himself rrn accolr-

nhshedpianist. "Yo,t'ue-be"n studving for vears l cirn tell.''"'-"" '; it"t" fr""" stuclving onlr'-a short ivhile"' I irtsistecl'"I decided to keep it a sec'ret so I could suryrise all rrnr

folks."Then I told tirenl the u'hoie storr''. . H i r r , e V o u e \ . e r l r e a r c l o f t h e U . S ' S c h . l t l l o t . ] \ I r r s i c . ? . .

I asked.A feu' of mv lriends nodded' "That's ir correspondence

school, isn't it?" thev erclirirnecl'"Exactlr'," I replied. "The-r' hirve a nes' simplifiecl

methocl that can teaiS r.'cru to piar.'anr,itrst^'ttent b' mail

in iust a feu' short months.' ' ' '

Projecting the Result of a Problem in Such a Way That It

Wiff S. Identiffed With by People Who Would Reject a

Direct Statement of the Problem Itself

Problem: To increase the sales of a n-routhwash' not onlv on

a gerrn theme (rvhich could be irnrnediateh' accepte.d)' but on

the niore unir,ersal social-offense therne, $.'hich would be rejected

in its clirect form. The iclea of bad breath was too insulting to be

taken bv the public "straiglrt." The solution:


Ednas case \\ras reallv a pathetic one Like elen

\\rotran, her primarv ambition was to lrarr\" Most of thel

giris in lier ,"t ,u"r" n,arried-or abotrt to Le' Yet no one

iurr"rr".l rriore charm or grace or loveliness than she''

Arrd as her birthdavs ciept graduall' to*'ard thnt tragic

thirtr.'.iark, i""rr"h iart6er irotn he. life than

ever.She rvas often a bride*smaid but never a bride'

Page 50: Breakthrough Copywriting

i l,l yolrR pROSpEC.t.'s slATE oF A\\,ARENESS

That's the insidious thing about halitosis (unpleilsantbreath). Yorr, \-oursell rarelv kirorv u'lien rriu har.e'it. Ande \e l r \ o r r r r . l oses t l i i en t l s u lon ' t t e l l r o r r .

Sornetirnes, of c.ourse, i ialitosis L.<llnes {rc'rr sori-re cleen_setrted organic clisorder that req'ires Pr.fessio'al't usuallr, '-and {irrt.natelv-hil i tosis is orh'a l 'cal con-d i t i o n t l r a t r i e l t l s t o t l r e r e g r i l r r r r r s e o t r . i s t e r i n e , , . u , ' . , , , t 1 ,rvash and gargle. It is an interesting thing that this r.i, antiseptic thirt has been iri,rse firrirears {br surgi_cal dressings. possesses these rrnusual propeities u, n ir.""ihdeodorant . . .

Projecting the Result of an Accomplishment to AttractPeople Who Would Be Frightened Away by the Work

Implied to Achieve It

Problern: To broaden the rnarket firr h"re correspondencecourses, bevond that possible ri ' ith a clirec.t staterneut o] the im-mediate result-learning or skill. An zrtterript rrust be rnacle todirect the prospects mincl arvav trorn effbrt. t 'rervard. The so-lution:


"I'ur making real rnoney nor.l,!""l'es. I'r'e been keeping it a secret until pav dav calte.

I'r'e been prorn,ted rvith ari increase of $50 ,, i,rr,,,ilr. A,rdthe first extra nronev is 'ours. Just ir little re*,ilrcl {br urg-ing ''re tcl st'dv at hortre. Tlie lt'ss sa's 1lt\. spare tinietraining has rrade rne a val'nble man to tire firin

"r-r,r th"r",

rlore lltonev colting soon. \\'e're startinq up easv street,Grace, tlirrnks tri r,oii and the I.C.S. . . ."

The List Never Ends

_ Ever-v dal- ne*' solutions, neu' patterns are being createcl.

wherer''er tlie direct .rppeal fails, or loses its po\\rer, vo, shoulclbegin to explore a fifih stage heaclline.

Horver.'er, there are tlrro 'ital points to renreurber in con-nection r,i'ith this problern. First of all, this tlpe o{'heaclline is in-

Y O U R P l i ( ) \ l i

f in i te l r r r , , :

other loru '

heacl l int ' i|our l t t ' r t , i

fore rclibe tr st i rr t '

c a n i t r r , , r . l

ture. \ lor:

ernptr ' l r , . ,rnone\ .

B t ' t . r , . .l i ne . k t ' , ' 1 ,iclenti.l)1 r,:be h l ,s l r , ' . , ,nronrt 'nt . I '

relect ir\ :, '\r r t l.

u ' i l l bec, , r

of rtu iir', 'r , ,jus t as t 1 r ,

solve'tl 1,, :ke t e rer ' . :

\ I i r r k ,

the i rc 'c t 'p l ,

i ng s t r l t ' .

s ' i t l i t t r r l

t l t e c e r t t r r : .

1 ] L ) O l l ( ' \ r r

\ \ -e ' l - t

l r iu-r ' r

p € l ' S O l l I r ' ' . '

th ing l r r r t :

€ \ ' € ' 1 ' \ ' \ t ' . t l

Page 51: Breakthrough Copywriting

i \ \ \ \RENESS

' . , . r . l i t i t

: : \n(1

' i t . t ' | ) -

, 1 r i c t ' .

. r t r l l l -

: r . r r t l t h

: . . \ ( ' l l -: . r l l ' { l -

i : , , r r t l r

t<l -{ttract

the Work

{chieve It

, . : ) ( ) t ) ( le ] )ce

: , , t t h e i m -' . . r r l a ( l ( ' t o

r . i T l r e so -

. . r l l l e .

: . \ i l r l' l I r ( t -

, : t l n t '' i : r ' l - t ' s

. i i - r ' t ' t .

e\er Ends

:. : r ' feated.' . , , r r s l t c l r ld

: ln co l t -

: l t r ' l s l n -


finitelv more difficult to bdng horne to the target thurt rtnv of'the

otlrer fbur tvpes. You are far rnore likeh' to nriss the nrark orl this

headline, because vou hilve f'ar f-eu'er glddeposts to direct rrlt.

lour lrcadline no longer refer,s tct tlour product, Ltut it ntu,\t tlrcr(.-

fore refer eDen nrore ,strongly to tlrntr morket. It cannot sirnplv

be a startler, or an attention-getter, or hutnclrotrs. or cute. Nor

can it rnask the fact that it has no heaclline behintl a prett\ Pic-ture. it{ost copv \witers use a fifth stage problertl to u'rite irn

ernptv headline, and are tliere{bre simplv wasting tl'reir client'.s


Because it is so easy to rvunder off into till irrelevartt head-

line, keep this one car(linal nrle in rnind. \intr pro,spect ?nu,st

identify rcith your heatlline befire lte can buq from lf. It rnust

be his headline, hls problerr, /ri,s state of mind at that particular

rnoment. It must pick out tlie productls logical prospects-turdreject as manv people as it attracts.

And, if it is an eff'ective heirclline, and it u'orks. then it tocr

u'ill becorne outdated as vour urarket lnoves otr to ir neu' stage

of arvareness. And vou rvill be presented rvith another prol:rlern,

lust as challenging, and jlrst as rervarding, as the one you have

soll'ecl befbre. You never step in the sarne river tr'l'ice. No tn:rr-

ket ever starrds st i l l .

A Final Word on Style in Advertising Copy

Markets change; desires change; firshions change. And so clo

the acceptable stvles of advertisetnents change. Certain aclr-ertis-

ing stl,les-the fomr vour advertising rnessage takes-grou, tired

rvith time-then stale-then actuallr.' laughable. At the turn of

the centurr,', effective ads lvere rvritten in verse; turentv vears lilter,

no one u'ould belier.'e them. In the 1920's nrost of tlte greirt trcls\\'ere narrative stories-either first-person confessiclns, or third

person revelations, or comic strips drarnatiziitions. Todar, er'€r)--

thing bLrt the cornic strip is gone-ancl \\'e see less trrtd less of it

every vear. \Vhen tt new stvle is bonr, people believe it, and it

Page 52: Breakthrough Copywriting

36 youR pRospECT's srATE oF- A\\ARF:NESS

reinforces the message it is carrving. \\'hen that sarne stvle gror,i'strite, people cannot see the messilge fbr the advertisement.

We'll explore this subject further, in the chapters discussingMood and Disguise in u,riting advertisements. Nleanrvhile, onemore note here.

In eflective advertising, though st'u'les nral' change, strategr"'does not. If vou r"'ill studv the piano ancl bride.snmid ads in thischapter, vou r.r'ill notice this: That u'hile the narrative stvle ofboth is norv old-hat. vou can still responcl to their pou'er. Bothtap desires that stil l exist-though nori'perhiips clirectecl tou'arddifferent products and different problerns. Ancl both evoke thosedesires. and channel those desires, so efl-ective'h, that if thevu,ere rervritten in todavs idiorn, and to ihfferent proi-ucts, thev still might sell niillions of dollars u'orth of goods todav.

THf SOP1\ot'R \t"{lHO\l ltr\H{\I BEfBfFORf }

t t ' r 2 . t l r t ' r ,

t l t ' t t ' r r t r t r r , ' , .

I \ \ l r , :t l 1"" ' '

' T l t e i r S t . r t ,

i l . 11, , ' .

fbrr ." 7- l t , r 'T h i s t l , :

researc' l t .1, ,

f ie ld- i l t l , , ,

I f ' t l r , ' r ,u'ith roru' yr ,

Page 53: Breakthrough Copywriting

' .tr Ic gro\\.s\ r ' l l l t ' l l t .

: . t l isc 'ussingLlrr i l r i le. one

rj t ' . strate$'i .u ls in this: :r t , str- le of; iou'ef, BOth

r tr,rl trtu'ard(. \ ( )ke thoset l , . r t i f ' ther, 'i-rcilt prod-

;, rotls toclat'.


As lr'e lnentioned before, in Chap-

ter 2, there are three questions vou must answer before \/ou can

cleterrnine u'hat goes into vour headline. These are:1. \\'hat is the mass desire that n'rotivates vour rnarket'l2. How rnuch does your lnarket knor.v about vour product?

rTheir State of Awareness.)3. Hou, many similar procluct,s ltaxe they been told about bc-

,forel (Their State of SoTfiistication.)This third question is the rnost easilv ansu'erecl. A {'eu, hours

research should give vou sarnples of'everv conrpeting ad in thefield-if there are arrv.

If You Are First in Your Market

If there are not-if vou are the first in your particular tlarket,

u-ith vour particular product-then vou are dealing r.r'ith prospectsa.:

Page 54: Breakthrough Copywriting

38 THE sopHISTrcATIoN oF yolrR l'rARKE.r.

that have no sophistication abor.rt r.our procluct at all. In otherrvorcls, thev have ner-er receivecl anv infbnnation abor-rt such aprocluct before. oncr 'ou get thenr interestecl, thev are likelv tcrl recor re rn ru ' l r r r ro re e r r t l r r rs ias t i r ' . l re l ie re , ' , , , , .1 r 'no , l . o f ' *ha t rouha'e to sar, ancl b'l' that rnuch rnore retrclilri Rernember, vourstorv is brand-neu. to tltern.

This, of collrse, is the drearn of e.l'erv rnanufacturer and evervt 'opr $ r i te r . T t t l t t ' f r : s / . Ar rc l i t l r i tpper rs r l r r i te o f ten toc la r . Sonre-tines bectiuse of :r tech'ological breakthro,gh-crenting a nelr,prodrrct (rlr;men'.s hair spravs), or a raclicallr.better procluct (long-plaving recorcls). or a firrniliar procluct at an erplorir,"ln 1s11, price(the Model T Forcl).

And sornetimes, such a brand-neru' rrarket is created bv theinsight ofan advertising rrian, clealing *,ith rin illrenclv-establisheclprocluct. In this case, the :rcl ln:rn visualizes the application of theproduct to an entireh'different market (tlre s*'itc]r, in the T\ven-ties, of'or-altine frorn an aid lbr insoninia to a boclv b.ilder fbrsk i r rn r c . l r i l t l re r r

Or he re'aches that rntrrket through tr hitherto untappeclmeclirrrn (Rerlonls {irbrilous resnlts fiorn sponsorship of "TherS64,000 Questior.r" in the earlv davs of T\').

Or he discor.ers a previously unnoticed perfbnnance of hisproduct tha.t carries it con'rpletelv bevond the linrits of its oldrnarket (Lifebuor.'.s discor,'erv that people u'oulcl accept its stro'gmedicinal odor as A cllre for perspiration odot and their subse-cluent christening of that odor u'ith the catch-r.r'ord "8.O.").

\\/hen such a golden opportunitt'-to be. first-presents it-sel{, r'ou are probably dealing *'ith a nrarket in its third or fourthstage of awAreness. Ycrur prospects knorv that thev u'oulcl likeu4rat I'our proclrct does, or thev u'ould like to get rid of the prob-lem 'n'our product soh'es-if it s'ere c,nlr, possible.

Here, the ansu,er to rrrur questiln is quite sirnple. youtrre dealing u'ith a rnarket rvhere vou rlre first. There{bre ther-Jtar e rro pre' ious i rr forrrrat ion rrho, i t s i rrr i lar produc,ts. Thereforethev are cornpletelv unsophisticated.

\ r r , :

I ) 1 - { ) . t ( I r l : r -

I 1 .t l r , t ' t l L ,

t r L r l l l l ,

. \ t t t l t 1 , , , .

\ " i i

t r l t t t ' . l , t '

I - t ' r t t ' r i 1 t r -

t l r t ' t ' t ' r l ' r , :

l r l t ' o r r t i ,

I t i r r t ' 1 , , ' , ,

\ \ i t s i l \ i l t :

\ . l . 't l t i s t i r r r ,

n t c r r t s l r , , :

t ' t i t i o t r " r ,


nr lLrkt ' t . , . . ,

pr '< lac ' l r , . , , . ,

I 1 " '


ct t1n1 t l t , ; 'soh i t ' l r , ,

For ' ,

fierc't' lr -, ,

botli b, , :l ier.alr i l i t , .

Page 55: Breakthrough Copywriting

i \ 1 )T I ] \ IARKET

: . , i l ln other. ,1, ,rrr t strc l t : t

, . . , r t ' l ikelv tor,. , rl u'ltttt vou' : ! r I l i l l ) e r . v o l l l

r i f t ' r ' t u l ( l e v e r v

, to r l r t l . Sorne-

: ' ' . t t ing r l new

1.1 ' , , r l r r r , t ( long-

. , h lou ' pr ice

. : ' , . . r t t ' t l bv the

, : , . - , . ' tab l ishecl

. . : r . t t i o r t o f t h e

: : , t l t t ' T \ l 'en-. i . l ,u ik le r {b r

, : : , ) ul t tapped: . : r r I o f "The

'. | r . r l rc 'e of his: : r . o1 i ts old' ' i r t i t s s t rong, , i t l r t i r subse-i I l o . " ) .

: prt 'sents i t -: l . : r ' ,1 or fourth' , , . , i , l L r ld l i ke

i , , i t l r t ' prob-

: . . r r r ip le ' . You[ - r . , r ' , ,1 i r re thev.. :.

-l 'herefbre


And r.'our erploitation of this answer-}otrr strateS' in ap-

proaching this rnarket-is equalh' sirnple:

L Be sintple. Be (lirect. Aboxe all, clon't be fitnu1. \-uttrc t' i-

ther tl 'te neecl rtr the claim in qrntr lrcadline-nrtthing ttnrc. Dru-

mati:e that clain in yttur cttpy-nmke it as pott:erftil as pttssillc.

And then bring in qour 7:rorluct: and proLe that it tcork,s

Nothing tnore-because uothing tllore is neeclecl. Ttl illus-

trate, let's look at one of the rnost profitable, insatiable, constanth-

rener,ving, ancl therefore ovemrorked fields in niarketing historr':

the reducing field. No one kno'nl s rvho u'as the first man to stutn-

ble on the reducing fielcl (though its fairll 'certaiu that he rnust

have become a millionaire). But all he hacl to sav itl his headline

u,rrs a simple statenent of the direct desire of rnillions of u'on-ien:


As he startecl to clean up, others inevitablv fbllorvecl. But, bv

this time, the reducirrg field had alreaclv been tapped. Advertise-

ments had been run. The direct clirin had been rliade. lvlere rep-

etition would no longer be enough. In other rvords, ihe reclucing

rnarket was now in its Sercond Sttrge of Sophistication. A lre\\'ap-

proach was necessarv. The strategv had to ber changed-to this:

If You're Second, Do This

If yclu're second, and the direct clain-r is still u'orking-then

copy that ,successfrtl claint-but enlarge on it, Drixe it to the ab-

solute limit. Outbid your crtrnpetitictn.

For erample, here are hvo successful headlines in the nor'r'

fiercelv-competitir.'e reducing field thtrt did iust that. Thev har-e

both been pushed to the outer lirnits of both legalitr- and be-

lievabilitv But thel. both r'r'orked.



Page 56: Breakthrough Copywriting

40 THE sopHrsrICATroN oF- youR NL\RKE.r.


In rnost fields. this enlarged-claim teclinique retrches theouter lirnits in successir-e stages. sornetirnes the completion ofthis process takes 'ears. In the home g.rclen field, as another ex-arnple, an advertiser brought out a Florilrundri Rose-using thisheadl ine u i th start l inq su(,( ,ess:


It u'orked. And so, some vears later, a special varietv o{'cush-ion n-run-r swept the countrv ll'ith this heaclline:


And, one'ear l.ter, this headline cirrriecl the. process to r,r,hatare probablv the absolute limits of Mother Natrrre:

.\\.HO E\'ER HEARD OF17.000 BLooNIS


As simple as this evolution looks, it procluces results. It pro-'ided a trernendous hfi to car sales in the i950'. u,hen 50,rorehorseporver rvas added to the trd'ertisernents e'er' vear. It rvasclirnared in the chrvsler 300-a car na'erl alter iis horseporverrating-an4 pegged just at the limit of belie'abilitl: practicalitr,and the inevitable public reaction.

For the reaction u,.11l come. Tor,r'arcl the e'cl, the processdisintegrates. The s,ccessful clainr is o'envorked; enlargerrientpiles on enlargernent. Nerv cornpetitors enter the field-each trv-ing to prornise rrlore. Headlires double and triple in size. \\,rdsbegi' to lose their rneaning-"u'hiter-than-*4rites" nppetir. Theprospect becomes sonfu5sfl-then skeptical. Believabilitv is shat-tered; claims are automaticalll, discounterl 50% Lr. theirreaders. \ lore prorr ise is poured in to c,rrrrpensate. The gor-errr-

ment l r t 'q i r i .

dorvn-clori r,-,

A t t l r i .o f Soph is t i c . 'all the ertr, r

petitive ltroisimilar lrcir, Igu i ,sh or t t ' 1 , , 'reach tlu'r rL -

O n t ' 1 . t trnarket rorr .stantlv r('r'r lr.lket baset l , , r

plug repl i rc, rr e n e \ \ ' O f t r r , '

In a l l t lt i nua l l r . r t ' r r ,custotr ters l , '

solutions. .rr r,

dous profit :old, sittrplt

\ \b r r r t ' r ,dozens oi . , , :20, 30, - l t t 1,l ieve therr i Ieven tr t ' i t r r '

sirnplv ac'ct r.can' t be' l r t ' l l

B t t t t l r ,month al t , ' r$'otTien ilrt' i

promises t l r ,

Page 57: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ , r t t t \ I - \RKET

: - t ' . tc ' l tcs the, : r rP lC t i on o f

. . t r rother ex-- r rs i r rg th is

I . '

: , . t r o f 'cush-

rt r'ss [9 11r]1g1

. , r l ts . I t pro-ir, rr ,10 more' . (..rr '. It $.as

, i,, ,rseporver

ir r.rr,ticztlit\',

: l r l P l 'ocess' I r i . t rqement

r i-t ' i tch trr-

, . r z t ' . \ \ b r c l s

,ppt,irr. The

l , r l r r r i s sha t -

l ,) their' l - i r t '

{ t ) \ '€rn-


ment begins to investigate. And the sales cun-e b€rgills to turll


The Third Stage of Sophistication

At this point, vour rnarket has entered into its Thircl Stage

of Sophistication. \bur prospects have nor.r' hearcl all the c'laittts-

all the extremes. Perl-raps thev har.'e even bought oue or hvt-r cottt-

petitive products. Er.'erv tirne thel' open a ne\\rspaPer. irtrother

sinrilar headline scretrms out iit thern. Hou; ore tlrct1 to distirt-

guish one Ttroduct fronr. the nms's? Hou do you brcttk throttglt to

reach them?One factor is vital here. That is the restoratirc pouer of the

rnarket vou are dealing u'ith. It tnav be a market based on a coll-

stantly recurring mass instinct, such as reducing. It tllttr,' be a ttrar-

ket based on an unsolvecl technological problem, such as spark

plug replacernent. It rnar,' be a rnarket that periodicallv lvishes to

renew or irnpro-u'e its purchases, suclt as cars, homes, appliances.

In all these cases. the desire ne\rer fades; the rr-rtrrket corl-

tinuallv renews itself. Neu, prospects cotne into the nlarket. Old

custorriers become diss:rtisfied u,ith their old purchases, their old

solutions, and begin to look again. The rnass desire-the tretnen-

clous profit potential-still erists. But it connot be tapped by the

olcl, sitnple methocls any longer.\Vornen still want to lclse n'eight. But bv nor'r' thev'r'e read

clozens of ads for reducing aids-all prornising thern to ttrke off

20, 30, 40 pounds itr a tnatter of rveeks. Thev no longer fullv be-

lieve thern. Perhaps thel'believe these trds so little that they r.r'ort't

even trv il new product at all. For uronths, even vetlrs. ther lni*'

simplv accept their ovenveight condition as "sornetliing that just

can't be helped."But the desire never fades. The dissatisfaction builds up,

month after rnonth. Secretll', perhaps even unconscioush', these

\\.orrlen are hoping to find a neu: product-a nett, headline-that

prornises them a neu: u)alJ to ,satisfy that age-old desire.

Page 58: Breakthrough Copywriting


And on this funclarnental fact, we build our strategv for sell-ing a market in its Third Stage of Sophistication.

If your market is at the ,stage u:here they'ae hearcl all theclaint"s, in all their extrente,s, then mere repetition or exaggerationrcctn't rcork any longer What this rnarket neecl,s nou; i,s a neu; cle-oice to make all these old clainw becrnne fresh and belieuable tothent again. ln other u;orcls, A l/E\V MECHAI,{ISLI----a: neu) uayto making the old promise uork. A dffirent proces,s-o freshchance---a brancl-neu; po,ssibility of utccess rchere only di,sap-pointment has re,sulted before

Here the emphasis shifts from rvhat the product does toHOW it works. Not accomplishrr-rent, but performance becomesdominant. The headline expands. The clairn rernains-but nolvit is reinforced by the mechanism that accornplishes it. In the re-ducing field, for example, the limits of its basic promise had beenreached by headlines like this:


Norv nen' leaders emerge-avoiding the cornpetition ofclaims-stressing mechanism instead, like this:



A vital change has ti,rken place in both these ads-and ineverv ad that deals success{ullv with this Third Stage of Sophis-tication. In the previous, Second-Stage ads, the entire headlinewas taken up by a cornplete statement of the main clairn. Belorvit, in sn-raller t1pe, in either a subhead or the bodv copr,, camethe mechanism that accomplished the claim. Often, this mecha-nism was abbreviated-simplv rnentioned instead of being ex-plained-indicated by a sort of shorthand, like this:


Rt' l r t lExPert s l: I

In Thir t l - :

rer,ersecl. Rr t ]

to almost all ir'

fbre, this short

be{bre a firt' :

bzrsic clainr- I

rnunicoted ir t

hou this cltti i

First t l i ,

a po in t o1 ' t l i l :

again. Antl t1 '

neu'cl tat t t ' , ' l '

n take s t t r t ' l l , ' .

I - \ ( '

cov t ' r ' r : :

u ' i t l i t , ' l :

u ' i t l l " ' l :

Or - , r ' 'in the ht ' , i , l :

have this r,, i


Page 59: Breakthrough Copywriting

T \ ( ) I R \ , IARKET

: . r t t 'g ' fbr sel l -

i t , urd al l the,' ' \(tlgeration' . r \ 11 t te tO de-

i ! , , l iatable t<t'l-'--<t rterc uay, , "-a fresh

' , , , r t l r l d isap-

, * l rrct c loes to. .r t r( ( , l )ecomeslIr\ ltut nor.v. r t . In the re -r : r l . ( ' h r id been

,. .ttls-and in.r j t . { ) f Sophis-, i : r r ' , ' headl ine, , . l . r inr. Below,i'. t opr'. came:, t l r rs urecha-i , ,t bt ing er-




Reird the Astonishing Experience of Ni'u' \ork FootlErpert u,ith //re Fanutrts Eat-and-Recluct Plutt.

In Third-Stage ads, llou'er.'er, this arrangernertt is corltll lt 'tclr-

re'r'ersed. Bv this tiIne, the b2sic clairn htts llecortle u'ell-krl91'tt

to ahnost all its prospects-perhaPs even too ri'ell-knou'rl. Thcrc-

fore, this shofthancl can be apphed to the clairn itself. \\'lttit u'as

before a fir'e to ten u,ord headline describing nothirlq but the

bttsic clairn-"I AM 6l POUNDS LIGHTER"-ri()tt' L'utt l,r. ctttn-

nrunicatecl in a .single rcord in o lrcodline dexotcd to cxplainittg

lnu; thi,s cloint i,s accontplisherl. For instance:






First the mechanisrn is brought into the heaclline to establish

a point of diff'erence-to rnake the okl clairns fresh and belier.'able

again. And then-once the prospect is told that here is tr brand-

new chance for success-fhen the clain can be re'statecl in fill, to

ntake sure that she reali:es euerytling she i's gettirtg. Like this:



Released for the first time! The amazing scientific clis-coverv that rnelts up to 37 POUNDS off men lnd 11'e11gn-u'ithout starutrtion diets, r'r'itliout a single liungrv 111e11snf-r,r'ithout even giving up the foods you lovel

Or-using the sarne Thircl-Stage arrangerttent of mechanistn

in the headline, and clairn elaborated in the lead parzrgraph-r.r'e

har,e this ad:

Page 60: Breakthrough Copywriting



Used successfullv bv thousands clf phvsicians! Lose asmanr. pclunds as vou like u'itl iorrt cliets, ivithout exercise,u'ithout giving up tlte kinds of foocl rrtu lot.e to eatl

In both these uds-and all others like thenr-the nromise it-self is subordintrted to the rnechanisrrr u4ric.h ,l""oulplirhes thatprornise. This mecl'ranism is featured in the heaclline. When adssuch as these are srrccessful, \ou ure denlirrg ri ' ith a rnarket thatis in its Third Stage of Sophistication.

The Fourth Stage

But I'ou are still in a competitive rnarket, ancl such ads gir-eonlr,' a ternporarv adr.'antage. Sucli ads, presenting rr ne\\,promise,begin a ner.r'trend. \\rithin a ferv rnonths. the Third Stage of'So-phistication passes into a Fourth Stage-rr neu' strrge of elabora-tion trnd enlargernent. But this tirne, the elirborzrtion is concen-tratecl on the mechttnisrn, rather thtrn on the prornise-like this:


This Fourth Stage strateg)' can be surnrntrrized like this:lf a cornpetitor hrn just introcluced a neu rnechanism to

achiece the ,sanrc clairn cLs that perfonned br1 qour protluct, anclthat netc-rneclmnistrt onnouncentent is producing sales, then yottcrntnter in this rcay. Sintply elaborate or enlarge upon the ,suc-cessfiil nrcchani,srn. XIake it easier, quicke; ,surer; allou: it to ,solxenore of the problent; oLerconTe dd lintitation,s; proni,se extra bene-

.fits. 't'ou are beginning a stage rf embellishntent .sirnilar to the

Second Stage o.f Sophi,stication de,scril:etl uboxe. The sanrc ,strat-egy rcill be ffictire here,

But, unfortunatelr.', so u'ill the stune lirriitirtions. The Fourth

I l l l . o I ' l l l r . l ,

\ t . r { t ' , , 1 \ , :

I ' 1 , . . , \ ( l r l r . . r

1 1 1 1 : l r O i t r i . :

: , t t t ' t l r i t t I r ' '

l j i r ' ' t , : . '

l r t 0 l r i t r t ' l : , . 1

I r l \ l l t \ ( ) l l 1 . . r

1 , , ' r r t t t ' ] t t , . , :' l ' l

r i r r l r r r r t l l ' ,] t ' t r t r t l l r t t , : ,

I l r t ' t r t r . ,

t i u r c t ' . ' l - l r , :

t l r t ' t t i c c l r . t r , : -

u i l l l r i r r t . 1 , , '

F i l i l r S tug ,is s i r i r l to I ' ,t l t t ' r n l t r k t t ,

I t t l l r r ' I

l t d i r t ' t ' ; i t , ' ,( l t L ' ( l r ( t t l t 1 ' ,

t l f ' S o p l t i s t t , , . 't ' t t ,s,st ' l i t t ( i .

t l r c ' , s r t r r t t . I ) .

t t i . s t t r t r l t i t l ,

Ir irrr,scl.f . ), , , ,pnt ,spt ' r ' t t i r '

f icatiort. \ , ,A n o r r t . '

ket bec ' i t r r . ,gainecl i t l , , ,

the Postr r l

\ ' lEN (. l t \(

Page 61: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ 0 [R \T . {RKET

. , : . . ' I -os t ' r l s

. : ( ' \ ( ' l ' C ' 1 S e ,

: , . L t I

l i r ( 'P ro l l t i se i t -

. | ( , t r lP l ishes that

, i l : r r t ' . \ \ ' hen ads

: l . r rnarket that

e Fourth Stage

: , i . r rc l r ads g ive

: . r l l t ' \ \ 'Prolnise,. : : ,1 \ taqe o f So-. l . r j t . { ) l e labora-. r : t r )1 t l s concen-

: : . r . t ' - l i ks th i t '

r ' I l ike this:, , t , r ' l tanistn to

' , t 1 t t - L t d t t c t , a n c l

, . , ;1, ' . t l rcn yorr. , t i ) t t t t t l r c suc -,;.. ' , ,rc lf to ,solue

" .1 ' t ( ' . \ t ra bene-' ' : r r L i l t t r t o t he'l- l ' ,

\(tt l le Strat-

' : . . T l r t ' Fou r t l r

' I 'HE sopHISTIcATIoN oF louR \ lARKE.r 15

Stage o{' Sophistication, like the Seconcl Stage utich it resenr-

bles. er,'entuallv pushes itself out of the realnr o{ bclievabilitr'. -qt

this point, firrther elaborations become inefl'ectire'. \ittt rtre tlre'tt

{rrced rvith tr.r'o alternati','es:First. discovering a new, acceptable rnechunisttt to rttakt' tlte

promise fresh ancl belierable agirin. But retnen'rber, the' tttt 'clta-

nism vou rrse mllst not onlv be tteu' tind legitirnate, but it rttttst

be acceptecl as believable arrcl siqnificant b'n' ntttr nttrket. Eaclt

Third and Fourth Stage acl that prercecles vou, tnakes this prob-len'r of trcceptance n-iore and rnore diflicult.

Eventuallr,'. o{' course, no ne\\' rtrechanistu ri'ill gain accep-

tnnce. The nrarrket ri'ill have gro\\'n tire'cl clf \()ur prolnises ancl

the rnechanislrs br,' u'liich ther.- ilre rrccomplisltecl. \bur prospectsu'ill have been glutte'cl br'' trdvertising. \bu u'ill have retrchecl the

Fifih St:ige of Sophistictrtion-the rlost cliilic'rrlt-u'here the field

is said to be exhtrustecl-rvhere courpetitors rlre clropping out of

the market en lnasse.

How to Revive a "Dead" Product

ln thi,s Finul Stuge o.f Sophi,sticotion, tlour nm*et no longer

lteliexe,s in qour ad--eftisirtg, and tltereJitre no lctnger u:ishes trt be

au:are of your product. ln ntany tcays, therefbre. tli,s Fifth Stuge

o,f Sophistication corre,sponcls to the Fi.fth Stoge of Arcarcnc,ss dis-

cus,serl in Chapter 2. Tlte Ttroblenn rtre tl'te sanrc. Tlrc ,strntegq i,s

tlrc ,sanrc. The en4thrt,sis sln.fis front the pnttrtise oncl the nrccha-

ni,snt uhiclt rLcconrpli,slrc,s it, to identification rcith tlrc pro,spectlilnself. I 'ctu ure rlealing here uith thc problent of bringing tlour

pro,s1tect irtto tlour orl-not through cle,sire-but through idcnti-

. f icat ion. (See Chapter 8.)An outsttrnding erarnple of a product rvhich had lost its mar-

ket because of' such a Fifth Stage o{' Sophistication. ancl thengained it back bv tr brill iant use of the identification headline. is

the Posturn acl discussed in Charrter 2, nnd its heaclline, "\\'HY

\ IEN CRACK. . ' '

Page 62: Breakthrough Copywriting


Let's Look at an Industry That Went ThroughAII Five Stages of Sophistication

But perhaps the classic exarnple of irn industrv r.r4rich en-countered all fir.e stages of sophisticn[i611-1116] overr.anre thern-is the cigarette Inclustn'. The histor-v o{'cigarette advertising istt continuous battle against cornpetition, against physical and so-cial taboos, er.en against the verr, slrccess of its or,rrr current ad-vertising; rvhich srrturates and erhausts the rnarket bv the rveightoI i ts corrrbinet l i r r t lust l r erpenditrrres. arrcl r . . , , rst ,r l t11 derrranclsnerv approac.lres.

Let'.s brieflr' erarnine the rnain current o{'cigtrrette ad'ertis-ing first-the progression from the first t' the fifih Stases ofsophistication-and then discuss sorre or' the side nroblerns itenc'orrntered.

In the First stage of sophistication, r,vhen the rnarket ,nr.asnerv, cigarette aclvertising featured ttrste, enjclr.rnent, pleasure inthe hetrdline:

..I'D \\ALK A \IILtr FOR A CAN{EL!''


This rar'r' prornise of enjov'e't graduallv bec"e elaboratedand ernbellishecl to push it to the lirnits of believabilitri In thissecond stage, since r-ou cannot nieasure the pleasure a cigerettegives r''ou, the pro'rise-gro*,th took the {irrm of broacler anclbroader comparisons:



B,t, rvithout rneas,re'rent, the limits of' enlargement aresoon reached. So Third-Stage strtrtegr.'began to lre ernplovecl-acontinuous stretun of' ltrilliant nell, rnechttuisrns:


I ' I i E s ( ) l ' l l l . j

i l

. 1 l i ( I

i nq p r r l r l i , .,u t t l l r t ' g . , r ,

. ' P I I I I - I I

( I i l

B r l t ,

q o \ ' ( ' n l r r t ( ' 1 . :

t h e i t r t h r . t : '

t ( x ) l - \ l ( , , . .

nrarket r r r : r

s i r r t ph l r r ;

t l t i t t t l t t ' 1 , , . it l t e \ l r u ' 11 , ,

f it ' lcl. or' ( ,

T l r r r . '

an inchr . t r . ' .

ici i l sit le pr',

b l i ng t l r t ' i r :

t l te { i ic t ' , , :

T l r t ' i : r

\ \ t r r l t l \ \ , , :

ftrrgotte'rr :

t en t i a l r r r , L : -

spectablt ' :

the r r rgr ' : r

Page 63: Breakthrough Copywriting

nt Through


. ' . r l r i ch en-

. 1 : 111 ' [ 111 ' 111 -

, i ' . t ' r t i s i ng i s, : . . , ] ancl so-

! I lrf(,1]t acl-

: l r t ' u ' e i gh t' . ' . t l t ' r r rands

' : t ' r r t l ve r t i s -

i r \ t i t {es of

: ' r ' , r l r len-rs i t

: : , . r1 'ket was

i ' l t ' . tsr t re in

, . l . r l r t i ra ted

l : : r I n t h i s

.r t iqirrette

r , , . r ( l t f and

I . :

' r r r ( ' l l t a r e,11 , ,1 6 . {_2




And, as each of these mechilnislns \\/as accepted bv the bur-ing public, the originator's cornpetitors rrcloptecl the rnecha.nisnland began to elaborate on it-initiating the Fourth Stage:




But eventuallv the mechnnisnts lost their potencv, ancl thergovernment ruled orlt the health claims; and in the earlv Fiftiesthe industrl' faced a Fi{th Stilge market. But a new rntrrketingtool-Motivation Research-hacl shou,n them horv to re.ach thisrnarket rvithout rnechanisrns or clirilns, urithout er,en headlines.sirnply bv projecting strong visual identifications u'ith the virilitvthat the public had accepted in a cigarette. For erarnple, trnv ofthe Nlarlboro "\ririle \{en" ads. Or their inritations in Chester-field, or Carnel ads.

Thus u'e hirve the full spectrurn of sophistication con{r'ontingan industn'. But cigarette advertisers also encountered tlvo crit-ical side problems. The first of{'ered thern the opportunih of clou-bling their rnarket. The second, of retaining that huge n'rarket inthe face of the rnost aclverse publicitr:

The first challenge occurrecl irnrriediatelv fbllou'ing the FirstWorld \\Iar. Bv this tirne the old "Cloffin Nails" taboo had beenforgotten-for men. But there still rernainecl the equallv great po-tentiiri rnarket of u'omen snokers-if srroking coulcl be rnade re-spectable for rvornen. The trend rvas definitelv in that direction-the urge, the curiosih' eristecl in rnillions of u'ornen in all social

Page 64: Breakthrough Copywriting


gl21sse5-.eone respectable u,ornen \\,'er€' ac,tllalh claring tcl srnokein public.

B.t the trend-left b''itself-ri,'.rcl t.kt, r..r-s t. de'elop. Anadre f i i ser r r t 'n t l r lu l to l ,e c l r t , i t te r l to iu , r , , , l t , r . r r l t , l l r r r l t renr l . r , , ln , ,k "snoking for u'onren rrot onlr.' acceptable. brrt desirilble. To channelthe vast rriovenrent tou'arcl liberati,on arrrl t,tlrralitv of'the T\r,entiesas the clrir-i 'q {brce to open lrp this lrrrg. rrcl*'rrrarket.

B.t such ur acl'ertise'ent co.ltl rr.r.r (,orr. right o,t a'clsuggest that *'onren srnoke. It coukl riot .r't,rr sho*, a \\()mansrnoking. such iin rrcl'ertisernent r.-trs clefi,itt 'h.rr F'ifth Stage prob-le'-r proble' in icle'tifictrtio', Arrl it *'irs s,l 'ecl b'li,ki'q .t r r i r r r r r n t l \ \ ' o l i l i u l i r r l l r e i r r r r o s t l t p p e r r l i r r g < . , 1 1 1 1 1 1 , 1 . { j 1 1 1 1 - i r l o r e -ri ' ith u s'oking sit,ution. The :Ld sho*,eri . \oll 'q corrple. sittingtogethc'r on a beirch on n'oor l l i t n iglr t . I I t ' is just l ig lr t i 'g upa cigarette-the first pufls o{' srroke an, jrrst rlr.iftirrs into therroo'light. She has her {ace t'r'ecl t'*'aril lris. a'cl her ro.orclsrntrke up the entire he:rdline (ancl, ercept lirr thc logo, the er-r-tire acl):

..BLO\\' SONIE NIY \\A\-."

Nothing'ore 'eecled to be said. A'ast rr t ' * ' r rarket- 'neneclup u'ith {ilrr u'orcls.

The second cliallenge occ'rrecl tJrirtr. r'ears ltrter. This r,r,asthe c.ncer scare of the late Fifties. *, r.rrtirrres into todar.It restrlted in {b.r' reactions: First, there \\'r,re cigtrrette holclers,*rater pipes, cerarnic filters, etc.-n''n 't 'r ' lrrc.rr srrcc,eeclecl irr es-tablishing a national 'arket, si'ce ther. reprerse'tecl t'o rnuchincor rVen ience. too l r la t iu r t i rn i rd rn iss i r , , , t r , , i t t l re l l r r r r . l r l ser \ \ i r su'orried about his srnoking

secondlr: the scare prod.c,erl a rletenrirrecl efibrt in the i'-dustrv itself to concluct its o*' research, to co,nteract or cor-rect such clairns.

Third, it proclucecl rr ternporarv drop in cig:irette sales.A'cl. forrrth, it operecl up a'ast ne*' rnarket fbr a' alreacl'

t ' r ist inq pr ' , , ,

s t '11 ' . u ' l r rc l ,

c ' igarett ts. IF i l t t ' r r

ke t . B t t t r r , ,

of t teu ' 1 l t ' r , 'cigirrette's. r.

to lc l u 'h ic l r ,

to retri ic't ' t l

had puss,' ,1Fi rs t 5 t

l'\ I

Scc'or r r I

Thin l '

" P \ l i l

I \ \

Fcxrrt l ,

" T \ l

A n t l t l , ,risht bac k :

" \ \ I '

l . t

Page 65: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ I ) T R \ I . \ R K E T

l r ,J to sr l loke

: , , t l t ' r t ' l op . An- , . r r t l . T i r r t r i *e

., -fo


: t lrt ' T\r.enties

: . : 1 l r t o r r t and

r r r ' . \ i t \ \ 'Onlan

: j , \ t i rqe Prob-i I ' r l i r i k ing a' , 111 l 1 ; 1 ' € ' -

, , r r l ) l ( ' . s i t t ing. ' l rg l r t inq up: : : : r l i l l t o t h e: ', I i ret' \\ 'ords. , , ,10 . the en-

: . , t -opened

r:, r This rvas,. . i r r t<l toclar.: , ' t t t ' l rok le rs .r , . t , t l t ' r l i n e s -, . ,1 to< l rnucht ' ; 1 ' 1 | 1 ; 1591 11 t25

, , : r i r r t h e i n -I r . t . r ( t o r cor -

\ i r les.

rr i l lreadv


existirlg product-the filter cigarette-aicled br the inclustn. it-

sel{, Jrich \\'isel}' garnbled thert \\,ortld not nlc)\'t' ottt of-

cigarettes, but sirnplv into a difl'erent kincl of' cigarette.

Filter cigarettes had al\r'trr,'s eristed. tls a sn)irll. specialtv nlar-

ket. But now tlle\.were expanclecl into il tnass niarket. \l i l l iotrs

of ner.l prospects, lvh' hacl ne\-er llef're €l'ell col'lsi(lcretl filter

cigarettes, now sought out infonnittion about thetll, askecl to lle

tolcl u4rich one to bur.. A ne\\, l]rrtrket openecl up. Arld it strrt'tetl

to retrace the satne Stages of Sclphisticatitln irs its parel'rt l l larkei

had passecl through fiftv vears befbre':

First Stage:



Second Stage:


Third Stage:



Fourth Stage:



And the Fi{ih Stage-in ;1n industrv-u'ide stroke of genius-

right back to the flavor trgtrin:






Page 66: Breakthrough Copywriting


And so it goes. Infor each rnarket. The:


industrt' afier iuclustrr,-.s i t r r te dead l r r , l r i t l l t , r rqes .

The sarne life q'cleThe s:une r.villing-

ness to adapt rnther than perish.

A Personal Note

In this book I har-e triecl to u,rite ir scierrtific st'clr. of trcl-vertising, u,ithotrt troubling the rc-ader rvitlr rr-hate\.er llersonnlethics I n-n'self' mav observe. E'erv c,olrr *-riter. *,ho lir",

"r,",s rve l r te r l f ' o r davs to t ' re i r te i r l re \ \ - , ,1 r1 r r , , , , , .1 , r r i l l k r rou- l ro r r i tfeels to see that i rpprrach copi i :c l ' re 'r ie lr t l^ 'a cor 'pet i tor. e'er'' ounce of that feeling. But srrclr er.'ts happ"n evervclar''. A'd they are effective. There{i'-e,. erirriples s.rclli ,rs thosed e t * i l e d a b o r e r r r r r s t b e l i s t e d . i n i r l l , , 1 , j - t . r i r i t r . i r s r r l r u s i n e s sstrategv th:rt htis and u'il l sol'e cornp.titri e problerns in rr com-petitive industrv. I inclucle thern here-rrot as recornrnendations.but rrs possible strategies to lte chosen or. r.ejt,c,tecl.


( ' O l l ( ' ( ' l ' l t r ,

t l r e r t t t ' r , :

r i ' i t l t t l r r

o r r l 1 l o l t .I l t t t u t ' :

o r t t o i . ,

l u ' t o1 t r ,

t f I r r l r i / ,

I , , r . :

c ' o r t t t ' r r t

r i t ' nr t i r IT lI l l r

i r t i t s 1 , , , : .- \n r l r t ' . ,

l l u t

Page 67: Breakthrough Copywriting

I i ) { ) T R \ I A R K E T

. . r l l r ( , l i f 'e cvc le. \.rri l( ' \Yil l ing-

)ersonal Note

, r t r r t l v o f ad -

i ' ' . t ' l ' PCrSOni l l' , l , , r l r t r s eve r'..

r r, ru' hor,v it

! , ) r l rP( ' t i tor . I

: r . r l ) l ) r 'n e\ .erv. r r t l r i t s t h o s e

. , . . t l r r r s i n e s s' : : , \ i n a co l l t -

: : r r r t t t t l a t i ons ,



Up to this point, $'e hrtve been

concerned rvith the strategv of planning copr'-of arriving at tlte

theme of our ad and the content of its heaclline-rather than

rvith the techniques o{'actuallv r,r.'riting this copr. The entire sec-

ond portion of the book u,ill be devoted to these techniques.But u'e rnnst pause norv, and erarnine one cll tl 'rese techniquesout of sequence. It is called VERBALIZATION. And it is theart of increasing the intpact tf a headline bq the rcay in u;hiclt

it i,s statecl.Everrthing u'e have done so far has helped us obt:rin the

content of our hendline. We nou' know rvltrrt u'e u,elnt to sitr''. And\\/e no\\, have to deterrnine hou, to siiv it.

The rr-rost obr-ious rvar,; of course, is sirlpll- to state the clainrin its birrest forrn. "Lose \\'eight," or "Stop Corns." lor ertrrnple.And if vou are the first in vour field. there is no better wa)',

But vou are ccinrpetitive, or u,here the thought is too


Page 68: Breakthrough Copywriting

52 t l t \ \ ' . {ys - t 'o srRl jNG' l } tEN youR t I I tADl_lNt j

cornplicated to be stated sirnplr- ancl clirectly. tltcn Llort tnust re-infirce tlrcft claint l:y binding otht:r iumges tt't it rcitlt thc rcord.sin rchk:h Uou erpre,\s lt. This is Verbaliziltion. And it crrn ac-cornplish severtrl difTererit purposes:

1. lt can ,strengtlu:n the claim-bv enlarging upon it, bv rnea-s r r r i n g i t . l r r r n a k i r r g i t r n o r e r i r i t l . e i t , .

2. It can rni*e tbe claim nerc ancl fresh again-bt.hvistingit, changing it. presenting it from a clifl 'erent angle. turning it intotr. nttrration. cltallenging the reacler u.ith an exarnple. etc.

3. It can help the clairn i;rr1l the pro,spect into tlrc bodtl oftlrc arl-by- pronrising hirl inforrlitttion aborrt it. bv rlrestioninghim, br.. partiallv rer-ealing rnechirnisrn. etc.

All of tliese goals are ncconlplished llv adding r"ariirtions. en-largerrents or enrbellishrnents to the heiiclline claiur of thead. These rrdclitional irnages irre bound into the urtdn claim bvthe sentence structure of the heaclline. Thev alter the nrain clainrto rnake it more eff-ective.

Thev ilre the secrtncl creutive step in u.riting the ild. First.u'e have seen hou'to cleterniner the i,Lppeal itself. And nou', hou'to shape that appeal into its niost efl'ective {bnr-i in the hetrcllirie.

Tliere are. of corlrse, an infinite nurnber o{'t}resc. r'rrritttrons(everv goocl copru'riter invents a f€:u'hlmself). But there are ger]-eral patterns that most of thenr {bllou-. I{ere rlre sor}re of theseguideposts foru'our txrrr tliinking:

1. \{easure the size of the clrrim:


. . I AN{ 61 POL!)IDS LIGHTER. , . ' '


2. Measure the speed of ' the clairr i :


; l t u . l ys ' r ( ) \ r i

' 1 \

T C ) I ) l s r

i l . ( . r , r r :

\ 1 \

" ( ( ) '

E I , S O I

- 1 . \ l t ' t ,' / j

\ \

. . \ / l r

5 . S t ' r r . : 'tot tc l t . s( ' ( , () l

/ \ \

"- l ' i l 1

6 . I ) , r

l \KTO I . ' r . \ . t

' \ - l , .

I \ - f I I I : I

7 . I ) r . , r

i l t lI N ( ; l l t ( ,

" i l i l

TFTI - I ' I \

E . S t . t t ,' 1 . 1 ( ) 1 '


I l t - \

Page 69: Breakthrough Copywriting

' \ \ 0 ( I t HEADLI \E

, , , , t l t ) u l n I l , \ t r c_' , . r t lL t l t t rcords

\r r t l i t cr ln r tc-

, . i ) ( ) r I i t . l tv r lea-

',. ; '1 -|y1' tt i ' isting' t r r r r r i r r g i t i n to

: r ] , . t , t c ' .

: ' . ' r l u ' l ndy t fi ,r r 1restioning

. _ ' . . r r i r r t ions, en-: , , t l L i n t o { ' t h e

: : , . t i r r c , l r i i r n b r '' ' 1 , , . r r r a i n c l i i i n i

. - I l r t ' i u l . F i r s t .

\ r , t I r rou ' . hou'

: r l r t ' l t t ' ac l l i ne .

: i r , . t ' r ' l t r i ' l t io t ts

l i i i r r | t , i l re gen-. , , r ' , t - o f therse

bL( )o ) ts

ll8 \\',\ys ro sTRENGTHEN youR HE.\DLI\-E 53




.1. \{etaphorize the claim:..BANISHES CORNS:".XIELTS A\1A}- UCLY FAT!''

5. Sensitize the clirinr bv rnaking the prospect f'eel, smell,touch. see or hear it:


6. Dumonstrarte the claini bv shou'ing a prime exarnpler:



7. Dranratize the claim. or its result:. .HERE'S AN EXTRA $50. C]RACE-I 'NI MAK-



8. Stirte the clairn irs a prrrrrdo\:,,HO\T' A BALD.HEADED BARBER SAYED NIY


Page 70: Breakthrough Copywriting

51 38 rl,ays ro sr.Rr,\icrHEN youR HEADLTNE

9. Remove lirnitations from the claim:..SHRINKS HEMORRHOIDS \\'ITHOUT SUR-



10. Associate the clairn rvith values or people with r,r,hornthe prospect rvishes to be identified:



11. Shorv hor,v rnuch rvork, in detail. the clairn does:..NO\\T! RELIEF FROM AI,L 5 ACID-CAUSED



12. State the claint as a question:-WHO ELSE \\ANTS A \\/HITER \\ASH-\\'ITH



13. offer info'nation about ho*'to acco'rplish the clairn:,,HOW TO \\I IN FRIENDS AND INFLUENCE



14, Tie authoritr. into the claim:..BOSS X,IECHAIJIC SHO\YS HO\\' TO A\'OID


\ \ A Y S I ( ) \ ] I

. . I I I

F E E I - I i

1 5 . B t ' i ,

" 1 1 I

COi- l ) ,

\\ 'I i r E 1INC] . ( I i

" \ \ IC O L I ) I '

16 . S t r ' , .

" t \ '

P L L ( ; \ I

" \ ( ) ,

E L E ( T I i

1 7 . S t r , . .

" ( ) | I

$38i1.+t t '" o \ I

T]LE \ \

18. 'll i r': ,. . \ \ I I

HAS T t I I" l ) t t I

O R I \ ( ; .

KNO\\ \

19 . S t rL t ,

" l . ( t t

" \ \ ( ) r

Page 71: Breakthrough Copywriting


) f 7 ' sLrR-

\ \ \ . f {EN

.., ri ' ith \vholr

. \ E \ - E R

\ \ L \ I )A-\ \ ( .osTl "

r : i ( l o e s :

r - ( \ t sED

- \.\.s"t,L

I -\ \ ITH

. ' l ' t i \ l \ -

. t r t l r t c la im:

I I F , \CE

I i I I ) O F

) \ \ OID

38 r,r'eys ro sTRENGTHEN youR HEADLINE


15. Before-ancl-after the clairn:..BEFORE COLDENE A CHILD COT OVER A



16. Stress the neu'ness of the clainr:..ANNOLTNC/NG,I GUIDED N,IISSILtr SPARK



17. Stress the erclusivitv of the claim:..OL|RS ALONE.I PERSIAN LAMB ORICINALS-



1E. Turn the claim into a challenge for the reuder:..WHICH T\\]IN HAS THE TONI? AND \\'HICH



19. State the clairl as a case-historr- rlrotation:..LOOK. N{OM-NO CA\'ITIESI''..\\OULD YOU BELIEYE IT-I HAVE A COLD!''

Page 72: Breakthrough Copywriting

56 38 n' lr-s ro sr.RltNcr-rrEN youR HEADLTNE

20. Conclense the clairtr-interrchtrnge vour product ttncl theprocluct it replaces:


21. Sl'rnbolize the clairn-replace the direct statenrent orlneilsrlrement of the clairn u'ith a parallel realitr-:


22. Conr"rect the mechanisrn to the clnirn in tJre l-reracllirre:..FLOATS FAT RIGHT OUT OF YOUR BODY!''..F'EEDS \\ASTE GAS FUN,IES BACK INTO


23. Startle the reader bv contradicting the lr,ar.he thinks thertnec l r i r r r isnr s l ror r l t I u ork :


24. Clonnect tlte need ancl the claim in the heaclline:..TI{ERE IS ONLY ONE SOLUTION TO AN AD-


25. Offer inforrnation in the ad itselfr..\\THY MEN CRACK . . .' '..\\.HAT EYERYBODY OUGHT TO KNO\\'ABOUT


26. Turn the clairu or the need into a ctlse histon':. .AUNT \IEC. \\ IHO NEVER N,IARRIED. .. ' '. .ACAIN SHE ORDERS-'A CHICKEN SALAD.


l l8 tt:lt 's .t o . .

2 7 . ( , r ' '

\ \ rTIGI I

2 , S . \ \ . ' rthe proth rr t

' 1 ) r

EAR\ I 1

2 ! 1 . I - r r ;intcl tur r .t 'r . :

\ \\ t . \ \ I

\ t

B E I , \

3 0 . S l rtr rur ivt ' r 'sr t l l ' .

uI \ ( . I - i l '

B I I I J \ '

. l l S t . r : .

I l lL I \ I - \ ]

l l t . Sr r r ' :t ic lns l iur t r ,

: t

H.{Rt- \ rr l

. t . t . \ ( 1 r : :

' t t

TIO\ IHF,. \ I i - I

Page 73: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ r ) t l t H I ] . { D L I \ E

r : , , r l r l ( . t a t r ( l the

\ r ' L -BE l "

' . t i r t t ' n t e n t o r

f I - \ \ T I C ]\ I . ( ) \ ( ; 1 "

: r , , . l r t ' a r l l i n e :

i I l ( ) l ) \ ' 1 "

K I \ T O

' . i , , . t l r i n k s t h e

- l t \ouR

. , . , , l l i r r t ' :

) \ \ \ l ) -

\ \ I ]OUT

' \ ' r ) l ' \ :


\ \ 1 . \ D .

36 u,,rvs ro srRE\crHE\ youR HE:\DLINE 57

27. Clive ir lrrlrre to the probleur or lreed:..\VHEN YOU'RE \\'EARY \\'ITH DA)--TIT,IE FA-


28. \\Iam the reacler irbout possible pitfalls i{' lre cloe'sn't rrsethe product:


29. trrnphasize thc clairri lx'its phraseologr'-bv breaking itinto tu,o sentences, or repeating it, or a part ol it:



B E L S I "

30. Shou. hou' easr- thc' claim is to tr.ccornplish bv imposinga unil'ersiill\:-overcolne lirnitartion:


31. State the clif-ference in the headline:. .THE DIFFERENCE IN PRENIIU\I TIASO-


32. Sulprise vorlr reacler into realizing thtrt fbrn'rer linritn-tions l-rave nou, been overcolue:


33. Aclclress the people u,ho cari'f buv vour product:..IF YOU'\'E ALREADY TAKEN YOUR \ACA_


Page 74: Breakthrough Copywriting

5E 38 u,ays ro sTRENGTHEN yolrR HEADLTNE

34. Address vour prospect directlv..TO THE \{AN WHO \\TILL SETTLE FOR


35. Drarnatize horv hard it u,as to proclucc' the clairn:.. \ \ 'HEN


36. Accuse the clairn of being too goocl:-IS IT INIMORAL TO NIAKE MONEY THIS


37. Challenge the prospect's present lirniting beliefs:..YOU ARE T\\IICE AS SMART AS YOU THINK."

38. Turn the clairn into a question ancl anslver:-YOU DON'T KNO\\I \VHAT'S UNDER THE


And so on: an infinite number of r.'ariations. Trr. to createvoul' own-tolnorro\\/.


headl int ' pr ' , , i

S o n r t ' t l i : :copv u'ritt 'r '.there i rr t , t l , r

T h e f i r . 'effectivr'. i ' lrconsults i r l i . 'out the ongr:procluct.s pr rlike this:

' l l )coFl- r l

Page 75: Breakthrough Copywriting

) I H I I E \ D L I N E


t l . t i r r i :

; I ' I J I S

\ I I O L E

r T t { I S

. . : , ' t s :

I i l \ K . "

i T I I El . ( ) \c;

t ( ) t - t . t )\ \ I I O

: ' . t1 ) crei l te



Norv, let'.s look at a few sPecial

headline problems, and then sum uP:

The Three Levels of CreativitY

Something should be said here about the Vrrrious trpproaches

copy r.vriters use to dig up a new headline' As far as I can tell,

there are three of them:

The first, the shallor','est. and the rrost u'iclespreacl trncl in-

effective, is the \\Iord-Substitute Technique' Here the copv u'riter

consults a list of proven and successful heiicllines. IIe then pLrlls

out the original product name ancl substitutes his or,rrr; or his ou'n

products performance, etc. He r-rsuallv colnes up u.ith srtrnething

like this:



Page 76: Breakthrough Copywriting

60 sL.u\rARy: .I.IIE .,\Rr oF- cRE,{rrvE t,r__{\NrN(;




If these trds rrre' c'piecl fro' rr sirnilar prochrct, in the samenrarket, at the sirrne tinrer. thern their clrtrnce of success is goocl-especiallr i1' thev ernrbellish the prornist, in anr *'rrr'. But if theproduct, or the nrtrrket, or the tirning is cli{Tercnt. tl ien the clrturcesol succrss cliniinish proportiontrtelv Ther- lrcc,orne Echo Acls-acls that remind people of sorre other prodrrc,t. The.r. pav no ut-tention to rrnirlue product-rnarket-tirniug relationship that eristsat tlie rnorrient. Tlrerefrrre thev lose all thc strcngihs that are* r i tpped up in t l r i r t re l i r t ions l r ip . T l r t , r i t re t l re k i r r r l o I iu ls t l r i r tc l ie r r ts u ' r i te , r i r t l r t , r t l r i r r r r .oDr u r i te r .s .

The secrncl, cleepcr ,,r,J-,r',,r'. rlifl icrrlt appr'ach is througlrfornrulas. Here the copv *,riter has 'renrrrir",i a list rf'rules 'rprinciples, iuicl trics to pour his lieaclline int' thern like he'clpour hot lead irrto a mold. Srrch rules usuallr- corlcenl the *,avi t l t e i r r l l i r r c i s . r l l r c s s c t l . T l r e r l i s t r r r e t l r o r l s , r l : s t n , r r g t l r e l r i r r g t l r e'erbalization of'the lrt'acllire id"a. oncl here thc'r'harl" a rreri'ectlr,r.'alid rrse. se'eral era'rples of principles ure gi'en in chnp-ter 4.

But the iclea fir' rrn iid nr u heaclli 'e clerrrurcls its o*' shane.It cannot be fitterd into sorreone else.s solutior. The p.bler,-, d"-fies a fonn'la. And the third, iural'tical approrrch tliat *,,e htrr,,eoutlinecl above-u,ith no trnsu-ers; onh' g,ri.l..-pnst, iincl ques-t ions-offers t l re orrh u' i r r .

This is a harcl fact to accept. lt rreiurs that a srlution whichhas cost l'ou clavs arcl r'eeks lf painfrrl eflbrt, irnd *4rich hasclone its job perfecth'-can be .secl 'rl' rnce. It rretrns thatthere are no creutir e slrortcuts-that ther ef frlt nrust be clunlicatedu'ith each indir.idual ad. Brrt lirrtunatelv the techniques ofprobing ca' be learned a'cl perfected; int,iiio' can be sharpened;

s u u u . \ I t \ : l i t

i l settsi t tr i t ' '

it tttaize r tt : :

, \ t t t l . r , :

i s e v t ' t t l l t r ' .

Thev stop .

F ro rn t l r r r ,

r t tost l t r t t l r , :

s r i ccess l l i l t l

r t e s ' h t ' , r t l l : :

l l r r t i t

p t ' t l cess r [ , ,

< lcr i t r ' . l - l r ,

p t t sh o r t 1 t . ,i r r g . r t s u , . .

l i es o r t l r r ,

\ \ \ \ r .

the' c'opr ,'

I t t ' l t i L s t , ' '

i t l t o t t t i t r , . :

I l t ' i o l . ,

t r r l k i r r q - . , : ,g l l ( ' 55 t ' l - \ ' . \ '

t l t t ' i r g r r t ' . .

c' i tt t i l t i t i gr r

T l r , ' ,

t r t ' t t t t ' t t t l , , ;

t l t e t t t o : t : .

r t t t l r l r t ' ] , .

I t s l r o u . i .

n i t ' r t i t u r ,

p r t ' s s i o r r I

Page 77: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ I I \ t P I , . \ N N I N G

\ .f( )t-t)

) t - \ OL IR

: l l r t l t c same

, .s is o66;{-

, ' . I l r r t i f the: , t l r t ' ch r rncesl ' r l ro Ads-

' \ l ) i r \ l lo at-

. i r t l rat er ists. - i l r . f l 1 1 i 1 3 1 "

, , i , r l iu ls that

, , i , is t l t rough:. : ol nt le 's or, : , , l i k t ' he 'c l

. . , ' l ' l r t l l e \ \ ' a \ -i ,g t l r t ' r r i r tg the,. ' .r pcrf'ectlr.

: : . , ' n i r Chap-

'. r )\\ l l sharpe.: ' r ' , , l r lern cle-

: : , . t t u ' t ' have. ' . .Lrrr l ques-

I ' i t iorr u,hiclrr . i r r l r i c h h a s: r r r t ' i t t t s t l ta tr " , l r rPl icated

, ' . l r r i i t l ues o{ 'iu .11i11?€'t . ,1 '


a sensitivitv can be developecl {br picking out

a lriaze of infonuation.

6 l

the vital fact frorn

And, of course, abandoning this effcrrt leacls to a realitv u'hich

is e'en harsher. NIan' cop' u'riters gro\\/ olcl, or tirecl. 'r afr:rirl.

Tliel' stop sei'Lrching lttr the uniqlte solution in er-erv problenl'

Frorn this ntotnent on, the'' begin to ctlpv insteacl tlf create. Antl

rnost pathetic of all, nranY begin to copr- thernselves. Tlte rllore-

successful the copr,'u,riter the grettter the ternptatiotl to firlrl his

neu, heaclline in his olcl files.

But it rvon't r,vork. cart l)e clone llr iInV cnl). All this

process cloes is bring talenf clou'n to tlle level o1'file-ctrbinet mecli-

ocritv. The tme copr. urriter rrru,sf argue u'ith srrccess-he must

p,rsli n,-r pasi it everv tinte lie litces a rle\\' llrochrc't. Irr aclr''ertis-

ing, ",

rr=ll nr in science ancl irr rlrt. the stthrtiort to thc ttniqtte

lies onlv in itself.

On \Iotivation Research and Its

Relation to the CoP)' Writer

As rve har.'e repettted throughout this first part of the book'

the copv u'riter's primarv job is to kno\t, his market. NIanV tirnes,

he has in knorv rnore itbout that rnarket than the rnilrket ktlorvs

about itsel{.Before MR, he dld this urostlv bV persotral digging, reacling.

talking-and guessing. \\'ith iVIR, he has sortre preth professional

g.,"rr"r, u,orking r,r'ith hirn. And theV lrtrve the eqrriprllent to prove

iheir guesses far uore easilr'' and inexpetrsivelv thtrn u'rititig a

can-rpaign and testing it.

Tlie cop',' r.l'riter can tlse NIR in trvo u'al's' It can be a

trernenclous source of infbmatiorl to hirn. Infbrlntrtion about

the most pou,erful needs and clesires of his rnarket-desires thtrt

rnav be ltid.l"t , r'erballv unacceptable, or cornpletelv.unknotvn'

It shou,s hirn the strength of those desires-their clri{i elucl rno-

rnenturn-the taboos that accolnpanv thern, and limit their ex-

pression. It helps hirn locate splits in his market-gauge their

Page 78: Breakthrough Copywriting


points of difference-clesign pinpoint appeals for each of trrern.And it feeds back to hirn earl-v reactions to his pliraseol-ogl'-to test his own worr\,'-points in the ad-to enable hirn toshift enrphasis-and e'en to energe r.r,ith a completelv nerv iclea.

All u.ell ancl good. But a motivation research fincling is nottr headline, nor even the central theme of an ad, nor rvili it everbe. Like anv other fact, it is a direction. First it tells vou r,vherenot to go, to avoid r'vasting vour tirne. And then it indicates thegeneral area of vour solution.

But the trzrnsfonnation of those {'acts into etn idea, ancl theexpression of that idea in the strongest possible forrn, still re-rlrires as much creative talent as anv other starting point. Thesource of an idea, no rnatter how profo'nd, is stil l 'onl-v tlie be-ginning. The copv u,riter has to take it ironi there.

The second great service that NIR can perform for the copvlr'riter is that of testing his orm hunches, irr ansrvering the ques-tions he unco'ers in clealing with his rnarket over a period oftirne.

For rf sirnplicitr,'. *'e have dealt *'ith trd'ertisingstrirtegv as though it alrvavs consisted of *.riting a single ad-l i t t l re r t l ra r r r r c 'o r r t inuor rs t .ampa ign . Bv l i rn i t i r rg o r r rse l res in th iswa\'. \\'e ha'e been able to deal rvith each of the phases of sucha carnpaign as though it rvere a separate ancl dlstinct problern.requiring ir separate and distinct advertisernent to solve it. Indoing this, rve ha'e ernphasized that a breakthro,gh ca' occLrrat erny stage of a carrpaign; ancl that the sarne breakthrough tech_niques can be usecl to produce the gerrn irlea for the entire carn-paign that fbllou's.

In realitll hor.r'ever, the copv r,vriter .suallv r,r,orks on a gir.,enproduct, or in a given rn:rrket area, for long periocls of ti're. Dur-ing that time he r'r'ill r'vrite manv acls on this same subject. Anclt l r r r ing th i r t t i rne l re * i l l engage in a k ind o l c ! i . s r -o t t r .s r l w i th h isnarket, in rvhich he feeds that rnarket ideas, and it {'eeds backto him reactions to those ideas.

D'ring this rnassi'e co'r'ersatio', if lie is sensitir.e, the cop1,

S [ I \ I N I A R \ ' : I I l l \

s.r i ter u ' i l l 1r, . 't iou. Sottr t ' ,1

ences. u ' l r i i l ,

r r tuch tnot ' , ' , , :

l i rni tat iotrs tr , :

lneasurel l l ( ' t r t r

The coprl rr : ,

ing u'hr, lrt "\\ 'hrrt t .,,;

home, att t l . , r . '

trtinor repirlt '\ -

Hot t ' c l t ,

through nra i l

\\ 'hr ri t l

wolnen st ' t i t l r

Tht'st ' .,r '

cl irnensions ' l

a long to l r is \ l

i s bo rn i t r l r " ' .

even a l1('\\ L

f ) t te o l ' r

i s tha t t l l ) t ' r i i 1 'clistinct irrrtl '

alitf,, is il (.( )ti .

the Cacl i l l , i tlnance. i i | | r r

and tnuc ' l r r , , '

B u t r r t r , l

r. 'our heiLt l l i r ,,

t iue i r t . \ t t t n i | . '

o f Cacl i l l iLr : '

Page 79: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ I I \ I . P I , A N N I N G

, . , t ( l l o f thern ., ' . , r r p h r a s e o l -, r , , t l r le l i im to' t , . l r neu ' idea.: r r r r l inq is no t

r , , r ' $ ' i l l i t ever. ' l : \1)Ll $f iere: l r r t l ic 'ates the

:t l t , . r . and the: , , r ' r r r . s t i l l re -: r : IX) i l t t . The

, rrrh the be-

l ' ) r the copy' : : r l t l )e ques-: . t per iod of

: t^ .Lr h'ertising., . i r rqle ad-r. , . lvt 's in thisi . . , . r , s Of such::r t t l t roblem,, . , rh 'e i t . In

- l r ( i i l 1 OCCUr

: l r r { ) i l gh t ech -. . r . l r t i r e c a m -

: . ( ) l l A g i ven

: t i r r r c ' . Du r -. ' r l , j t ' c ' t . And

r, ' r r u ' i t l t h is: : t , . t , c l s back

t l re copv


\\rriter rvill pick up a continuous flow of the lnost vital infonna-

tion. Some of this information ri'ill be actual trends and prefer-

ences, rvhich can be immediatelr'' translated ittto ner'l' ticls. But

rnuch n'lore of it rvill be in negative fbnn-failures, roadblocks,

lin'ritations to the response frorn his ads. And onh' the sttrtistical

lreasurements of these lirnitations ri'ill lte shs11n-not their callses.

The copru'riter u'ill u.ant to knou, u'h)' thev occur. Ancl in ask-

ing lvhrl he rvill gir,e birth to questions like tliese:

\\Ihat causes one \\rorrlan to ttttrke most of her clclthes at

home, and another wolniln to use her seu'ing tnachine onlv fbr

lulinor repilirs?Holv can lve convince lrole pcrtple that its safe to buv

through rnail order?\\Ilrv rvill men instantlv buv att tttttotttittic potato peeler-and

wornen send it right back to tht' store rtgirir) i

These are research qLrestions. Thcv cleal u'ith psr-chological

clirnensions. The copv u'ritet" tliscovers thern. ttncl passes them

along to his MR people to be phrasecl, tested attcl ttnsu'ered. Thus

is born i1 ne\\' idea, a neu' thenre. anrl a nerv headline, perhaps

even a nerv crrn-ipaign.

On Expressing the Personality of a

Product in Your Headline

One of the most potent discor''eries of rnotivation research

is that a product, or a store. or a ultole group of proclucts has il

clistinct and conplete personalih' to the consurner. This person-

irlit-v is a compler qualitr', en'rbracing rnau\,' traits. In the case o{'

the Cadillac, for ex:urple, it consists oi'qualitv, prestige. per{br-

rnance, appeariince, cornfcrrt, resale value. freeclotu fi'orn repairs

rrnd much lrore.But-and this is the ilnportant point trt consider itl r.vriting

vorrr heaclline---i)ne o.f tlrc,se trait.s rcill nlu;aqs be the ntctst effec-

tiae in ,suntnruri:ing anrl ex2tressirtg thi,s persortulity. In the case

of Cadillnc, it has alrvavs been. ancl u,ill alu'avs be, rlualitri This

Page 80: Breakthrough Copywriting


sunlrAr\- trait is fei,rturecl in a series of headlines. or hetrdline il-lustrations-perhaps blended *,ith one or hvr of the other traitsto gi'e it 'ariefv brrt irlu'iws strengthening tlmse other traits br.interrelating thern to this one clorninant rlualitr..

Thus the Persr'irlitv is si.plifiecl. srurl,,rlizecl a'cl sharp-enecl to grasp the reirrler. Ancl then-as the re.trder nro\res onthrough the bocl' copv '{'the acl-this perso,alitv is expandecland exarninecl in all its appeals-Ar] e'er-erlarging pr.rarnid ofpersuasion. clrarving in all the necessar\. inlirrrniition-cliarginethat inlbnnation rvith desire-terrriinuting inevitabh, in the onesollrce o{' satisfaction fbr that clesire-r.r,rrr. ur.odrrct.

\ \ ' e r r i l l . r i r r r r in t ' t l r i s . . r r t .ep t r ro re t l r , ' r r , , r rq l r l r i r r ch i tp rer8-on Iclentificiition.

on the only Tlpe of Prevention Headline That will sell

Ma'ry copv rvriters belie'e that iio pre-r'ertion headline (be-cause it treats a problern tltat nnq occur- trrrtl thiit is not trctuallvp lagr r i r rg \ ( ) r l r p r ( )spec ' t r r t t l r i s r r ro rnent ) t . i r r r * r , ' r b t , e l lec t i re .The_reason thev g^'e firr this fail,re is the inabilit 'of the prospectto identifv hirrisel{'u'ith a problern that has rrot ulreaclv forcecl it-s e l f r r p o n l r i n r .

This is true-brrf only for those prtbk,nr.s u;hich rtffect ltintpersonallq He is per{'ecth' capable of i'ragininq proble,lsafflicting his lor.ed .'es. his friends, his *,ife arcl chilclren, e'enhis nation. This is rvh',- deciw-pre'enting to'thpaste solcl so r.r,ellrvhen the ads focrrssed the dectrn not o' the ptrrent, b't on thech i ld ren . Th is i s * ' ln l i fe i r rs , , ra , rc . " r . r r r r l re s , , l r l . r ro t l r r p i t , tu r ingthe prospect's death, b't the horrors inflictecl .rpon lri., rvr{'e anclchildren if insufficient u.rore' is left over to take care of them.

To sum ,p: A u'il l not'isualize firt're disasters occ'r-ring to hirnseu, b,t he is per{'ectl1' capable of visualizing. erndbu-r'ing preventati'es, the i''rtrge of s,rch future problemsaffecting others arouncl him.

On the St'

T l t r o r r -

t O f l l l i t l l r . ,

For e r l t t r ,1 , .that rrrt' irrt

T lus . r .spects. I : i r . . l

eranrpl t ' . t i 'Thev t lo rr , ' r

in th t ' r r r .L I .sons. arrr l t iSalne q( ' l r ( I

both. Brrtin the firrt

S e t ' t , t , ,

coutpet irr , -conc 'e t t t r t i t ,

i s usua l l r , i

i t i s b l rs t ' r lraphr'. I-',,r

grei l ter i r l ) l )

specific'l l l..the app, ' . , .head l i r r t ' . :substant i . t : :ne ls o l t l r . :

but ion t l r r . ,E i t ' r r :

$et grori '

rnarket, I lptrign c'ru, Irnarket. I'-,,lose u .e ig l , :

ns clt t t ' t t r t .

Page 81: Breakthrough Copywriting

l ' i \ I I \ h P L A \ N I N G

. .r 'hcaclline

il-, : t l r t ' other tr t r i ts,' otlrt,r- traits lty

,rz, . t l i rncl sharp-' , - . , ,1 , , r 'n ro \ :es on,. : t r is ( 'xpandedj i rr{ l ) \ ' rant id of. . , t ior r-chargingt . t l , l r in the onei ' l c t,g l ,h i r r Chapter

That Will Sell

, : , l , , ,a r l l i ne (be-1: l \ l lot actual lv

, : lrt. e'fT', , ,t tlrt, prospect. : , . t rh l i r rced i t -

i,:, lt uffcct hint, ' ' r t l r i r roblenrsi , l , i l r l ren , even.. i r- iokl so u'el l- ' ' : r t . l l r t o l l the',, ,t lr,, lticturing, '1 , l r i s n ' i f ' e and

r. t l ' t , of then"i ., : : . . r \ t ( ' r s OCCuf -' , : . ' r . r l iz ing. ancl, t : r r r ( , Prob lems


on the Selection of Splinter Nlarkets to Avoid competition

Througho't tliis book, we have assumecl that etlch collipeti-

tor in il lnarket u,ill trv to aclr,'ertise to that lnLuket tls ir \\'hole.

For erallple, thrit e\-erv redllcing aicl r.r'ill trr. to sell trll uotletr

that trre interested in losing u'eiqltt'

This assurnption is not necessarilv trrre, in at least hvo re-

spects. First. it assuntes that such tr nrarket is all of one piece \for

example. that all \\()lnen want to krse rveight fbr the satne reason).

TheV do not, of course. Tltere itre at leint t$'o tnaior sub-categories

in the nlarket-those u4to \\'itltt to lose u,eight {br appearat}ce retl-

sons. and those u,ho must lose u'e'ight ltecituse of therir health. Tlie

sarne general appeal-LosE \\'EI(;IlT-$.ill be eflbctive $.ith

both. But certainlv the rnechanisnts shoulcl van-speecl tncl ease

in the first-safeh' ancl pertttttllt'llce irl tlrc secorrtl.

Secondli.,, a sntall coutpillt\ u-ith a lintited ltLrtlget rtltlv tlrrricl

competing u,ith larger rivals lirr the' core of the tttarket, alld lni\'

concentrate its attack otl u stllallcr segrllel)t of that nlarket. This

is usuallv clone regionallr. But it nrar- be even rrlore ef'f-ectjve if

it is based on the socioloE' o1'the ntarket rather thau its geog-

raphu For exetruple, a reducing aicl may decide to abandon the

greater appearance segrnent of the nrarket, and appeirl nluch nlore

ipecificalh: to the health segmerlt. This deliberate focussing of

tire appeal u,ould trlter even' aspect of the ctunptrign, {iorn the

heacllirie, through identificirtion c,op\', through rtrechiuristr trnd

substantiation-right dog.1 to t|e selectiol of rneclia ancl c|an-

nels of distribution. (Healtlr i i lrd geriatric rnagazines. irrxl distri-

bution through doctors rather thiin drug stores.)

Eventuall_l: of course, if the appeal is success{ul ancl the' llrcl-

get grows, then the adyertiser ca1 decide to i1r.'acle tlte lraioritr'

,narket. If he does this, the success of the inititi l l irnitetl catlr-

paign can be ,sed as a point of clifl'erence to appeal to the litt'ger

il,uik"t. For example, the firct that wornen lr'ho u.ere fbrce'cl to

Iose u'eight pemmnenthT relied on this product ttrore thatl hvice

as often as anv other, etc.

Page 82: Breakthrough Copywriting


In Summarv

The first fir'e chapters of this book, ri,hich vou have just fin-ished, describe a process rvhich mtn take clavs. or u,eeks, ormonths to contnlete.

This proceis begins u,ith a thorough analvsis of the marketfor vour clie't s product-rvith an trttempt to mezrsure the breadthand depth of'that rnarket-to identilv the gigantic emotional forcesthat t ' reate t l rat market-to def ine and f .r . rrs t l rose forc,es in tenrrsof a single ir-rage or desire or need-ir'd to channel those fbrcestorvarcl one inevitable solution-\'our client'.s nrochrct.

In order to do this, the seco'cl step ,f this process invcllvesa meticulous studr- of the product itself-u'hat it is and u,hat itdoes-the phvsical p.o.l.,ci tJrat vou rvill, ancl the func-tional procluct that vou u,ill sell-all its vtrrious szrtisfactions andperfbnnances-again focussed to a single image. a single identi-fication. a single clairn that rvill tap the greatest possible emo-tional force rvithin vour rnarket.

The combination of these first ancl seconcl steps gives routhe theme of vour acl-the desire 'our rnarket derna'cls ancl itssatisfaction . . . the neecl r-our rro.k"t feels ancl its solution . . . theidentification vour rnarket gropes fbr ancl its expression.

And once l'ou this therne, voll begin the process ofexpressir-rg it. You erplore the stirte of maturitv of vour rnarket.You find out horv rnuch people knor,r. about vour product and'uvhat it does-horv rntrch ther"r'e been tolcl trbo.t sirnilar prod-ut ' ts-and horv rnrrr . l r t l rer r ,are aborrt hot l r .

Out of this analr,sis comes the point of entn' for l.our head-Iine-the point of contact-the point of gretrtest interest anclacceptance on the palt of \-our prospect. It rntlv be loctrted anr.11zhs1s-in vour procluct itself, in its pr"ice. in its perfrrnnance,in the satisfaction your procluct prornises, in the leecl l.grrr ptar-ket dernands ii 'om 'o'r product. or 'rh. ir the rni*ket itself.But, *'here'er it is, this is the point *4rerre 'ou star.t. Here thesearching ancl the planning stop. Here the u'or.cls hegin.

S U M M A R I : l l l l

Agtr in. t l ,

the encl ol t l ,

Thest ' { i ' ,

of vour atl [:

are Wrol lg. l r '

lvriting-ott I

bu i ld rour i , l ,

r . v o r d s . . . l L t ' , 1follor'r's it. rt.t:

much t inrt ' t ,

And i t r .

vou ei ther ' 1, '

out of the t r r . ,you reat l . , , ,

hard. \brr r',:

that ther st', I

remerrtbcr tl,:

\ \ ' l tu l r1

the one t ' l , t ' . ,

the heodl i t , ,

tcraTtped t t1,

Anrl rt,

you. fot t t , t ' '

neDer htt1ti,, '

i , s j t t s t 0s t t t r .\\ 'hirt t r,

rnolds, l r rr t ,

rules to ri,lr,

ing in tht ' r ' r -

posts firll int

The f i r . '

down t t c ' r , r , ,

parts orre' l r '

rrnd to strtt' lOnc't' r

Page 83: Breakthrough Copywriting

! } T I I \ I - P L A \ T N I N G

In Summary

,,r l r i r r ' ( ' just f in-. ( )l ' \\-eeks, or

. , , i t l te mtrrketr : r t . t l l e b readth::r( ) t iot i r l l forcesi( )t'( es tn tertns

:, . I t l rose forces: r r c t .)r'r )( (,ss

:. rul(l u,hat it. , r , r l the func-

. , : r . l . rc ' t ions and, . i r rgle ident i-: ' , , ts i l t le erno-

. : , .1)\ qlVes volr' I r r .ul( ls ancl i ts. , ' l u t i o n . . . t h e

| \ \ l ( ) l l .

: l r t ' I I I O C e S S O f

, : \ ( )u r marke t .::' prorhrct and' r i r r r i la r p rod-

t , r r ' \ o l l f h e a d -

. : i r r te re 's t and

" ], rc,ittccl artr,.-, 1r, r ' l i r rrnance,' , , . , 1 r o t t r m a r -

: : , .Lrkc' t i tsel f .: . , r t I Ie re the. i ' t ' g i r t .


Again, this process may take rveeks or even months, And at

the end of that tirne, \'ou mav harre rvritten five or ten u'ords.

These fir'e or ten rvords u'ill make up about 90Vo of the value

of your ad. tf vou are right, thev mav start a ne\\' industrr-. If r-ou

are wrong, nothir"rg vou write after them r.vill save vottr trcl. Copv

r,vriting-on the idea level-is an all or nothing prof'ession. You

build vour idea, piece by piece . . . )/ou crorvd it into fir'e or ten

r,vords . . . and then it stands or dies bv itself. And everything that

follows it, stands or dies with it. This is 'nvhv rve have devoted so

rnuch time to this planning process.And it is a process. You don't gef an idea or a headline-

vou either build rt, or vou unfold it, petal bv petal. You dig it

out of the market research . . . .v-ou u'ring it out of the product . . .

Vou read, you listen, 1'ou experitnent for vourself. You lr,ork-

hard. You rub up against this product and this rnarket so hard

that they- seep into vour pores. Ancl-above even'thing else-yorr

remember this carclinal nile of creatixity:\\hat you are looking fnr in thi,s product and thi's nmrket is

the one element tlmt makes thent unique. The idea you uant-

the heaclline qou uant-the breakthrough you want- --are all

urapped up inside that Tsroduct ancl that nmrket. Nrndtere else.

And no outside ntle-no out,sicle fonntila u:ill gioe thent to

qou. Yrnt are facing a product-nmrket-tinting relationship that

nexer happened before-it i,s unique. Anrl the sttlutiott yttu need

i,s jrtst a,s unique.\\'hat this first part of the book has triecl to gir.e vou is not

rnolds, but cornpasses. Not formulas to copv rvord bv u'orcl, or

rules to rigidh' follorii But rather guide-posts to set vour think-

ing in the right direction. Specifically and technicall-r', these guicle-

posts {'all into hvo classes:The first are analr.tical procedures. Their puryose is to break a complicated problem into its parts . . . to eramine those

parts one bv one . . . to fincl out u'hich is the triost importaut-

ancl to start 1'our solution from there.

Once vou have done this, vou then begin to build up your

Page 84: Breakthrough Copywriting


solution to its greatest pou,er. lou clo this bl' rerrovirtg lirniting

{irctors. and bv adding eve'rr,thing vou can find tliat u'ill strengthen

vour idea. If u,e u'rote literature insteacl cl{' aclvertising, these tu'o

processes u'orrlcl be called conception irnd erectttion. In copv u'rit-

ing. r,r'e sav that u'e gt't thc' nitrin thenre {or our ad. ancl tlteru u'e

put it into tr headline.Anrl u'hen xxr have finished, rou have fir'e or ten r,r'ords. I{'

ther' :rre tlie right u'orcls, ther- r,vill be imnrenselv vahrable. Brrt

thev still s'ill be onh.' the staft. Thev are the erncl of one road, uncl

the beginning of rrnother. Thev are the invitation to r'our acl-thehand rorr extend to'r'our prospect for rrlrr procluct. \bur job isnou' to rnake that introcluction u'orth lr'hile-firr both parties.

In the rernainder of tlie book. u,'e shall clisctrss the tech-niques of rvriting the bodv copv of \our a(1. Tht'se techrtiques are

directed torvard one end: building conrictiott-not onlv instill ing

the desire for r.our procluct, but actuallv strengtl'rening tltiit de-

sire u'ith the belief that thtrt product ri'ill DO ri.hat the prospectwants.

\\'e nou' turn to this process of building vorrr trd, so that vourad builcls conviction.


Page 85: Breakthrough Copywriting

, , ' \ ing l i rni t ing. i r lJ strengthen':ilJ tlrese hr..o, Irr c oll 'r ' u'rit-I . , r rr l then u'e

' l I r r r i ' t t rds . I {' . . r l r r i rb le , But, rrrt ' f<l i l ( I , 8i ld

. , , , ,1 . ,1 {_1}19

. : \ i r r r r j o b i s' : l r l ) iut ies., ; . . the tech-

: ' t i r r r i r l r res a re,rr l r inst i l l ing

: r i r rg tha t de-: t l r t ' prospect

' i .o t l rat t 'our

PART 2THE SE\tsN BASICTECHNIQUES OFBREAKIHROUGHADVERTISINGHow to rvrite body copyas strong as your headline

Page 86: Breakthrough Copywriting


You have nou'lruilt vour herrdline.\bt t rrou l l i r \e i r nreans cl l stoppirrg \orrr pros[)" , . i - . r l l r r . i r rgirrgto a rnornentan' halt all the clir-erse activities of his rnind-of'fo-cussing his rtttention. trt leirst for a rnourent, on a single thought.This is the job that vou have clesignecl vour hei,Lcllirre to do-notto sell, or: identif'r' r'our procluct, or even nerrtion the neecl ordesire that vour product satisfies-but simplr. and solelv to flagdou'n vour prospect, ancl get hiui to reacl vour first parrrgraph.

Front that ntonu:nt ()n, lJoLtr borltl coptl doe,s the ,selling. Itrloes this by altering Uour pro,tpect's r,isiort Ltf realittl. lt create,sa neLc rcorld for your pro.spect-a rcttrkl in rchich your Ttrod.uctenrcrge,e as tlrc ftlJlllnerft o.f the dontinant rlesire tlmt cutsecl thi.sntan to resTtond to your lrcudline.

To create this ri.orlcl, vour cop\- rnust erpancl or alter oneor rnore of' the three cliurensions of' his alretrclr.eristing rrientalrvorld. This is the task of the renrilinder of'r'our acl. your copv

Page 87: Breakthrough Copywriting

72 TNSIDE y() t rR pRospECT's NrrND

rnust be long enough to accon'rplish this clrunge-trncl the lengthof'r-our ad rvill clepend on three {iictors:

First. ho*' '.rch cop' r'ou neecl to build l-tis de,sirc for thatproduct-and e'e'rthing that product cun clo 1br hirn-to itsgreatest possible strength. ho*' ailditio'al cop\' \'o, 'eecl to rnake hirnfeel both con{bftaltla and con4tlin'tertted b' that procl.ct, to en-able liim to visrralize that procluct as a part of the li{'e structurethat he has built. ancl is building, fcrr hinrseli.

Ancl, finallr', ho*, rnuch aclditional c'pr 'o' neecl to 'akehint bclieu: rvhat vou ha'e said-to compensate fbr his alreach.existing prejudices and beliefs

The ansu'ers to these tlrree questions clete.rurine not onl'thelength o f r ou r i rd . h r r t a lso i t s s t ru r , t r r re . i t s t le r e lop , , , " , , i . i t ,st1'le and its pace. Each of these questions reltrtes to tr separatedirnension of'r-our prospects urincl-different *,tl 's he has nf'o.-ra r tg i r rg thor rq l r ts r rn t l lee l ings . In t l r i s c , l r r rP ter . r ie u . i l l e r i r rn inethese three dinrensions brieflr. ilnd sketcl-r in u,hat u,nvs. rrncl to* l r i r t ex te r r t . \o r r ( ' i u l i r l te r o r expar r r l t l re r r r th l r r rqh . , - , , i t . a r [ . Ar rc lthen. irr the {ollou'ing clrripters. *'e rvill cletail these ntechont.snrsof pe,vnsiorr thoroughlr, along rvith the most eff-ective technrquesof p resent inq t l re rn .

A'd then. in the last cherpter, r,r'e *.ill trv to *,e.r'e therntogether into a sirnple, striiight-line. progression of irr-iages-leading ro'r reade. frorn the headline. through the procl'ct, tothe actrral purchase.

Let us start rvith these three dirnensions of' thorrght andfee l ing :

l. Desires

Therse are the *-ants, neecls, crr*,'ings, thirsts. hurgers, lusts,etc. that clri'e vour prospect through li{'e. Ther- are Trhq,sical-suchas the desire to be thin, or strong. or healthr,: or {ree' {ion-i acne,corns, bad breath or rvhat har.e vclLr. Ther. are py1fst iol-such as

1 l f \ t :

\ . r l '

: t r , :

' l ' l ' ,

i l r r . l l r 1 i ' ,

. ' , , ! ' . : , ,

. i t i t l t '

\ , , , ; '\ | l l l - l ) l ' r , \

l l r ( ' l l t r , : .

I t l i . t t ' t r :. . r o t r r l t . t - 1 , t

1 r r ' . r t t r r ' . r 1 . , .

r r r l t l r o t l

t r l t t t l r . r :

l -1 , , . ,t l r t ' i r l r ' '

o l ' l ) l ' ( ) .1( . r i

I l t r ' . r

t l t ' f i t r t ' t l i , ,t t t i L t t , r ' i r r ] , ,

t t ' n s i l r t l , ,

l r r ' , r r , r k r , , -

t lt)t 's ir ,, '

t l o i ng s l , ,

sonui i t r \

r rnc l t r iur . r ,

pro j t 'c ' t rorr

pt t rc l r i rs t , ,( . a l l t

enr . ' ies. r r r l :

Page 88: Breakthrough Copywriting

t r r( l t l re length

' lr c firr thtrtl r rrrr- to i ts

I t , r urake him,r, rr l r rc ' t . to en-' l i t t , s tn rc tu re

: , , ' r ' t l t0 tnake,:' lris alreadr-

i , ' l lot onlv the' , Jol trnent, i ts. :() .t Separilte. 1, , ' l tas of ar-

'.r i l l t 'ri intine: , \ . rVS. l lnd to

. \ ( ) u r a t l , A r td,, t, Ltcltuni,gttus

: : ' . t ' t t ' r ' l tn iques

, , . , \ ( ,ave theln. ' , r r r r ) { ' in tages'ir.

l)ro(luct. to

: : l r o r rqh t and

l. Desires

i ' , l l l g ( ' r s . l us t s ,i1 r71 l1'r11-q11gl

' ,- , l t 'ot l t t lcne',

, .,:,r1_such as


the desire to possess nlone\r. or a big cat or a beautifirl clress.

Ther.' are sensuol-sLrch as the thirst for a colcl glass of'beer. or

the need fbr a tired boclv to stretch out on a soft bed.

Thev have. of course, trernenclorrs clriving power. And tlier-il lreadv exist. You cannot create thern. clirninish thenr. or battle

tlrern. But yotr can erpan(l thenu slmrlten thern, chonnel thttn,and giue thent o goal. Ancl this is \'olrr prirnan' task irs rr copvu'riter.

Your first task-and in soure ir(ls \'olrr onlv task-is to make

volrr prospect rcant. To sharpen his clesire. To pictrrre e\/erv llro-

rnent of its fulfilhnent. To let hinr see it, feel it, torrch it. sit init. l isten to his friends rave rrbout it. To rnake him visualize thervonderful nerv rvorld vour pro(luct oI'{ers hinr so stronglv thrrt he

practictrllv lives in it-ancl then to of-fer hinr that prochrct. The

niethod of doing this-Intensification-rvill be cliscussecl in thenert chapter.

2. Identiftcations

Tlrese are the role.s,lotr prospect nilrlts to pl.rr, in li{-e, and

the per,sonality traits he u'rrnts r.our product to help hirn bLrilcl,

or project.These longings for identification-longings firr a shalplv-

clefined personalitr,--longings {br social st:rtus-are, o1' course, notrurirterial or ph1'sical or sensrral at all. Thev con'rplernent and in-

tensifr,' the phvsictrl desires-udcl trnother clirnertsion to thern-bl' rnaking each pnrchase serre a double dutr'. Thus, not onlv

cloes a wornan buv a lou-calorie fcrod to becorne thin, but in so

cloing she also builcls again a radiant, attructive, r'outhfll per-sonalitu And not onlr,' does a rnan buv a car fbr the porver, speedancl transportation it ri'ill give liirn, but equallv rrs rnuch ibr theprojection of prestige, success trnd reaclr.-cash-to-burn that this

purchase contmunicates to his neighbors.Call them u'hat vou rvill-goals, hopes, clrearns, arrbitions,

en'n'ies, adrnirations, phantasies or objectives-these subtle, svrn-

Page 89: Breakthrough Copywriting

74 TNSIDE youR pRospECT's NlNt)

bolic, never-open11'-spoken projections of orlr o\\'n self'-irnages areimrnenselv polverful sales fbrces . \bur ta,sk i,s tLt lrttrt them clirectlrlbehind your producf. To make him feel the prestigious and se-lect group he joins u.hen he becomes i] usel of that product. Topicture {br hin-i the people r,vho live in vour product'.s u'orld toclar.

3. Beliefs

These irre the opinions. attitudes, prejuclices, flagments o1knorileclqe arld corlceptions of realitr.' that vour prospect lives br.This is the rvorld of ernotionalizecl reason thalt lre inhabits-thc'rvav he accepts or rejects {itcts and builcls up his universe, tlrctr,pes of thinking he uses to arrive ttt clecisions. the icleas ancl r,'al-ues ufiich give hirn com{brt and rvhich he belier.'es are penlrrr-nent trnd true.

These icleas mav be shallor,r' or pro{buncl, r-alid or false, per-f'ectlv logical or mere u'ishful thinking. But it is uot aclvertising'snrission to argue u'ith the'm. And no one irclverrtiser crrn changcthem. Aclr,ertising is not eclucation; it does not hitl-e societv us itssponsor, nor cloes it har.e tlie verrrs of tinre th:rt are gilen to ecl-ucation to procluce results.

Aclr,ertising, like science, ntust accept realitv irs it erists, notas it rnight r,r'ish it to exist. Onh'then can it alter reality-not brsmashing into it heacl-on-but bv exploiting its tenclerrcies trnrlgiving direction to its energies.

Believing is a process-a process of fitting ner,r' facts intocertain establishecl patterns of thought ancl conviction. People be-liexe in certtrin rvil,'s. These beheis fbmr a filter through rvhichvour product-infrtnnation rntrst pass or be re.jectecl. And theiralreadr-established patterns of reasoning cretrte habit-channelsalong u.hich vour copv rnust build its c1111f ic,fio11-or die.

You start rvith these behefs rLs a l;ase. YoLr builcl un from therrby using his klnd of logic, not vour oun, to pror e th,it vour procl-uct srrtisfies his clesires-to prove that vour procluct r,vorks-to

I \ S I D L , \ O I i

pror t ' t l r . r t :

r ro o t l t t t ' 1 , :T ll l r ( ' l

, t r r t l I 0T 1I l t ( ' t ' (

I r i r c ' h o i t l ,' f l t e

t l t t ' t ' ,

n i t l s u i t l r . '

T o r t :

l J r r t . i t i . t t :

t t t l L t t ' t t t l t

t l r t ' l r t ' g r r , r

. L r r t l R t ' i r r l

Page 90: Breakthrough Copywriting

' I . I 'HOSPE( ]T S \ { IN I )

' . i t r r1 , l f - i1n4geS are

:,rtt tlturt clirectlyrr( ' . t ig ious ancl se-: llrtt product. Toi ' : r t ' u 'or ld todar:

3. Beliefs

,., .. tl 'aqntents of:rr'( )\l)('ct lives br.-.r ' , . i r r I i r l t i ts- t [el , l r l r r t i ye rSe , t he

: : , , . i r l t ,as and v i l l -' ' \ r ' \ i l l '€ pel l l - t r f -

, . : ,1 or' l i r lse, per-, r l rt 11111'slt isingls

a : . r . r ' L ' t u l C l f ange. . , . r . \oc ietv t1S i ts

,r '(. gi\ 'ctl to ecl-

', t: tt erists, not: r , ( , i r l i t \_not b\ .. ' , . r r ( l c r l c i es i r nd

- l r ( . \ \ f i rc ts in to, : , r r r Pe'ople be-: : l r rorrqh rvhich

: , t l . . \nd thei r

i r . r l r i t -channels

, ) l ' ( l ie .

. ' i r rp { ion i l r . r t

: : r.rt r otir prOd-. ;r 1s | 11's1kg-1o


pror-e that his kind of people rely on vour product-to prove thatno other product satisfies his needs as rvell.

The mechanisrns for doing this are shou'n in Chapters g

alrcl 10.There vou have thern. Desires. . . . Identifications. . . . Belir' l.s.

Each of them cornposed of equill parts of'emotion and thought.Tlie three diniensions of r.-our prospects rnind-the rau' nti.te-rials rvith

"rdrich you r,vill r,r'ork.

To studr.' thern, rve shall deal u'ith each of thern sepuratelr-.But, in actuallv rvriting your acl. of'course, l 'ou rvill rcecLxe thcntitfttt each other-to create tr siurple. fluid path of'thought fronrthe beginning to the end of rorrr rrcl. This teclinirpe-Blenclingancl Rein{orcernent-$rill be the subject of Chapter 1,1.

Page 91: Breakthrough Copywriting


Thirteen Wavs to Strengthen Desire

The fbrce that creates sales. thatpowers our present econon'r\r, is desire. Mass Desire, spread alnongrnill ions of men ancl .', ',rm",r. Anrl the art of salesm^anshin. fun-darnentallv and pri'rtrrilr'. is erpancling this clesire. Erparxling rtho.rizontally arnong 'rore a'd r'ore people. Erpancling it 'erti-calll; b1' sharpening and rnagnifving it-by buildlng it to sucl.r apitch that it o'ercornes the obstacles of skepticisrn, lethargv- anclprice, and results in the sale.

Ad'ertisirg is salesuranship in print. Therefore, abo'e e\.er\,-thing else, advertisi'g is the literature of desire. It is srcieh s en-cvclopeditr of'dreams. . . our hrentieth-centur.r' \\ish Brxrk. Aclr-er-tising gi'es {b'n and c"te't to <lesire. It pro'ides it ri,ith a goal.

These desires, as thev exist in the mind o{'r,our prur1r"",todal; are indistinct. Therl are blurs-hazr', arnbiguolrs,-,ot

Page 92: Breakthrough Copywriting


crvsta]lized into u'ords or images. In rnost cases, thev are sirnplv\-ague emotions, rvithout cornpulsion or clirection. And as srrch,ther.' have only' a frtrction of their tnre potentiirl pou'er.

)bur job is to fill out Lague dt:sires u:itl't concrete int-nge,s-to shou: rltntr prct,spect euery 1:Ltssible tcay that they can be

ftffilled-to ntultiply tlrcir strength by ilu: nturtber of sati,sfactionsthut qou can mgge,st to achiexe thent.

A copv u'riter's first qualifications inraginution rrnd en-thusiasm. You are literallr,' the script u.riter lor vour prospect'sdretrms. You are the chronicler of his {utrrru'. \ixrr job is to shor,r'hinr in rninute cletail all the tornorrorvs tliiit rrrrrr prodrrct rnakespossible frrr him.

This is the core of adverlising-its flrncltunt'nttrl function. Totake unformulated clesire, trncl trrrnslate it irito one vivid scene offirlfilhnent after another. To add the appeal ol coucrete satisfac-tion after satisfaction to the basic clrive o{' that clesire. To makesure that your prospect realizes evertthing that lie is getting-eventhing that he is nor',' leaving behincl hinr evc'rrthing thatl re r r ra r pc- ,ss ibh l rc r r r i ss ing .

The sharper \/oll crln drarv r,our pictrrres-turcl the greerterthe nurnber of therr that vou can legitimatelr ltrese'nt-the more\our prospect u'ill dernand r.our procluct. anil tlie less importantrvill seern vour price.

Horv much space can vou give to this process of Intensifica-tionP This depends on tu'o ftrctors-the arrorrnt of space alkrttedto vou for the entire :rd, and the nuniber of'u'ar.s vou can presentvour images r,r'ithout giving the feeling of repetition or boredon'r.

First of all, differeni rnedia demand different treatments. Forerample, catalogs, srnall-space ne\vspaper and rnagazine adver-tising, radio and teler.'ision stricth' limit the nunrber of u'ordsgiven to you to drtl,v vour irnages. To fit vour rnessage into theirstructures, I'ou rnust use either or both of tr,r'o techniques. Thefirst is con4tression-the boiling dou,n of projections irncl irnagesinto a few kev rvords. And the second is the campalgn-the rep-etition of these key 1yo.,k over and over again-along with a

I T IRST TE( ] I I \ I I , I

p I O $ I e S S l { ) l l t t :

ent i re s( ' t ' i t ' ' '

\ \ 'e s l r t l l .


C ) n t l r t ' , , ' r

ver t is ing r r r r r l

l l lost Ottse\. t( ,

as t o l e r rg t l r , i ,

be r o f r Lu t l \ 1 ,

ing o. f rc l ) ( t i l

N o t t t l t t t , :

on l t ' o r re l r , t r r ,

even- r i t l t l r t i , , r . . ,

i dea . i t l ) t ' r ' , , , , ,

anc l i t b r r i l r l .

T l t r r s t l r , :

points. o1 r," ' ' ,

uc t i n r r r r r r i '

ever \ - u 'ar i r r ,

\btt lu', '

vour hei i r l l i r , ,

presentetl tr ' '

Tl-rere tu'( ' .t.,-

copv i rs r i t '11 , .

snrne p l i t ' r ts , ' , '

I t e enco r r r r t t ' r . .

Anc l t l r , .

Once ro r r l r . r , . ,

t l t en t l L t t t r t L r t "

OI nO t | ) l ' ( ' \ t l r '

the rnicldl t ' , , :

\bt t c ' rrrr 't l te s t l rnc ' l , r r . r ,it reinftrrc't's ti '

prosper:t tl r.Lt :

Page 93: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ r l H I ( I A T I O N

. r r ( ,s i lnp l ) 'i ( l r rs such,, :

ILt t ' ( t ( in t -' i t t r l con be,:t t:fac't ions

,r r lu ] ( l en-

i)r( )sPect'.s

:. to slto.,t'

l , rr ' t nrtrkes

: : r t t iOn . To

:, i :1'1,11€' 6f

:, 'rrt isf 'ac-

To rriake, gt ' t t ing-

, l l r i r r q t ha t

lr gt'eatel

t l r t ' n t o r e

: ! i lPOrtant

r r t t ,ns i f ica-

r ' ' . r l k r t t e d

.rlr I) l 'eSentiu, rec lorn.

r , ( ' l ) t s . F o r

l rI iitlver-, , f uo rds

l r r t o t he i r

r r i t , s . The

, ,1 i n rages-t lrr rep-rj \\ ' i th a


progression of ernbellishments and differentiations-through anentire selies of aclvertiselnents.

\\'e shall see ho*, this is clorre. in detail, at the e'cl of thischrrpter,

On the other hand, large-space ne\\/spaper and milgazine trd-vertising ancl especiallv clirect nrail give vou adequirte room, inn'lost cases, to present a firll ston-. hr these meclia, tlre clecisionas to length depends lirr more,rir tlre second factor-tlte ntntt-ber of rDatJS lJott cun pre,sent rlottr inutge,s rcithcntt giLing the ,feel-ing o.f reTtetition or boredon'1.

No rnatte'r *,hat 'orr ckr, r'our pr'spect *'ill take rvith hirronh'one basic idea, one clonrinturt imirge' fronr 'our ad, But rvitheverv additional nelv and clif-fererrt u'tnl tl rat rou can nresent thaticletr, it becomes sharlel ard rr,rr'.., ..,,1 in rir,,. pr,rrpectls rni'cl.ancl it builds rlp rnore trncl ntore e'nrotirtnal ri'eiglrt.

Th,s the problem beco'es r'e o1'perspectir'e, of fl 'esh 'ie*'points, of ne*' trncl clifferert cletil i l. of'*'alking arouncl 'our prod-uct in I'our itnagination, uncl presenting it to vour prospect ine\rer\' \vav in u,hich it enters his lif'e.

lbu are u'orking agirinst tu'o opposing {brces. The first, rrs invour headline, is the a.rnount of urateritrl rvhich has alreaclv beenpreseniecl to l 'our prospect about sirnilar ploclucts in other ads.There are stages of rn:rrke.t sophistication to be dealt u,ith in boclr,cop\- as *'ell rrs in vour heaclline. If vour prospect has reacl thesanie phraseologv befirre, lre *'ill be bolecl Lv it, no rntrtter u,herehe encounters it agarn.

And tlie secorcl obstucle is the phraseologv' of 'o,r o*,n tid.once -vou ha'e presented vour basic firlfilhnent in il certain *.ar,,thcn yott nutst ianl lJ()trr L'iL'tL'pttittt itt tltntr second de,scription,or not present it again. Othem'ise you rvill lose vour reacler int l r e l r r i t l d l e o f r o r r r a t l .

lbu can'ot repeat, brrt r..'rr cun re.inforce. Ancl e'er' ti'tet l re s l r r r re b i rs i r ' I r 'onr ise is q i r t . r r i r l l ' es l r se t t i r rg fo r rour '1 r r , , rp " , , r .it reinforces the descriptions that u..ent be{bre it, and r,.rokes vn,r,prospect that rnuch rnore cletenuined to participate.

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The presenting of tl series of fresh, ner',' and differc'nt fLrl-filhnents for vour prospect'.s clourinant clesire-our first rnecha-nisrn of persuasion-is called Intensification. It takes m:ur\, foruis,u'ith man)' rnore certninlv to be inventecl. \\ 'e u'il l l ist sorne ofthem here, the corlplete copl' errinrples to shor,r' ho'uv ther..har.'e been rvorked out to deal u,ith specific' copv problems.

Our illustrtrtions in this pzrrt of the lrook u'ill be draru.n rnostlvfrorn rnail order. The reasoir for this is sirnule. \Iail orcler ai-vertising rnust accomplish its sale lronlr sin[1. arl. rvithout relv-ing on the cunrulatir.e force of the c,aurpaiqrr. irnd u'ithout helpfrom procluct display or salespeople. Therelirre. nriril order triesto present as rnuch of the coutplete ston- its possible at one tirne.These sarne techniques applv equalh' u'ell io ii l l l irms of aclver-tising. But there ther- are usuallv quite c.ontpressed. and theirpuryose and structure wAS not quite so irpltirrt'nt.

Here are these technioues of Inteusification:

Your First Presentation of Your Claims

l. Fir,st pre,sent the product rtr the sutis.frtctiorr it giues di-rectly4luntly-by a tlnrough, con4tleteh1 rlctailed description ofits oppearance or the reyilts it girrs. Fol eraniple. this rose acl:


Leadin g E astenr Agricr rltural Colle ge re.ports : This fab-ulous rose varietv produced 500 blooms in Jurre . . . 1523more bloours in Julv. . . 1616 r"r'rore bloons in August . . .437 rnore bloorns in Septernber . . . '1,076 roses all frorn one. s i n g l e p l a n t . . .

Can vctti intagine the lantastic beautv of a rosebushcan easily gil 'e- r 'ou NIORE THAN l.oix) ROSES frornto Septe.mber-irnd then keeps cln bloouring hear.ilvup into {rost . . .

Can r,'ou imagine the fantastic thrill of'rvalking intcrgarclen and actutrllv picking 3 dozen, even 4 clozen




F I R S T l ' L ( . t I \ l r . , '

l ' O S t ' s . r L l

u'eek . i : .s i r r q l t ' 1 , . ,

( . , , .

p e r r s r r , l ls i r i q l t , t r : '

c lver l l r , ll ianc r . , , .sp las l ' , , r

bk rss , , r r , '

o t ' l r l r , , , r ,ve rn l r t ' r 's r l o t r s 1 , . , '

- [ - l ' r .

t l t i t t r t ' , r1 - / l

l t n ( ) \ \ r : .

i n so l i t l : ;ou t s t r t ' t r : .l l i e i I S l I l t '

plete l l , :c l f r t r , , r , :u 'eek. 1, :(lat's " , ,:\ '0 t t t ' l r , , , : .

Et tot r '1 l r :aroLu rr l ' .

u-irlks ,,

S U l l l l l l I l -

. \ r r , 1

g a r t l t ' r , : .

g ro t t r t t l .

\ ' 0 l l i t ( i l i '

Or. i ts . , r ,

Christnras t1.,.Bible:

\ o u s r r , ; '

root,t , l , l , ,

Page 95: Breakthrough Copywriting

' t ' r r t f i r l -i l lecha-

r t i rnns.\ { ) l l l e o t

,, nv thet'

l l l \ .

r r r l tosth '

,,1,', .,i-,r ri relr -

, r r t he lpl , ' r t r iesl r t ' t inre.,l .rrh'er-r , r l the i r


; t r . r 's c l i -

tTt t iL t r r 0 f'r r.f i11];


roses a dal' from a single plant. clav after clar', u'eek alterrteek-and still leave gigantic clusiers of bkrom on eacllsingle plant.

Cobrful, fragrtrnt roses alrlost as large as the nrost ex-pensive Hvbrid Teas, r'et bkroltirtg bv the hundrecls at onesingle tinie . . . on one single bushl Cherr\-pink 3-incl'r rosesoverlaid u'ith tinges of red that cleepen in fire antl bril-liance as the blossorns r,rn{bld-to re'u'eal a dazzling eoldsplash on their petals! Roses tliirt brrrst into living u'alls o{'blossoms that flame agirin irncl irgain into errltrisite n'lilssesof bloorn in June, lulr', Arrgust. Septernber. October, No-verliber . . . and often stav in blooni u,eeks a{ier the firstsnous l r a re i ' a l l en ! . . .

This is the rose rvith sucli lrtntrtstic bkroniing po\\rerthat it rvill actuallv give rrnr huqe clusters of 10. 12 eveti15 flou'ers on tr single sterr . . . rrncl prochrce those clustersin solid rr. lsses of bloon! Clustt 'rs irs large as both of vourontstretchecl hands put toge'tlier . . . cltrsters that .rc'tiritllr'rrieasure un to one {irll lbot rlcross . . . each stern a cott't-plete floral bouquet in itseif , . . that gives rorr an itverrlgeof rnore than 50 Ntr\\' ROSES dtiv rrfter drrr'. u'eek alieru ' t , ek . f o r l i . 9 even l o ueek r i r , , r r ' , , r , du r i ng t l r e l r o t " r l oq

clirvs" of sulnmer. . . Errough rclses t<l f i l l everv room inr.ri r ho.rse u,ith color ou,l f.,,gror,cc' all srunt.uer lortg . . .Encrugh rclses to drench vour terrrtce u'ith beautr: to su,eeparound vour home and floocl rorrr becls. r'our borclers. \'ollru,alks. r, 'our clriveurry u'ith solid. l ir ins'rvalls of roses all,rrrr,',-r"i long . . . u'itir jrrst a t'err plantsi

And tliis is the rose you ciln have bloonriug in vourgarderr t tou i r t t t l fc l r re i t r * to cotr ) t ' . th i t t u ' i l l t t t r rk . r , , t t rgrounds the garden sholrplace of the neighborhood. ifr.'orr accept this ertraordinan' flou'er o{'fer nrnr,l . . .

C)r, as another erarnple, this description of tlie results o{' aChristrnas flashlight projector that shou,s colored slirles of theBible:

. . . You take out the trrnazing invention u'e settcl vou.\bu simplv su'itch it on. Arrrl ,udclcnlq erenl persotr itt therctorn rlrttrcs in his breutlt itt etciternent onrl aclntirotion!

8 1

Page 96: Breakthrough Copywriting

82 FIRST TEcHNIeuE oF BRF:.\KTHROUGI{ copy: rN.r.ENSrFrc.{TIo\

For there bcibre \-ol1 on that living r(x)ln \\..11-pro-

. j e t ' t e r l l ou r l ee f i r i r L . l r i t l r r ee f ee t r rL l l - i s , r r r . , r f t l r e r r r , r s tireautiful pictlires r,.,r ir*.-" ever Refrlrt' \.our eves-so t 'e i t l t l r i t r r r r r t ' rLr r Dra<. l i r . i r lh re i r<. l r orr t r r r r t I i . , , , .1 , i r . . r -is the Virgin \ 'Iarr l iolding the Lrfirnt Jesrrs in her arlr-rs.The picture actualh'glou.s u'itli erqtrisitc c'ol<lr. \bu call seeeverv lnilgnificent cletail . . . the rrnirrrals l irrcldlecl arorrrid themanger. . . the tenclentess in the \ - i rq in.s e ' r 'es. . . the snt i leon t l r c l n f i r n t . s l i r r . e .

It 's allrost as th<lugh \.ou \\rcre ac.trrallv there! Sud-t l e r r l r a l l t l r e r v o r r t l e r f i r l t a l e s r o r r l t . l r i l r l l r , , 1 , , , , * l r e r r l t l . . .all t l te rneruing ancl gkin'o{ Clrl istrnas . . c,onr(' ir l ive be-fore vclrr chiklrerrs evers! I-ife-sizecl . . . irs tall iLs rour c,hil-t l r e t t ' . . . s c ' e r r c , , f t e t " , , ' e n e p l L r i r r [ , , s l r e l , , r ' , ' t l r e r r i o r r l l r t ' i rl iving roorn u'all! Tlrev actuallv see tl ie ,\ngt l of Clod irn-nouncing thc. Birtlr to the Sliepherrls! Tlic'r ' u' itness theStar of Betlt lehern rising o.,-er t lte n'orlcll f l i t,r stancl sideb r s i t [ e u ' i t l r t hc T l r ree \ \ ' i se rne r r i r r s i l e t r t r r , L , r rL i i on !

Be{bre their verv eves. thev see Clrrist gro\\' to r'}ri1-l r r r i t r . T l r e r r r r L k . l r l r i i r r r i s t o r r r r t l t l r t . , . l t l e r ' . o l t l r e T e r r r l l eas a srnirl l c'hilcl. Thev thri l l to his first rrrcctirrg rvith fo'hut l r e t s r rp l i s t . T l t e \ i r r e p resen t u t t l r e Se t ' r r r o r r , r r r t l r e - \ l o r rn t .Thev u'itness erich of the lr-iirac'les-see u'itli their o\\n eyes

Jesus caln ' r ing ther s tor l t . . . teacl i ing Pctc l to u, r lk r tn iheu'aterr , . . raising Lirzarus ii'orn the dead.

Cort tlrcre be untl nnre tltrilling cytcrienu,., Srrclclenlve\rerv serlnon tile\- li:ile el'er hearcl . . (,\-rr'\ lrrrok theiI t a r e e v e r r e i u l . . . e \ e r \ ' p r a r e r t l r e r l , , r r r . , 1 , e , . l . " r , , e t i .takes on neu' rne:rnine rurci b;autr. fiir therrr. Tiris is prob-ablv the rnost thriiling hour votr u'ill ever spencl u'ith r-ourclilidren. Thev r,r,ill ,.ri.,.r,l to repeat it tirne'ancl tirne again.These rnagnifrcent picfures u,ili continue to thrill ,rnii nr-touncl ancl instmct thent fclr veirrs to corne . . .

Or, as another ertunplc., this clescription of the ouhvarcl irp-pearance of il giant flr-ing plastic n-roclel jet:

. . . \'esl Just ititagine the expression o1t \.our childrenlsfaces. u4ren tlier- u.alk into l'our lir,ing ruunr just onc u'eckfrorn todar: ancl sudclenlv see tliis uragnificent moclel air-pline stancling in tront ol them on the'l ir. ing roorn tablel

F I R S T T E C ] I I \ 1 ( . ) I I

I I , ' r . 'ri irplarrr. :anc l so J , ' i *f ronr t l r , :

T lI J | \

oll icial i ,g l n e s i t l r ' . ,

u, i th a l in la l ong t l r ,s i c l es o1 t l , ,i rnc l t l r t . \ 'ant r r ' l r t ' r ' ,

B o t l 'on i r lh l r . r t .

an h r , , r r l \huge t ' r , ,g : .f ingers-, ,g lve \ ( )ut .A(_ 'Tt ' \ r l \HI \ ISI - I I

2 . N o r r ' 1 / , .are readt l l ( ) , . ;

to t lo thi .s is 1, , I I

To shou:. ttt,tgiues the rtrt,l, ,

let'.s continrrt. ',. .

\ o l : , . ,S c a l e \ l i l , .

P ic ,k t rancl h iu i r l r :t he U - ( . . r , : :suspencl t l . ,to su- i t tg i 'vou u'i l ] ., ,iit"t

Page 97: Breakthrough Copywriting


. , I{ere is a gigantic. three_tlimerrsional, :rll pltrstic rnoclel

irirplane-resting securelv on its ou.n triple lorrdirrg g"or_and so h'ge that its taii sectiorr alone sti.ds s* frJilnc,h"sfrorn the table!

",.. .Tht.,rnagn^ificent rnoclel airplane proucllr., bears theoilicial colors of pan Arnerictrn Ain'avs!^Its *,ings uncl en-gines iue a dazzling silver! Its {u.selage is a gleaming u,hite_*'ith a brilliant bhre stripe stretc.irirrg birck twent''-cr'ne irchesa lo r rq the en t i re lenqt l r - r , r ' t l re h , r t r r I \n t l s t r r r r rpe t l on L , , , t r rsides of the hrrge .rckler is the pa' Anrerican \\brlcl Grobe-ancl the Arlerican flag abo'e it. reacr'to identifi' this praneannr4rere she goesl

tsoth the rvings ancl the tail sec,tior.r are slartecl cliag_onall'- bnck-readvto c.t thro'grr trre air at 600 scale r-riresnn hour! And suspenclerl berre.lth the u.ings are the fcrurh'ge enginer-ea"h :rs l"g rrrcr as thick'as '.rrr criilcl'sfingers-each with its oul 1Ef SOUXI SI\IUL..\TOR.;;gir.'e _vour child tlirill .iter thrill alter thrill \\-HEN lItrACTUALLY FLItrS TTIIS BRE,{TH-TAKI\(] \IODELH I N { S E L F I . . .

Put the Claims in Action

2. llorc that yotr lmxe pre,scntecl yttur nmin cle,scriptiort, rlortare

-rea-dq to erpand

_tlrc inmge, One of the rnost ffictixe uuys

to do thi,s i,s to pur rHE pRoDUC? It AC Trol,r f.i ttorrr rertder.To ,shou, not onlq h.u; the prrrhrct look,s, artd ,rhni bornf', itgiue,s the reader, but exactly hotc it d.oes this, As one

".,o,rrpl.,,let's continue rvith our moclel jet airplane ad:

No Fuel! No Dangerl No Crack_Upsl yet It Flies 600Scale N{iles An Hour. Ail Und", your eomplete Control!

Pick this magnificent plastic 'oclel ,,p i.,r,, the t*irle.ancl hand it to r,'orir child. \rhile rre holcls it, sirnprv attncl,the U-Control Line as *,e shon, r,o, to the left ;"i;g ilr;;susperd tlie r.oclel from trris control rine, .ncl besi; sro\d'to s\\'ing it througlt the :rir. Before vour astonislr"d

"r"i.'o. u'ill see o'e of the tlrriliing sights .f _r.o'r entirlttre I

Page 98: Breakthrough Copywriting

fJ4 FIRST TECHNTeuE oF BREAKTHRouaH copy: INTE\sIF. Ic_c, , r . toN

Tliis moclel is per{'ectlv designeci lirr high-speed flieht!As soon as it picks up power lrorrr the. rrrotion of vour hancl,it \\'ill lilt up its lose, its u'ings u'ill iregin to cut throughthe air. it rvill flash rrpu'ard rrnd streirk aht,rrcl rif r..ou! As r..irrgir.e it rnore ancl ntorer l ine. it u.i l l trrrr r rriclcr.arrcl u' faster and {:rster. . . \bu crln fl\' it irr circ.les rnh fir-e feetu ide. or \ou ( . i rn t lLke i t c ,u l t loor . i rLrr r l Hr i t i r r q iq i r r r t i t . i r rc .sone hunclrecl {'eet u'icle-tlie size of arr cntire ciiv lot . . .

\rttr ci in rnake this plane soar- uprr,rr.t l stall rrt lantas-tic heights-dive tor.vari tlie grourril-anrl theri pick upspeed and flash upu'ard again in a breatl i-t ir l<inq rescue! . . .You can spiral this rlagnificent rnclrlel rl<xr-rr intcl a perfectLincling! \bu can flv hl 'o or l l iore plarrt,s in l irr.rnationl \brrcan hil 'e jet ri ices! Yotr c.irn har',. i l r,rrt ire' lk'et o1'l ireatl i-taking ri'icldels florvn br.' everr. nre'rriber ol rrrrr firrrrilr--and\ou ( ' a l r l r a re t l r e rn [ i , r on l i [ i I r r p i r . r . , , . 1 , , r . t l r ; r n ( ) \E -FIFTH the price rou'd pal'fbr a plastic' rrrock'l ol this sizea n d p e r f b r m a n c e ! . . .

or, as another erirr 'ple, this pr'chrc't-irr-uc,ti 'rr rlescriptio'lronr rr brochure sell ing tr self-propelled fislr hrre:

. . . Think of i t ! To f i re l up th is i rnraz i r rq. l i re- t ic t ior - rIure. all r.ou do is this. Simplv sr]lr.p open the l irel chanr-ber-pour in the rrbsolutelr.^h,,mrl"'r, ijrel-a,rcl clcise the{irel charnber againl . . . Sinrplr c,irst or lou'er. thirt po\\,er-packecl hrre into fresli or salt u,ater-arrd gct set ibr thefisli ins thri l l of vour l i t 'el

Fcrr pe.hap.s one utinute, tire lure u'ill float rluietlv ontl ie surface of the u'ater. But then that u-ater rri l l ieacli thefuel charge inside-the lure u'i l l seenr to shudder frrr a sec-ond-and then it u' i l l spring drarnaticallr to "l i f 'e"!

The air around it wil l be fi l lecl u' it lr ihe lruzzing sourlclof a beel Instantlr: the nose ot thc lure u.i l l pointdo rv r rua rd . r r r r r l i t u i l l l r eg in i t s f i r s t r l t , s t . e r r l ! S l , , r r l . . l e r k -i lr ' , l ike a maimecl rninnou,,. it rvil l su'inr noisilr, 'r lclurr-t ' ,11{-[p27ing i incl hurnming-traveling alrorrt nirre t 'eeteverr-fi{ ieen seconcls! If no fish ir-rtercepts it, i t u,i l l therrautornaticalh. stop its descent-slou,lv raise up lfs 11o5e-ancl begin i is irresistible clirnb to tl ie strr{ace'i lgain!

F I R S T T l l ( I I \ 1 r .

\ r , ,l eng t l r , :l i 'ssh , , ' ,

l t ls l i l ( 'K L r I

\ ' o l t 1 ( ' !

\ t l

u ' i t l r i t ' .

tht' r 'r ,, ]l t ' ror r t In

3 . O r r t

P t t t y l l t r t ' ( ( t t , t .

. s to r t t . n t t t l ' J ,

to h in t t l t t n , 'Stlge f i 'or i l i r l .

tc lo r i l t , , .i nq l i r r ' .C i l l ' . \ ( ) t . r .

t tou . r i i , ,

e l l g l l l t ' ( ' l l

I '-t , ,:

d i l i i , r ' , , r ,gencr i ' , ,rtt l l t l , , ' ,, : .pedril I 's l t o t o f * . , .t ha t ' s . : r r j .

\ \ ,t ) t lL1 l1 l t , r .\ \ r , i i t r r r , :o t l r t , r t . , :i tcross t l . ,per l r r l l

I l t : :tv i l l I r . t , . ,an t l t l r r t t

Page 99: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ \ l I - I ( ' - \T IO\

i r i i g l r t l: ' l r i r r rc l .i , l , , l t q l t

\ \ \ ' o l l, l' . \ t ( le f .

: ' . , ' 1 i 'e tl l r . t l ' C S

:: . t t l t t I S -

, : . \ l l l )

' . ( . . .

: ' ' r ' t i 'c t: , ' \ ' o r r

i : . , ' .L t l r -i - . t r ) (1

1 ) \ E -

l . : . \ i Z e

, l , ,sc 'r ipt ion

' , . t t t t t l

. i r . t t t l -

. , t l r e

i ' ' ' " i ( ' r -' : . t l rc

' : . r O i l

, . : , t i r t '. r \ t ' L -

. , ) l i l l ( l

: r r i t t t t

r r ' l k -

I r ' , r t i -

, r i ,t,t

. l l r t ' n


Ancl againl And again! Tirelesslr'-hour a{ier l}or1r-lengthening out the reach o{'\ 'orlr o\\.n casts! Roarninq rest-lesslv over ever\' {bot of u'ilter beneath \:ou-even on rlslirck line-e.'e,'r ,.,ben \-our lx)at is tied 11p-r,1 i.11 11 h1,11\1 ) r t r ( , t ' u r l e r I up ( )n t l r e < l r r ck . so r rn r l r r s l eep i . . .

And the fish ilrorlricl vou into sucll a {renzru'ith its s\\'irnming and its llrzzing tliat thev practicallv te.arthe rocl out of vorrr hand.-tlier're so anticnrs to get theirmouths into the hook! . . .

Bring In the Reader

3. Or, i{'r'our product lencls itself to this kind of treatrnent,put Lloltr reocler right srnack in thc niddlc o.f thi,s prodtrct-in-octiotl,story, anrl girc hint o Lerbol dcntonstratiort of rclmt rcill hr74tento hint the Jirst day he,\ thot product. For eriinrple. this pas-sage frorr iur iid selling ir po\\'er bc-roster fbr tlre a\'€'rage car:

. . . Pictrrre tliis to r-ourselfl Nerxt u'erekentl r..orr gor l o r r ' r t t o 16111 '1 ' 111 - f [ e s l un r l i r e r l r , i r r t l r r t r o r r ' r e l r ee r r t l r i r -ing {br \ears. You'\ 'e rnacle onlv one sirnpie cliange to thatcar. so easv thnt vollr si\teerr vear olcl son could do it. llutnorr,. rvhen vou tirrn on the igrritiun. a r.nodern miracle o{'engineering science cornes to l i i 'e rrnder vcxrr hoodl

Fronr the ven' first nronent. r.'ou'll see irnd feel tiiedifference in that enginel . . \\'hen r.ou release en'rer-qencv brnke, \.our car u'ill glide out of its parkine space-roll dou.r-i the street n'ith vour foot htirdlv totrching tlie gasperLr l . Ererr 3O or 40 seconds. rorr ' l l g i re t l t i r t r , r r r rur er t rashot of gas-feeling it spurt rrliead-testing the ne\\' po\\'erthnt's singing underneath vour foot!

\\'e ask vou to ptrll up to irnotl'rer car trt the stop light.of trpprorirrateh the ,,,ni" u",,, and rnake as ro,o oi.l!\\ait untii the lieht changes froln recl to green. Let thcother car start first. \\rait till the other car gets htrlf u.avacross the street. Ancl then slarn vour lbot clou'n on the gasneclal!-

Before that other car hrrs even crossed the street, r'ourvill l'iar,e caught up rvith liin. For one brief second. \'ouand that other car u'ill rirce f'ender to f'ender. Ancl then vou


Page 100: Breakthrough Copywriting

86 FrRST TECHl,treuE oF BRFt.\KTHRoucH copy: rNfENSrFICAr.roN

rvill flash arvar. frorn hin . . . vou u'ill leave him tr full blocl<behind . . . -vou u ill look in rlour reirr viell, rnirror ru)d seethe startlecilook of arnirzement rin the tither clrivers {ace! . . .

Show Him How to Test Your Claims

4. But there is still rrrore roon'l to e'rpiurrl the imagc' alongtlrese lines. Turn the demon,stration irtto rt Lt:t yortr reaclerxi,suoli;e hinuelf proxing the perfornrurtcc tlf ' ryotrr procltu:t-guin-irtg its beneJits irnrnediatelq-in thc sltt:cific and rJranruticrcat1 possible. For exaniple, in this ad, sellirig rr ne\\, kind of sparkplug:

. . . u,.hen vou get 1'our set of SA FIRE INIECITORS,here is all vou-do. ii 'r 'ou have an autorrratir. trarrsnrission,n'iake a noie of lror- fast \'our cAr crrur-ls {irnvarcl u4ren itis in the drive position, ..-ith the nrotor idlirrg. If vou haveri spol'ts car, a racinq car or boat, rnake il note <tf'the ltpNllsas indicated on the tachorneter rvhen tlie enqirre is idling.If vou hzwe re,gular transn-iission, put \()Llr c,irr in l<tu, geirori ir level road irncl notice its speecl u'ith the nrotor iclling.Nert . . . screw r,'our injectors riglit into tlie spark plug open-i n g s . . .

Nou', ii'vou have an automatic transurissioll-put r.-ourcar in drive and lc.t vour engine idle. I{'\.our cur stood stillrl'ith spark plugs, it ivill now rrove fonr',rrd ut liour .l to 6miles an hour; that lreilns that the anrount of gas that iustkept \'our engine turning over u'il l no\\.curr\.r-,,u up ir 6l-iiles at no cost ro vou.

If' r'ou lirrve a racing or sports car or a boat r,vith atachorneter, vour RPNI'.s'ivill lncrease up to 200 niore atidling and up to 300 nore at high speeds.

If vou have regular trtrnsmissiou. in klu, gear rvith r.,ourrr-rotor idling vour car rvill rnove fbm,arcl + io 6 rniles perhour faster. In other n'ords, no rnatter u'hat vou clrir.e. hlreis absolute proof tliat vou can go iirrtlier, firster andcneaDer. . .

F I R S ' T ' I ' F ] ( , I I \ I .

Or . i r . . , :

se l l i nq i t r , ' , ,

n ing arr r l I i

s l t o r t r , , .| l t ' \ \ I 1 r

v o r r . \ : .i l t ( , i l t ( ) i

\ \ I

i s t l r i . \ '

tlori r r lT \ \ I , \ It o ] l r r ' t l

b e r , r . :i i S i L l t ' ' r

l i n t 'I r ,

l is t i | j .Lr ls i n rp1 ,l r t r r r r t l . ,c i r ih I \ :

\ :f i ' ie r r , l .u i l l r t t : 'u ' i t l r , , , l :

) ' -

e|er'\ :t l t e t ' r , , , '

s i r r g J t . . , :t l l l t o t r . r : .

P l ' t ' ( l : t

p t r s l , , ' , i ,\ l

v a - l

D . I l r l

ent l less. I I ,thetne: slr , , ' . ,

Page 101: Breakthrough Copywriting

I ' l , rc'k, , 1 s e e


ur Claims

: . . r 1 ( ' a l o n g.'0', t , t -ga in -j ,lrurnrrtic

, , i , r l ' s p n r k

' . ( ) l l l -

i . t i i li t , r 6

r i l t l \ t, i , r ( - : r

: i l r r t

: ' . i i t

' . | ) l l l '

. . I ) ( , t -

I r r - l -C

. r l t t l


Or, as rrnother exanrple. this dernonstratiou-test frorn arl ad

selling a menrorv course, \\,ith tite heaclline, "Cive NIe One Eve-

ning and I'll Give vou rI Push-Buttcln Nletntlrr"':

. . . Take this book and tuni to paee 39. Read eiehtsliort pages-no rrore. Artcl tlien. put dou'rt the book. Re-vieu. in voLrt' o\\/n mincl the tttte' sirnple secret I've shounvou. Anci then-get rertclr to tcst vorrr neu'AUTOMATICir'r.'r,ur.'!

\\ hat vou urc going ttt clti, in that verr. first eveninq,is this. \\'itirout re{-e.rring to the book. r''orr are goirlg to sitdolr.n. and \()Ll rtre goittg to \\rrite-liot fir'e. not ten, butT\\TENTY ininortant {ircts that rrttr have rter-er been trbleto nrernorize tefbre! If rou are a lrtrsiuess lil i l l l. thev rtiavb e r ' r r s l o t r r e r s ' o r r l e r s t l r a l r r r r t l t i r r t ' t i ' t ' e i r e t l . . . i l \ o t l i t r e

i L s r r l es r t t r r t t . t l r ev t r u t r l r e t r i e r rh t l i l j e re t r t l l r o t l r l t ' l s i n ro t t r

line . . . if r.'ou are a houses'lI'c. ther'. . . .In anr'- case, \()Ll are sirnplv going to glance over that

Iist agnin for a feu' lnolrerlts. \trtt irre qoing to peribrrn a

sin-rnle rnentnl trick orr each one of these {iicts-that n'ill

burn that {act into votrr ntincl. perlnanenth' i1r}d trutollliiti-

calh'l Ancl then vou are qoing to put that list a\\'il)'. . .' And the ne\t ltlonlnlg. \1)u are goittg to atnaze vour

friericls irncl faliilr'! \\'hen rrttr go do\\rli to businc'ss, r'ou

u,ill attend to evervone of those orders-autornaticallr'-u i t l t ou t r e l e r r i ng t o t r r t t t ' l r r e t r r ( ) l l r r t l l . . .

Yes! And \,ou'l l iunaze vour triends bv remernbering

ever-v prochrct in rour lirre-ltrrcllr',.rrcls ilncl {bruarcls-in

the eract order that vou trtetttorizecl therit! You'll keep everv

single :rppointntent 6n 111i1s-beciltlse otle rrppointrnent rvill

iutornaticallv flash into rour rttincl tt{ier another--ilt tl're

precise rnonlent r-ou ueecl 111€'l1i-cviictlv as thougli vrlttpuslted a lnerltill buttonl

All tliis-in a single evertingl. . .

Stretch Out Your Benefits in Time

5. The nurr-iber of variirtions. of {resh, strirtling vieupoints is

enclless. I{ere is another cleparture lront the procluct-in-actiorl

thenre: shor,r'ing the product irt u'ork, not fbr just an holtr or it

Page 102: Breakthrough Copywriting


dar: but o\rer a span of rveeks ancl nronths. Fler-e vou ertend vourreader'.s vision further nnd {irrther into tiure-shoio,ing hirn a c.on-tinuous flou,' of'benefits. This passage is taken frc,r,, an acl fbr anEnghsh pltrnt fbod:

. . . First. the nurazing English pellets gir-e vour plantsa trenenclous ne\\1 burst o{'grou.'th! },ien' pLints ancl olcl-thev send out dozens of'hiclden shoots arrrl brrcls! Sori 're ofxrur plants rrrar actuallr DOUBLE irr lrciqlit ancl breacltl it he re r r i i r s t r i r o r r t h l

BLit thls is just the beginningl \\itliin olre or tu,o shortrvereks-rvithout vour even touchinq \-tlrlr plant-tliis atnaz-ing pellet AUTd\IATICALLY b"ginr the seconcl sta"ge ofits u'ork! It :rutornaticallv sends out ir sec.ontl r,.,,nder-rr-clrkingr ru t r i en l - t h r r t en te rs i n to eve r r r . e l l , , l r , , r r r - r r l , r r r t s ' boc [ -i es - t l r r t t f i l l s t l r ose c .e l l s u i t l r l r e i r l t l r r r r r r l . t ' . - , , q i l , r r n t l s t r r r -diness . . . Great. tall sterns stand up u'ith rrri l i tan-ltrecisionl(litrnt buds begin to srvell u.ith r-igor ancl i itrilitr I Er-en tiredold shrubs rrnd trees-that vou hacl almost qiven up {brlost-begin to straighten out-firtten rrp-sencl ont the. i.<l,,nggreen gronth th:rt vou had ne'u'er hoperl to see aqtrin!

Ancl then. the most rertrttrkable part ol all! fust asthese. fantirstic:rllv beaiutifirl plants have reac,herl th;ir tull.qloriorrs heiqlrt and strengtli-rrt that ntotrrcnt these tinvEnglish pellets autorraticalh' l iber:rte sti l l Lr third u'ondei-uo rk inq i r r g l t , t l i en f ! . . . .

Ancl u'hen that third precious ingreclient reirches thosebucls-then that verv moining vou u'ill open the cloor to1'eu1 he115€'-AND YOU \VILL BE BLI\DED BY THEEXPLOSIO\ OF COLOR THAT GREETS YOU INYOUR CARDEN! . . . You r,r ' i l l see rose bushes u,eighteddolrn u'ith lnasses of blossorris. clf a richness ancl perfur.neand color xlr hirve never ir.naqined before! \brr u,ill seedahlias ancj asters ancl glacliolas'so r.nassivc.. so erquisite, sobreath-takinglv beautiful that r,ou can harcllr. believe thatthev i r r e t he sa rne p l i Ln t s t l r a t i o r r p r r t i r r t l r e q ro r rn< l l An t lu4ren r.our neiehbors begin to po.ri into youl'1.;11a1-$,hsnvou n'atch thern bencl and touch these

-Hou-eis to see if


F I R S T 1 ' l l ( . 1 I \ I r .

6. - { t t i , ,

are brottgl t t

the t t t - l ) t ' t ) t :reader c(t t t

e n c e d l l t r , , t t 't170t7c(,\ l)t t ,

Th t ' s t ' : ,

experl( 'r i( ( ' \ '

i i lr trt \\ ' i t t-t ' .,1

ar l t l \ \ ( ) l l i ( '1 ,

per ie l lc ' ( 's i r l '

ab l v t l t e r r r r , ' :

\\,'hen I Srtt

th is book I I

use t l P i l \ \ . t -

t t ' l l t t r t - :

i c i t l . j ' ' r . :

h i t l t f , ' :

A\ l ) \ \ .l - r '

t t c ' ( ) l l . l

I : .ac ' l t ' r . . 'p t ' t r i . :{ i r o t l ' : :t l t e t I L '

I :pt ) r t t 'L i

e l le l { \veat ' ' I

\ : ,tht ' r ] , 't h t ' i r ' l '

c lehc i , " .p t t r r r t , l .

Page 103: Breakthrough Copywriting

r r I I ' - lC . {T IO\

\t|n(l Vollr

i r i r r r a c o n -

, . ,r l l i rr nn

r r l . r r i t s

l , l -: : . t ' O i

, . , t l th

l . : i t s' : ' i i l .' : i r r r: l t ' t -

: i . , r r eI i I o

TI I F ,I \

i i r t t ' t li j l l l l e

I . t ' e. . \ ( J

: i r . r t\ l l ( l

, l r t - t l

' , ' i 1 'I \ ( ;t I \ T


Bring In an Audience

6. At the end of thi,s passage, other octors be,sides tlrc reuder

are br(rught into the .scene. Each tnrc o.f thent-each group oftherrt-lroxides a fresh nerc pcr,\pectixe through rchich qourreader can Dierc the product. Seert through their eye.s-erpcri-cnced through tlrcir actions an(l reactiotls-the product pe$tr-tnance,\ becorne nel.D, LiLid otrcl cott1)letely differcnt again.

These new participants mirv be celebrities, u'ho relate theirexperiences through the testin-ronial. This technique is too famil-iar to warrant an exarnple here. Or thev mar,' Lre trverage rnenand \vomen, n'hon the reacler easilr. iclentifies ri'ith, rvhose er-periences are related through narration or the ctrse histor\'. Prob-ably the most fan)ous example of rl nilrration is the "Thev LaughedWhen I Sat Dorvn at the Piano" ad quoted in the first section ofthis book. Here, as an exanlple of the case-historv approach. weuse a pelssage from a reclucing acl:

. . . And then. if vou \\'ere like the men ancl \\.omenrvhose fantastic case liisttiries \\'rrc reported b1'leading rned-ical journals, perhaps l'ou u'erlt to vour doctor arrd askedhirn for AN EASY \\r\Y OLrT-\\'ITHOUT TORTURE-AND WITHOUT SLIDI\C; BACK] .

These doctors had the ans\\'er in a tinv grev pill-anda ('t lull l lol l-setrse nllrtt . . .

Thev instrr-rct"d clc,z"ns of natients to test this mir-acle plan in their orvn h<,nres. i,, ider these doctois' sLl-pen'ision. These nien uncl \\ 'onren did NOT give up the{bods ther' lo1'g6l-1}i€'1' sirr.rDlv and naturallv cut dourr or.rthern!

Thel' r',.ere not giveu arrv stan'ation cliets . . . thev re-ported, in case irfter'c'ase. tliat thev i'elt n-rore pep. moreenerg); r'nore r,'outh ancl r.italitv than thev hacl kno$'n forvearsI'

And then, dav bv darl faster ancl easier and sa{'er thanthey had ever knou.n be{bre. tlie uglv excess fat aroundthei r hodies mel ted au 'ar ' l \ \ l r i le thei rvere eat ing t l r reedel ic ious rneals a dar . t l rer r tere s l redding as r r r r rc 'h as f i r 'epounds a r.veekl \\Ihile thev u'ere feasting on mouth-rvater-

Page 104: Breakthrough Copywriting


ing steaks. t l i ick juio' sl ices of roast beef, potatoes, butterand bread-thev n'ere losing inch afier inr' l i .r l icr.irrc.h i iorrirrround their rvaistl iues, theil thighs. the,ir hips. Clothes thatthev had discardccl vears befrrre begiur to c.rlnre orrt of'tliecloiets ancl attics. NIen ancl u',,rr,"rr b<ith-thev began tonotice a new \-oung look to their chins rLrit l f i tc,cs that ther-'clthought ther"cl lc,si forever.

Ancl r.4ien tl'rer pltrn was over . . . tliese' rrren irncl woriienI t lItad lost:rs nruch rrs 17 irnd 25 i,rncl evc'n tJ.{ pclrrrcls.., ther.hild turnerl back their u'eight clock 5. l(i arrcl c.r,en l5-vears . . . And their trirn. slirn figures rr"ere.jrrst lteginning. . . .

Shou' Experts Approving

7. But not only celebritie,s antl rtrclirtanl ptc4la crtn be t";ledto renffinn the product berLefits. Eyteft.s itr tlrc ./tt:ld-profe,s,sioi?-al,s-the sophisticated, the di,scrintinating, tht, ltlutt curr be r:alledon to regi,ster their reoctiorts, There is nothirrg so ristoundirrg arsthe astonishment of erperts. Here the elenerrts <ll 'surprise, coln-petition and cliscoverr.' all cornbine to slrilryrer the irnage eve'nrore. This exarnple is taken frorn the rose ixl rrientionecl above:

. : .J,,st picture the scene as theser college hclrticul-turists began this alnazing flclu'ering test o{'r.oses. For iieregatherecl in a test field n-ere all the liiqhlr -pririsecl rltreensof' rosedorn . . . floribundas. lnfirid tcai. pcilr, le r r te t l roses anr l rose l l l , , r r t l s i l r r r t to tL r r s . l l i i , r ' i r s l r ig l ras S3.75 fur a single plant. Rorv rlpon ro\\'oi roses prize-rvinners in intemational competitirin . . . tlie Lie'st the r.vorlclhas to ofl'er. . . AND THEN, NE-\RLY \\'tLD STARTEDTO BLOOMI

Just picture the astonishment on thesc- experts' {iicesu4ren in the first nonth alone, Netrrh \\-ilcl 1-rroilrrcecl orerl5 t i r r res r t ro le b lossor r rs th r rn t l re i - r re r . r rq r o l r t l l o t l r t - r rosescombined; hou. in Julr' :rlone it prodrrces :ur tl.erage of 50ne\\r roses a dar', more than 7 tirries as rnanr Lrlr,s.sclll ls irsthe second leacling rose! I{ou. in Auqrrst it prodrrced !ltirnes rnore roses than its neirrest courpetitor: rtncl thenw e n t ( ) n . . . .

F I R S ' I T L ( - l l r l t .

I r : :

i n g t l r , :

l l lg lI ( r

br rs l r l lbel i t ' i ' rt o t l r l Il ieve itt he ' t l , . r , .

8 . E r i t l ,

be carr i t ' t l t , ,

setL ic( t ' t t r , i

throrc i t tg t l t '

ample. is r i l ,

comurerc ' i l r l I

ing at tc l 1r , , , ' ' '

c t ) l )1r ' :Hu r r k Ierrtc t ifr-{.!l r :L l t t l )eract Ii t iq s ; '

H is l r ierac t l ' .

Ot'. ,.t' .,

p iece st ' l l r r , -

car thttt t i ' , , i

t l ] ( l t r r t :

bri l l i , , r ' '

Page 105: Breakthrough Copywriting

I I \ \ I t ' I ( I A T I O N

. I r r r t ter ', , i r l r on r' i , , ' . 111 ;11. : , r i t l t e, . g . t i r to, ' i l r t ' r ' ' t l

i . ' . , , t t t t ' r tt I r ev

' ' . ' . l r 1 5: . . t 1 , 1 . . .

, {pproving

, , r , l t t ' t t sec l

1 , r'r lfe,s,sit'tt1-.,, lrc callecl

. : , , r r r r r l ing usi : l r l ' l \ t ' . co l t - ] -

: r l i rge even

' , : r t ' r l i r l t o v e :

. : l i c r r l -'

: ' l r t ' t ' ej r i ( ' ( ' l l s

. . , r , t l [ Ls ., . l r i qh

: I I ' t Zt',-t 1' . . \ ( ) t ' l ( t

\ l i 1 ' t_D

. t . tc '( 's. , 1 o r c r

: l - ( ) \es' , r t a o. l l l \ z t s

: ' r l l l, i t l r e r r


Is it anv wonder that a farnous rose expert upon vie\\L

ing the ."t,.iltr; of this test, exclairned: "Whu-it's like liav-

in[ a coliplete rose garden of 20 plants-all on a sinsle

t"rt t" Or ri'hv anothei rose exPert, shaking liis herrd irr dis-

belie{, statedi "If u,e ever reieised these flou''ering figures

to the public, the1"d never believe it. Ancl if thev dld be-

l ie te i t . ' r ,e c 'orr lch i ' t produc 'e Near l r \ \ i ld rose p lants to [ i l l

t l ie dernand in the nert 25 vcarsl". .

Compare, Contrast, Prove Superiority

8. Etrch ne\\'approach suegests others. The conpetitittn can

be crtrrierl into contrast. The disrrcltrntages of the old Ttntcluct Ltr

ser;ice can be laicl .skle by side rcitlt tlrc (dL-antoges of the nur-

thrttroing these acluantage'\ ittttt sltaryt relief' Here, as one ex-

ample, is a brief, three-senterlce Passage frotn a book-club raclio

colnmercirtl that establishes the clifi'erence between randotlr bu\'

ing and book-club savings indeliblv on the listener's mind:

. . . Yesl While I'our friencls n'ere paving $3.95 for theirconies of Frank Yerbr"s rtttl-it\\.il\- lrest seller, Tlrc GolclenHkuk, Dollar gook ilub trletrrbers rvere getting the sane

eract book for onlr' 99c. \\'hile vour friends were paving34.95 for John O'I{arir's flartring nerv thrillel A .Roge to

Liue, Dollar Book Club tneulbers rvere getting tlle sanleeract book for onlr' 99c. Atrtl u4rile vour {riends were pa\Ling $5.95 for Thol'ras B. Costtritlls tolvering treu' triultlpli.High Touers, Dollar Book Club rnetnbers rvere enjor'-ingexactlr.' the same book-{or onlr' 99Cl . . .

Or, as another example, here is a passage {roln rr direct tntril

piece selling a Fuel Recl:rirner-a clevice for the engine of Vour

car that feeds escaping crankcase gases back into 1-our carburetor:

. . . This device uses the suction-porver of l-ottr ourlmotor to scoop up that smoke. AIrd then-in one of the nostbrilliant ideas in engineering historr'-it destrovs that smoke

Page 106: Breakthrough Copywriting

92 F-rRST TECHNIe'E oF BRE-A.KTI{R. ' .H c()py: rNTE\srFICA.froN

bl' f'eeding it back into vour engine. it is bumecl upagain trs a continuorrs, ertra flclrv of lirell

Think of it! Instead of pollutecl oil, pollutecl engine,polluted air-r'o. get a corsttut stre..t <li 'ertra gorulin"flo*'ing into l'our e'girre. alrrrost rrs tirorrqh r.o' haci',r free.secoucl gas tank connected to rrxrr citrl

Listead of' one breakclorrln alter arrotlrer. one lnorerepnir bill afier irnother, each 'ore erper'si'e than before-vou get \()l.lug-crlr.,pgrug., \-otlng_cAr econc)llt\. \,ouug_carresista'ce to repair bills. becausc. the creacrrr srridge-carisers.acid-causers, filth-causers thirt usecl tr, ,.,,i,, ,n,r, car. .rer rou 'be ing burned up as {ue l in vour . t , r r ,q i r r r ! . . . .

Picture the Black Side, Too

9. Antl there'.s no neetl to neglect tlrc llcuten-Or_Hell ap_proocl't' Here the negatiLe aspect tt etcrtl pro,ti,sc-tlte problentthat you are liberating llour prospect frtnn .f.rt'r.t, 1'taintecl inall it,\fi l lblack color, \ittt irritate the u;ottrtLd. rt,rl tlrc.n yo, aTtplythe ,salrc tl'tat heal,s it.

Thus vou deri'e tr',o currents of nroti'atiorr-reprrlsion a*,a'f r , rrr the f i r rrrrer prohlem or inar leqrate pr-rrhrc, t . , , , , i t l r" artra*tio. generated br'\ 'our o\\rr prod'ct'.s co'trirsti 'g sorutions.

There are se'eral fbrms in ri4rich \:ori cirr lrresert this before-and-after picture. \brr crrn clo i t thr 'uglr r , , rr . r- , t t iorr or the test i -monial, You can do it br rrsing tlre "pitch" technirlre of procluctridicule. or vou can sirnpll' presert straight clescription of theold product or problern, rvith all its detailecl clrau,backs. and thenfollorv it dilecth' rvith a similar description of r-our ns11, sslu1l6n-in a perfectlv parallel st'le, item br,'itenr. Fier", irs iu exa'ple,is a passage frorn an ad selling :l ne\\/ kind of spark plLrg:

. . . Sornedat', if vou ever h;ive a spare nrornent. liftone of the old-faslr iorred spark plrrqs orrt 'nf , .u, , ,"

"rr l iook

at t l re bottorr ol t l r i r r 1l lug. I rr I0 sec.onds. rurr ' i l learn rnoreabout gas rvaste than anv book coulcl teacL 'ou i' a r.earl

If that phrg lias been in \.our car three thousand mrlesor lrlore, then *'hat '.rr'li see on the botto'r of that piug

F I R S T T F - ( I I \ :

i s F l l I

I )O r t . t r r 'ar t t l 1 ' .r< l l r s . ,\ ' o l l I r :

\i ts( .1 1

' l '

hea r l ' :o l t l r r , :( i ( ) l t I l tH iL l t l hinq 9. , .o n t l , ,

\ , .a s i r r { i .i l ) e | t , :

\ l\

F ' l l s l , :t l r r t t r ,

t I ,l t r r t I r , r : .t \ \ ' t ' t .i t i t u . , .

E\ I . - I r \t l t i t t ' . r . , .

i I S ] l l l l L l

l i .r o r i t l , .

1 . ,( l l t l ( ) t l

c l r i r i r r -s e l l ( . t '

\ :O l i ( ' 1 , :

nr i rc l t . \

u ' i t l r , , r .

phrg . ' ,

T l t t ' : , :

s e l r t t ,

11 lg { r : :

Page 107: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ \ I I . - IC ]A ' I ' ION

: r r ' ( l l tp

r - l l { l l l e .

- . r \ ( ) l ineI . t t ree.

. . 1 l l o r e

" - i ( ) l ' ( ' -

, : r t , l -c ' i l r

. . r l l \ ( ' l ' S .

, . r 1 . i l l ' e

i Side, foo

( ) , ._Hd l aP_' i r ,

l tn i i lent, l,ttitftecl int t , l ( tu opPltJ

' ; ] . ion i lu 'a)-

I tlrt, attrac-I i : 1 ( ) l t s .

: l r i i |16 ' forg-

) : t l le test i -, ,t prodrrct

t ron of the. .I l ld then.1y11111s1 -

, : i r ' \a l l lp le,r j r r { :

: , : l i l tI _ ( ) O K

- : t 1 ( ) f e

r \ t ' i t l ' l

i : r , r l e s, : i ) l uq


is FILTHI The Firing Point o{'thnt plue-the most in-portant single point iri vour c'rlr'-\\'il1 Lre chokecl, strauglecland fouled u'ith BLACK. FILTHY CARBONI Carbon thatrol)s x)ur cnr o{ as rnuch as 20 r ital horsenou'er e\rervtinleVOur engine firesl

Nou'. u'ipe that filth il\\'av rln(l look at the Firing Pointitself. This is the PO\\'ER POI\T of xlrr car . . . the pin-

heacl of electricitr- tlrat turrts ra\\' qas into 300 horsepcliuerof driving energvl And rilrat is tlre conclition o{' that point?CORRODED-PITTED-SCARRED-AND \\ORNIHardlv able to deliver irall the sprlrk that it should! \\trst-ing gas-u'asting monev eventirre' rou put \ollr li)ot clo\\'llon the gas pedall

Yesl You par'$2.000-Srl.(XX)-S.{.(l(X) tor vour car. Anr['a single 99c pait robs vou of t lre re'iLl prrrver ancl enjor-rne r r t o f t l r a t t ' a r .


Nou, look at tlie rieu' lrlrrg-the rerolrrtioririrl' Pou'erI rLn l r p l r r g t l r r r t l ' l l se r r t l r , , r r - l i r l t ' r r r c th t l r . s , r r i r e p r i t ' et l ra t rorr ' re par inq tor l i r r .

Here is a plug that luts rtot onlv ONE firnrg point-but hundreds of potenti i i l f ir ing points! That rrctuallv ELIN{-INATE S THAT D EAD L\- CAR UoN-bums it qp-l|11611'q

it a$'q'-KEEPS ITSELF SPARKLI\G CLEAN ONE\lERY SINCILE STROKE! The fir l l . blazing horsepou,erthat u,as there u4ren vour car \\'rrs brancl-neu'. is still thereas l r u (h as 30 . ( t t t t t r r r l l es l r r t e r .

But thatls just the beqinnins! Tliis plug irctuallv givesvou tlie {ull firing po\\/er lon reed {br even' driving c'or.r-. l i t iun-ulootl i. 'clepenclaLle por.'er for cit i ' stop-ancl-godrir ing-effortless horsepou,er for the parlovar'-blazinq re-sen'e po\ver {br super speecls. . . .

And thats sti l l jrrst the besinningl Best of all. this isone of the toughest. strongest. longest-lasting plugs er-ermade. Yotr could actuallv pound it agairst rr concrete u-trllwith a hanrmer rvithout even clenting it-nnd this amazingplug u'ould still fire clean and hot u.ith 30,000 uriles! Yes!These {antastic plugs gir,e vou such consistent, long-lastingserlice that u'e can irlfor(l to niake one of the most amaz-ing guarantees vou have eler hearcl... .

Page 108: Breakthrough Copywriting


Show How Easy It Is to Get These Beneffts

10. To repeirt .gain, the vtiriations a.e li.rtless. At er.err.-point that 1'our procluct touches the life ,f rour prospect-pric.e,availabilih', ease of use, chirabilitr,; portabilitr: repJacenrent ancltt-taintenance, e\/en unrvrapping the cirrton it cornes in-it fur-nishes you rvitli unother fresh perspectir.c in rvhich to reiterateand reernphasize its benefits. Here is jrrst one exalrpls-*lts3.e_ing the ea,se of appliuLtion, nnd contr-n,stittg it tcith ih" trrrrrnn_clous benefit,s that tlrctt application gixes yott:

. . . One u'eek frorl todar', votr are goinq cl<lun to y.ourt ' r r r . ) i r r r , r r re .go i r rg to l i f t up l t i l , t ,o r l - \ ( ) , i ' r ,q . i r rq to tukether black, shini'g can we 5sncl 1'611-irntl rrlu'are'going tosi'plv po,r its conte'ts into the oil filler piDe 'f' rlo'r'car!

Thats all the u,ork vou rvill do! Tliat.i,i l l tlre'skill ,.our reed! . \n t l re t in th i r t 3b seconds * .o rk . r , , r r * i l l i rnnr . retliat crrr'.s perfonntrnce in eight different u,arsl

r-'. -

\ \ ' i t l r . l r rst 3() ser,onds u-ork. rorr u. i l l s1 r .crrqt l ren t l reengine of that car so qreatll that r.ou rvill qe,t 2'to 3 to 5ri'iiles more per gallon {i-orn el.err.'gallon r.ou bur.. . .

\\/ith jrrst 30 seconds .,rork, i.o,, rvill lirbric,ate that en_gi'e so thororrghl'that vou r,r'ill dri'e 'p to 5.000 f,lr milesrvithout et'"n ionli,rq oi uo,r. oil . . .

And, rvith just 30 seconds rvork, r-ou u,ill ltrotect thatengine so completelr. that vou r.vill adil .p to 1irur vears toits pou'er andlife! ... you rvill push oif iL. ancl pis_ton jobs tha t r l igh t cos t vou $75 eac l i - f r , . , " " , i ! . . . . '

Use Metaphor, Analogy, Imagination

11. Nor do yott haxe to be ,sati.sJied nwrely uith the ,statenrcntof rau fact. There i,fnite opp,rtrtnitirs fr,, the ,se .f imag_iruttion to pre,serft those fact,s in rnore drrnnrttic fomt, or,ttsicle .fthe rigiclly realistic apTtroach. Some of the rrore ftrrnous e""r',pl",are the Alexancler Harnilto' ricl o{'the T\r,enties, "The Glorv ofthe upr'r,ard Path." or the Big Ben alzr'n clock series, "Firsi he*4rispers, the' he shouts." or this passage fror, perhaps the most

F - I R S T I ' I , ( I I \ I .

long-l i r e<l . , , :u4r ich i t rr . rr il i fe:

hab i t -1 ,recth iot i t ' t r ,

' i . :

th is p r , :I t t r '

\ r . l

elbrx, I le\ ' ( '1 ' \ i I '

t l l l l t ' \ r ' .

stl l) l)( )\ 'sho r r l , I :r r a i h ' r .

t t r t r l , , r . . . :I 1

O | C l ' l t _ . :

r iq l r t I is i c l t ' I , , .

l t\ \ ' ( ) l l t { t

S e l l - ( ' : ,Clo<lt .8 \ ' r l \ ,

C ( ' l l t l l i l , .

l t l r t ' , i t l , .

1 2 . l , :

prcltrcl'res. \

applicittior r.erecl evt'r'. , i

\ \ ' l r ic Lsingle ad i,vour trcl tr,,l, rit inuc,s t t t l t r t : '

Page 109: Breakthrough Copywriting


hese Beneffts

l, .. -11 ever\''.pt'c t-price,

, . . t t t ' r t ten t anc l

, . in-it { irr-

ir to reiterate

r l r ll le ,s/re,s,9-I. t lrt tremen-

r , t ( ) \ ' ou r. - t , , t akeg, r i r rg t<t

' . , , t f C i t l ' !

. . i I l vo r r: : r r | r o \ e

, , i l t l l e

) t o t

: i r . t t en -: l l r r i i l es

: . . t t that'. ( .u'S tO. r : r ( l I ) l S -


: ' r , : tutenlent',. ' o.f intag-

, , t t t ,s ide ofr , ' ; \ ( , \ i l tnp les

[1, , . ( ] lorv o{ 'i ' ' . "F i rs t he.r :) . t l te ntost


long-livecl acl of thern all, the Shenr,in codr.' English course, in

*,t i"t rr manual of instmctiol) is personifiecl ancl gir;en act,ill

l i fe:

. . . The basic principle o{' \Ir' Coch'"s nevu' rnethod is

litrbit-forntitig. A'r,oine "r,-r,

1"r,.. to u'rite a'cl sperrk cor-

rectl' ltr.' coiistau[h' 'si'g thc c.rrerct fortns' But ho*' is

orr" iu knolr,in ",."h "o...

tt'ltl"lr is correct? N{r. coclr-solr-es

this problenl in a sirnple. trtticltte. se-nsible \\'a\i- 1007c Self-C o rrccting Dc r it't'

Suppose he hirnself u't 're stirrtcl ing fc' r-ortr

elbo*r Ei.".r,time r.on 'risprotr'r' rlr rnisspelled a r'"'ord.

er-erv time vou t-iolatecl c'orrect qrantrnriticttl tlsilge, ever\-

tirne,r,'u ,rrld th" \\To'g *rtrcl t-' r\press ulat 'u'o, tttea,''t,

suppose vou could llear hirrr riiisper' "Tliat is Yo-ng-' it

,t-roirta be thus ancl so." lrr ri sliort tirne r-otr urtuld habit-

ua l l r ' ' u se t l r eco r rec t { i l r r l l a r r t l t he r i q l r t l r o r c l s i nspeak ingancL u'riting.

If vou continuecl t0 ntake the sarlre rllistakes clver trncl

oner rrg,iin, each tirne patieltlr lie rv.ulcl tell 'ou *,ltat u':rs

right. 'He

u,ould, :rs it s'ert'. i," atr t't'erlasting nrentor be-

sille vori-a *e't.r *.lio urrtrlcl ritlt laugh at v'u, b.t udlo, on the cotltrarr'. strpport iurcl herlp xlu' This 10{)%

Self-Correctirrg Devici: doe.s ertctlr this thing lt is.N{r'

Codr.,'s silent i.,cice lte6i'rl r,rr. rearlr to speak o.t *-hen-

ever \'orl col]rruit itlt error. lt firrcls Vt)rrr tnistrrkes itntl ctln-

cer-rtrirtes on theu. Yc^r clo t'tttt ttc'etl tcl stud' .nrthing 'ou

alreaclv knou''. There tll'e llo nrles to tlletttorize '

Before You're Done, Summarize

12. To repeat again, there is arl infinite lluill l)er of tte\\- ap-

proaches. No list of thern ca' e'er be cornplete. l)ecause tteu'

applications, new perspectiYes, ne\\' r'ie$points are being cliscor'-

erecl evelv cltrt,\\:hich of' thern, and lto$, nttillv of them t'ou rvill use itt ir

single acl, is a 'ratter of'tirr-ri'g rr'cl billance ils \'oLr begin to p.t

f,'" o.l together. A,s long as eacl't arlclitimal Jresh per'specti--e con-'tinr.Les

to truilcl the cloninant clesirr: irt tltn.rr pruts1:ect's ntind, usc it'

Page 110: Breakthrough Copywriting

96 F IRSTTE.H \ I e . ,Eo ITBREAKT. I IR ( ) t r c ; t l c l opy : INTENSIF IC_A ,T ION

Iht if tlrc adclititnml Ttcr,sTtectiue is nctt rliffercnt or rlrtnnatic enougltto rerterc uour pro.spect's intere.sf in yottr claints. tlrcn leoxe it ottt,To a large clegree. this is ir nratter o1' sensitir ih' ancl origirralitr orrvour paft. The sensitivih'cornes {l'orn intrritiorr rlncl experience; theoriginalitv olten conres frorn nothing rrrore tiiir.n hard u,ork. Anclperhaps the best *'a' tr 'easure thr: balrrrice behreen the hl,o-that critical turning point rvhere rein{brcc,rnent beconres urere rep-etition-is to re-reacl vour ad. sonie clar.s alier rrlr have first u,rit-ten it.

There are, hou'ever, tu'nrr4rich rrre alrriost alu.ays used,

conventionirl sl l lr l l t i lrv clevicesi t r t t l u ' l r i t l r r r r r r s t l l t , r r r c r r t i o n e r [

here.Tlre first of these is the "r:otctlog." Thls, is rt brit:f. conrlt:rt,secl

li 't ittg of all the l:rrduct's perfrmmncc,s, ltcnt'fits. ,nrl/.r applica-tions, one after the other, rcitltotft rlrarrtrtti:rLtion grelabnration Each r{' the benefits or persp('(.ti 't,s *4rich mightha'e bee' gir,en three 'r fb,r paragraphs irt th. begin.i'g o{'rorrr rtd, is here surlnred up in a single line.

There are t*'o trpes of catalogs. Tlrrse that erpand desrrehorizontallr', alno'g e'er-enla.rge'ing grolrPs ,f applications orprospects. Ancl those tl 'ri it expand desirer rertic,irllr. bv cleepeningor rr:rgnifving that desire.

Here is an era'rple of the fir'st trpe of'cutaloq-usecl to ristall the applications of a blorv torcli kit that nright conceivabh.. selli t to a l ro r r re our re r :


Blon-Torcli. Solclering lrcln!Professional-trpe Propane Torch also cioubles as fast,

safe Paint Renrover ancl precisiori Solclering lron j Does 101jobs around the horrse, includinc-

Laving tile: rentoving pirint or puth; thau,ing frcnenpipes; srveating copper trrbing; solclerinq gutters: reptriringelectrical r.r'ork; stirrting charc,oal fires arid fireplaces, burn-iug lr'eeds, partrsites ancl darnp leaves: trozen loc.ks;light brazing; loosening rusti, bolts:

"a. bc,clv and {'encler

F I R S T f t i ( l l \ 1 , . '

r ( 'P i l j1 . \ '

l i o l t l r i , ' .

I t i s , 1 r : r '

ther "s l rotgrr

s i ng l c - t k r r , , i r .

po iut o l i t l ' ' , '

on be ' i t tg pr ,

erful app,'.,,

Bu t i t a l so , 1 ,

N o s t l

last -nr inrr t t ' t l

angled irl)pr .r

u,ere l t t ' ig l r t , :

that c les i r , ' r : ,

\ < x r r , , '

she re r l l r i r { r r r i '

that Arrv ot r ,

together. rr ' ., ' .

T l t i s t . , : .

t rnd herc i t : , .

t i t.tttttt iott o: :

C i l l l l l r ' : . i

thc or , . :

bookI-. :

F..\( I -:f\\'('l i t \

a l i ( l t l r ' :

i l s \ ( l r i .

I l

e Y C f \ il l

2 l l l ( t ( l r .

i n rp r t ' . .o1 l r i . 1l o l ' r i , , :

Page 111: Breakthrough Copywriting

t \ s IL 11 ; .11195

' t ;t i( ' (n()uglt

" ( i t ( , i t out .

n , j i n a l i h - o n

x. l ' i ( ,nc.e; the

I ,. irrrk. Ancl

. t lre hvo-.. i l tere rep_, first u'rit-

, r ' ) r lev ices

l r r t . t t t ic lned

, , , r t t lc t t ,seCl

t' QPPlica-

: : : : ( t t i on 0 r

i , : . l r nr ight- r r r r r ing o{ '

. r r i t l c lcs i re

: r . . r t t o l l s o r, l ( ' ( ' l le l i ing

; . ( . ( l to I is t' r r . rb lv se l l

' l . t r t .

. l o l

, ,/ r'l)

r : l l l l {

* ks :' : r r l t , t '


repairs: soldering alurninum. silver and jerveln' tind otherhobbies. and lnrur\', lnan\' rlore. . . .

It is quite obvious. of course. that this catalog clevice usesthe "shotgull rlpproach." Up to this point. \'our ad has taken irsingle dorninant desire, and cle'r'eloped that single desire to thepoint of absolute rnaxilrllrln intensitr. This u'il l ingness to giutrl)leon being preciselv right-on having chosen the one ntost po\\Lerful zrppeal-gives \,'our r1(l the irnpact of a high-r'elocitv rifle.But it also dernrtnds the accrlrilc\- ol rlr erpert m:rrksrn:rn.

\o11,-1h1ouqh this multi-appcal catalog listing-r,ou har,'e uIust-tninute chance to hedge. Nou'rrirr "shotgun" \\,ith everv u'ide-angled appeal, benefit ancl applic'irtion irr the book. Before r,ouu'erer heightening a single clesire'. lx pictrrring the satis{itction ofthtrt clesire in rr dozen di{ierent settings.

Norv r,ou are building an eflect o1'a cli{lerent kind-one ofsheer rnagnitucle, of number of infinite possibilities-in the hopethat anr.' one of thern, or the conrbinrrtion o1' all of theur u.orkingtogetlier, rnav pror-ide the errtrir aclcled push tirtrt closes the sale.

This ciitalog teclrnique u'as born in nreril order book selling.and here it has its u'idest irpplication. Tliis nert ex:unple is a con-tinu:rtion of tlie nlernor\- book ad u'e rluotecl trbove:

. . . But tli is is just the lregirtnine of tlie "miracles" r'oucan perform u'ith r,crur rnelnor\'. This secret is just one ofthe over,50 NIENIORY I\TENSIFIERS contained in thisbook . . .

For instance-RENIE\IBERINC NAN{ES A\DFACES! . . . llon, u.'oulcl vou liki: to u'alk into a roour o1'hl,entv neu, people-ll1ssf ench one of thenr onlv once-rurd then remernber their narrres. autornirticrrllr'. fbr as Lrrrqas vou lir.e . . .

Think of the advantaqe in business, u,hen vou can' custorner bv his first nAme. ancl then rrsk for his n'ifeand cliildren. insiantlv. hv their first names! Think ol tlieirnpression vou'll nrake r'r,L"n vn,r ask hini about the stateof his business, his hobbies, ,r' i

"n .ou reperrt. alnost u'ord

fo r uord , the las t cornersa t ion ro r r ' l rad u l i th l r i r r r . T I r ink o I

Page 112: Breakthrough Copywriting


becoming the celeltritr. at vour club-as the rnernller rvlicr"kno.,vs evervone"-\r'ho can be clepenclecl on to avoicl rlis-takes, to neu'fl ' iends lbr the o g.rrrizlt ion. t<i get thingsclonel

But this is sti l l just the begiruring! This book teachesvou to remernber exactly u'hrrt rou lrear ar-rcl rcad! . . . Itteirches vou hou'to rneniorize i l spe(rc,lr or rr saies presen-tation. in minutes! It teaches votr hrxv trt re.nrember e\.ervc r r r d p l l r e d u l r e n r o r r r e l , r r a i r r i q l r t l . . , I l s l r o u . s r o r r h o r ito i l tprove the clepth i lnd frtrce i inrl p,,rr.,r ,,f r-oirr rnincl!Hou.' to cklrble vour vocabulrrrr.-leirir, t[,rzerrs ot rvar-s tobunr ner-"' 'uvords into vo'r ,re,irorr'- l. irrrr t lreir rneairirgsu'ithout looking them up-repe:rt eiitirc plrrases. sentences,parirgrirphs frorri tl're great u.riters! \brr'll be able tcl learna foreigr-r language in it ferv short u'eeks-irt lcirst three tolour ti''es as quicklv and easilv i1s \r)ll c'rrlcl *,itho't tliissvstenrl You'l l be able to hear a joke, ston'or rurecclote onlvorrc 'e. i rn t l then repeat i t in t l re srLntc l r i i rLr . i , ) r rs \ \ - r r \ I

\ es i . \ nd , , , u i t i r po r t r r r r t o f i r l l . t l r i s l r , , , , k u l i l l s l r ouvou hor,r. to pro{'essionallr- organize 1.s11 11 1pi1i1l-cio u.htrt vouhtrve to do in half the tirnel You'l l r.errierrrlrr.r cl irtes.'.rd-dresses, appointnrents-trutonrrrticalh'l \brr'll cirrrv clozenso f t t . l ep l rone r run rbe rs i r r t l r e f i l e - r , u l r i r r e t ( , 1 \ ( r n l . i r r i r r d l . . .I-et ne send r.oti this book, irnd pror.e these lacts to r-orrin one shor t eveni r ig , or i t doesn' i cost r r , , , . r perr , . ! . . .

The second use for this catalog techrrirlue is to pile desireupon desire, rather than application upon application. It is agirirraluilding of mrignitucle, of nu'rber-but t l i ,s t inrc in sLutnturruof oll the perspecti'as that hoxe gone before, This era'ple is takeirfionr the Fish Lure :icl quoted above:

... Here'.s \\ 'hat This Ar-r-rir.zing, Sei{-propelled FlshLure Does For Yorr!

First oi' all. tliis Sell'-Propellecl Fish Lrrre fl.ees r..oufo re re r f r o r r r t he f i l t h r t ask , r l t l i qq ing l b r r r i , r r r r s i Ln t lcrau,lers, catching frogs. or pwing bOC to ,$1 f<rr n bucketof rninnorvs th:rt clie on \.tlu befbre \()u can evern get themin the boatl It frees ,'r,,r f,,."r'". {i-orn ptrr,ing S3, gi'or even85 fbr :i {ancl, "deail-,rs-a-rluck" lure il,nt unlr.lrorks r,vhen

r . I R S ' f I I , ( I I \

\ o l l i 1

Po\\ I l

l 'l l r l t :c ' o r r ] , 1 r .r o l r I

I .s iL l t , . , , . , '

r ic ' t r r . t l .l l ( ) \ \ , 1 ,


u' t ' ig l , :bas: ,

l .s o r r r r r le l ' l l l r ' l r

l l a f \ .

\t l 0 t r , :

\ ' o t t 1 l : . ,

e l ' l l l i i i r :

S I l l . l ' Iu ' i l l . r l :

13 . \ r ,{br uctior r .,.that grt t r t ' , . , . 'nmnl o.f r i , , ,

by t l t c 1 t , ' ' : 'frorn tlrt. 'r .

\ , .P L L ' ( , :t l r c r r r :c l r i r i r r - :i t t q t l r . , '

Iga l lo r , . :

Page 113: Breakthrough Copywriting

I I \5 IF ' I ( ]ATION

. : ' r ' r u ' l t t . l, , r t l r r i i s -' : t l r i nqs

: , . . rc hes, , j ' . . I t

; ) l ' ( ' \ ( ' 1 1 -

i : ( ' \ ( ' l ' \ '

I1 , r l l to \ \ ,

. l l

. : . t i l l t ] ( l l' . , . .rr r t t i' . t r r i n g s

: . i r - l l ( ' ( ' S .

' l t ' t t l ' t i' l , l ' t ' t , t O

. , r t t l r i s: t ' r l t l l V

l '1,,, ,r 'r : . . r t r 0 t t

L i ' . l I ( l -

l r r , z t ' l i S

. : r r l i . . .' : , , \ ' O 1 1

, pilr clesire, I t is again: t L \ t l l l l l l L A f U

r : r ] t , i s taken

I I : is l r

' . \ O l 1

I. . u I ( l

r , ' r t kc t' : l r t , r r r' r ' \ e l l

. . r l r c r t

F I R S T ' I E C H N I Q U E O F B R E A K T H R O U G H C O P Y : T N T E N S I F I C ' \ f I ( ) N

volr tow it-that could ne\,er actuallv s\viln under its o$n

po\\/er behiucl voul' It {rees r.o., { fr'ut torttrrt^rs hclttrs .f ctlre-

{ul u'ork, h'iirg r''our own flies ancl lures. because vou just

coulcln't briv anithing. an\\vhere. thtlt u,orrld reirch otlt be-

'oncl \iour i'arthest cirsts' ancl pull itt tlie fisli lor 'r'rl-

li means tlitrt tornorrcl\\' . . . \1)ll cilll go orrt in fresh- tlr

salt \\,rtter . . . alld hi*rl i' t[e e'e-poppers u,ith a lure that

iictuallv clrives thenr into rr lierrzv ri'ith its cripplecl rnin-

now rr;tion tlncl its {14ng bee sotrticll It rlteatrs that lou cart

tveig| clo*.n \,our bont u,ith big.rorrt|ed bass. suall nlouthecl

basi, cat-fish. dog-fish . . . ufierever \ ou droP il linel

It rtteans that vou ctul fisl) ]lg11e1-novice tir pro-

souncl asleep rrt the bottont ol Vorrr ltoat-thaD illost fisil-

ermen s\\'eaiing ancl castillq till tlieir arllls ilclie \\'ith ordi-

nar\', "clead-as-a-duck" luresl

And it l l letl l ls thiit rou'l l hirve tlte tir l ie of'rrlrr l i fe-

not onlt' amtlzing Your irieri(ls arltl litrllilv $'ith the hiluls

,n ., hotne hehirr.l ,.,111-11111 just ivatciririg \:()1]r fisli-

ennan fiiencls' {'aces. the first tinie ther sec tliis increcliblc'

StrLF-PROPELLED FISH LURE irr i 'rctionl Their eves

u,il l almost pop out o{'their i ieadsl ' ' '

Put lbur Guarantee to Work

13. And finallr,, tts vou close the sale' tls )'ou ask the prospect

for action, as vo' state the te't-ts cll r''trr guarantee. Uo1_t can tltrll

thcft guarcrntee into the clinmx of tlttttr ad-the la'st Ltrief vi/rr

nlartt of tJour Product's 7terJitnnl711'1"1-vginfirced at etary stc1t

by the-positiuc reos,\artion of that gtmr(Lntee. Here is trll e\il l lrPle

from the spark plug ad quotecl itl)ove:

. . . Grraranteecl For T\r'o Full YearslYesl You trv these alrlazilrg PO\\IER FLASH SPARK

PLUGS for hvo iull verirs entirelv at our riskl First' test

thern {br one full rrionth fbr surging po\\rer, thrilling rleu'

clril1ng perforrnance, breath-takitl g gas- s avitl gs alone I D ur-

ing that ver',' first rllonth illone-

1. These phrgs rnust give rou up to 9 miles,more per

gallon instantlrl-or \.or1r tiill p,rrchaie price back!

Page 114: Breakthrough Copywriting

100 FrRST TECHNTef E oF BREAKTTTROUc;H ct( )py: INt .E\srFICr\ t roN

2. These phrgs rnust give \ou rrp to l l l utrtre horse-power instantlr '-or \r)rlr f ir l l prrrc.l iase price back!

3. As rrn ertrrr irdcled assrlrallce-thi.ser plugs rnust cun-tinue to qi 'u'e vou this pou,er. perlbrrn,rnc.t, atrcl q,,s igsFOR T\\O FULL YEARS-or u'r ' u' i l l sencl vou a brand-nevu ' se t ABSOLUTELY FREE: . . .

Or. i ls i ln e\-en better ernrnple of t lrt ' l ir l l inipact \r)rr cangain br, ' using rrlrr guarrlntee AS il sl lnrltarr- cle'r ' ice. here is theguarantee passage lrortr thi: plant food irrl rluott'cl above:

. . . These N{agic Enelish Pellcts . . . cost onlv S2.9E lirra package o f 1 .1 .1 pe l l e t s . . . S ince on l r , , r r t . o r . hvo pe l l e t sare required tcl trerilt tl're :u.'erage pirrnt. tLis is arr invest-rnent clf 'clnl ', ' t t f 'eu'penrries a pli int for t l i i ' rr iost itstouncl-ing beautv vou have^er'", ,""ni

And these resuits are coniplerteiv gtraranteeci! Here isr.r,hat u'e ask vou to clo, u,' l-ren you receilt,rrrrrr \ lagic Pel-le ts r rer t . r ' " " i -

USE THE\I TO CRtr , {TE SUPER-I . I ,O\ \ 'ERSI P]ACIone t inr . 'pe l le t besic les e i rch of vorr r hrr l rarrqei rs . z inrre i rs . . .i inv kincl of f lor,r 'er that r-otr n'aiit srrrr.,r-l l lo<lrnsl And if 'r.ouciorr't see larrtirstic neu' ri ' i thin a ft 'u slrtrrt n'eeks...if 'r 'orr clon't u.atcli u' ith arnAzerreut u.hile lr iurclf ir ls of neu'blossonrs burst lbrth i) 'om these old plants-tlrt 'n simplv re-turn tl ie eurptv package lbr even.cent of'vxrr nronerl lr irck!

USE THEN'I TO CREATE SUPtrR-\-EGtrTABLESIAnd pick liuge. breath-taking beauties n'itliin a {'eu' shortn'eeks . . . thri l l rorrr larnilv u:ith tl ie sn,eetest. irriciest. ten-derest vegetables \.()u \.e e.'er knoul-or ever\. cel'rt o{ r'ourrlonev backl

YTSI USg THENI IN YOUR I ' \TIRI ' GARDENIUse thern on hard-luck plants ufiere \1)r1 \.e it lniost givenup hope! Use tl ierri on tlte htrrdest-to-gron' horrse plantsthtrt vou knor','! \'es, even Lrse thenr in siind. ancl abs<iutelr.astound vour friends! Ancl if you clon't i lgree that this Brit isirinvention is a true qirrdening nriracle . . ' . i{ 'vclur gaxlen isn'tthe shouplace oflour neighborhood at the encl ol one shortnronth-then sintplv return the ernptv package-{br e\.ervcent of \/orlr lnone\ backl. . . .

I T I R S T T L ( l l l \ l ( . r l :

A t t l r t ' t r , , rcat ion- l t r t i l r l t i , -it,s sati.s.f ru't ir,i Lt t t Perstt i ts iorr

A s t t t t r r t i l r .

preclorniniu rt lrof Intetrsi f ic i t t r , , :cause nra i l o r r l ,i t i s th ror rg l r t i , ,tives that \\ (. ( ,

Sec'onrl l lctuse ntr t i ] o l t i r :acl . There rrrr . :ries of' rh {}i .r , : ,t r l ier t l te ot l r , , rpresses srrr ' l r , , , .th ing i t c ' ru r t l r : 'f i t ted togt, t l r , rcott t r ibt t t t 's : l r : ,

i t has pror ( ,1 r r : .trpograpln .r:, :

T h t t s . r r ' . , t .these In t t ,ns r i rL . , :mai l orcler i r r l r ' , .

p leurent irrq t , , i t r ,ol'e'rall efii,ct .'.

B u t i r r r r . , : rorder is a \( .1.1, .l i f 'e of n 'hic. l r r .cernec l u ' i t l r p r , .prorrching t l r t , , . :

Page 115: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ 5I I. ' IC.\TION

l r o r se -

I r l \ t c ' o n -

L . r . l \ I l l { S

, i r1' ; i1i1l-

i r . r ( t \ ' o11 cA l l

l r t , re i s the1 l r o \ t , l

>l v5 l i r rrrc i l t ' ts

: . l t l \ ( ' s t -

. , . 1 1 t t t t ( l -

' I l l r t ' i s

. , - : t P t '1 -

r : ' l ) l i r c e

i . : l ( ' . t \

. . : i t \ 1 ) 1 1. )1 ' ' , t - N \

. ) l l ) e \ \ -

: : . ) l \ r e -. ' l r .Lc 'k l

- \ I i l _F_s l

r . . ' , \ l to l t

l ' . i . t e D -

: , l \ O l l f

\ I i I ) E \ !. : , l i \ ( 'n

, ' i r l iu t ts' . , i r r t e l v. I J r i t i s i ri ' . r r i s r t ' t: . ' - . i r o r t

: r ' \ t ' l ' \ '


At the encl of volrr iid its \\.ell as at its beginning-lnten,sif-cation-brtilcling clesire bt1 pre,serting contitlu;tllry ,rr:r.c inmges o.fits satisfrLction through Uaff prodtrct. The first of the Processesof Persuasiot).

Horv to Apply These Principles ofIntensification to the Campaign

As rnentioned at the. beqinnirrg o1'this chapter \\'e have nsedpreclominirntlr- rnail order e\ar)]ples to il lrrstrate the rtrechanisrnclf Intensificzrtion. \\re lrirve done this lirr hi'o reasons. First. be-cause nrail order custonrarilv uses long copv tind hr.perrbole; trnclit is through the ertre.mes o{ tltis lorrg copr arrcl these superla-til 'es that we can see these technirlres \\1)rking nrost cleirrlr'.

Seccurdlr', we hrN'e rrsecl rriril order lirr tlrese i.ranrples be-cause nrnil order sar.s all it has to sav aborrt ir prothrc.t irr ir singlead. There rrre no rnail order "carnpuigns." in the serlse of a se-ries of' diflerent-thougll-re.laterl aclve.rtise,ruents. appearing onerrfter the other. and btrsecl on rr cornr]ron thenre. N,liril order cclrn-presses such a can'rpaign into a sinqle rrrl. It strr.s all it ciln, ever\Lthing it can tlink of, in this orle arl (rvhicli is often lirboriouslvfitted together out of a series o1' preliniinarv arcls, each of u4richcontributes sorne elernent to the finishecl {bnn). And then. u'henit has proven itself successfirl. it is frozen to the point oftlpographr'-ancl nrn until it ha.s erharrstecl its potential.

Thus, rntril order as a nrle corrttrins the greatest nrrnrber o{'these Intensification devices in a single acl; ancl ltr- sturlvirrg thcsernail order acls u'e cAll see thern t'orking ilgainst errch other. corl-plementing each other, reinfbrcing etrch other, streugtltenitrg theoverall erfi-ect as paragraph is piled on ptrragraph.

But in national aclr,'ertising, the rules change. \\rhile rtrailorcler is a series of introcluctions of ner"u' products, the Averagehf'e of u'hich is less than hl.o verars, ntrtional aclvertising is con-cernecl u'ith products u'hose lif'e span is lirr greater. often iLp-prouching the entire lif'e span of irdvertising itself. Ancl u4rile the

Page 116: Breakthrough Copywriting


rnail order advertiseurent runs once, ilncl then is not repeatecl {brthree to sir rnonths, national ad'ertising nrust keep i* productinrage constantlr,' in front of its pubhc, ancl therefbre rnust runfar n'iore frequentlr,:

Tl'rs, national aclr-ertising, br.' its ti-er1ue't i 'sertions, soonloses its imrnediate noveltr'. The creutive problern in nationul thus changes frorri finding tlre thenre frrr rr particrrlar acl-vertisement to finding the theme fclr ir serir.s o{' trclvertisemenrs.And tlie problem of' Inte'sification shifts fl''i builcling clesirethroughout the advertiseurent to building rlt 'sire througliorrt theseries. A'cl an entirelv ne*' problerr .f birlarc(' elnerges -tlmtof keeping cont inui t t l thrrntghcni the scr i ts. l t r l nrcr intaining therlontinant irnage .shary encntgh and identifialtlc t,nottgh to rttil i;etlrc rle'sire generated bt1 pa,st odtefti,senrcnt,s, rtnd rtt tlte same tinrcxarying that inmge .sufficientlq to indrtce tlrc prr,spect to reacl itaguin, and therefore reinforce and sharytert tlurt desire.

Ass,rni'g that 'o, ha'e found rt'rr clrirri'art irrage, ,r,ourcreutive problern nou, becomes hvo-fbld. First, to cornpress thatirnage into u single stateurent or picture, scl pon,erful that it rvillsell the product the verr. first tirne it is usecl. aqcl so true to theheart of rour rnnrket tliat it u'ill continue to sell that rlrocfi,rct.even u'hen it is usecl over rrnd or-er again.

It is iruportant to realize t}rat-as the cantpaign develops_this dorninant irnage or icletr cannot rernain as the heaclline. Topresent the sarne basic headline (or lead picturc-) tirne after tirneto the same audience u'oulcl soon rnake ther carrrpaign unreaclable.

This leads us to lour second creative problern. To present aseries o1'r,ariations or perspectives of that central inrage-e:rchernerging {rom vour dorninant idea, but each so different fron-rthe rest that thev irnpel \iour prospect to reacl through the-.r-r-r, anclso fresh that ther.- rr.ike-that clornl'ant iclea ,..,r,, ,?ro, again.

Thus vou hrwe vour Central Campaign Iclea, ancl its contin-uous restaternent in a series of' fresh disgrrises.

There are as manr. clifferent ."r,avs to use this basic technirlueof campaign construction as there are trdr"ertising str,les. Ther,

F I R S ' I ' I . I i ( - I I \ I r ,

range lrol | .1

start ilt tlr,superbh -t , t t , ,central i t l r . . reverv ach t . r l r .

' ( , , :

Th t , r r r r ' :Us ing te lc r i . : ,b le shielcl r i , ,footballs."r'ording o1 ti,,stratiort u lr.fcrllou'ecl:

" f r r . :

s i r i e l t l r , 'so th t , i rteeth ir,g ,

He t ' e t l r ,s t rat ion i r r t l l

designed to ,1 .

h im f ronr r i i :1 .i s ca r r i e r l r l r , . r

cornrnerc ia i ' l ' :

ttoh.entent. ri, ,

Equa lh . , .verbal inr i rg, . : ling ancl f l ' t ,s l , , :constanth c. i r , , : ,i s re ta iner l i r r t . , ,ing of over-1rLr,"Rule ancl E' , . , r ,been in thc l i . r : :repeatecl rlrl , tl

Page 117: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ : l t I C - { T I O N

f , . l ) ( 'ated {brrt\ procluct

' r . i l l l l S t f l l l ]

t i t ( ) t1s . soo l l

r r . r t ionr r l ad-

. , r l rcular ucl-' l ' t i \ ( ' l l l en ts .

i , l r r rq c les i re' r rg l ron t the,, r'1t's-thnt, , " l i t t i n g t h e

: i t tLt r l f i l i :e

t ' ' (n t l ( t i tne

: l r i lg ( ' . \ 'OUf

,11r1) l 'esS th : l t

I tlrrrt it rvill, l l ' l l ( ' t ( ) the

1,.,t procluct,

' , 1. ' r ' t ' loPs-l , , , r t l l i r r e . T o,, ' . r t icr t i tner I il 'eadable.

I-, ) l)l-(.Sent a:: . . t { t ' -€nchi: , ' r t 'nt f rol t ri , t l r t 'nr. ernd' . ,, irqiri l l .

, : r t r Cot l t in-

rt tt 'c'hniclue.:r lt 's. Ther.'


range from the most blatant aucl oll'iorts to the most subtle. To

start at the top, in a brief r6sunr6 of examples, consider the

superblr-effective C-lolgate carnpaign of the late 1950s. IIere the

centra] idea rvas openh' stirtecl, and preciselv repeatecl, cluring

eve rV rldvertise'tnent :

"Gtrrclol-the Invisiblc' Sltield tliirt Protects Your Teeth,"

The variiltions consisted of' a scries of opening analogies.

Using television trs the rnost sltaqtlr -definecl exarnple, an inr-isi-

ble shield was shown protecting the announcer agtrinst baseballs,

footballs, etc.-agarinst lr,hich thev uotrlcl sirnplv botrnce off. The

r,vording of the commercials rvtrs ritrralistic. Oncet the initial dernon-

stration was over. there u'as lx) \'rtriatiort itr the sentences that


"Just as this invisible sliiclcl ttlte itl l l lourlcer raps theshielcl u'ith his knuckles) protec'ts rtte ilgainst this baseball,so the invisible shield in Clolqate toothpirste protects vortrteeth against clecar:"

Here the variations tire c'or]firted to the opening cletnon-

stration in tl-re first ten seconcls o{' the colnlnercial. These are

designed to startle the vieu'er (the ball being directh' at

hirn frorn rvithin the televisiotr set) and tliis ernotional retrction

is carried over to reinforce thc rigidlv repeated retnain<ler ot'the

colnrnercial. Thus vou have ti cpick ancl startling ernotional in-

volvernent, r.l 'elded onto a precise selling message.

Equallv as porverful is tl-re technique o{'repeating the ertrct

verbal image throughout a series of advertisements. ullile varr-

ing and freshening the erlotional appeal througl-r a spectrtttrt o1'

constantlv changing main illustrirtions. Thus the clotnitlant itlltrge

is retainecl intact-coutinuitr'' is tnaintirined-but there is no f-eel-

ing of or,er-familiaritv or boredotn. This technique might be natned"Rule trnd Example." T\r'o o{ its most efl'ective uses recetrtlv havtr

been in the hair st-l'ling field. First u'itl-r Toni. u'here the preciselr-

repeated verbal irnage u'as:

Page 118: Breakthrough Copywriting

104 FIRST TECHNTeuFi oF BREAKTHRouc;H copy: INf .E\sIFIC.\ f . ro\

"\\IHICH T\\'IN HAS THtr TONI-and lr'hich liasthe $15 permanent'i"

Above this unr.arl'ing heaclline \\ras il continuorrslr-chtrngingstream of prettv girls-each neu, pictrrre nraking tlre qriestion rle\\.again, ancl requiring rur intelplav of erantination betu.een the pic,-ture and the copv to cliscover the ansu-er.

The sarne teclinique \\/as use.d, solne veArs later, bv Clairolto sell their hair tint. Here the Rule \\/ns e\pressed in thc preciselr -

repeated headline:

. .DOES SHE OR DOESN'T SI {E?"I{air-coloring so natural onlv herr hitirclresser knou.s

for srrre."

Here again, this headline u..trs re-inr.igoritted lrr. a series o{'rnain illustrations, o{' attractive voung \\'()trteti, in cnntnton butglarnorized everv-dirv activities. enjoving their lives. Here again.the Erarnple,s not onlr"proved the Rule, llrt reneu'ed it.

At the' othel extrerne, irou'ever, the rlorrriniint intage rlal. noteven appertr in the aclvertisernents thentselves. ltrrt nrav n-iereh.l re t l re r r r r r le rh i r rg thenre 1 'o r t l re r , i r r r rp iL ig r .s i r *ho le . i l . re t l r i ,continuitv is retainecl-not bv a preciseh-repeatecl sloqan or state-ntent-but br. a single, rigidll-pnintainecl local point. This ibcalpoint nav be a clonrinant procluct iippeal-suc'h as the caclillacrqualitr', rvhich is slnbolized in\. caclillac advertisernent irrthe identification lrackgrouncl photograpln'. in the trpograpln,, rrrthe copv stvle, in the fashions ancl jeu,elrv that are chosen to ap-pear rvith the car, trncl the creclit lines thirt rrre given to them-even to the highlv-stvlized pen-and-ink drau,ings that are useclu,hen the camparign shifts to newspapers.

Or, if it so nrerits, the focal point mar- be siruplr, the prorl-uct itself. In such tr carnpaign. each succeeding adr-ertisernentre'eals another firct about the product. Each is completeh'diff'er-ent; no single phrase or slogan is repeatecl hvice, Here the r.rrrirtions comprise the entire verbal cclntent of the advertiseurents. But

I j I R S I . n ( l i .

t l te ' i r s r r1 , , ,t l te prr , , I r . ,

P t ' r ' l , . , :cen t \ i r lL .tlrc' retlr rr ,ficatiorr rr is l lou t t iLs ,

r -er t t ser r r r . r . '

Ag i r i r , .

e v e n ' o t l r , :

rt conri"l i t t,

uti l i tr ' . t.r , ,:

Anv s i r ig l ,l a -

l)Ll\-€]'. I i l * '

ancl reir ' i , r : ,t i tt ovetl lr,

t rn Hort r ' ' t {

o f d i fJ i ' r ' , . r , :. . T I

I I \( T l r t ' r :

i ls an A5S(. i

l , ( ' 1 | t ,

( S l t t , r r Ic l i sc r rss i r r { l iqualifierl ri

" O t r t ' "

(A c ' rL l '

eng inecr r r r *ent rr ior l t . l r

" \ I 7 r r i ' ,

of a \ i t lk ' , , ,( I ) i s i , r .

that this f . , ," O u r , ,( T I r t ' . ,

Page 119: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ I I \ 5 I F I ( ] A T I O N

, I r i c ,h l ias

: ' , r l \ ] \ -Ch i i l l g iug

r . ( l r l ( ' s t io l t ne \ \ :

: - , \ ( . ( ,n the pic-

,i, r'. lx' Clairol: . t l r t ' p rec ise l r .

' . . : ' krtr lu's

i ' r . r ser ies ofi ( ' ( ) l l l lnon l )L l t.. I It 're i igain,' . t , . t l i t .

: l : r . I { ( ' l l l t l \ ' ] l o t

i: nlirv r-uerelr-l , , r l t ' . I l e r e t h e.] , r{ iu) or state-, : : r t Tl i is fbcal,. tlrr Cladillac,, , r t rsentent inrr pograplrr', irr. l roscr) to trp-

, , .1 r to t l iem-: i r . r t are used

i, l r the prod-. ,r l r t ' r t isernent

r. l t ' t t ' lv di f l 'er-l, r't ' tlte varizr-1 : . ( 'u1( ' l ] tS . BUt


their subject-rnatter, ancl the illustrirtions, are al$'ilvs the sanre-the product.

Perhaps tl"re best exnrnple of this technirlue is the magrlifi-cent \trlksrvagen magazine canlpaign. Here tlte a.clr.ertisernentsare reduced to severe sirnplicitr. There is no backgrouncl identi-fication u4ratsoerrer. Difl'erent perspectir-es of the procluct aresltou'n as close-up as possible (r'rc'ept in the "Think Srlall" ad-vertisernent) against an trbsohrteh lrare brrckgrouncl.

Agiiinst this rigid locus on the car itself, to the exclusion o{'even'other visual elernent, tlre st,ries of copr- rnessrrges presentsa conplete explorntion of everr' fiLct't o{'the car's per{bmrrrnce,utilitr', ecollom\', clurabilitr: st'n"ic,t liicilities rrncl u'hat-hrlve-\'ou.Any single advertisernc'nt is srrll jcient to interest a prospectivebuver. Together, especiirlh u,lterr c'oncentrated in the sanre ntecliaand reaching the same audienc(. u't,ek afier u'eek. the series llrildsan ovenl'helrning irnprerssion o1'noveltr- irncl valur'-the theme ofan Honest Car. Here, rrs exrilnpk's. are clnh' a f'eu' of'tlre dozenso{' different heacllines:

"THINK SlvlALL."(The first in the series. discrrssing the rnerits of'compactness

as at] asset. )"Letnon."

(Shor.r'ing u,hat apperrrs to be a perfeclh' good car, anddiscussing the microscopic. ahnost unnoticeable flau'in it thnt clis-qutrlified it.)

"Our nerc nnclel."(A car that shou,s no clifl'erence, lnrt has dozens of essential

engineering changes insicle the car. u4rere thev uon't nrirke pres-ent rnodels obsolete. )

"Why you shotild open the rcitrclou be.forc you tlrc rloorof a \/olk,srcagen."

(Discussing the {'act that the. car is airtight, ancl the, rlralitr'that this fact sunbolizes.)

"Our nuntber one srtlesnmn."(The sen'icenlan. o{' course. trpifving the querlltv o{' care

Page 120: Breakthrough Copywriting

106 FIRST TECiH\reuE oF. BREAKTHRouGH ciopy: rNTENsrFr.A-rro\

the \'\\r owner gets. and corrbattirrg the conception that for_eign cirrs give sparse sen,ice.)

Ancl s. on. A series of b'iJding-block .d'ertise'ents, rn.k-ing no attempt to tell the co'rplete st'^' in the'selves. relvi'gon their abilit' to grasp the p,'.spectir-e b.r'er ancl carr' hirnt l r ro r rgh a p r r< :ess i , , r o l s l r , r t . ' s l , , , r1 r l . 1 i , , , , . * " ,1 , , , f " r - ra , l l , " , ; i ; ; ;co'rbire to gi' 'e an irfb'-ecr clesire o{'tremenclous denth.

Notice, i 'cide'tallr; that each of these heacllines fulfil ls therequireure'ts uecessa^' to place it at tire top of an ad. Each o1'therri reaches orrt a'cl touJres the pr.sllec,i at the point o{' rrisdorninart desire (to get rnore r.tllue tb. tii, .,n. ,norr"rl). Each ex_presses the c.'rrnon tirerne of the ctirrrPtrigr tthis is an honestcar). Ancl eaclt moues_ the

_pro,spect irtto tlie bor!ry copy_it get.shim to read the ,u,t-p^l1te., thot,g:h ltrief, .sellirtg,,rr'r,rog, ithe fi.rt.second, thircl and fifth headline clo iliis th.ough presenting thereader with an apparent co'trtrdicti'11_i11 the fi.ri case, r,r,ith hisaccepted notion of "thrnking big," a'cl ir the re'rtrining acl'er-tisernents, betrveerr the rnessage o{'the. heatllire ancl the contertof tlie.photograph arbo'e it-lh's cornpelli,g trre reader ro gothrorrgli tJre bocl' cop' to resolve the contrircliction. The fourthcloes- it l^- pror'ising the reircler infor'ati 'r erplai'ing a, un-usual trncl prorocatir.e request).

Notice also that to acc,omplish this no'eltr.*,itl i in-continuitr.and to gr inp t l re r t t tent i , rr o| t rre prrsper. t , , r . , o ser ies

"r l , i -vertiserr-ients, irncl tr 'rove him into the bodr- copv r,r,4rere he ca'be sold rnore thor''ghlr, ofthese heercirin.., ink", the ..cre-atir-e Gamble." The p.duct, its'rark. or its per{b'rarce isnot nrent io 'ed in the headl i 'e. The copt l u.r i tet- i : t r rk i t tgt l te po-'siti.n that he cnn ortfu sell acreclttatertf iitrt trte rtrnnberlry rnunt,,albu.ed hint bt1 the body ct7ty. Therefbre he is rviili'g to risk his

l]:ldl-" in,'r{ the attention of his prospect ancl irr.rpellins

h'n to read on' into the strres rnessage itself, presentecl iir cor-'incing cletail belou: If he fairs i ' rris g.'ibr", ir" has *,astecl hispage. If he succeecls, he htrs cloubrecl and triplecl the effectir.e-ness o{' liis ad.


Horl to

cravings o1 rI

ou\ ' lo l t s . I I .

the s ick r r r , , rI te r eml r l r r r ' ,strtislactior rt ts lvants l t l l

cl iatelv to r , ,T l te r , t ' ,

the f i rst i r rrr li rnd techrr i , r ,perfectior r I ,.

lore the Fir . 'patent-tnt ,r l tLeral aclver-ti.

Page 121: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ I \ I E \ S I F I C A T I O \

{ , i ) t ion that for-

r1 t \ ( , t l te l t t s , lnak-

, i r r : t ' l r eS. re l f ing

: ' .rrrtl c,rt.rrv hirn. .r l t .s stor ies thtr t

i , , ' r . r lePth ., i i i r r t , s f i r l f i l l s thei . t i l i l ( I . Each of

: i r t ' l to int of h is. . , , r r t ' ) , . E a c h e x -: t , : . r s i L t r hones t' : ' , r L t1t t1- i t get ,s, . ' / i l r ' tThe f i rs t ,

r. Ir ' t,st 'Dting the

:.: ( its('. n' ith his' , t | , r i t l i l tg adver-

. , r r ( l th t ' content

i . , l ' ( , i r ( ler to go: : , r l i . The f r l r r t h

r : r ] . t r r r i r i g r1 l ] un -

' : : I r i r r -continrritr;

., \( ' l ' ies cl{ ' ad-,.. ,, i lrere he can

: . tk t ,s the "Cre-

, : r t ' r ' f i rn l t tnce is

r . ' r rA ' l r rg the po-' I t, r l )( ' t ' of u;ortl,s

: . , r ng t o r i sk h i s: .rrrcl inrpell ing' . r . r r t t ' c l i n con -- t,.rr rr.rrsted his, l t l r t , e f lbct ive-


How to Build a Saleable Personality Into Your Product

The clesires, wilnts, lteeds and

cravings of mankind that u.e have just discussecl are, above all,

obvious. The hungrv man feel,s the contractions in his stotnachr

tlre sick nan feels his pain. The u'oruirn rvho is tlven'r'eight jleels

her embarrassrnent. her discon-rfort. her shante. The clesire for

satis{irction, or for rehef, displavs itsel{'openh'. It trnnounces both

its u'ants and its needs. It responds rvhole-heartedlr.' trnd it.utne-

diatelv to rnechanisn'rs that trchieve its aims.

Therefore, the recognition ancl rnagr-rification of this desire is

the first and rnost obvious task of copv rvriting. All the principles

and techniques described in the last chapter were prtrcticed to

perfection bv the patent-n"redicine copy u'riters o1'the 1890s. Be-

fore the First \\/orld \Var, Claude Hopkins had liiied them out o1'

patent-medicine and established therr in er-erv categorv of gen-

eral adr,'ertising. Until 1954, thev literall-v clorninated uclvertising.

1 0 7

Page 122: Breakthrough Copywriting

108 sECo\D TEcr{NreuE oF tsREi\KTFIR()ucII copy: rDE\rrFIc-{TroN

But there is another kind rf desire that erists in the hurnanrnind-far rlore srrlltler, parth uuc,.'sc,ir.s, klrtf'g not fbr satis-ihction, but fbr expressio'. This secor.rcl ki'cl ,,f ,i"rir" is so differ-ent fr,rn the first. ar<l operates unrler srrch clifT'erent rules. thatit ctrn justl' be clescribed as ir seconrr cli 'e'sir' of the lrur'anrni'cl. It rnay be titled the Lo'girg firr Ide'tificatio'. Its rise toprominence tis tr brving 'oti'e rnilrks the great re'olution inrnerchandising of our ti're. Its rrtiliziitrr)r) rr r.op' u'iti.g-us a'acljunct to clesire-builcling-constitutes'ur secorrcl Nlechnnism o{'Persuasion . . . that of b.ilding the proper klcrftificatitL, ir-rto 'ourprodr rc.t.

A Personal Note

Let rne just inject a personal note here "

the ralnes I hn'egiven these Technirlues-or processes-I belie't, r.'u sh,ulcl useto curnulativel' stre'gthen 1'orrr copr,. As i ,.",,ti,,,r i ' the In-troduction. I ha'e rle'er heard, o. .",rd, ir cliscussirr of 'ran' ofthese tech'irlues before. Therefore, ther. ilre ,rt part o{'the co'r-rnon aclvertising tenrrinoiog,l anrl in case a{tcr cu'se, acttrallv haverno n i i l i l es .

Bec'use of thrs fact, I'r 'e had t. i ' ' 'ent'i l 'r.s for thern. someof tirese rAlres con'e' their rnea.ning at first gla'ce, strch as In-ten.siJtcation other nalres I'r. 'e p't togetlier ' 't o{'h'o or rroreordinarv r'l'orcls, such :rs Graduii:atiirt, to t.r,t, con\.e\r .n idezrthat has purposelr- been left arrbig,o's *,he' vorr first

"rr"n.r,.,",i t . And in s t i l l o ther . . ses . s r rc , l r as t r re I t l t , r t r i f i c r t t io r r tec . l r r i r I redisc,ssed in this chapter, I'r,e usecl terrns rorr alreacl' k'orv andstretchecl their nteaning.

ldentiJication h"r.. for exarnpre. urears urore than the c,s-tomer'.s process of identif\ ' i 'g *'ith a procl'ct personalitr, or e'en*'ith a group of prestige,sers of tliaiprocl.ct. Here, iri this'ervcontext I ha'e gi'e' it, it rneans at the sar'e tirre tlte actixeprocess b' *'hich the copv rvrite.r ctrpit'lizers on this 'eed for

S E C O N D ' I ' I . ( I I '


product.The str ,

f loe. Thest.cesses \1 ) l l l

trchieve to ,g

th is act i l , r i ,that I liru t, t

\ \1ha t . t . .

i t i s , J l rs t , , rroles in lri ' i

It i,s tlr,a round l t i r t tue,g, ancl tlr,

Ant l l i , , ' . ,vou write r, ,

uct into i rrr i :turning tlrrrthave alreiul.

Everr 1, :separerte iu rt Ihirn the l l r l f r lfbction \'our' :a partirttlurthe outsicle ,.,.

This is tthe non-frrnc ris bui l t into t ldising alorrt.

For er l t rrph1'sical sati.t

Page 123: Breakthrough Copywriting

I I ) I - \T ' I I . ' ICATIO\

. r rr the hurlan,- r){) t for sat is-. : r . ( , is so di f fer-r , .nt nr les, that' , , t the hurnant ro r r . I t s r i se to: r't,rrrhrtion in.i rititig-i15 ,t'r,

, \ l t ,c 'hanisr l o f, j r l ( ) l ? i l t tO VOUf

Personal Note

' ' r r iu] te 's I have, . , , r i s l iou lc l use: : ' , l l i l t t he I n -

: , , r r o1 ' lnanv c l f '

. r r - t ( ) f the coln-, .rcttrallv havt'

, ' r t ] r e rn . So rne

. , . . such aS In -': t\\O Of lnofe

. , r r \ ' ( 'J an idet t

: l I ' \ t ( ' l lCOUntel '

: r ' , r r tcchnique'.,,h krrclrv ancl

l l r . t r r t h e ' c u s -, : , . , i i t r . o r e \ .e l l: ' , i r r this neu: .r ' t l tc uct ixt ,: i r i : 1 1 s s d { o , '


identification bv building its retrlization through his copv into hisproduct.

The stress is alrvavs, in all these techniques, on the u'orcl ac-fioe. These are the activities vou lllllst rlccornplish . . . tlie pro-cesses vou rnust utilize . . . the psvchological effects vou luustachieve to give vour cop\. the rnaxirnum possible strength. It isthis active, deliberate, ongoing process-this builcling of effects-that I have tried to conver,bl'these ternrs.

The Roles Your Prospect Desires

What, eractll', is this process of ldentificationl Quite sirnpll',it is, fir,st of all, the de,sire of your prospect to uct out certainroles in his lfe.

It is the desire of your prospect to clefine hirnself to the rcorlclaround hint-to express the clualitie.s rcithin linrcelf that he aal-ues, and the posit ions he has rt t tairrcd.

And hou' do vou rrtilize this longing for iclentification r.vhenl'ou r.vrite -vour copvP In tr.vo rvavs: First, bl' turning vour prod-uct into an instrument {br achieving these roles. And second, bvturning that product into an ackno\\'leclgernent that these roleshave alreadv been achievecl.

Ever-v product vou work on shoulcl offer vour prospect hvcrseparate and distinct reasons for buving it. First, it should offerhirn the fulfillment of tr phr.sical rvant or need. This is the sil.tis-faction vour product gives hirn. And second, it should ofi'er hinra partiailar method of fulJilling that need, that defines hirn tothe outside rvorld as a pa.rticular klnd of human being.

This is tlte role vour product of.fers to vour prospect. It isthe non-functional, super-functional value of that product. And itis built into that product-not bv engineering-but bv rnerchan-dising alone.

For exarnple, onlv the poor man todav buvs food for itsphvsical satisfactions alone. The average American todav ,selects

Page 124: Breakthrough Copywriting

110 sE.oND TECH\i IeLE oF BRE.{KTHR() 'GH copy: IDENTIF-rcar. ro\

his {bod. selects fcrods that he belier.'es are moclern. because he*'islies to be' up-to-clate. Selects foorls tha.t are non-fattenin{, be-cause he u'ishes to be l'outhful ancl slim. Selects fbods that courcliorn e'ery country arcl reflec.t ererr taste o' earth, because he*'ishes to be cosnropr-rlitan. acl.-enturl,rus ancl sophisticatecl.

This r'tu'r no longer Lruvs frnd {br lbod alone. He has gained.or he htis bec'n gi'en, ar r,r'hole nelv rrocirbrrlan- of rvants. He no*bur-s, nrt onlv objects, but roles. His lif'e beco'res devotecl to aquest lbr ack'o*,leclge*e'ts-"up-tr-clatt " . . . "r-oLrtlifirl" . . ."s l i r r i " . . . "cosmopo l i t i l n " . . . "ac l r ,en turo l rs . . . a r rc l "soph is t i ca tec l ' 'in this one instrurce trlone.

And because of' this rrultiplication ,f'*.Arts. this rnii ' gir-esvou hundrecls of neu' u'avs to {bcus his atterrtion, to stirnulate hisdesire, to build rrp that rlesire to the point of'prrrcherse. Everr-neu' rclle that he covets-everv ne\\r longing-f<lr-iclentification thtithe de'elops-gi'es 'o, one *ore rnilss clesire that 'ou c.n har-ness to r.our prochrct.

\\'hat a'e these rolesP \\here clo ther c'.e frorn? Hou, clcrthev opertrteP Horv rln vou put them to u.ork firr r-orrr procluct?

First o{'all-tire r,les thernselr,es. T}iere irre t*'kinds. Thererrre roles that clefine character. Ancl there are roles thtrt expressrrchievenrent. Let.s glance brieflr. at eac.h:

l. Character Roles

usuall' exprc-ssed bv, or irdjectir-es-turnecl-no'ns.For insf;1116€'-"progressive". . . "chic". . . "charnting,,. . ...bril_lia't" . . . "rvell-reild." The' trre a part ot' the persrlrirlitr of vourp'ospect. Thev belong to hirri. His task is to pick out the oneshe values most, and ,o 6lg'erlop thenr. And theri to tunr the spot_light of'other people's attention onto thern, one trfter the other.

Attainrient of these charucter r1;l€'s-n1i15terr, 'f $1s1n-i5not enurgh. once thev lrave been rnasterecl, ther- rrnst then beat ' kno* le t lged. ra l r r .c l i t r rd 'd r r r i re t . l . r , r t l re r l t re *o r t l r less .

FIe'e agai', \'our procluct can serr/'e \o,r' p'ospect i' three

S E C O N D T h ( . t l \ l ' . '

distinct u'in ' I

search f i r r s, ' i1- r

of his choslt , , l

he s'isltcs to I '

Sercort t l . r t ,

1911'-9111,11 ; i . . ,

A n c l t l r i r r i

ttrat mustt't 'r . t,

h is f l " iends \ . i .

Y ) t t t t t t t ' t : '

voncl the pl rr . : ,

z r re supr t i - l t r r r t l :chase.

The lro,k

the prospect '.,.

c l id not i t lsr , ' . ' . :

Speet l-Reat l i r r-

p rospec t n ' i s l r , ' , i

r ioc l o1 ' t i r r r t ' . . r r

aheacl in l rot l r r ,

shelves urrt t l , I : .

luxur f i f ' t l r t ' ; , ;hor tse . u t r t l t r , , :

At lcr t : t i , , .

,stt tot l i r t t t ' r ' i r l

to spt'ttcl !j,-t { )lr

reaso l rs . u l r , ' r , I

ges ted , i J5- r r r r l ,

rnonev or ih 1,,

consiclerlrtior r

getrr-shi l t . t l , r r

owner tltt ' r.,, ,

sportsrnal l ' i r t :Everr pt ' , ,

there t l r t ' t t r l t r , ' .

Page 125: Breakthrough Copywriting


-: r lrecause he-t . t t tcr i ing, be-' , t ls thir t cornel, l rccause he. t rc ' i r tecl .I , . l ras gained,

i . t r r t s . He nov i .' t l t,r 'otecl to ar , , r r t l i f u l " . . .., ,plt istictrtecl"

i r r \ 1 l la1 g i \ -€.s. t i r r ru l i r te h is

: . r l i r ts t , . Even'

, r r i ic r r t ion thnt

\ ( )u c 'au hal -

' , , r r r i I Io$ ' do, , r l l I ) r oduc t?, i i r r r l s . The re. t l r i t t crpress

racter Roles

' i r r r t , t l -nouns.' ' , . 1 . l

: : t , r D r I l -

, . , l i tv of 'vc lur, , r r t t l r e o t t es, r l-r r the spot-' : ' t l r t , o ther ., ,, 11 ,a,r1i_is

r r r l \ t t l l en be

n i , l t , s s .' , . t t in three


clistinct 11';11'5-be-vsncl its phvsical siitis{actions-in this constant

search for self:definition. First, it can help ltinr acirier'€r ttttlsterv

of his chosen character roles-sucll as rl book on philosophr', if

he u'ishes to be thought of' rrs u'ell-reacl

Seconcl, it can help simplilr'. condense or speecl rtp this ttirts-

terr'-sucli trs a Speed-Reading Course.And third, irnd rnost irnportarrt. it ctrn serlie ils a svntbol of'

thirt masten'. to invoke the trcknou'leclgernent or acllniration of

his friends-such as a shelf to house both books.

Yorr rnust realize that er.'err-one of these vahres goes fhr be-

r,'ond the phvsicrrl satisfirctions o1' tlrc proclucts thernseh-es. Thev

are supra-functional, rrncl therefirre atltl att ertrrt incentive lirr pur-chase.

The book on philosophv miqlit uot hirve been prrrchased if

the prospect rvished onlv tcl satisfr- Itis ircaclernic crtriositt', irnd

did not also u'ish to enlighten hrs tl ' ierrcls in crnversation. The

Speecl-Reacling Course nright not have been purchased if the:

prospect rvished onlr-to absorb nrore infirrtniltion in a shorter pe-riod of tirne, ancl clid not rllso u'ish to rrse that infomation to get

ahead in both his business tincl sociirl lif'e. Ancl certainlv the book-

shelves u,ould not have been of tlte sauie fine qualih-, finish and

luxurv if the prospect hacl onlr u-ishetl to use thet-n as a store-

house, and not arlso as rr shoupiece.At least half tf rrll Tnrcha,sc,s nmrle toclary canrtot be unrler-

,stoorl in tenns of firnctitut ulorrt:. It u.ould be absurcl fbr a t-nirn

to spend $5,000 for tr 150-niile-an-hour sports car {or functionill

reasons, lr4ren he onh'uses it to clrive to and frotn u,ork on con-

gested, 35-mile-an-hour parku'rir.s. His u'illingness to spencl this

mone\r onh' becorres rational u4ren vou take one lurther fitct into

consideration-that this l50-mile-zrn-hour top speed, this hancl-

gear-shi{i, this fantastic cornerinu abilitr', all gir.e hirn trs their

owner the role of "sportsrni111"-i111{ verv probablr' "successful

sportsrnan" at that.Everv product can benefit {rorn t}tis role-giving poll'er. Bttt

there are rnanv products r.r'here tliis abllitl' of chtrracter-rein{orce-

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112 sECoNDTEcH\Iet iE oF- RRE., \KTHROUC;Ir cop\ . : IDENTTFT.. \TI .N

11i.n1-u'hgther brrilt intri that pr'chrct bv design, bv socieh orbr. advertising-far orrh'eighs in sales," tlr". buiit-in p"ift r-rlra.rce of'that procl'ct. ln ,vtr,h prorlrrct.s, it is tltc role-gixingfimc-tion tlmt sel/s, irncl nclt the per{onnrurce.

o'e further fact distinguishing these chirrtrcter roles. si'cethe'u-are not cretitecl b' societ'.but br. the prospect hirnself, ir'clsince ther' are irhrrst ne\rer cllai,ned-np",,li, b.rt or-,ln liintecl'plied ancl pro.rptecl, therefbre the' can ne'er trul' be testerlo r l r rc i rs r r re t l - i rn t l t l re r l r re , , , , ' b ig ' , . , r r . Th t ' r i r re s r rb . jec , t to e r ro r .And. rrcrre iutportant, tl.tey are .subject to jnrtastl.

creat areas of these ch.racter rores literallr erist in the sub-cottsciotrs. Thev are never given clefinite u,orcls. Thev are notsttrtecl o'. discusrecl, ll 't ,.,btl ' erpressetl iu ,turl,ut, ;a t*"g"r.onlv rarelv cloes the prospect e'e. clefine therr-r to himself. Anrleven 'rore rarelv does he test thern trgai'st the' outside '',orlcl. tosee i f t l rer i r re at. tualh true.

Therefbre, vour prospect is far 'rore reacl'to belier.e i, thecharacter roles'" 'ou assig' to hirn, tha'he is t , bel iere in ei thervour productls perfbrrnance clairns, or the achie'ernent roles itrnar- .{Ti:r him. I1'the chnracter role is flattering, such as ..r.iril-itr'," a'd i{' it is subtl' expressecr in A 'o'-r-erbal irrage-sr mb'I.such as a test pilot srnoking a cigarette. than the prospect carreasilv pers'acle hi'self that the sarre acti'. s.ioking, pe.forrre,lon the saure product. the cigarette, corl\-e\.s to hirri at l^east sonieof the ir'plic'd 'iri l itr of the genrrine posSeSS.l--i ' this c,ase, thepilot.

There is ro clirect claim rrade in the ird'ertisernent. No 'er-balization to be p.ssecl o' b' the conscious. ratio'al rnincr. Ncrtest sit,ation called fo. .,'here the prospect *.st pro'e thai therole is valicl. Acceptance is eas1, pnirrl"ir, ,ron_cle,nanding.

This is 'ot true of' a perforrrAnce clai.r, *,hich rnrrst'be jus-tifiecl in terrns ,f concrete results to orrr friends. Nor is it trueof'an achie'errient role. u4rich rnust stancl up to the herrsh realih,of our position in e'err,'diw lif'e. This ,,,p"rl, ense-o{-acceptauce.this consolaticln-u,itho.t-cost feat,re of the chrrracter rclle is its

S E C O N D T E ( - I I \ l t , , t

great strurgt l rment thc vt ' r ' i , . ,

Tltesr' rrr,' :

are cretrtetl l,r

and '"t t l t l lett , , i ,

ours, thert' rrr.,

nouns . u ' i t l r t ] , ,FOr e r lu r . :

O r , r . n e r " . . , ' l . l iOn-His-\\'ar - | ;bracing ('\ '( 'r '\ .r

F o t ' r t ' t l t t ' , ' r .

and lrorn t l r t ' r r ,

M o t h e r " . . (

"Patron o1' tl ',The l lst t

roles is r l l l i t t l r : ,

di,splaqed.Her t ' t l i r1 , .

is obviotts. ( . ) l :

b le-rnere t i t l ,are rettl_iut(l ,

alter clur li., .

physical sr r ll ',

Ancl tl r,' , .

of success irr \

ucts tlrut ttr-, ;

fo r the i r p l t r l ' :us as th t ' i r 1 , , , "by the c l t t t i ) ( i t .

The t t t r , . t

f i rst act i t t l r , . r '

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. I I I ) I1 \T IF ICATIO\

: :r lx ' societv orl,rr i l t- in perfor-

, ' '1,,-t i t . ingfunc-

. t t . r roles. Si l tce

. . r t I r i rnse l f . anc l, , rr iv hintecl at ,trr rlv be testecl

. ' r l r l t ,ct to error.

" \ l : [ i11 t |e sub-Tlrev are not

*, ls i rn( l intages.: , , l r i rnse l f . Anc l' ; l . r t le r i 'or ld, to

' l , t , i i t ' r 'e in the, I r t , rc in ei ther. r - t r r ( ,n t ro les i t

. rrc ' l r as "r ' i r i l -j r ni tqe-SYttrbol,

, . l ) rospect canirrg per{brrned:^ . t t least sor ler , t l r i s case, the

' : r r t 'n t . No r re r -,r , . r l nr incl . Ncr:rror e that the: , . t l l ( l i ng .

l r l r l i l s t be j us -\or is i t t rue

. lr irrsh realih', r l-rrc.c,€ptitnca,

l l r ro le is i ts


greai ;h-ength, and the reason u'hv it should be used to supple-ment the verbal clairns in everr- trcl.

2. Achievement Roles

These are the status roles . . . clnss roles . . . position rclles thatare created bv everr.' societ\. on earth, and of{bred to the rnenand u'ornen rvho can earn thern. In a civilization as colnplex asours, there are literalh. hunclrecls of thern-usuallv expressed b'n'nolrns, r,vith the nouns sen'ing as titles.

For example, for men, there ;11€'-"f,1sgutive" . . . "Home

Owner" . . . "$20,000-a-veirr-Nlan" . . . "Five Handicap". . . "Man-

On-His-\Vav-Up" . . . "Block Clhirinnan" . . . and dozens rrrore, em-bracing every activitv of our

For rvomen, the prirnarv rlchievelnent role to be u,on is "\\'ife,"

and from then on-"Fashion Setter" . . . "Career \\brnan" . . . "Good

Mother" . . . "Civic Leader" . . . "Pou'er-Behind-the-Throne" . . ."Patron of the Arts" . . . and on. and on.

The list, for both rnen und \\.ornen, is endless. Each of theseroles is an achievernent to be vu.on, and held, ond-rnost of all-displaqed.

Here displav is vital-because none of these achievementsis obvious. Quite the opposite, thev are immaterial and invisi-ble-mere titles, roles, bundles of privilege. Thev do exist-thevare real-and once thev are gained. thev har.e great potential toalter our lives. But that potentiil.l must first be translatecl intophvsical svmbols of success, fbr er.ervone around us to see.

And t]ie easiest and most universallv acknorvledgecl s',rnbolsof success in America todtn' are the products we ctrn bnt. Prod-ucts that are purchased-not bq any stretch of tlrc inmgination

for their physical fitnction rtlone-but for the definition they giueus as their po,sse,s,sors. In America today ue are knoun-not onlyby the compantt ue keep-but by the prorhtcts rce ou)n.

The rnost obvious exarnple is the nervlv-wed rvoman. Herfirst nct in her nerv role as "\\rife" is to receive tr phr.sical gift,

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1ll 2sECoND

TECHNTe'E oF- BRFrAKrHRoucr{ copy: rDENTrFrclAT.r()\

rvhich has absolutelv no function other than to clefine her-tht,u'edding ring in *4rich she is rnarried. \\1eeks befbre this. she hasliterallv been sheclcling closets-firll of' clothes-clothes tliat stillfitted her phvsicallr: brrt not socirrllr,-in orcler to replace ther,r,vith a ,rew rirater:ial personalitr; her tnrusseau.

Her sheets ard li 'ens rlre ne\r'. IIer f'rniture carpetirrgare ne\\/. Even the ver."'roof over her head, toclar. in our societr.r r r r r s t I r e r r t ' u . B e c l t r r s e s l r e i s l i t e r a l h i r n e \ \ . 1 1 e 1 1 1 1 1 y 1 - l ; s , . , , . r ,role hrrs her-ancl she rlust €rxpress tliat transfirr.-mtition in eventhing sher onrrs.

The silme princ'iple applies to e'erv aspect rf'all of our li 'es.Eucry 'ocial role th't ue achiere in tife i,s in,rrccricttely tran,slatetlirtto those pos,se.ssions rchich ue beliexe e\)rc,\,\ tltat pi:t,sition tro'tclcarly. A'd ns u,e acquire these possessio's througir'ut our lif'e.rvhat *'e are doing is co'st.rcti'g {br o.r-sel'es a ::rnaterial

per-son:rlitr'," that lve cirrrl-u,ith us u4rerer-er we go. ancl u4rose {irnc-tion it is to define rrs, insttrntlr,, to u,honrever u,e rneet.

The "N'Ia'-o'-His-\\'rv-up," for erar'ple, tracles i' his F,*lfor a Briick. ancl, *rhe' he bec'rnes rln "Executi'e." traclers i' hisBuick for a cadillac. The "career \\irrrnan" neecls an entirel'difTerent *'trrdrobe tha' the one she ou'ecl trs ir "House*,ii'e.1'And u,hen the rnnn of the house gets a raise. the house eithergro\\/s biggea or prettier, or rnore filled rvith stat's-clefiners ol'er'€r)' description-or the house itsel{'is discarclecl. to he renlacerlbl' one rnore befitting the neu, char.acter of its possessor.

How to Put These Longings for Identiftcationto Work for your product

Thus procl,cts becorne more than pr'd'cts. In aclclitio' t,their phvsical iunctiors, ther,' take on ne*, irn'rtlterial f'nctiors-as status definers. Thett announce our- trchievements, clefine ourro le in l i l ' e . doc . r r r r re r r t , ru r . su( . ( .ess .

All products 'ra\. benefit fror-r this po\\,er t' clefine. But r'partic'uiar rvhen vou ha',e a product thzrt ilres the srurre 1ob as its

cotttp€'tttor'. ,the pros1t t , : '

d i . f ferattct ' t , ,to crett te t i r r-

T l t t ' p , : :character rrr ' , :l x - r - o t t t ' 1 , r , , . :t r t e c l t t t t r i s r r r , , :

Anc l j , r . :

is rr spt't ' irrl Ifor recogrr i t r ,procluct 1i,11, '

n i f i ca t io r r t l r ,F i t ' s t r ,

i tnd acl r i t ' r , ' :r , 'our prot l , r . . '11sf-a1111 .,1 1

And tht ' r , ,

so r,' ivirlh ,1r,,beconre r i11 ' :

Onc ' t ' . r - . ,

bot l t r 'o t t r , ,1 , :

personir l .kr ltou s ic l t ' - r t , rt en t i a l o1 t , , , . '

F i l 's t o1 ,

| J 0 1 1 C ( l l l l t r t l I

t ion . P t 'op l ,These ('l tiu'.,, '

tu re o r l ) ( ' l :thev t t t iL r r t , '

1g1la1'-1 y1. 11 , , .

prochic'ts pi.,',hearcl or' r't .t '

Th t ' s , ' ,

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, \ I I ) I , ] \T IF ICATION

, i , . f i r re l rer- the: , , r ' t , th is . she has, l , , t l r t , s tha t s t i l l: ' , r ' t ,p lace thent

'.r .u)cl carpeting' , i r r r i r rr societ\ .

, 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 - | 1 6 ' 1 p g 1 * '

. . t l r i t t t ransfor-

: . , l l of 'our. l ives.'. ' : ', I r 1 t ran,slaterl' : '

1 t r tS1 [ iO11 7n0q' : ' l ior r t our l i f 'e .r I ilrrtcrial p€tr-: , , I r r l rose func-

l : r t ' t ' t .

,1 , ' . j11 h is Forc ltrrrr les in his

', i. rrn entirelr-, I lorrservi fe. l ', . l rorrsc, ei ther, : ' r . - t le f iners o fr', l lt- replacecl

r . r r . \ \ O l - .

ldentificationlirtrr Product

l : i i r ( l ( l i t ion tor. , i l l tnc,t ions-r:r . r lef ine- ' our

: , i t r re . Br r t in. , : : r . job t rs i t s


competitors, and is so priced thrrt price is no longer a |'aclot'. therttlrc pro,spcct',s r:hoice rcill alnnst oxenclrchnhrgly rlcpotd on tlrcdifference in role that qour Ttroclur:t offers ltin. Ancl it is rrnr jolr

to create this role fbr hin in \-our acl.The perfirrmance of this job-the process of building these.

ch'ary&er ancl trchieven'lent roles into \'our product, to be usedbv vour prospect-is the process oi' ldentification, our secondr r tec l r l r r i s r r t o I persu i ts ion .

Ancl just as the u'ish for this ideutifictrtion bv vour prospectis tr special {brrn of desire-the clesire, not for satis{irction, butfbr recoqnition-so the rnethocl \-oll lrs€' to put it to u'ork {br vourproduct iblkxvs exacth' the siune pattenr of rliscoverr- and mag-riifictrtion that vou rvould use lirr anv other desire.

First, vour job is to cliscover cractlv n'lrat kirrcls o{'charrlctcrirnd achier.elnent role's vcxrr pr<lspect is ri'adv to identi{r.' u'ithrour product-u4rat kincl oi' roles he u ill reject lirr that prod-rrct-ancl r.lhich of the accept('(l rrik's is tlre nrost conrpelling.,\ncl tl"ren \/ou lnust present those, choserr roles in such a \\/av-so vividlv and so intenselr'-that the role vou ure projecting rvillbeconre virtuallv irresistible.

Once again, it is vour rnarket itsel{' that presents r,-ou u'ithboth vour opportunities and r-orrr liniitations. Ancl it is vour or,r,n

personal skill as a copv \\/riter that detenriines hou. eiT'ectivelvvou sicle-step those liuritations, an(l ho\\, fullv vou rerrlize the po-tentitrl of vour opportunities.

First of all-the linitations. Above er,'ervthing else, o1'course.r1Lru cannot force ryour ntarket to accept on unrealistic irlentifica-tiort. People assign certain ch:rracteristics to certain prochrcts.These chartrcteristics rnav arise out of the Drodllct itselfl-its struc-ture or perforrnrrnc'e. i t i l r istorr . i1s c 'ost tn prot l rr t 'e or sel l . Orthev rna'u' stern {rorn the role or roles that it plavs in their lives1od21'-o1 that sirnilar products plar- in their lives-or that theseproclucts plav in the lives of other people, u4rorn thev have seen,heard or read about.

These characteristics nra\' be true or {'alse. sunerficitrl or

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profound. flattering or libelous. B,t as far as 'our product is cor-

,.- cerned, they are as hard as rock-.nd j'st as deterrnintrtir.e. Ther-exist. Thev are facts. Thev cannot be cha'gecl. If 'ou trr- to b.eai.throrrgh tiren, *n,l establislr a r,ontraclic,,nri ',nno", ;r; ,ui"Il j;:,;;

that thev form the u'alls of a prison.But if rou decicle to build en 16 th.m-to use thern as a {bun-

dation fo,. ,horp"r, coorclinatecl irnages, rvhich rntrv be even broaderand rnore appealing-then. i{' n"""rrn.r,, \.ou can t'rn those ap-parent lirnitations into the strongest selilrre points in your acl.


Not e'erv product needs this tech'ique. of "oi

rr". speak-i'g in te'rs of identification potential, there are t*,, kinds of'products. o'e is the product ri,ith built-in prestige-the sportscar, the srvirnrning pool, the diarno'd bracJet. Tlese rare anclexpensive products alreadv ernbodv the iclentification appeals mostAmericans u'ant. The' aciuallv svmbolize these appeair-r,r"""rr.achie'ement, adventrir", r"lf-ind,rlge'ce,

"r"l,rriulitr.-so unques-

tionably that thev can be 'sed to r,r,ercl these sarne values tntoother products.

But these other products-bv far the cl'enr4rehning rrr.r.;or-ih' of the procl.cts r'u *,ill be gir.en to rvork *,ith-have no suchbuilt-in prestige. Itis up to vou to create their prestige fbr thern.Ancl yott ,ttt't do thi,s by buircling on tht, thuricteri,iiic,s they al_rcadu po''e',s-by u,sing these accepted crraracteristics a,s abrklge-betueen the prorluct . , . the image it arrearrtt rtn,s . . . artr!the 7:re,stige-filled irnage thot yott rcant t. rcinrl tpt rcith.

\\re nou' have all the tools rve neecl to builcl identification'alues for .rrr prod,ct. \\/e realize that identification longingsare a separate and immenselv po*'erful fo'r of clesire-a cle-sire, not for phvsical satisfaction, but for expressio' and recog-nition.

These longings {br identification trre hi,o-folcl. \\ie all u,ish t'express our chtrracter, and we all r,r'ish to garin recoe'itio' {br ouraccomplishrnents.

But 've cannot clo this openh'-verballr: we cannot go aroundboasting horv virile we, or hor.v rich *-e are. so *,e svmbolize

S E C ] O \ D T ' I . ( I I \

t l iese pr t 's t i -

l tnd u 'e ' l r rn

A s . \ r r , ,

are cer t i r i r r , r

va lue rnr l r ' , ' l l

are: th t ' r r i r t

t t n i q t t e . l r r r r - :

nell- l ikcrl-:ther u.ish to It t t be suc'r ' , ' . .

T h t ' s t ' . , 'rnarkets. ot l , .these are t i r ,brancl to rrrr , ,

T h t ' r , ' r .ing iderr i t i f i r . t rthc pntr l t t t t ' ,

t1tru art ' y i r , '

acter ist ic 's rr , .no t inchr t l t ' t lu'ant.

F r ) r ' r ' r . r : ,But vorr r t , . i . . .cou ld s t ' l l r , , . ,svrnbol o1 r : :

create i t . u, ' , ;

hold applr . , r' r tO lne t l r i 0 I t . ,

macle f t ' r r r i r , r :Hr tu t i , '

iclentilr tlr, ;h irs in t ] r t , r r

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' \ I I ) } . \T IF ICATION

r I )r(xhrct is con-r. rr r ri r ratir..e. Therr,rr t rv to breai<

,r ' \ou u' i l l learn

' t l r t , rrr as a {bun-lrt' t.r'en broaderr trrrn those ap-, i l r \ I )ur ad.I r'olll 'se. Speak-.r. h\1) kinds o{'tr it,-the sports-l-lrt'se

rare ancll , , rr . rPPeals rnost;t1r,, rrls-success,lr\ -so urlques-t l rr , \ 'ahles onto

i , , ' l r rr inq rnajor-' - luvc no sucht ' . t ige fbr thern.. r' lrflr',s they al-; , ' l r ' t ' i .st ics as u, ; r l r l l t u . y . . . a t r c lr ; , tL ' i t l t .

, l r tk ' l r t i f icat ion

t . r t ior r longings

t r lt 's ire-tr cle-,1or1 i111d recog-

\\ e all u' ish to, { I l i t io l r ior Our

, r r r rot qo around| ) \\ (, svmbolize


these prestige claims. We erpress thenr in tertns of proclucts-

and u'e buv products that express thern.

As Americans, in our cttlture and ortr centurr', there

trre certtrin character roles arnd cbrtain achievelnent roles that u'e

r-alue rnore than others. The most generrrl and conrpelling of these

are: the u'ish to be virile or ferrinine-the lvish to be exciting,

unirlue, fun-filled ancl aclventurorts-the u'ish to be friendlv trncl

ri,ell-liked-the rvish to be iurportant. inflrrential and correct-

the'u.ish to be rnoilern ancl up-to-(liite-rurtl. rtbove all, the rvish

to be successful, to lnake soniething of ottr lives.

These are the roles nrost Attiericrns bttr'. In sorne splinter

rnarkets, other. contraclicton' roles nrav applr. But, in the rt-itrss,

these are the characteristics that u'ill tunr the Prospects froni one

brand to another.

The Primarv Image of Your Product

There is a critical point that seprrrates the process of build-

ing identification frorn the process o{'brrilcling desire, namelv; that

the Ttroduct you cLre giten has it,s orcrt ltcrsonrtlitry at the nunnent

tlou are giuen it. It has its ourr cltarilcteristics. And these char-

acteristics mav contradict u4titt niost Arnericans lvant-or simply

not include thern-or sinrplv uclt inclucle as manv of thern as votl

rvant.For erample, a cigarette is not. bl- itself, a svmbol of success.

But vou realize that if vou could rnake it tr svrnbol of success. vott

could sell manv nore of them. Nor is a piston ring, bv itsel{, a

sln'ibol of virilih'-even though that virilitr. image, if vou could

create it, rvould sell rnanv more piston rings. And, though house-

hold appliances are not, at first glance, svrnbols of fernininitr,',

\\rornen rvould buv rnanl' more o{'them if thev could somehor,r' be

rnacle ferninine.Hor,i' do vou do this? In hr.o steps-the first of u4rich is to

identif-v the primary inmge that each of these products alreadv

has in the rnind of vour prospects. For instance, tr cigarette is

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virile i ' ahnost e'e.vore's rnincl. A'cr a piston ring is precisior-rnachined and full of mecha'ical bea'tr.. tc, al,nosi .,rl.r, ,,,u,,.And household .pplian ces are ti 're-sa'irq. I^- r.irt.e of tlre ,-e,..functions thev perfbrrn.

These are the prin*rq inmges of the prorl,cts'o1r are calrr,<lon to sell. These :ire the acccpted rriiagc,s that therl trlreadv 'o.r prospectls rri'cl. r'our job 'u*, is to use these ,rlre,rcl, -accepted iurages as raw rnnterial, as a ,strtfti,g Ttoint to cor,stnlctn-erc' rlotilil.' triple an_d quadntpre intages, trtnt drur irt rrtrtre ..ftlrc'sc ttto'st-tarted rctle,s into ytntr 7:r.drtct-7:er.sonality, nr-rcl ntrtl-tiplq its itlentifcation apTteal.

\ilr rlo this in two u,ar:s:First, by changing tlu: irttttt.siftl of y.ttr 1trirrrct,1 inmge, l)t

enrphtrsizing ernd clrarnatizing that primarv iu.rage, if it is ,ilr"o,l.acceptttble. Or bv toning it dou,n, if it is negative or neutral.

For errarnple, the 'ale r.irilit' 'at.r.allr- rrssociatecl u.itlrt ' i gare t l .es i s a r le f i r r i te sa les a i r r . e r len r r i t l r r ro rnen. T l re s l re . r .phvsical act of s"king-of "playing *,ith firr."-of ..lrreathi'gfire"-has beer {br certuries tin zrssertirn of 'ranh''cl ancl of'daririg.

Il,t rv'larlb'. took this irnage of virilih, ancl intensifiecl it_deepe'ecl it-ir three l'a's. First. thev presentecl rnen r,r,ho u,ere.i' ther'sel'ers, r'irile. seco'cl, thev presentecl these men in sit..-ti'ns '' occupations that de'turd 'irilitv A'cl third, thev tcxrk thef r r r l h e r " c . e a t i r e G i r r n l r l e " o f l r r f i { n q t , r t l r e s " r r r , , r r s l r r r n < l s , r r e , lthe rlost prirniti'e sr.r'nllols of'r.irilitv known to historv-the tnttoo.

A si r rgle dor rr i r r i r r r t elnot io '- \ I r i l i t r -sr r r r l ,o l iz.r l th ree * iu.s.Tlre i rrrpac' t o1' repet i t ion reinrb.r .er l through r i t r i r t t ior. F,, , , , ,or.por'r'erful-far rnore eve-catching-far more appealing thnn anr-one of these irlrages could have been br. itself.

s, l 'ar- t l rere l rus bt 'en rro di f fererrr .e bt, t rree, this tec, l rnrqrreancl the inte'sificutirn of desire *,e clisc,ssecl prer.irusl' Al-tho,gh \\'e trre'g here in r.isuiil te"s, the^,nechanics ar.exactlv the sa'e-the i'tensific'tion of irn alre.clr-existing erno-

' l r ) l l l l r \ : l

' r ! r \ \ l l l r l r' \ \ r t l l

i I r r s i { i t , i l t , , ' r

. r \ l l l l ' l l l l , , ' , 1

: r ( . ] ' . r t i \ r ' : i

, t t t t ' t r t l . ] -

l ( ) l ' \ ( ) u l ' l ) l ', t t t t s l r . t - ,

I : o r t l '

r r l r i t ' . l t r , ,u r L t t t t r r i r . ,

t t c ' t ( ) l l ( t l

I l t l " ' : r

t l i . c ' i r n l t l , , '

r o r i r l r l t ' , , : r ,

. \ r r r l i t r 1 , , , .

j us t r i o r r ' t I

I n t l i c t , i , , .

r t ' r ' t is i r r , l . :

I t t , , t , : '

i l l ( 'o l '1) ( ) l - . r : ,

t r < l r r i r l i n t , ' r . .

\ or l l ' l ) r ' ( ) \ l ,

. i ' ( ) \ l ) l i

T lI l i l \ i \

l t s n t t ' t t t t r , : . ,

l u r a q ( ' r r .

. \ n ( l s t ' r ' , , r , :

r n o r t ' l i L r ' , :

( ) r r t .

ol ig l f i I

Page 133: Breakthrough Copywriting

, i - \ I I )T ] \T IF ICATIO\

: ' Irg l.r precision_", ( ) \ t e \ .er \ - mi ln .. : r - tu( . o f the ven'

r : \ \ ( ) l l ar"e cal lec l':,t 'r i t l t 'eudv |ar.-e. , . t l rese a l readv-' !ttt t() con,struct,: r 'rttt in nurre of

' , , , ; l i t !1 . ond mul-

i ' , / i t ' t l i t t r c tge . Bv, if i t is trlreadr-t ' . , . ( ) r ' r ier r t ra l .

, . . , ,c . i r r ted u ' i t l ir : ' r r l ' l re shee.r

,, i "breathing

' . r r i l r ooc l and o f

i : r r t t , r rs i f ied i t -::rII r \\ 'hO \\/efe,

{ .U r ( ' n i n s i t t r t t _, i t l r t , r took the, . l r i t r r c l s one 0 f, r r - t l re ' ta t tc lo.

2, . , I t l r rce l r 'ar -s .

r : t { ) l r . F iu: n lo le.,i irrg thiln trnl '

: i r r ' t e l l l n i qus

: . : ' r ' r iOt ts l r ' . A l -: r , . t l r t t r t ics r t re

' - , r is l l l lc r g11-r-


tion in vour prospect, through a series of rein{brcing irrages ex-

pressing the fulfil lment of that etrotiot-t.^ \\Iith certain, naturallr-fa\ored products. tlris process of in-

tensification rnav be all that is requirecl-thorrgh evetl Nlilrlboro,

as lnentionecl belou'. goes bevoncl it. But-trncl this point is iut-

perative-though the process of intensifving desire for rrxu' procl-

uct encls here, the process of brrilcling tlie proper ii leritifictrtion

fbr _vour prorluct-of buildine prestige f1;r t|at irroc|rct-on\r' be-

gins here.For the prirnarf irlltige o1' rrltlr prothrct ltl i lr- nof be favor-

able. It miry be negtrtivc'-contraclictirrg the roies rlrost people

want to play Or it mav sintplr lre neuiral-a u-allfltxr,er prod-

uct-of{'ering tt-tost people tro etlrtltiotlirl reactitlll at all'

In bot| these cases. \'ortr first srrgqesti,' tl la' be to simplv

discarcl these primarv irnages altoqether. antl substitute more {a-

vorable ones. This hirs bi'etl clotle irl cottlltless advertisernents.

And it doesn't rvork-for a \-er\- sirrrple reasorl. Because people

just n'on't believe that a prorluct l,s s'htit it isn'f. \iru cannot cttr"t--trarlict

accepted inmgt's or l)(li lfs itt ttrlt 'ertising This is not acl-

vertisingls role. Nor is it retrliv rlec('sstlr\'.

In orcler to overcori're unfiuorable intages, vou siulplv

incorporate theur in tr larger. overall image-lower their etrio-

tionai intensitr.'-ancl use tlrern tn reirclilv-accepted bridges to lead

vour prospect into filr nrore corlrpelling appeals'

How to Build New Images Into Your Product

This is :r single process, but it is nrade up of hvo steps' First,

as lnentioned itbove, a cl'iange in the intensitv of rottr pritnarv

inrage-in this case, suborclinating it eveu though \()u retairl it.

Ani seconcl, using it trs rt logical link to bring in anv nurnber of

rnore i'avorable in'rages.

one of the niost siriking erarnples is tlie chesterfiel<l atl

of 1926-"Blou, Sotne M1'\\iar"'-{irllv examiiled in Chtrpter 3'

Page 134: Breakthrough Copywriting


Here is pure identification aclvertising-clealing rvith an unfrr-vorable image of tr.r.o generations' standing-that cigarettes areA "rnan's product.' ' Although the objective of the canrpaign u'asto make smoking, and srnoking situatiorls, more acceptable towolnen, it u'ould have been impossible to rlo this bv picturirrgthe rvorran alone. The idea tha.t lvornen rvould practice this'rya.s-culine act in private, or rvith each other, u'a.s inadrnissiltle. There-fore the rnan rnust be retained. The acceptecl irnage must ltt 'acknorvledged.

But l're undergoes tu'o vital transfonnations. First, he is sub-dued. His figure is darkened, almost blended into invisibilitr.rvitirthe background. And his position in the picture-his posture-the arrtingernent of his hands and face as the light pltrvs or.erthem-all direct the attention of the vien'er oast the rnirn hinr-self and into the focal point of the picture. the ri'ornan sitting be-side hirn.

Thus he becomes a rnere suggestion of n-ra.n, leading thevierver into a lar nore appealing overall irnage-that of a hand-some voung couple, alone tclgether on a nroonlit beirch, height-enerl ernotionallv rvith the carefullr.blended-in suggestions of'escape, intirnacl', and a sense of shared daring.

Because the priuiarv irnage is there-bec:tLrse the srnokingis done by the rnan-the vierver, even a rvell-brought up lr.ornanof tlre 1920's, accepts the situation. But thi,s acceptance, otrc(,e,stablished, goes far berlond that primary inmge. This femininevierver is also lvilling to accept the romance of the overerll scene-including its emotional undertones of esctrpe frorn the conven-tional rules ancl boundaries, and its feelings of relaxation ancllibertv. She is nou' rvill ing to project herself into this scene.

And in accepting the scene as a lvhole. she is finall_v led toaccepting the clirlractic lvords, "Blou' sonle mv woy."

"r being a

perfectly natural and acceptable action {br her to take, u'ith allits implications ibr her conduct in the future.

This, then, is the process of identification-of building pres-tige for your product. To wea\-e far,orable social and character

Page 135: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ I I ) I ] \T IF ICA'T ION

j \\ ith an unfa-,rt 0lqarettes arer. ( i r lnPrl ign was, .r('c'eptable toi , r . 111' pictur ing' . tct ic.e this rnas-r ; r r \ \ i l ) le . There-i r l r i r g ( ' l n u s t b e

l-rr ' t . |e is sub-:rrr is ibi l i tv r .v i th- l r is l losture-r,glrt pliws overt l r t l l tnn hi ln-

,Ur. i l l s i t t ing be-

r:r lt 'acling thet i r . t t ol i r htrnd-ir t . . rc lr . height-.r I , l { ( 'st ions of

, . t l re srnokingglr t rr l t \ \1oman, i t tunce, once-l-lrrs


". t ' t ' i t l I; , t l re conven-: , . l .nai ion andt l r i s scene.f i rral lv led to

r .rs being at.tkt.. u'ith all

i " i i l t l i r rg p res-,:rr I c.lraracter


images into the personalitv tl1'\,orlr product, in rlrcler tu rein{brceiuld even clonrinate those prirnarv irnages thtrt l'cnrr prorhrc,t i,rl-rerrdv has.

There is onlv one linrit to the nrrrnber. or the range o1'lir-vorable images thtrt vou can irclcl to that prodict persorralitr'. Slnr-ph that qou rrtttst alrcat1,s inchdc tlrc prin"Lanl inrugt: as tlrcir must elnerge {l'orn thirt prilnrrrv image. itnd thev ntust belogicallv consistent u,jth its broaclest clefinition.

Fclr erau'rple, tcl return to Nlirrlboro. once \-ou ha\-e devel-oped the prirnan' irnage to its peak of intensitr-. then there is trb-solutel-,'nothing to stop r-ou frorn \\,eaving other pou.erful appetrlsinto this btrse. Connotrrtions of srrccess ctur be ir-rcluclecl bv thernodels clothes, such as the tureclo u,om irr the first acls.,,r bn'the possessions he holcls. Aclr-entrrre ancl ercitenlent can be sug-gested bv the situation vou pictrrre hirn in, such us on a ltoitt. ina plane, riding horseback. etc. Rornance bv a \-oung girl, mr,'sten'and affhirs of greirt in-rportance br- a dark backgrouncl or a brie{'-case, cultrrre and intellectual rtchier.ernent Lrr, il rilre book or unantirpe telescope.

As tr rna.tter of f'act, uranv visrral svnrbols. bv thernselves, conr-nrurlicate ser,'eral clifferent roles o{'great appetJ at the siune tiure.For example, the single inrage o{' ou.'nerslrip of a fine paintinglnrlv express, not onh' success. but also culturtrl breeding rrnd in-tellectual trccornplishment.

Such n'rulti-irnage sunbols perfonn turr vital tnsks for r.ourproduct. Thev broaclen tlre size if its nrarket bv gra{iing on ne\\'emotional appeals-social and character iclentifications that reachinto the {i'inge aretrs of that rnarket-that intrigue' people u4rorvould not be sufficientlv srvaved bv the pure lirnctional vttluesof vour product. Ancl second. bv adding in these nrarn-sidecl erno-tional irnages, thev deepen rrnd intensifv the errotional attractionf'elt fbr vour product bv all the rnen ancl u'onren u4ro nrirke u1rthat rnarket.

Perhaps this cun best be shorvn bv taking a lnpotheticalexample, of a product u'ith strictlv nentr:rl primarv inrages, ancl

Page 136: Breakthrough Copywriting


de'eloping, ancl *,ear-ing together. a 'etr,r,,rk 'f far strongerernotional irnages for it.

Let'.s start rvith piston rings, a'd irssl'ne that a nerv trpe ofpiston ring has just been der.eloped, th.t lasts longer or,i tir",-"-fore saves oil and gas. our brdr-copr, of'course, clevelops thissaving theme. \\Ie have erploited the iunctiolal aclr-anttrges ofthe prodrrct as f'ar as possible . we are nrrc ready to reinforccthese benefit,s bq expancling the prochrct',s 'ociul and chaiacterappeals.

We start bl. taking inventorr,-. \Ve harve a prodt[q_pistonrings. It lras onl' a fe*, printanl image.s-rnechanic.l, p."fi'o',-nracle, unseen. Nothing exciting here. It also has a prirnartl .sit-uation-replacenrent, arncl alu'avs bv a rnechanic, and usuallv onlvrvherr there.s trorrble,

- These primar' irnages are either reutral or negati'e. But

thev're all rve ha'e to rvork rvith. Ther', and the' alone, r-uust fon-nthe fo r rndat io r r . rn r rs t se t t l re d i re< . t ion . lb r e rer r o t l re r appea l *ebring into the over-all image \\,e rlre constructing.

So rve knou' that *'e ur'st deal *,ith the act clf replacernent,and that the replace'ent must be done br- a rnechanic. Theseare olrr lirnitations-but ortcc rce ob,serte tlttlttt, u'e tttnt thtttt intothe stafting point fir thc tnte enuttionnl nre.ssage rcc rcartt tobroaclca,st through our ad. \\,e take eaclt of tltese primartl ele-nrcnt's, ancl glantori:e, clrantati:e uncl emotionali:e tl-tent io thebrink.

The car itself--rvhi'rt kind of cilr shall it be? certiii'lr. rror abe.t-'p familv seda'. \\ 'h' 'ot a Nler"cedes SL-300-a $12,000sports car u,ith its chstinciir e grill-rvork sicles. ancl all the emo-tional ertras of po*,er, speecl, skill-in-handling, plus soprristica-tion, success :rnd dounright ercitement.

the garage-u'htrt shoulcl it look like? A sports_car shop,of course. Neat, cle.'. precise. \\.ith high-poru"i erluip'rent_glearning chrorre tmd steel-hanging on the u,alk, ,"",1. on thesheh es . I r r i r rg ins t i r l le r l ,n o t l r t , r ' sp . r ts r r ro t le ls in t l re l , , r r , i .g rc , , rn r l .

Tlre rnecha'ic is not \.o'ng. rot ' ld, sirnph. nmtttrc. Rr,gg"d,

\ l ( ( ) \ l ) l l

r t t o $ l t ' r l r ,

. i \ \ i l \ t t ' ( i l

T l ' ,l t , ' , ' l l . , t ' , , , . '

\ l l l - ( ' ( ) l , i l

I I o u t ' r , ' r ' '

i z t ' t l . . L r , , l

o r t t ' r t t i t r r l .

I r , r l t t ' r ' r ' ' .

o 1 ' r t l t ' r r t i : r ,

I r t ' c 'or t r , "i i t t i t g t ' l r r i t

tc'r ' 1 -1.

T l r ,l i r r sporl

sea ts I l ,

e n q l l l i ' . r l '

prcc ' is t ' r t

ce ' ss r i ' i t l ,

i n g o r r t f i tr l

. ' \ 1 i ( l

Knou ' l t ' r l - ,the erpt ' r-i t i g t t t r r r , .

i l

{ | ( I

not l r t ' t r t , : '

car u 'ort ] , ]

f lau') . lJ,r '

this c'irr ,.st , r l l . r ' r r l

F - r , : '

s i t ion. i t .e x r l t t t i r t t ' :

e x c t t e t t r t ' t r

greatt ' r . . , :

Page 137: Breakthrough Copywriting

I ) I , \ ' f I I - ICATION

l.rr stronger

I l l ( ' \ \ - t \pe Ot

r irrrt l t l iere-i , . r t , lops th isr l r ; rn tages oft, , rcin_fbrce

' ,1 t ' l t t rocter

L i ' t c1 -O ' r , on

,i precision-

i , r ' i r t t u rq s i t -' i . r r i r l l v on l v

' g , r t i r r ' . Bu t

r r r r rs t fbn.n

: .tppetil lve

' l ) l i rc 'e lnent ,

. t r r i r ' . Theset t t l r t , t t t i t1 t0

i , t tunt tO,,tL(u't l ele-' r , t t t tO the

. r i r r h ' r r o t a. t S 12,000

t l r t , e rno -., rl lhistica-

. - r ' r r r shop,

i l l ) l ) r cn t -

' , i r r ln t l te,,. kgrouncl.

l lrrqeecl,


knowledgeable, precise. He'.s sure of ri4rat he's cloing-there isn'ta wasted rnotion or a wasted tool ar-nu'here rrbout hin).

The owner of the car is \'olurg. u'irt', r'irile. brrt hc too hrrsbeen rrround. (Put into rvords, these irnages rnust take on tr rleir-sure of disbehef, u,hich we express bv saving thev're "corn\'."

Hor,vever, erpressed in visual terms. u4rere thev can be svrnbol-ized, and therefore irnpliecl rtrther than nanrecl, ther- enter into

orrr rninds unnoticecl, :rnd \\'e accept thenr u,ithorrt question. \rer-bal tenns-u'orcls ancl sentences-can be usecl to inrplv irnzrges

of identification: but these are dilleibnt trpes of inliiges, trnd mustbe conveved in a clifferer-rt ri'rl. \\'e u,ill torrch orr this r.erbalirnage building again, as related to exciternent und mood, in Chap-ter 14.

The orvner is not u prof-essiona.l clriver. but he races the carfor sport (r,r'e knou' this bv the roll-over bar over the back of theseats). He loves this car (its perf-ect shine. its glearning chronreengine, its cornplete nbsence o{' er,'en a spot of' clirt). He too isprecise (the chronorneter on his r,r'rist). And he ctrrries his suc-cess u,ith a complete crrsualrress (the absence of anv special clrir'-ing outfit-just slacks und a sport shirt).

Ancl u4rat about the relrrtionship behr,ecn the hvo nren?Knorvledge complerrenting skill. The erpert in one fielcl aclvisingthe expert in zrnother. Comfort, unclersttrncling. terrnnvork-leacl-ing to rnutual achier.'elnent.

Ancl rvhat are thev cloing? Replacing rings, of course. Butnot because the old rings have cleveloped trorrble (nothing in thiscar lr'ould be left unchecked long enough to have developed aflau'). But because this mechanic is inst:ll l ing these neu, rings inthis car as hieh-perfonniurc'e erlripment. errrctlr- ris he u,orrld in-stall a supercharger to increase its horseprlu'er.

Evervthing trbout the picture-ifs s21111€'ra angle, its cornpo-sition, its lighting, the angle of the men'.s heircls rrncl rrrrns irs theveralriine the rings-clevelops the ernotion of' precision and theexciternent trnd dr:ura o{'cliscovering neu' peilorrnance tliroughgreater ancl greater precision.

Page 138: Breakthrough Copywriting


It is :r picture, a situation and a 'ood thtrt invites partici-pation. The reader rnav not notice everv erlotional detail thatvorr l rave dereloped: l . , r r t l re rvi l l sense t l ie t , rr , i ternent unr l n1., , -sure that vou have built up. He rvill rvish to share in this ;rl(1.And he rvill buv the product that gi'es hirn this rvorlcl-thtrt ot-fers i t i rs i r bonus t , i r l l i ts { i rnc,t ional iurd plrrs sat isfac,t ions.

On the Limits to the Images your

Prospects Will Identify With

I rrust insert a rvarning here. Although these iclentificatior-irnzrges .re irn'rensely porverfirl rvhen used correctlv, there art,also strict rules and hrnits to their use. Ancl, if ther ar-e usecl in-correctlv, they can be disastrous.

Manr'' carnpaigns have collapsed because the' have askecltheir n-rarket to identifv thernselves rvith an tntbclinablc irnage.For example, the deodorant-soap campaig' of ,.,\"ral vears agothat used an elite. societr.' irnage to sell the mass rr-rurk"t. Tlr"men and wol'en u'ho cornposed the rnarket could not rnake thejurnp behveer ther' and the characters picturecl in the ad.And thev not onlv refused to belie'e the suggestecl iclentification.but the disbelief spread to the per{b'na'ce clairns thernsel'es.and killed the sales.

The key to avoiding such uristakes, of colrrse, is the srruc-ture of the worcl, unbelieuable. \\'hat rnakes an irntrge-'r a clairn.or an idea-believable or not belier.'abrep \\'e shall discuss thisquestion tlioroughh' in the next feu, chapters. Horvever, in reltr-tion to image-building, tlie answer lies in hl..o points:

1. What do people already belieue nbotft ilr. prrrr.,,r.tity ofyottr prodact.) Do the'believe, todtrn that it has the chtiractertraits that you say it has? And-if thev clo-can thev identif'themselves, their li 'es, their prese't poiition i' socieh., or theirnext step up in societv u'ith these traits?

I{'the ars\ver to both these questions is yes, then },ou can

r r s t ' t l t t ' i t r . .,

, r r t e r l f t l r , . '

' t t 'P :

2 \ \ 1 , , .l , t ' l i t ' t ' t t l t i l t " ,

t r i t l t r r l r t i i I

t locsr t ' t l r , . t

t r a i t s . t l t t ' r r

t t t t t se t l r t . . ,

r r l l i l tag, ' . '

A r t t l . i :

r l oes pos r , . '

I a te t o l r i .

t l teu i rq i r i r r

seetr i r t r i tg , '

accepttt l r l, :

For t ' r

ic lent i f \ t l , ,

opera l t i r t . . ,

lx ' the i t t t ,

cigarettt ' .

I f r o r t ,

c l l as t t t . r , , , l '

or irtrrigt'.

le t t 'ou l t ' . , ,

\ \ i . r , ,

i ng a t i i t t l "

tr.vo protlr:,

uc t c l o t ' s t , ,

r , l 'hat t l r t ' t '

Page 139: Breakthrough Copywriting


r.rt i l tI i tes partici_, i r ( )n i r l deta i l that: l r . l I r ' l t t and p lea_r.rrt. ir i this world.. .rorlcl-that

of_rt ,t l satis{irctions.

he Images your

ll Identify With

., irlt 'ntification-rrr'1 f 11 there are' t , , . r i r re used in-

t i r , . r hal l 'e asked,' :' tt I ul)le irnage.r .r t . l . i r l leals ago

, r . . rrrarket. Th€rr i rrot rnake thet ' r r , , t l i n the ad .. ,1 i r l t .nt i f icat ion,i I r r : l l 1€ '111561yat ,

., is tlie struc-r- l t ' -1,, ' a Claitn,

, . , ] l t l iscuss thisr ' . \ t . \ ( , I ' . i r l rela_

i l l [ \ j

1,, r'sttrtality of. t l r t . character, tlrt.r' identifv, , t i t . t r . or their

t i r |n VOU Can


Lrse the irnage exactlv as vou've conceived it. If, hou'ever. either

one of the ansrvers is No, then vou l]tust Inove on to tlle second

step:2. What other prinmry inuLge do I haue to ltse as a

beliexability-brirlge to cornrcct uhat mq 1:rLtspect olrcadry belieae.s

u;ith uhat I rcant him to beliexe u;lrcn lrc finislrc,s nq ad? If he

doesn't believe that rnv prodrrct has those desirable charilcter

traits, then I have to start u,ith rvhat he alreadv believes. I lrave

to use these in'rages as a base, ancl build up to tnv desiled over-

all image, as we discussecl befbre.And, in addition, i{' n-rv prospect believes that rnv product

cloes possess these target-trtrits, br-rt doesn't believe that tliev re-

late to his life, as it exists irr either the present or the {irture,

then again I have to use a bridge-irnage. I have to insert a first-

seen image that he can irnmediateh' identifi 'rvith, and use that

acceptable identification ai\ lrook to hang rnr'' target-inrage on to.

For exarnple, in the N{arlboro acl, mett lvho u'oulcl l}ever

identifv themselves irnrnediateiv rvith a yachting costume or an

opera hat, acceptecl the irnage completelv after it lr'as introduced

bv the acceptable virilih' concept of the rnale moclel smoking the

cigarette.If vou dernand that vour prospect jurnp across a believability-

chasm, vour ad rvill fail. If, horvever, you build a bridge of ideas

or irnages across that chasm-starting on his side-then he rvill

Iet vou lead hirn ahnost anwvhere.

On Saleable Identifications Springing

From the Phvsical Product Itself

\\,'e rnentioned in Chapter 2 that fbr the purposes of prepar-ing an advertisernent, everv product can be considered to be

trvo products. There is the functional product-rvhat the prod-uct does for the consumer. And there is the plnlsical product-r.vhat the consumer actualh'gets. In tapping mass desire. we put

Page 140: Breakthrough Copywriting


aside the physical product, ancl co'centrated o' functio'al per-formances' Norq in searching fbr image-sources to bLrilcl po*,-erf,l identifications. \\'Ie re-exa'rine the phvsical proJr"a ,,r"tt.The phrsical prod.ct ctin be broke' do*n ir-rto ,irr"" ,"pr-rate areas:1. Its appearance;2. Its components ancl structure: ancl3. The technical backgrouncl fron_r which it emer.gecl.Each one o{'these areas has irrage pote'tial. In eacrr one ,fthern 1'e11 rnal' fincl strong prirnar' inrag"s that alreacr' erist. or.i r r ea.h one or rrrerrr vou ma. r ,e able to qraft o; ; ; ; inr.qt ,sthat will greatl_v increase the sales of your procluct.For

_exarnple, the appearance of vour procluct. As vou re_ceive it, that product's appearance is prc,iabr.'f"t".r',]n",t r^. ,"n"-tion' Let"s sav that the prod'ct is nrecrranrcar, like , "-."in

tt i,case, its appearance rvi' be a combi'atio. of'*,hat it has to do(roll on a highwall carrv _six people, shelter afr"".'

"g"lrrt ,uin,land rain' etc')' and the cheapest practicar *,av of a,i"g rt. o,raof this combination of perfor-on"" @""on,,,,rr,

"n_"^i,h" .ur,.s'ell o{' vour car-its tasic f,nctional appeararce. It is at thispoint that vou start to build in the irnages.

You clo this in. two rvavs. First, vou exploit the clrarnatic pri_rn:rrv irnages that alreadv exist in the extreme forr.s of vour procr_uct. For cars, fbr instance, r,ou borrorv frorn t'e gto,r,uur-""rr_the severe strear.riuirg .]:,r stabilizing fin of ,rr" [.t"g'"or-at.,"'ub caps and wlieer wers of the spirts car-trre errr'aust porrsa'd roof line of t'e c'storn car. Ancl lou bler-rcr their feeling olexcitetnent and pou'er ancl distinction i'to tlie farni'. sec'rrr.

But this is onl' the first step. once r'rr har-e "tpirt,*r

ar.'"alread*existing primar.v irnages in 'o'r procl'ct-i{' t'ere areAr\-\.ou then begin to r.vea'e in other irnages that hzi'e ab_solutel' nothing to do *,ith trre recessarv plr'sical stnrct,re ofvour prodrrct. And you alter the appeararri iy rlrttr pro,trct tottccomnndate and erpress these itrta.ges.

F-o t ' t ' r . , :

c'hanic ' i r l . - l -1, ,

l i r re t l r t ' i t ' p! ,iu ' l t i t rarr . ( I '

t l t e t l i t g i L i r r . :

u' ish.H e t ' t ' . , :

l i rnct iortrLl . , i , :

i r t t t t r r t t t t ' p . , ,

t l ren t 1 l 'o r ' , - |

r 'o i l lPon( ' i l t '

F ( l t ' t ' . , . , '

l i a n t p i u k r r - :

l t - l t t . I I t ' r ' , " ' .

s l l l )e t ' l l l i l l ' k ( : .

, , 1 , 1 i , 1 . g 1 . s , I :

to t l r t ' ( ' ( ) r r . r .

T l r t ' r . r :

r t t ' r ' f i l t t t t t l , , :

sc ' r i l r t ' t l t l r , , l

t l r i s s l r r t 1 l , l ,

i t ' i t l t ' l t ' i t r r l r : , ,

i s c l r l c ' t o r " . - : .

I l t ' r ' , ' ' ;

p ro t l t t t ' t ' t ,

( ( ) r l l ( ' \ t l r , ' : . :

c r t ' a t i r r g t l L ,

l r t i r t s t ' l r t , , , ' "

, l t i l i t t l t r , , , ' ,

, t t l t t ' t - i t t , i , .T 1l l t ( ' \ . ! :

u l ) \ ( ) l l l ' i ) l

( ' \ i l l l l l ) l ( ' i l .

l r t r t ' t ' l t r t t l r l .

Page 141: Breakthrough Copywriting

I i ( )1 , \ : IDENf . IF IC. {T IO\ -

, i , , r 1 l l , , , . . 1 i o n a l p e r -, r : l ( , \ t o b r r i l d p o q -' , . : t . r l p roduc t i t se l l

i l r i r i to t l r ree sepa_

:, r t t 'nterged.: , : l . t l . In each one o f, ,l ,tireaclr. exist. Or:: i)ll rclilted irnagesr , u l r r r . t .r . , ' t l r rc. t . AS \rOU re_i, - t , . rrrr inecl by func-. l rkt , a car. in this: . i l r i r t i t has to do:tr( . t r l aqainst rv ind,, . , r l r lo ing i t . Outi r ; r \ ( 'o l l t€S the ra$ 'r'., r r ( ( ,. It is at this

: t l r t ' t l rarnat ic pr i -, , r - r r r r o f vour p rod-i , , . g l t r rnor r ri ' l ' i rc ' i l tg car-t |e

: i r r t , rhaust ports, ,1 t l r t ' i r f -eel ing of: . r l r r i l \ s€rC lan .

. ,. r erploited the' : t t - i l there are1, . tltitt haye ab-. : t . r l stnrcture of

i ' t ' ,ut ' product to


For erarnple, tnanv products tire chentical rather thatl tne-

chanical. Thev are iiquids, powders. spravs, grartulates. etc. There-

fore their phvsical appearilnce. tcl tlie trtatmfacturer. is cortlplt'telr'

arbitrarr,-. Outsicle o{' the neetl to holcl them together antl shieltl

thern against wear, their physicill package can take trtn' shape vorr

u'ish.Here, of cotrrse, there are ri(r Priltti lrv irnages arisillg frorll

firnctional appearance at rrll. A// tlte inrages tl'rat vou u'ish to shirpe

into vour package must be borrott'ecl. Ancl u'here clo vou borrou'

them fi'on-r? Frorn the backgrouncl of rrtur product. Or frorn its

components. Or fronr the vrrlrtes rtf societv as n u'hole.

Fo, "r"u,ple,

the prochrct'.s l;i lckgrorutd. One of the rnost bril-

liant pack:rging concepts in verlrs \\'tts Johnson & Johnson's trIi-

crln. Flere \\ras A rnouth 11'2511-21 litlritl-solcl in clmg stores trncl

supern r arkets-u'hose ef'fectivetress ftir erceeclecl anv sirlliltu procl-

uct e\.er solcl be{bre. I{ou'u'ere tlter- to convev that efTectiveness

to the consllrer at ir glance'lThey, simph' took the phvsical shape of'glass containers that

are fbund onlr- in cloctors' of{lces ancl operirtiltg roollls, trncl trtrn-

scribed thtrt ertrct slttrpe onto atr over-the-counter procluct. Use

this shape to house rrn ice-bhre liquid, that in itself suggests rnerl-

ical cleanliness, turd r-otr har.'e ar proclr-rct that stlvs ir-rstantlr: "Tllis

is iloctorls-hquid\Tbis is rneclicine. This u'orks."

Here the backgrouncl of the product is svrnl;olized in tlle

nroduct'.s container. So eff'ectivelv that the cotltainer itself be-

, 'o ' , t " , the f ines t i r r t i tge- i l l r rs t t ' r r t ion t l r r t t t l te i tqe l l ( ' \ t ' o r t ld use in

creating their acl. \\1rcre tlrc backgrouncl of ryour product crtn-

tain,s elenrcnts that in,spire excitenrcnt, dratru, qualitq or beliex-

ubilittt to your pro.spect, then tlutse elenrcnts .sl'ttnicl be e:pres'secl

either in the pntcluct itself, or in its packagc, or in it,s ad.

The same hrpothesis holcls tme {or the cotnponents that rnake

up \()ur procluct. If vour procluct has electronic components, {br

extu'nple, it shoulcl htu-e trn elerctronic fltlvor to both its appetlr-

trnce and its aclr'-ertising. S/rotr- the raclar installatious, guicled rnis-

Page 142: Breakthrough Copywriting


siles, jet aircra{l that 'se trre same parts. Life fbr the average '-i.rlis dull, com^pletely lacki'g in acrventure. ofrer t' ret hirn intici-pate in the frontier erplorati.ns of our 'vorlcl, ancl vou have'rverclecla trernendously potent appeal onto vour product.


pulpose ol p,climensiorrtthe reactiori :

The fir'rltivation-u itl

prospect l r t 'g-wri ters jolr t

the prochrc t-.everv drrtlt , ,t

The s, ' t

pression arrr itiallv ur lc ( )r .

embodinrt 'nt .

Page 143: Breakthrough Copywriting


.rvcrage lliillt

Iitt putici-l,.n t' u.e'lclecl


How to Make Your ProsPect Believe

Your Claims Before You State Them

As rve have learned before, for tlie

pulpose of persuasion, the human ntind rnav be divided into tl-rree

dirnensions-three great rivers of ernotional force that cletemrine

the reaction to vour ad, and therefore its success or f'ailure.

The first of these dimensions is Desire-want, vearning, mo-

tivation-with specific goals and/or cures in mind-with the

prospect begging to be shown hou'to obtain them' It is the copy

irlters job to make ,.rre the path to these goals goes through

the proiuct-and to make sure that the prospect can visualize

"r,".-u drop of satisfaction that their achievetnent will give hirn.

'The iecond dirnension ts ldentifi'cotion-the need for ex-

pression and recognition-unfonnulated, unspoken, at least ptir-

ii"tty unconscioui-rea."hir,g for symbols, definitions and

ernbodiments. It is the cop1,u,riters job to crystallize these self'-


Page 144: Breakthrough Copywriting


definitions and ernbocl'thern in his proclLrct-so that the pr.od'c,trnal' be usecl, not onl' as il solrrce of pl^,sical satisfactio', LLrt als'as a sl'rnbolic extension of the personirlih of the pr-ospect for u,honrit is intended.

until nor'r'. this book has been co'cer'ed *,itli these first tu.'dirne'siors. The' htr',e deterrni'ecl tl ie selection of our hendline.arcl our ilhrstration, ancl rnost of the cortent of' our ad.

B,t-iurportant as ther- are-desire :rncl iclentification nlo,t,tlre ne\/er enough. Bl', ther. can ne\rer prochrce ttrc ,fitltreod i ( , t t t l re c 'o1 l r u r i t t ' r r r r r rs t h i r rc i i l re i s to lu , ' l r ie re t l re r r ra - r i -lllllrr success rvith his procluct. No mtrtter hou, intense the niatter hou. denrancling the need to iclenti{r, both these reac-tions rlust be {irsed *'itl i a third great e'otional lirrc.e-Belie{-before thev can pr.clrce tht firral or.c:n'rrehring determi'a't ofaction-Absolute Conviction.

It is this fusion of de,sire and belief-thi,g c.rrcicti.r-t--tltisceftaintq-thi,s.feeling in tlrc pro,spect .f being right in hi,s ch.ict:-of being us,vrred of rchut lte has becn prorni.sad-that trte cr.tr1rcriter seeks as his ultimate goal.

A'cl it is to this third dirrensior .i 'the ]rurrr' ,ri 'cl-theBelief thrrt procluces tliis certuintrr-thtrt u.e nou, turn.

What Exactly Is Belief?

It is perhaps the .rost c'rnpler f'si'r of trr''ght a'cl err-r'-tion in the hur'an mincl. It is, fir'st of all. \-orlr prospect.s 'ientalpicture of'the u'orld he li'es in-u4rat fircts make it up, hor,r, itu'orks, in u4rat direction its truths ancl values lie.

But these acceptecl f'acts, t^rths, r-al'es ancl opiniors areorrlv tlie rnrv rnaterial ,1 belief'. Eoert nutre itr4trftr,rrl i, tlte tusramount of enntictnal 'e:tttrity lrc clerixe.s .frrrtrt lrclir.fs. It isthe u'onderiul feeling '{'comfort trncl rc-trss'r.a.ce ,{'l i ' ins in arl'orld that has rrea'i'g, rvhere there are i'rs\\.ers to be harl.r'r'here somehorv the lrcts a]l fit. A *,orlcl that he can unclerstanclancl depencl on, tliat he ca' preclict, that u'ilr sta' together trncl

no t b los , r : ,

thtrt.D o r r , , :

and t l r t , r r , ,

lbrce as t l r ,urgent st ' . t r ' ,

N Ios t . , ,s 'hen t l r t ' rstage o1 t l , , :l ie{ ' that t l r , :urere l in ' r ' , ' , lits :tppror .tin to se l l - ' r "

T<r rrrk :l ines o1 1,, l : ,reasserr l l l , :to bec 'o r r r , ' ,

r.'ond Irt' l i, ta rounc l t l ' , . : ,

T l r t ' 1 , , , .I l r o , r '

est c le 'grt ' ,p r o m i s c I r r : :

B r r t . , , : ,

I 1 ' r r , ' tir-t colttt 'r rts m a l l . t l r t ' r , ' r

a l l thc I r , , l :a l l tht , r ' , . . rful tJrat. r i ; . :clairns.

I t i . . l

Upst f ( ' i t l r r I

t i c le o l ' t ' ' t . , :As l r r t ' . , '

Page 145: Breakthrough Copywriting

I , I i \ I )T - , {L IZATION

: i r .Lt t l re product. : . t t t ion. but also,.pt.c.t for r,rfiorn

i, tlrt,se first tu'o, ,1 orrr ' headl ine,, , r 11 i111.

: . : i f i t i t t i on n /one

: , r . , , t luc 'e the f t l lt , : , . r t , the ntar i -, : , . , , t l l e c l e s i r e ,' . , t l r t l t ese reac -

: , r ' ( ( , - lJe l ie f -

: , t t ,nr r inant of

,1r i1 ' t i71n- f l1 i ;' , , l t i s c l n i c e -

' lutl t l te co\tt1

. , ;1 111i l td-1he' : i - l r ,

l th Is Belief?

' : - i , t i u r c l e rno -,.ptr.t.s ruetrtt i l

l t rr1t. hou.' i t

: , , l t in ions are, . ' t t is t l rc xa,st. . / , , ,1icfs. I t is

' , f l i v i ng i n i r: . t o l t e had ,

, : , r t l l r lerStanCl

:, ),Jether and


not blow up in his face tornorrow morning or the rnorning after

that.Do not be misled for even ir mor-nent. The neecl to believe-

and the need {br secure beliefs-is just as pou'erful un elnotiolltrl

{brce as the strongest desire for pln'sical satisfactiolt, or the rnost

urgent seat 'h for expressi t-rn.Nlost aclults have done their basic learning of these belief.s

rvhen they rvere children. At that tinre. and in thtrt depenclent

sttrge of their lives, thev laid clou,ri the primarv cltannels o{'be-

lief that their rninds u'ould follou'{br the rest of their dars. Thev

were forced to do this, in oruler to rurderstancl the r.r'orlcl, to gainits upproval, to tmst arld lllrrster it. and to cleveloP thentselves

into self-sustaining adults.To ask therl to shatter even one of these alreadv-estzrblished

lines of belief-to plLrnge into uncerttrintl' again-to be forcecl to

reassernble tlieir beliefs in nen', untested 1v;11'5-i5 to ask thern

to becorne children again. Ancl-unless thev are "frightenecl be-

vond belief," unless their entire conceptual r'r,orld has crurnbled

around them-thev sirnplv u.ill not clo it.

The basic nrle of behef, thett, can sirnplv be statecl as this:

If vou violate vour prospect'.s established beliefs in the slight-

est degree-eitlier in content or clirection-then nothing vou

promise hirn, no rna.tter holv appealing, can save vour ad.

But. on the other htrnd, ancl even r.ltore itnportant:

If vou cun channel the trenrenckrus force of his belief-either

in content or clirection-behintl otrlv otre clairn. no tnatter hon'

srnall, then that one full-v-believecl clairn r,r'ill sell rnore goods than

all the half'-questioned prornises voLrr cornpetitors crtn write for

rill the rest of their davs. This channeling of behef is so pou'er-

ful that, if properlv directecl, it u'ill even support othem'ise-absurcl

cltrims.It is sirnpll,- a question of u4rether vou are going to paddle

upstrearn or clou,n. \\Ihether \1)ll are going to u'ork agtrirtst the

tide of estnblished belief. or u'ith it.

As far as advertising is concernecl, then, belief is imniutable.

Page 146: Breakthrough Copywriting

132 ' IHIRD TECrrNIeuFr oF BREAKTHR()L, . r I copy: GRADUALrzA. ' . r ( )N

It cannot be r:hanged. It be cornpriecr *,ith at e'er' srep.Everv ore of the staternents r,'orr r'ak. i,r r'ur trd ,'.rri fit i,,r ' r ' i t l r r orrr ' Prosper ' t .s r ersion ol ' " t l re f i rc. ts" r t t t l rat prec, ise ' ro-rne't. It is 'ot the fiurction rf'r-our acl t' clrtr'ge th,se fitcrs.

Br r t i t i s i t s f l r r rc ' t io r r -a ,c l , , , , . . f i t s g rea t rn , , r , , " , . o f s t r . r ,g t l r -to ertencl therr. Tt build n bridge of berie..f bettceen'c fan's a,stheq eri'st itt ytrur pnt,s.pttct's rninrcr'todntl--11u4 trt" riltirtote Jact,slJour prospect nutst beliexe if he i,s to rtccapt yrntr clriltns.

- This process of starting rvith the {acts triat 'o.r prospect is

alreadv rvilli'g to accept, and leacling hirn rogicail' or,,l co'rnfort-trblv through a grad'.] successio'

'of r.nore :urcl ,rore rernote

ftrcts-each of rvhi.h he has been preparecl in trrrn t, accePr-is called Gr.d'alization. It is the tli iri process ,f' pers'asiorr.

Mind vou, this process of Graduariztrtion has nothrng to clcru,ith the off'ering of proof. or reason_\r.lrr. erplanrrtions. crr testl_ruronitils or clocr'rent.tior. Each of these l.echarisrns of beliefaclds to the pou'er 'f''u'o'r acl, ancl *,e rvill erplore eacJr of therrin turn in the chapters that follou,.

In chapter 11, *'e rvill discuss the 'erb..rr rle.ronstr.tio'r.clrr prorluct cloes u,hat votr clairn_N{echrurizntion.


I' chipter 12, *'e 'r'ill clisc,ss the clest.rcti'n of arternateu'tn's of satisfring tliat same desire_Concentration.

In chaptc-r I4, *'e ',r,ill cliscrrss trre of1i:ri'g ,f a.trrorities anclprool. the reassurtrnce that vour prospect has ,rr",l"

" 'r,ise choice-

\/erification.All these cle'ices buircl belief. B't l^- far the '-rost furc{a_

rnental o{ all-though the rnost inconspicr r,',r rs_i* Gradualizzrtion.For cradrnli:.atio,t cleternilnes-not tht: r:rrttt:rtt .f rlLtttr ncl-butit,s stntchtre, it,s arclitecture, the Lcatt ttou bttild it.

\\re have alrertdy seen that it is the rlontinating clesire of vourprospect that deter'rines the contert o{' r,rrrr n,l. 'tt is his long_ings {or identification u'cl self-expression that. i ' rnost cases. cre-temine vour il lustrations.

B't it is the facts that he berie'es in nncl accepts, ancl thervav that he passes that acceptance along frorn one f'act tcl

anotht'r'. t r,

of voru' . . l .

a s tep- ln - .

bu t o l l r r .t r t re t l t t ' r , r .

I t l t ' . .

this lirc.t:T l r r r t

tLD) , t ( l ) ( i t ,

l . ' f r ,

bv rec'ogr,r .m inc l . o r ' 1 ,iu tht ' pr ' ,

. ' \ l r r I

each o i t r ,L tJ, ,

gretttt't ' ir ',ing r t tor ' , ,

2. l i , .thrrt strrt, ru,ork l i , r ' 1i t -anr l t t .

t h e i t t t t r r , ,

the 1trr , .1, ,\ I r t f . ,

fb r . E l l t ' t :u 'ort ls-1,,o { 'u 'on l .chiter't r r r.'.str(0nl ' , . r

clirt 'c'tior r

Page 147: Breakthrough Copywriting

( . I i \ I ) T . \ L I Z A T I O N

I .rt ( ' \ 'erY step.

.r(l l l i l lst f i t i t]

r.rt l) l 'eCtSe mO-

tlrose fitcts., . of sh'€'ngfh-t 1 11111.51, fact,s tt.s' rtltittrcte fact,y, l r t i r t t .s .

, , r l r l ) rospect isr .trrrl cornfort-

r l ( ) f ( ' r e l n o t e

rl I to accept-

I ' t . rsu i , ts io t t .

r r r r t l r i ng t o c l or l l ( ) l t s . o r t es t i -

r l r r l s o f behe f. r ' . t t l l o f t he rn

' , r r . t r i i t ion thati l

, i , , r l i r l temate


r r l t l ror i t ies t rnr l

, . , , . , ' a ,h1; i6 ,€ ' -

r r rost f i lnda-, r,rt h rir l izution., ; , ,111. 6 l_[117

, i,.r irr. of r. 'our

I : rs l1 i5 lsng-

. l . [ 1 ' 215g5 , 619 -

, lts and the, 'i lr ' tact to


another, that detennines thtrt :id .s cler-eloptrellt-the arrillrgenlent

of vour clairns and vour irnages ruxl \'otrr proof.s. so that tliere is

a step-b\-sterp strengthening-not onlv of vour prosPect's clersire-

but of his conviction that the satisftlction of that <lesire u,ill cotne

true throrrgh t'or-rr product.

The Architecture of Belief

In essence, then, tlie theon' o1'(lracltrii l iztrtion is basecl upon

this f:rct:That everv clairn. everv irtrtrge. everv proo{'iu tottr ad has

tuo sepurote sources of' strenqtlr-1. The content of that staterttettt itsellj :rrlcl

2. Tlre preparution )'ort have rllacle lbr that statertlent-eitlter

by recognizing that prepiulltiort as alreirclv eristing in rrrttr prospect's

mind, or bl'delibertlteh'laving the groLutclurtrk lirr tl l itt statetnent

in the preceding portion ofthe a(l itselt.

And, because of this {irct. u'e ctlrt streugthen the por.l'er of

each of these staternents in tuo septrrate \\'avs-

1. Bl' incretrsing the intensitv of its content-bv rnaking

greater pronises, bv portriu'irtg rllc)re clrarntttic itlrages, bi' offer-

ing more cornpelling proofr illltl/or

2. Bl' changing the place or positiotr or sequence in rvhich

that staten-rent occurs ir-r the ad-bv strengthening the grouncl-

rvork for belief in that statement lx' the trtaterial rvhich prececles

it-and therefbre increusing the intensitv of belief given to it-

the irnn-rediate acceptance of its content. u'ithout question, u'hen

the prospect encounters it in l'ottr ttcl.

Make no rnistake, it is this occeptance that u'e are looking

{br. Effective advertising, Iike ef'lective literature, is built-not of

11'61{5-f11t of reactions. We put clor,r'n on paper an architecture

of rvorcls. I1' these u'orcls are eff'ective, thev evoke, in turn, tln ar-

chitecture of reactions in our prospe'ct's rnind. We are creating n

stream of acceptances, rvith a clefinite sequence and content ancl

clirection. and, if we itre successful, rvith a tlefinite goal-the

Page 148: Breakthrough Copywriting


absolute co'r'iction i' r-our prospect's 'i'cl tliat he 'ust htrvevour product.

This is the essence o{'b.ildi'g 'orr ad. we no*, turn to thetechniques of its accornplishment.

A New Deffnition of Awareness

we norv kno*' that (lrrichraliziltio' is the art 'f'st.rting vourad 'r'ith a stater'ent that rvill be im'rediatelv ancl e'tirelr. ac-cepted, rr'cl the' builcling a chai' of subserluert a.cepta'"", ,rpo'this first statement. The purpose of this chain of ,ricept,r,-,"es ,sto lead v',r reacler to a gotrl concl,sion, *'hich he rr-ili therr ac-cept, but rchich he rcoulrl not a,s readirtl or a.s trtorougrily hareaccepterl rcitlutut the p rel intin o n1st ate nrc nt;.

This quest for ac'ceptarc'e hegi's. of course, *'ith vour head-l ine . T l r i s a l l - i r r rpor ta r r t f i r s t s t r r te rner r t t l r i r I r , r r rn i rk t , - t l r i s , ree t -ing place between \,'our stor\- and vour prospect_nrnst not onh,.be capable o{' uwakening interest trnd clesire. brrt of being ac,cc.pted at the r-erv first glance as being rnrc.

Interest and believabrlitl'-these rre the t*,o rec|rire*e'tsthtrt deterrni'e vour headline. \\/e htrve alre.clv cliscrrisecl theserec|rirerne'ts in chapter 2, on the state of Arvtrreness of ourrnarket.

we can 'orv redefine this state of A*,arene ss as readines,s toaccept' And *'e car no\\'sa\' tlre Fifth Stnge otArvarerres"-that the ffictixenes.s of ytntr rrcrr.drine is n,s ,rtt.tih cre-tenninerl by the of your arurienc-e to rteriexe uhat itsarys, (t,\ it i,s bry the prctntises it rnakes.

This is the reason tliat you cannot use tlre rnost norv_er lu l c ' l i r i r r r i r r vor r r l ,ead l i , re . o r even t l re re r r p ro l , l " ,n , i , " , ' r r , , ,product solves. Because without supporting

"ni,l"rr"" alre,rclr- ex-

is t i r rg i r r t l re r r r ind , f ' vo r r r p rospec . t to p r .epr r re l r i r r r lb r t l ra t l ieac l_line clairn, he just *,on't beliei-e it. Elther he'll believe thtrt itseraggerated or {irlse. or he just *'on't belie'e it applies to him.

T I I I R D ' I E ( - I I \ 1 ,

I n e i t he r t . , r '

reading orr . . r l

This t .L . . :

rnake r r l t t t ' r ,

r l ' r i ters s t i l l ,

tr sitnple u rtr

tyork-fitr r,

imn-rerliatt 'h -

in i t , but t i t r ' '

briclge 1l'or l

hacl f-eiitr r r'.. ', i

ration c\'(' l '\

Le t r i ' :

Chapter I ,

are lookirr{ : ,

the rcut1 t l r , .

help cu' l t

tered ir t t r t , ' ' ,

T l t i s r t , i

r . ' is ion I l t ' l l . r : :

huving iru\ : l

that t i r rr t '

turnecl i r t t r , ,

1 . T i r . t :

irnd2 . T I r . , :B o t l r t t ,

o w i l e l ' c ' ( ' l ' l . r

pa i r s : r t r r t l . , '

h i l t - i to r r r . t t . '

R r r t t l , ,

Page 149: Breakthrough Copywriting

( , I t \ I )T - IL IZATION

l r t ' nrust have

rrru t l r rn to the

r of Awareness

, ,1 : t i r r t ing \ .our

r: rr I entirelv itc-( ,.I)t ir l lces upot]

: .tcc't 'ptances is

i , , u i l l t hen ac -i , , r ' ,nrg l i ry hoxc

' . , , r t l r \ .o t l r head-

. , . , ' - th is meet-

r r r r r s t no t on l v, ; : r ) l lx r ing r lc-

, , l ' ( . { l l l l r e l nen ts

r i ; . r ' r r ssec l t hese

. . r t ' r 'n( 'ss c l f our

' .r ' t '((tdiness to

I i t t l r Stzrge of

: ' ( t \ t t tuch de-

" , l i , ' t ' t ' r cho t i t

: l r ( nrost pow-,l , l , .r r I that vour

: , t , ' a l ret tdv ex-

i,r ' that l iead-

i , ' . l i t .r e, that it 's

. ' 1 ' p l i t , s t o h im .


In either cttse, too lrliln\r o{' vollr ProsPects turn tiwtt\' \\'ithout

readirlg on, and vour ad fails'

This {irct-thnt Vortr ll'tost po\\'erfirl clairn does rlot alrval's

illake Vour nost power{iil lreadlirrt'-is a parirdox that tnan\' copr'

writers still cannot rrccept. NItril ortltr tidvertisers, ho$'ever, haYe

rr sirnple \r'av of prot'i,te it. \\'lieil a l)o\\'er-cl.iirn heaclline clclesn't

rvork-{br reasons eitlier of A\\'ilr('rltss or Sophistication-thel'

immecliatelr., split it irgainst rr secotrti lreacl. $'ith far {'e$'er claitns

in it, but fr.r r,,nr" likeiv to be believetl. Therr tliev build a belief-

briclge lrorn this ,"",,,-r.1 hetrcllirle. to the s|tllle exllct clailtrs thev

hacl Tetrturecl in the first, but tro$' ittttic'illatetl 1^' carefirl prePa-

rtrtion everv step alotlg the u'ar''

A Dc'tailed ExamPle

Let us take such an ad-tlrat ri-t' hiivt' ,llt't'acir glarlced at in

chapter 2-auc1 break clo$rr its strttc'tttt 't ' stcp llr step.-\\' 'hatt rve

u." iuoki'rg fol here is not c''tettt. tr,t ' 'r ' 't iscs. Ilor clairnsl brrf

tlrc rcat1 tlrrrn Trrr,rnises ttrrcl t 'ktirrrs (tr(' (trr(tttgt:tl in the od' to

h e l p e c t , . c | l o n e ' o f t h e n t g a i n . f t i l l r t t ' t : c p t ( l | I ( ( r c \ r c | l i t i s e n c o u n -tererl hr tum bY the Prosytcct'

This acl r'vas rvritteu irr 1951' Its purpose \\'as to sell a Tele-

v is ionRepa i rN lan t ra ] .Thet l re t i c i r l ] r .e r .e ' r rT \ 'o$ .ner r ' vhorv r ar-rr-tru,,l,l" nith l'ris set (ttncl irlttlrlst all of theni were at

tliat tirne) was tl prospect' But' befirre the prospect corrld be

t'rnecl int' . c,,storner, he hacl ttl lle'lier-e hvo things:

1 Thnt he coulcl sAVe rnollfi\ b\ making his orvn T\r repait's;

trncl2. That he u'ils ctrpable r-r{'rnaking thern'

Both these strrteruents u,ere urtitters of firct. The average fi1

owlter certainlr,, coulcl save l]loltev if' he hacl n-racle his own re-

pairs; ancl about 80% of those repttil's \\/ere sirnple enough for

hirn to ntrke hirnself.

But the o'n'envhelmine majoritv of Prospects sir-nplv didn't

Page 150: Breakthrough Copywriting


realize these facts. Most of them thoLrght of themselves as non-handyrnen, even in relation to firr si'pler devices than a televi-sion set. And, in 1951, the TV set rvas considered a complic:rtedmechanical rnonster, far beyond their poor powers to under^stirnd-let alone correct.

These two factors blocked the use of the obvious power-clairn headline for this product. such a heaclline was 'vrittin andtested-"Save up to 9100 a Year on your TV Repairs!"-but itfailed to make a profit. The ob'ious was r,nsuccessf'1. poweralone could not move the product.

Two tasks faced the copy writer in revising this ad. First, hehad to reach all his prospects in this rnarket, ancl not just thoseamong them who considered themselves hirndunen. And second,he had to convince all these non-hanclvrnen prospects that theirsets weren't really such fragile. cornpiicated rnoisters after all,and that they thernselves could easily correct rrost troubles thatarose.

Once these two statements were belier.ed bv the prospect_and onlv then-could the pre'io,s headline clair-r of "^Sor," .,1, ,u$100 a vear or vour T\/ repairs" be brought in at firll pou,er. Letus see, acceptance bv acceptanc'e, horv this neu' ad built to thatpoint:

The headline, first of all, r,vould have to l)e a general state_rnen-t, crystallizing and exploiting the uni'ersrrl resentrnent againsttlie high fi/ repair bills, the g60-a-r.ear TY sen'ice contract.s thatwere then in existence, and the orrtright thier.erv that occurredin only a srnall fraction of the T\r repair shops. rrtrt that hacl stig-matized the entire industrr,. From there-{llorn this universallv_accepted resentment-the ad coulcl then builcl torvarcl the t i,ngoal conclusions listed above. Let us see ho*,this rvas done. state-ment bv statement.

Here is the new headline:


\ o t .

i s a u i r n p l :c io r t i r t t l r ,r ight erpr ' ,Fttcts l r i r r , '

T l tu 'heacl l i r r t , rI t asks i t , r ,

lr4rich. rrr ,

r,l 'helrning :

9 5 ' r , '

bu i l t tu r , , ,Habit oi \bv makir , , -

( . ' 0 1 t t , '

( l | 1 r r , '

T t i t t r t ' .

T h i r : .pou'erfiri l,I I l S I l V l ' t ' . t r : ,

has becr, -be l ie { - r , , , :bv thes t ' ,1 ,

I l isecort( l . , ' l .y ' rnn gtr , , rt h a t t l r t ' 1 r : ,onlv u'orLc a n n c t t t r r , r r

Page 151: Breakthrough Copywriting


i , , . rn :eh 'es AS non-l i t ' r f l1;111 a televi-rt.rl ir c,ornplicatecl:'. trl rrlderstand-

t ' r r l lv ious power-r.rrrrs \ \ - I i t ten andRt'pairs!"-but i t

. r l (cessi i r l . Power

, t l r i : ar l . First , l ie' r r ( l l ro t jus t those: . , . r r . . \nd second,, , \ lx.( ' ts that their. , , rr \ t (r l -S after al l ,r ,usf l l6Pf l"s that

'r tiri- prospect-:r , oi "Stn'e up to.,t trrll power. Let, . , t l brr i l t to that

- .1 {elieral state--\r-rr tntent against:r ( ' c ol l tr i lctS that

rr tlritt occurred' ' , r t t l rat had st ig-: i r i : u11i1's152l l t -:,rsirr'(l the two

, ',r.r: clone, state-

I t t1 .11


No clairn. No promise-except that of disclosure. But hereis an implication of foul plar', u,hich echoed the existing suspi-cion in the TV o\\ner hirnself. Here is a crvstallization ttnd out-right expression that the average o\\'ner {'elt torvard being taken.Facts have been u'itliheld. This is sonrething he can agree u'ith!

Thus, having achieved its first acceptance bv its suspicion-heaclline, the ad reinfbrces that eli'ect br- an inclusion-question.It asks a questions u,hich, in.fltnrt, seents to lirnit the market; butrvhich, in content, actuallv tlssLrres the corrtct ilns\\'er bv the over-uhe l rn ing major i t r o f i t :

"\\/o,s tlour sct pttrt' ltast'l rt.ftt 'r tltt, sTtring of 19a7 1"

957o of television owners u-orrkl iurs\\'er \es. Thus the ad hasbuilt tu'o acceptances in its first hro serrtr.nccs. lt has started aHabit of Agreernent in its retrcler. It nou' erploits that irgreernentbv rnaking its first definite pronrise in tlic tli irrl serrtence:

"Then here is tlrc ftl l. rrrtct'rt.sored .ston1 o.f hor yortcan axoitl tho,se $15-$20 rcpuir bill.s --,trt:oid $30-E60a tlear seruice fees-turcl still g,t tlrc perft,ct, rrtoxie-clearpicture,s yorixe rlrecutrc:d riltor rt.t "

How Belief \l'as Built Into the Opening

This is the rrclls first clairn. Its content alone is extrernelvporverful. But that porverfirl conterrt-u'hich othenvise rnight drivernanv readers a\vav as being jrrst too lirntastic to be believed-Iras been given ertra belief-has been Loaned, as it were, extrabelief-not onlv bv the first hvo sentences that preceded it-butbr, these deliberate constr:.tctittn,s in the staternent itselfi

1. By the grarnmatical construct ion, "Was your. . ," in thesecond sentence, ancl "Then, , ," in the third rvhich bv its verv

fonn generates belief. It does this bv implying exclusion. It saysthat the prorr-rise rvill conte tnre onlv in certain cases; that it rvillonlv rvork for television sets ptrrchased after 1947; that the adctlnnot rni-Lke this pronrise lbr sets purchirsecl eitrlier. Thus it adds

Page 152: Breakthrough Copywriting

138 THIRD TECrr\reuE ()F BREAKTHRoucIH cjopy: cR_\DLrALIZA,\

credence to u,lratever staternent fbllou.s it. Yrtu ciln feel this adcledbehevabihtl' vourself' lrv taking out the leacl-uorcl "Then" {ronrthe sentence and reading it again. Immecliatel.n, it loses half itsfbrce-force adclecl to the content o{' the stirtement bv thegt ' i r r r t r r ra t i c ' l . r l - l t r idge t r i r rq i t in to t l re f i rs t t r ro l rc , t .ep t , r r rc ,es .

2. The second atternpt at adding believabilitr- is bv the cler-scriptive nature of ther prornise. It is not onlv ir promise of re-lr'arcl (the rnonev savecl), but ir ctitalog o{ trlmost-universirl s\rnp-to rns r repa i r h i l l s and ser r i r .e l cesr . S i r rc ,e t l re o r t ,n r . l re l r r r ingmajoritv o1'set o\\rlel's trre su{fering irorri tliese problems. theirclescriptions er''oke hvo rnore "Yes-I hrl'e theur" reactions {rorlthe reacler, ancl cnrrv these reactions over to the str\.e-rnore'c l a i r r r s t l r i t t i r r r r r r e d i i r t e l r f t r l l o * t l r e r n . l l ' t l r e s e < l e s r . r i n t i r r r , * . . . 'e l im inr r te t l . t l re r roner -sar inq r , la i r r rs r r , r r r l r l 1 , . ,n , , , .1 , r r t , i r ker ,"Then here i.s the fitll, ttncensorecl .ston1 o.f' lunc ryttu c(tn saLe515-$20-saue 3j30-$60-,vrce $90-Sl()0 on rlour T\r set-nndstill get tlrc perfect. ntouie-clear picture,s tl()u L:c rlrcrtnrccl about!"

3. And finalh, er.en thrlrgh the c(uts(s of the set ou,ner'.sproblenrs are specificiillv'becl. the crrr-r,.r lirr thenr are clc.-liberirtelr- left anibiguous. Th. lirct that tlier *-ill sin'e othenviser,r'asted mone\', that thev rvill get improvecl lecrpti,n. is inclutlecl-horv thev ri' i l l clo this is not. Tlie rnechanisrrr l^ *'lricli tlrese. goalsrvill be accomplished is left out. It is lelt out because the readerhas not 'et been preparecl for it. If he *'emr tr leilrrr. at this rno-rnent in the ad, that he had to rrutke rtltrth:s orr his set to savet}tis rnonel', the avelage reader rvouicl trrrn tlie page. Scl he isgive' specific symptorrs, tha.t he u'ill agrt t' Ire has, ancl specificsar ings ln e l i r r r i r r i t t i r rq t l renr . t l ru t rL re c , t , rh r i r r l r log i t . i r l to c r |e t . r .He rnav or 'rav not accept nll these three clairns in the sentencecornpletel."'; but the strength of their pronrise. the tr,rrr or threeor four ircceptunces thtrt he has zrlreaclr-gi'en. ancl the inipliedc l i sc ' los r r res s t i l l re r r r i r i r r ing in t l re bo . l r o l : t1 , , ' i u l . s l ro r r ld he t ,nor rq l rto ctrrrv hirri on, to this next parrlqraph:

"Hotc nmnq tinte,g tlti,s tceek lurce yott ltrd to get u1t to J1:;

T H I R D ' I ' I ( I ] \ J

a .jun4x1 l'\u'St ruitlt 1lr'

Het ' t ' . , -universitl 'r r" l ' e s . . . \ ' , ' .

h is se t . . \ 1 , . ,being l i r rrr , ,each t ' t ' s , r r , .hinr.

Alt ' t ' iL t l ' .

i u l c l l ) r ' l l t ' 1 . , 1

or eight rL, l ie { . t l r t , . , ,

t r ,

\t l ( ) l l t r '

t royl i ' ,

I t t t t , l

frtct rr ,',

TI t t ' . i , lconchrsior ' ring er rcLr r . r , : ,reA(l€'r ,rct, :s ion-t l rrLt ,

handlet l 1, ,B t r t t l r ,

the c ls r r t ' r ' :abi l i t r o1 t l , 'i n t h e l i r l l , , , .the uranr r i , , , '

t lu t t t t

Page 153: Breakthrough Copywriting

. . t1 \ I )T ' . \L IZA- I ION

: , . r ,1 this addeclI - r - l , , f: I l r e l t l r o l n

: : l , rst 's hal f i tsr ' 1 r r ( ' l l t b v t h e. , ' l ) t i [ l l C e S .

' , ' lr)' the cle-: , ro r r r i se c l l re -:r l\ (,t 'srl l s\11-lp-, r\ r, lt\- l leltning

' : ' , r l r i t ' n t s , t he i r

: , . rc t i r tns l ront' \ i i \ ( ' - l l to l lev

: rptiorrs l,vere

,r r t i r n .eaker :

t ,u ( 'un ,9(Lxe

l\- sct----and

. , , t , t l r i r ou t l "

r '. rt ' t rtrvuer'-s

l l r I r r t t t r € d€ -

r ' , r , o t l ten l ' ise

: . i r r c ' l r r c l ed -

: , t l r t 'sc goals

., t lrc' l 'eader

, . t f t l r is nto-. 'r ' t to sttt-e

,g , . . So he is.rr rrl specific

.,1 to e.rpect.: l r ( ' s ( ' l t t e n c e: ' . \ r ) o t ' th reet l r t ' i r n p l i e d

. , l l , t ' c n o u g h

: " t t t l t t o f t


a .jumplJ T\1 Ttichrre? . . . Hotc rnanq tinrc,s haxe Uou had to ptttItp rcith gho,stsl . . . Horc nmnq titrrcs. . . "

Here again is reinfbrcernent of belief-the description ofuniverstrl syrnptorns-the coaring out o{'a stream of agreernents."Yes . . . ]-es . . . Yes"-he nlllst trnswer i{'he lias had trouble li,ithhis set. A habit of trcceptance is being built inside hirn. Trust isbeing fbrnred, Itwer bv la1'er-,n eircli rluestion poses a test, ande:rch ves rlnswer pro\.es to the. rerlcler that tlie ad is talking abouthirn.

Alreadv the ad is beginning to \\'eirve its pattern of prontiseand belief and then prornise irqtlilr. Noui urith as lnany as sevenor eight rrgreernents behincl it to establish a firm {bunclation ofbelief, the acl lnoves on to its nert qreirt prorrise:

-90Vc Of Brcal;dotcrt.s An, ('rtttt 'r:t:surn1 .t""All of breakdotL:n.\ tnttl har:t' .st't 'rrttd tntgic to

gou rLt tlrc nutnrcnt tlrcry lmppntL'd-lntt ltt,rt i,s tlrc n'oltntgerly! Do yotr krutrc tlrctt tlttsutrtt'l tlrtd tlott ttorchaue in ytrur frcti rootn . . . lttt.s ltt,t 'rt plotlirtg irt nunut-

fucturer',s te,st roorrrs ,for rrutrtllt.s tttttl pltulirtg pefecthl!"

Goal Conclusions

The ad is nou' laving tht' basis firr the Jtrst of its hvo goalconclusions-that T\/ sets are not {raqile-that thev har,'e arlaz-ing endurance if thev trre properlr care-.d for. Onlv r,vhen thereader accepts this fact, can tlie acl qo on to its ,seconcl conclu-sion-thart rvhatever minor brt'akrlouls do occur can be easilvhanclled bv the owner hiniself.

But the ad is still fir'e ptrragrirphs'{rorn anv rnention ofthe olr'ner touching his set. First it n'iust estaltlish the clepend-abilitl' of the setr and it cloes this br, hvo rnethods. At the the fbllou,ing trvo paragraphs. it gives graphic descriptions o1'the rnanrrfhcturer'.s ou'n tests used to establish this depenclabilitr-:

"T'lrcse ,sets hare been .viltjectecl to 'BreakdLnun T'est,s'that u;oukl .seem increclible to the ar:crage ou)ner Thery haue

Page 154: Breakthrough Copywriting


been turnecl on for 2l ltours a clatl-T ckut.s rt toeek_lrct:ek' u trtrntlt. Sonrc Ltf the'e ,set,\ li,ue been ntn,irtg rcith_ottt ct ntort'rent} pause for as ntrtclt tt., l7 rrtonths.

" .sct,s^hare been te.stad aguitrst alrnLtst elerlJ coti_ceixoblc ttlpe of detcing ho:ard . . . up to 120 nile.s arcayfrorn tlrc ,stcttiotr . . . ogiinst tlrc interferenr:e of an entirewarehott'se of electrical apTtliunce,s . . . i-tr.s|tccial,"steel-ribbeclbuiklings, uhich ordinorilq uoulcl pntcluce ,sexeral distinctglto.\ts.

"Ancl in alnn,st eLery one of tltese ca:st:,s, the,se .setsh a t e p ro d u c e d p e fe ct, n. r:ie - cl e a i p i ct t t re,s --tc it h oti nn i o rbreoktloun,s-f.r o,s nuLcl-t u,s ,tne j.,ll tlenr.t Here or, ,rirroof t lrc reasonl rclty:"

Then, *'hen the reader has full' r'is,alizecl the irnpact o{'thess 1sr1 reports, the ad nor' turns to expert authorih nn.l ftrg-ical construction to reinforce this belief. \-otice in the next feu.paragraplis hor'v the ad picks up the alreaclr.accepted condition."If your set rcere properly cared for, a,s thelse .yeti uere...,,, ancluses that norv-established conditior-r to pro\.e the series of state-ments that fbllorv it:

"Wlrut T\/ Expefts llaue Learrted Altortt )inrr Sr:tl""l.f tl,utr .sel trert' propcrltl,,rtrctl Ji,r----<rs 1/rt,.sr, .scl.t,u;cre cared fur in te'ts--it neecl bre'r* clorctt ttnlu onceduring the _entire yenr.t ln other rcord.s, tlou ntoll ainallylrure to call in a repainnan only once iltting ihe entireyenr. You can seDc the {j30-.560 .sertict, fce,s rlort ore noLcpaying--- tnd tJou cansorc rrost of tha,Slt)_.51i rqxr irbi l ls.- .

"if your set was properly carerl .for. it cart actrnllry gixeyou perfect, nroxie-clear r^eceptiort the otlpr 361 daq,s i ynor.It can giue you tlns perfect receptittrt tcithott s2tecittl'elec_t,rottic e-quiprtwttt---<citlutut thc help ol tt rL,l,uirinon_up ttt100 rniles arcat1 frcnt tlour statirttt."

Notice that in these hvo paragraphs. the ad retums to theclaims made in the third cgnfgnsg-repeats ther, almost worcl forrvord-and the' gives logical proof, i' bgical form, for each ofthern. As rve ha'e pointed out before. these clair-n s-'<Ltou can ar:oic!those sl5-s20 repair bill,s----ar:oicl tltost: $j30-$60 ri rlear ,sen:ice

- I H I R D 1 ' I - ( I I \ ] , ,

fees--<tnt l ' t t '

about . t " - r , . : ,

at that t i r rr .cens]rcd \t | , t ' ' ,

That 1 t t , "ical stnrc'tr r rrpeat ine prt ,r r ,rvhere it c or l ] '

Not ic ' t , , ,

f u r . . . i t t t r , , . lr e p o i n l l Q n | ) t t "

repair bill 'sentecl in t l r ,dotcn tt',stsand pn t r l t t r ' , , : 'as one. f i i l l r1 , ' . ,

each neu st.r : ,Thrts t l r ,

tensificittior r ient timi's in .,

This u r i .

is convinc ' t , r l : :

the secorrr l :breakclou 'n:1. .

I t l r cg i r r r

" { r '

tluft r 1, ,, iordcr t

N o t i c ' t . t lthe reacler .r \ \douns-is f i r . :

Page 155: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ ( ;R . \DLAI , IZATIO\

' /t tL'(ek-1- , t L t t i n ! t D i t h -

" , t ( ' n l c o n -t , ' t i l t 's TLC(\\J

' ( i l t e n t i r e. t , , ' l - r ibbed

, . rtil rli.stirtct

' t l ttsc ,sets: : l t , , t t t t t n j o r

' " (tr( ,\olne

, l t l r t i rupt ic t o fr r : l ror i tv and /og-

rr, t lre next feu'

, ;rtt.r i condition.

: . l t r '11 ' . . . " , anCl

r . . t , r ies of s tate-

) ' 'r r ' .Scf .f "

, . ' / r r ' l t ' , t c f , 9

. ' . , ' r t l r 1 o t t c e

. , : ' , , t t ' t t t a l l q

- ' i t r ' t ' t t t i r e

' ' , t l l ' ( ' l l ) l c

. . y ' , t i r l t i l l s . ",:, .,t,t lhl gixe

: t i t l \ d I l eA r .

' ; , , , i t i l L ' lec-1 . / i t t -up to

I rt,trrrls to the

.rlrrrost word for'! 'ur. f i) l ' each of- ! .1( t t t CTn aboidt , ; t l ( 0 r , sen ) i ce


fees---<ncl ,still get tlrc perfect, rnorie-clear picture qoixc rlraanrcd

about!"-were statecl in the third sentence \\'ithout slrpporting proo{at that tirne; but u'ith strong in'rplication-"Here is tlrc .ftill, un-

censored. storu .. ."-that such proo{' u,ould follorvThat proof is nou. submittecl. in an ertrernelr' lonnal ancl log-

ical structure. Thus the ad again \\'eaves proof into promise-re-peating previous clairns in rl nen' colltext of full documentation,u4rere it could onh' suggest that thev rvoulcl be proven befbre.

Notice also that this logical proof-"f your set uere cared

fur. . , i t need break clou:r t ot l t l onc( o Uear, . . t lou need cal l arepainnan onlq once a rJcar . . . tlotr sarc the sercice fee.s and mo,strepair bills."-is, in itself. solidh qrorurclecl in the test-proof pre-sented in the paragraphs betbre it-"being sub.jected to Brank-

cloun tests . . . against nltrutst ctcnl trype o,f detting ha:ard . . .

and produced pefect picture,\. tcitlntft breakdtrcns, .for us trrucll

as one full qear." Thus a chain of proof upon prooi'is constnrctecl-each new staternent repeirtinq tlie heart o{' the proof belore it.

Thus tlie ad has llow prove(l-lx- rrsing the Mechanisrr-r of In-tensification-l'rv repeating thc sanc tlieme-content ser.en differ-ent tirnes in se.,.en different u.avs-that \"orlr T\/ set is clenendable.

the Ultimate Objective

This r.r'as the first goal-conc'hrsion. At this point tlte reacleris convinced that it is tnre. The' ircl is nou' ready'to go on to provethe second goal conclusion: thirt tlte orl,ner crur correct tniuor

breirkdou rts l r i rnsel[ .It begins this proof in the verv next paragraph, in this r,r'a)':

"Ancl, nw,st irnpoftant, tltt'.se erTte'ft,s lmr:e cli,scoxeredthut yLtrt clo trct hate to be u lrcndyntten or a nrcchanic ittorder to coat tl 'Li,s perfLtnrrurrc:e rnft of tlour set.t Here's rclu1:"

Notice that it is in this pririrgraph that the entirelr.neu' (to

the reader) assurnption-that vou carl fix vour orvn minor bretrk-dou'ns-is first introduced. \'et its nor.'eltv is cleliberatelv con-

Page 156: Breakthrough Copywriting


cealed; it is presented as though it u;ere, sinryly ,notlrcr repltrn,singof the bv-norv alreirclv acceptecl clependabilit' co.clusion. Thereis t l rerefore no lrreak in t l re logic.rr f f lo* , f 'proo[ . \c. t ,eptrurr,e isbuilt into this entirelv nerv staten'rent in these ftrur diff'erent rvar.s:

1. By partrgraph parallelis'r. Bv {i'arning the staternent as thelast of a series o{'sirnilar paragraphs-all the others of'r,rfiich havealreaclv beren accepted-instead of pln'sicallr. setting it ofr as tinerv point rvith its orvn sub heacl ancl a dif{-erent construction. asthe reader u'oulcl orclinarilr.' expect.

2 B). the leard rvord, "And," a tie-in plirase, ri4rich inclicatesthat the sentence accolnpanying it is the sanie as those that har-e,gone before.

3. By irnrnecliatelv follorving "And" br,.a scconcl tie_in phrase."rnost irnportant," ri'hich again irnplies that the renraincler of thestaternent is part of'the series that has gone bt,fbre.

_ 4. And finallr,, br. repeating the phrase. "these erperts have

disco'erecl," whicli echoes the identif\-ing s'blieacl at ihe begin-ning of the series, rurcl carries on the accepttrrrc'e-rnornenturn ,l 'the series trs a u'hole.

All these deliberate constructions co"bi'e tr gi'e this short.but 'ital, transitional paragraph the acceptirnce. rurtl therelbre tlrebelievabihtlr of all the careful planning thtrt lias go'e before it.Thev allorv the reader to make *,hat othenvise rright be a .iar-ring transition from alreadv-establishecl proof to tin entirelr. ne*-prornise rvith a minirnurl of effort.

Nor'i' the ad hrrilds its final sti:p-sh'*'irg tliat the ''lr. re-pairs that the average o\\rner *.ill har-e tr 'ake are actuallv r-ninorerternal adjustrnents on his set. Notice' hou it integrirtes tiris neu.ertension of its previous thought into r'hirt hrrs gone befbre br.starting, rvith the phrtrser, once again. "Thest erperrts ha'e cljs-covered. . ."

Here are the next three paragrtrpl-rs:

"Fiue XIintftes a Week ftr pctfer:t Rct:t:1ttiott.'." TY erTttrts lruxe di,sc:tixered that tlorr .f\, ,set

i.s a great deal like rytnt boclq in thi,s re,spectjhat it gite:,s

T H I R D ' I I ( I ] '

t l ( ) u ' .l t t l 1 r , ,

. f t t t l " '

t i l , r ' , , '

1 t l i t r , , ' .

.fl,,j, \,t t t r l t t

( ' ( t l t t i '

t L t t t t . '

t ' t t t t l t , i

t l t t ' t 1 ,


t t t t t l ; , ' '

! t ' t t ;

t ' ( l ) ( t t ' '

T h r , ' ,A t th rs s t . , - ,

L - l - 1 , . , 'dour ts r l r r r ' : :it; atttl

l . - l - 1 , . , '

mir tor l r r ' , , "t i o n c l l r r r , , ,t o t h e o r r t '

Tht ' r ' , :s ion- t l r t . 1 , ,logici i l l i , r , ,

3 . T l , ,m inor i r r l j , r . 'par-ing torl ,uajor i t r o:

I { t , r ' t , r .

h is r rt 'dv, '

Page 157: Breakthrough Copywriting

' ;1, r r(pluLsing:r lusion. There

\t'c't 'ptrrnce is, l i l l i ' rent rvavs:

i . t t t ' l l lC l l t ers the. ,,1 ri l ich l iave' : r r1 i t o f f t is a, r r l \ tn lc t ion, as

,. lr ich indicates

:1 , , , ' t ' t ha t have

t i t ' - i r r phrtrse,t i r rr ler of the

r'\Perts havert the begin-r( ) i l ier l tuln of

-rr l this short,I : l r t relbre the

g, , r r t ' be ' fo re i t .: : l l r t l te a ja r -

, : . , nt i re 'h ' new

., : t l r t ' onlv re-. , t t rrr i l l r ' minor' : i t t 's this neu'

. , , r r . l re fb re b r '., r1i har-e clis-

' 1f -

,rcf' 1 / d l t ' c , s

T H I R D T E C H N I Q U E O F B I i E - { K ' I ' H R O L T C i I I ( l ( ) P } : G R A D L - \ L , I Z A T I O N 1 4 3

tlort rcarning signtls befltn: it luts tt nttior ltn:rkdotcn For

instance . crJtcr rlorr ,sL't rcus itrstcllal . it prtilxblq pkryul pcr-

fecthl f(tr thc Jtrsl rceL'lt. Brft tlu'rr il lx:grttr ttt ullfcr .frorrr tlu:

xibrotion, tlut jrLrring. tht: itrtcrJi'n'rt't' o.f otlrcr ek:ctricaL qt-

pliont:e.s in tltntr lnnu'. 7-1rc pit'ttrtt' rriglft xtclclcnhl baght trt

.flop ote r or .fticl<ar-lincs nuttl (tl)l)('(tr ott ryottr \crcctt."trirrrc----<r rr r1 tl is is i r t 17 t o tt r r t tt -if r 1 t t t t I u ul th c b r orcl e rl gc

to clrt icklry nmkL' a fer rrt irtrtr ttr l. irr 'strrtetfts. tttt the orisidc

ctntrcls of rlcxrr set, t lrctt t lott t ' ,,rrld rttrn't ' t t lnsc sryntp-

tonr,s, rlott coukl kcc2t t lrt i l sct plttt l i ttg 1tt 'rftt ' t l t1, arrcl qott

corL l r l pn:xer t t r r r t r j t t r l t rc t rkdt , r r r t ,s i t t t ' . r t t t ' l l r1 t l tc sr r r r r t ' tcot l

they tcerc prexcnted i i t t l tL 'sc t t t t r t r r t . f t r r ' I r t t t ' t :s ' 1r 's f .s" I f r lo t t do r t r t t l to tc t l t is I ; t t t , r r l , ' r lg , ' i f ' t l t t t t d t t r t t t t

nmkt: the,se rrl j tt.stntt ' ttts. t ltctt rlttrn- st't tr i l l Lt 't 'rr l;t ' tt- r ltttt tci l l

get a consi ,s tent l t l br rc l l t i t ' t t t t ' t ' . t t r t r l t l , , t t t r i l l l t t t t ' t ' t ( ) ( ' ( t l l i l


The seconcl goal-conc'hrsiorr ol t lre rul hlts rtori bee'n Itrrc'herl.

At thjs sttige of the copr. t ltt ' r 'ertcler t iou' ktlou's:

1. That h is set is c leperr t l iL l t l t 'er rorrq l i to avoi t l r t ta ior bre i ik-

douns during bv ftrr the greatest rrrit iorltv o{'the tirtre he u'i l l pl.a

it; ancl

2. Thtrt if he obtirins tlrt ' pr'opt'r krtttu' ledge, he ciru correct

rninor breakclou'ns himsel{. atrcl lrelp prever}t the gradual forma-

tion of rlajor breirkclou,ns. lx rttrikittg a I 'eu' sirl lple adjustlt lents

to the outsicle controls of his set.

Thereiore, the stage htts tttts' l teett set {br the finit l conclu-

sion-the pa1,'-off conclusiort-a c'ortchtsictrl s'ith all the inevitrrble

logical fbrce of a svllogism-tlt iLt:

3. The o\\n€rr shoultl tt l tt iLitr this knou,leclge-niake tlrese

ninor adjusttnents hinrself-artt l therefbre save the tnonev he is

pa)'ing todar' {br service contl'trc'ts. aud save br.' f'ar ther greatest

majorit l ' of the monev he is par-ing firr reptrir bil ls.

Here is hou' this fittal coucltlsiort is phrased br-the copr':

"lt 's ct,s sin4tlc us tlmt. )iru Ttoy a repairrtttrtr-ttot Jrtrhis rco*-btt for l:.,s krtotclcrlgt:. l f ryLnt lrucl thot knorcl-

edgc ryortsclf-thnr tlott rcotful tttft haxe to 1tcrt1 hirtt at oll."

Page 158: Breakthrough Copywriting


A Restatement of Our Basic Theor.r

We have taken a great deal ot'space to analr.,ze, in exact cle_tai l , one ar l- . rrd t l re struc.tur." nf r ,ei ierarr i r i t r t r ," t , rra"r i ies trr .effectiveness of its clairns.

\\'e have done this for hlo reasons:1' To show liorv trre goal-conclusion-the introcl,ctio'of'tht,

product clairn itsel{-rrln1, be rnade ftrr 119re eflective if it is flc_layed^till the pro,spect

_has been Ttrepared to acceTi ir incl

2. To shorv ho*, this full u"".,pto',""_this ,uillirrgn"r, to be_lieve u'it'out question-can g.o.l.,oll1,be bLrilt

"p, i;)T;;;, la'er..

agreement br,. agreernent, bv use of the proper structure.Let us now state forrnallr sorne ,f the nrles u,e ha'e rlis_

covered in this analr-sis. orcl ,on." of the cle'ices vou ca, Lrse.tirne after time, to create the ma.rii'r,n .vt,tctttrat trntir'rot ititrlfor each of 1'our adr.,ertisements.

Here are the basic principles:cradttoli;ation is the art of stati'g a clai, in such ii \\.ri\

that it *'ill recei'e the greatest possibie ircceptance o,raro'. tr"lievabilitv frorn vour prospect.Belief'ulti 'ratel' depends 'pon structurer. Jrrst as clesire cle-

pends upon promise, so belief in that pror'ise ,i"p"rrd, r,rpon f/icamount of preparailrn that prornise h-as bee,r grrl,, b"fo;" un,,.reader is askecl to accept it.

- --- v!^\/'\ i

one fullv-believed prornise has ten tir,es trre sales po*,er ,f'ten partiallv-believecl promises. Most copr u riters try to strengthen1ds

by piling promise upon prorxise. \\'h.t ,fr"r. i r, ji-lnj, ,o,.their troubles is greater sales

^r:esistance fi-r'i their nl"rp".?r", -,rtrouble fro'r the F.T.c. The',' could far l-retter invest'trr" ,n,rr"tirne in 'strengthening the berieuabiritry-,st,rt:ttrre of the originar.justifiable promise.

Now' /zor, do 'orr strengthen this belie'abilitr-st.rct,re?\\rhat are the clevices you ca; chrose fr.o,rr to



to an1'promise, in anv ad?

T l t I R l ) I l r

I I t , r ,

r r s i r , . g t l r ,

I ) t , ' l -

Trr slrou :S O l l l ( ' ( ) l l t . r

o t t c ' e l , t - r .

i l q f e ( ' l l l r . l r i

t l t t ' t t r o , r : .T lI l l l \ :

a t t l t i ' 1 , , It l t is i t rh t . r - r

L t f S t l l t ' 1 , , . .

t ] , , . ,:

r t t r ] : : -

l t , i t ' t ' . , . .


, \ t r o t l r ,

i r r r n t t , r l i . i t ,

copr ' . I l , r ,l ou r l t . t . r r ] .

t i r r r l t . : r r i : , -

r r l t t i t r t . t , r , . .r u r t l t l r , . r ' , . i , , :

1 t t ' o l r l t , r r , . . , .

Page 159: Breakthrough Copywriting

( , tt.\DU.{LIZATION

' Basic Theory

zt, . in exact c le-.,t rrnclerlies the

r, ,th rction of thet rir e lf it i.s de-

; ,1 l l - \ncli l i r rqness to be-

].ner bv laver,l : - t 11 ' f 111'g.

' r \\ '(, hifve dis-' : \ o l l Ca l l L lSe ,

",:! lu,l iembilitt l

lr, srrc,lt a \\ '?)'

| , ( (. iU)(l/Or bc--

': .rr t l t 'sire de-

r r r r ls r rpon f / re

,' ir lre,fitre vour

'.rlt 's l)o$.'er Of.. to strengthen' r . ' r,ri lr. get for

irr( )sPects, andr ' , r ' : t t l te st l tne,t t l re or igirral ,

i l r t r -stnrcture?

r, I I rt,l ier.ilbilitr.


Here are at least a few o{'thern. Once vorr get the feel ofusing theln, vou'll probablv develop a w'hole Arr.nor\. of vour own.

l. The Inclusion Question

Designed to permit immeclitrte iclentification u'itlr \()llr stor\'.To sl tow the prospec,t that vou r( , t i r lk i rrq i i l rout l t i r r t - rr , r i l r l . , r , r i tsorleone else rvl-ro would Arls\\.er Nci to the, rluestirln. Therefirre,once he'.s identified rvith the rluestior-rs-oncc' he's nracle iiis firstagreer-nents r,vith r,'ou and placecl himsel{'in tht' \r's-ans\\'r'r grollp-then vour recomlnendations u-ill have specirrl rrreaninq firr hirn.

This is perhaps the nrost clirect u'av ol lruilrlinq agreeltentat the beginning of the acl. Itls usecl even' rl:n.. For example, intlris advertisernent-highly sriccessful-for ir ltuok crrlled The Artof Selfishne,ss:


1. Do you find it increasinglr. diflicult to cope rviththe lvorld rrrouncl vou. . . .

2. Is vour business ol' c.iireer il sorlrce of annovancea n d f m s t r a i i o n . . . .

3. Are you tomrentercl lx' inaderluacies, fear ancl eur-bar rassrnent i in ro , , , ser l i l r . . . .

Anrl so on.

2. Detailed Identiftcation

Another device used at the beginning of the ad, to establishirnmediate, and deep, agreernent betw,een the reader ancl thecopv. Here, instead of asking questions to set up your Yes-train,vou detail svrnptoms or problerns that are vour prospect'.s reasonsfbr desiring vour product. Thus, trgain, your reader knows thatvou are talking about hint-'tltat vou "have been there vourself"-and t l rere[<rre that vour rec'or]rrr ierrdir t ions rvi l l help answer theseproblerns, hls problerns, that you have catalogued so rvell.

Page 160: Breakthrough Copywriting

116 THIRD TECH\reuE oF. RREAKTT-rROU(;H .op!.: c;RADfrAl.IZ_{TIo\

erample, in this acl fbr A course to irnpr've the prospect.schildls grades in school:

Let ute erplain. I clon't care u.liethe,r \.our child is six1'e-ars old or hvcrlt\r-bov or gir.l--iu qrn,l. .chn,rl. Liglrschool .r' college. It 'rakes nci dif1'erericc. lr'*, baclr' tlratt ' l r i l t l i s r L r i r r g i r r s t . l r o , l t r t l ; ^ - l r o r i t r i l l k . r r l t i t i s l i i r . l r i r r rto concentrate . . . hon' poclr his rirenrorv rniu. be . . . hou-r r r r r t . l r i r p r i s o r r c r . l r c i s o f c . r i I p l i r r q r , , , . , i t , , 1 l r r l , i t s . . l r o r rterrified he 'rar" be of .ratherriatics, or flriurlrrlr. 'r s.cria.lstuclies. or e\-en tlre harclest science c,olrrse. . . .

of course, hg1e-;15 in the Inclusion-ellssfien-1'6ur copvmust be accurate. Yo' kno*, e"rrglr rrb'.t the reader-lsproblen-is to mtrke everv u,clrd vou r,vrite ring true. If vou ckxr't.vou'l l shatter \,our belierabil itv-net. and he'l l si lrplr: t.rn t6e,page.

so-before 1'eu 11'1ffe-resetrrch. Lei'', t, kro*, \,o'r c.s-torner. This is alrva's the essentierl first st.p. i ' rr^. ki' i l .,1:.,,pr,

3. Contradiction of present (False) Beliefs

Again, used at the beginning of the acl. .\ 'd ag.i' used t'preptlre a fbunclation for strong clainr-statentents t[irt t|e reiiclerrnight ne'er accept ra*i flere, \.o. cor))e lrl,rrtlr rut ancl sar,. "lk n o r r v o u t l r i n k t l r i s i s t r r r e : l r u t l ' r r r g . i r r q t ' s l r , ^ r r , r r i t s f i , 1 s . . "Best rrsed, of course, in conjunction u'ith stronq i1111111;1if1,-strongenough to contraclict present (unpleasant) lrclief.s. irncl get au,al,rvith it.

Fol extu'rple, in an acl for cosr,etics irr'errted b' a firrrrorrspl i rst ic surgeon:

Frclrn this rto'te't o', {brget e'ert1lri 'g'o. hilr,e e'erheard or reacl about n.h:rt age "urust clo" t,i 'r,nr,. appeilr_a'ce. Forget irnrtlii*g r-o. h.r'e e't'r lrtlie'ed irb.ri-ho*." o l d " v o u r n u s t l o o k a t t h i r t r . . . . f b r t r , . . . f i f n . . . . o r e \ - e ns i r t r . . . .

T H I R D I ' I ( I 1 \

I { t ' r ' t "

{ o r t l 1o , , . , ,

l in-i itr it ior r. ,

f i r s t i n t l o r l , .

r.vav thrrt tl :

l r 't o ( ' l I I

I l i t l ' \ ' l

\ \ - l r t r ,


S o l r r r '

bu i ld b t , l i , rt ransi t ior r 1r '

ises thirt r '

\ \ ' t ' I r . ,

Chaptt ' r ' ,

por tan t . t . t . -

present r tI I e r t ' , -

t in - ie t l t i i t ' .prorni .sr ' rL: '

f r t t rn c t , ' t ' , , ' '

Jbre crttt I .

\ \ ' l r rL t : lr.ocilbrr liL r''.u , h e n u , ' . , : -fo rce o t l r , ' r .

T l t t ' r . , :guage-l i , rcon."'ictioI r :

Th t , ' , . ,

Page 161: Breakthrough Copywriting

. \ I ) T . \ L I Z - , \ T I O N

1r(' i) l 'ospect'.s

: l , l i s s i r. i l r i g l i, i i r that: , r ' l i i r t r

. I tou '

. I r r l n ': 'oc'ial

\ ( ) l l r copvt lrt' reacle'r'sI : ro r r r lon ' t ,, , r t rrrn the

. , . \ ( ) l l t ' c u s -

. : r , t l o1 'copr , .

rlse) Beliefs

; .r t rr rrsecl to, t t l r t , r e a c l e r' . rr rr l sr tr , " I

, i r t s f i i lse.",r- : t \ _strong

:,, i gt,t aqti,Lv

'.. . i l iunous

. ' . r ' \ € l -

r : ) l ) ( ' i I f -

: : l l ( ) \ \ -- t , \ t ' l l


Here vou trre not looking for iigreetnent as tlluch as vou are

fbr a loosening of pre\-ious belie{.s. Ytrtr are saving thtrt the olcl

limitations are passing, and vour ne\t Partrgrtiph shotrld be vottr

first introcluction of your positir-e' claittts. in sotnerr''htlt the satne

u,ay that this nd goes on:

Becap.s-tl irrt i l lg $'it l t t l l is tnrltt leut-\:ou irre abotit

to enter into a ne\\' \\'orld ttf lleautvl ,\ s'orld lvhere orcli-

narr' ' {ruits are trans{ilnttt 'r l i ttto itt i t i-n-rinkle cosuletics.

\ \ l i e re a . . . .And so on.

-1. The Language of Logic

So fhr. the devices \\ 'e l) it\e (l isc'l lsst't l lravt' l teett ttsecl tcl

build belief at the beginning o{'rrrttt ' i t i l-to s('r1e irr the cnrcii l l

transition frort-i r-otrr heacll ine' to tlre strctutl of ir ltensifiecl pronl-

ises that \ 'ou rlre going to ttst ' to c' lost' t l te sit le.

\\ 'e have cliscussecl the process of intensif\ ' ing desire tn

Chapter 7. \\ 'e nos. ttrrn to tlte sirtttt l t irneotts. trncl equirl lr inl-

portant, task of lnairltailt i l lg bt' l ief irr each ne\\/ statetnent i1s votl

present i t .

Here again, )'our objectile' ls to builcl behef at the strrne exact

tinre that vou builcl clesire. To tlti this, t7otl inteflu:e euch nerc

prontise rcith language-,sigrrtls tltrtt sltorc that it logir:ollq .frtlltttcs

front erenlthing that lm.s ltct'tt prt,t'cd lrcfore. And tlmt it there-

fore can be beliercd tt:ithout ltcsitotitttt.

Wlint are these language-sigrtitls? Thev tlre, of course, the

vocabular\, of logic. Thev are the urtrds \\'e use u'hell tt'e retisonl

u4ren u,e iugue; rvhert u'e Pr()\c rttrr |ttint in anv discussiou. ancl

fbrce others to agree u'ith us thttt u'er trre right.

Thel-are runong the most pou'erfrrl u'orcls in the English ltrrl-

guage-for the vern- siniple reilsor] that thev give the flttrnr of

conr..iction to the pronises into u'hich we wea\/e thenl.

These u'ords have been usecl {br centuries itt ctttttt. in politics.

Page 162: Breakthrough Copywriting

l4fJ rHrRD TECH\reuE oF. BREAKTHRoLGH copy: GRADLTALIZ_{.r.1()\

in science-e'en in that most-lo'ecl {onr of Americarn fiction.cletectir-e stories-to sho*, clthers that proof hus been offerecl.that reason has bee' rrsed, that ore statenrent lclsical]l. and in-er.'itablv follorvs from another.

Therefore. a{ier centuries of co'clitior-ring, the ."r,ords the'-selves-regiirclless o{'the coltent of ther stzrternents to u.hich thevtrre trttached-no\\' ciirrv conviction. Therefore, thev should bc.\\/oven tl-rrorrghout vour ad, rvherever the.r- logicrillv applv

For extirlple, let.s look at some incli ' ichrtrl l ines. in a'urn-ber o{' dillerert ads. Let'.s see ho*, each of these r,r,orcls (*,hichI'l l italicize) gi'es a tone rf reason ancl logic to those sentencesin u'hich tlrev're ir-rcorporatecl.

For erarnple, in the fiunous Sheruilt Cloclv acl:

\\th1' clo so mAnv fincl themselves irt a loss for u.ordsto -express their rneaninq rrdeqtrirtelr-? Tftc r(,(t,\ot7 y'rr thiscleficiencv is clerrr. . . . N,Iost p*rutrr-do not urrite or speakgood Englislt sinryly bccot,si thev lirrr.e never fonneci thehabit of cloing so. . . .

Or, in tiris iid fbr a book on horv t. rrir'irqe difficult pe.ple:

Take. a,s urt csatttple, the man ttl-to lutltitttullr1 refusesto {bll.rv 'our instructions. There i,s rt bttsic. ttndt:ritl ing rca-son-for t/ris. ttr. (liven shor.r,s r.ou hou. to .fttrcl tlmt riuso,nand then erplrtin.: the nre(/rr.r of c.orrecting it. The u, can be, sulprisinglr. eas\,o,cr, ltrtt.e rcali;ecl thettnrlcrlrying uiltscs. . . .

Or, for a book on learning hou. to lerrnr:

. . . but s ir t4t lq br.putt insvour LOCKED-Up LEARN_ING PO\\'ERS io' u'ori<-toclav---zs t:tt,s il t 1 rt tul I o gir:all t1 ast l t i s . . .

A'd so o'. There are rloze's 'f such phrases for 'ou to ,se.Among them are:

"Thi.s hos been Ttroxecl bq tltort.sancl,!. . . .""Sound inrptls,:iblt,." Not at all. h's acttnlltt a,s

. ts n n D L e , . . .

T H I R I ) I I ( I I \

T l r i ' . , , .

as f i l ler l t i r :

\ oL t r P f ( ) r r . : .i t i s t l r t ' r t

\ t t r i '

o f k rg i c l - 1 .

ntont t 'n t , , . r

n tec l t a r r i . r ,

F o r ' , ' i .

C e S S O I ' \ . r 1 .

spark p l , r :c'<tsts trt it '

tha t h is r r l :c ' r t s t ' i r t t l r : .

\t l t ' r ' . ' l

( I t l \ I

\ r , ' ' t I

i l l r i r ' r

( ' r ' l r i . ' l

g i r t r ' . : '


{ t ' t . r ' . ' ,

( ,l t o t - ' , : '

\ o t i t ,

t le r i i e t l . , . :

l 1


Page 163: Breakthrough Copywriting

,h \ I )1 . \L IZ . {T ION

.ricar] fiction,lr,.t,n offered,

lrc irllr irnd in-

' ,,, orcls thern-i, r s'hich thev

'i,.r shotilcl be, . tpplr .r . r . l l l a n U l n -

,, , ,r'(ls (ri hich. , r r t ' \PJ l tS l lCeS

: l ' ' irrrcls' . r , , r - t h i s

r' .1tt,ak, : : l r ( ' ( l t h e

: : r r r r l t peop le :

. ' , r ' t , 1 r r ses' ' , : t L :

t ' ( 0 -

' . ' t ' t ( l \ ( ) 1 1' : . .

n l r o l e' : : : , t l t lU:

I I - . \R\-- : ' , t l l r1 o .s

r t : \ ( ) l l t O

, , ; l l t 1 0,s


" H e r e ' . s r c h u . . . . ""Ancl, Irosi iurportant ,rf rt l l- l* t lrc .frtct that ' "

"Tlrcrcftrc ' . .""This ivas. rcit lrottt ct dtttt l tt. t l le tnost thorough" "

"Thev'oLercd-itt t'tr'st (1ft(r ('os('- tliat ' ' '''

This, again, is the ltrngutret' Of logic. It is tr language e(lualh'

as filled lr,ith ett'totion as the latiqtrage tll- clesire. Itrtenvoven inttr

\ 'onr prolnises, so subtlr ' thut t lrt ' r( 'a(l( 'r r lever everl notices that

it is there, it gives \-our cli l i l l ls t lte irtvalrrrrl l l t ' air ot'convictit l tt.

5. Sr.l logistic Thinking

Norv u,e go froil- l t l te l iutgtritqt' r l l logit ' to tltc l l lec'hall isl lrs

of log ic . This is the ro le th i i t r t 'ason p lars i r r \or t l ' i l ( I . -T l i is is the

morn;nt when vou prot? tltat rrrrr Procil lc't \\.orl is. throrrgh the

rrechanism of logicral rt:r isot t it ig.

For example, in one ()1' t lrt ' l l tost sllc('essll l t lrtt lrnoti\ '€r uC-

cessory acls of all t i tre. the r'op\\\ 'r iter u'irtrted to pror-e that his

spark plug rvas superior to tlte or'(l ini lrv plug-even though it

costs twice as much. Since the iroint ()1' tlif'ference \\':rs sirl-Iph'

that his plug delivered a larger spark. the copnr,riter built uP his

case ilt this u'ar'':

Your car runs becattse gastl l i l ie is { 'ed intrl t}te cvlin-

ders $'here a spark cilllses it to fire. This action catrses the

gas to explode. . . th is esplos ion prrs l ies c loul r the p is tcm'

Nurr' 1t"." is tlie iri'rport.rrlt tliing to Vc[r' Tlrc larger tltt'

spar* i,s, tlrc rnore potcciitl tlrc cqiosion Tht' nlore Po\\'-erful the explosion. the lllore po\\'er \'otl qet frottl Vottr

gasoline.Poor erplosion lllealts u'astecl gris-loss of pou'er' poor

geta$'il\'. bad starting, a sluqgish car'' ' Good explosion l l leans tt lore ti l i les per gallon-ri lore

horsepou'er; i m,r." exciting crir tcl clrive!

Notice the po$,er of these three sirnple paraeraphs. Porver

deriyed as lttuch from tfieir tirltlerlyilg forrla] strtlcture ils lroln

Page 164: Breakthrough Copywriting


their clainrs. C)ne statement ineritablr- lerrcls into another. Evervrvorcl is logical. There is a constant process o{'ecpation; spark topo\\'er, po\\/er to per'fornrirnce. Size e.qurrls po\v€rr-i1ncl his plugr lel ivers t l rc l i r rgest s ize.

Such stmctlll'6y-i1nfl the copv brrsecl on such 11 sfluglule-clevekrps the I'eeling of inevitabilitr: The reuder t-eels thtrt theprodrrct ilrrr,sf u,rtrk. He has not onl'n' been toltl it u,orks; he hasbeen shon,n proo.f that it rvorks.

Such structure-though hidden behind the u,rrrds it clothesitself in-is irctuallv a phvsical entitr.. You ctrn seek it out of hun-dreds o{'acls, if vou look beneath the u'orcls You carrtrace it. codifl ' it. and then repeat it. Once learnecl, it becornestr pou'erful tool in selling hundreds of products.

\\ie u'ill erplore these structures in rnore depth in the nerttrvo chapte Redefinition iind Nleclianizution.

6. Other Belief Forms

Once vou grersp the fundamental icleir that lbnn-stnrsfuls-determines believabilitr,, then trll sorts o{'opportunities operr Lrpto vou. Yotr realize thtrt sirnplv by the arrongcttrctt of qrnrr clains.vou can acld to their believabilitu

For ex l r r t rp le :Cctntirtgertcy Stnrcture,e-5ush as "If . . . thcn . . .", or "\\Irts

\ / o u r . . . t h e n . . . . "Repctitiort o'f' Proof: Echoing-sudt as "These experts

found. . . . These erperts found. . . . These erperts lbuncl. . . ."P rttnis e-B elie;f-P ro ntis e Yu riot ion. \\'here everv sentence

of promise is firllori-ecl (idealll') u'ith anotherr o{'proo{, or .,'erifi-

cation, or docunrentation. So that the reitcler nevel hi,Ls the breatL-ing space to rluestion.

Parograph Pnrrtllclisnt. \\'here the surne u.orcl stmcture userlin trn trccepted stateurent is then picked up eractll, anrl usecl toborro'ur, acceptance for a fresh clairri.

' fF I IRD ' fF - ( l l I \ l t . r

Tht't ' t ' .,r ' '

chai t rs t t t l ' t ' . , ' '

o f the coi l \ r ' r

A l l l r r t , , ' ' '

Trr prervertt t., "Nos ' l t ' t , .

Page 165: Breakthrough Copywriting

: . \ I ) I . \L IZATION

r l ) t l rer . Everv

t t { ) l l : s l )A rk tO

. , r r t l h i s p lug

. r \ t f l lC ' t t l I e -

, , I ' th t i t ther, rrks: l tet has

: ,1 . i t c lo thes: , r r r t o f h u n -. . , . . . 1 i ls

"ottI t l tecornes

. ; r r t l re nex t

elief Forms

:, \ () l ) ( 'n Up' , ,ttt ' r. ' l t t i tn^s,

,lr "\Vas


; : r t l . . . . "

: ' . :1 '11[9169

,: ol verif i-

: 1 , , . l t r ea th -

' . r t r r l c r r sec l

, : , , 1 r r sec l t o


There tlre lllrul\' rttore', of collrst'. Sclrne trre \\ror(ls. sollle ar(l

chains o1' reasoning, solne are lttereh' tlte phl'sical trrrangetnetlt

of the cop\' on ihe page.All liar-e the sirure objective. To gairt continuecl acceptilnce.

To prevent rejection. To builcl cotl'iction. Bclief is the goal.

Nou. let us look ttt sol))e otltel rttetltocls of reinfbrcing it.

Page 166: Breakthrough Copywriting


How to Remove Objections to Your Product

Tirtte and tirne again, vou are

going to have to sell a procltrct t'hat litts built-in handicaps. That-

along r.,ith its promisers ailtcl its {iurctitlus-also has certain aspects

to it that actualh'repel the prospect'

No procluct. .rf "u,trr"'

is perfect lf onlv ibr the reason that

he must pav tnonev fbr ri'hilt \(ru hrrve to sell, vour Prospect starts

r.r,ith a basic rninirnunr of resistallce trgtrinst buving vour procluct'

But this resistance is intensified bV cert:rin drarvbacks in solne

proclucts, often to the point 11.her('-1111less vou de.finite ac-

iior-r ir-r vour ad to reclifne thern-these drau'backs rvill actr'rallv

kill vour sale.Let us norv look at the three general categories of drarvback,

and then at the three tlpes of reclefinition that elirninates thern'

First, of course, tfieie is the product that is (or that sou'ds)

too complicated-too hard to use.


Page 167: Breakthrough Copywriting

I 51 l - ( ) uRTH ' r -ECHNIeuEoFBREAK.T .HROL iGTTcopy :RF tDEF . rN I . r r o \

Second, there is the procluct thatn'hose basic trppeal cloesn't htrve amalket.

is not inrportant c-nough-statisticallv ltroiicl enouglr

Ancl third. there is the procluct tliat just costs too ,r,ch. Itsprice is s, rnuch abo',-e the price of rther prod'cts in its classthat people sirrrplr.' tLrLrr tll.av u,hc.n it'.s rnentionecl.

It'.s nrrrazi'g hou' 'ranv,cts fall into orc or all 'f the.secategories. Fortunatelr', the sarnc' mechanisrrr-nrclefinition-helnsvou deal rvith all three.

Reclefinitiori is the process of'gir.i'g a re\\' cle-finition to yo,rproduct. It savs tliat the prod'ct is f/rl.r rirther than that. Its ,b-jectir-e is to rerno'-e a rotrcllllock to \/olrr srrle-if' possible, be{oret l re l l rosl lec,t er en kr rorr s i t er ists.

Perliaps the classic case o{' r'edef iti'r is that of Lifeb'orsoap in the Thirties. Iif 'ebuor'\\ ' i ls rr grocl sraP thrrt clicl o gun,lclenni'g job. But it had one 'venvhelr,irrg clra,r'back-a liorriblemedicinal oclor.

since the 'cl<lr cruldr't be rer.ror-erl *,itlurtrt rerr,r,i 'g theCle iLn i r rg p ( ) \ \ 'e r ' . t l re p r r rh le rn l ,e r . iu r re o r re o l r . t , r le f i r r i t io r r . p r r t s i r r r -plr': ho*' clo *'t cliange this odor fro' tr liabilitr irto nn asset?

The a's*,er, of course, *,as the faui,rrs B.C). car'paign. Theprospects attention nas {bcussecl on the oclor cl{'his orrnr boclr,-an odor '4ricl'r he r.r,as told r.r'ould dri'e a*'ar- people (ancl r, hicl,does).

He r'r'as then tolcl this odor rnrrst be i:riLrliciitecl-not u,ith :urordina^- soap, rvhiclr rvas not porverfirl er',gh t, cl, the iob-but r,r'ith it soiip u'ith the oclor-destroving Pou-e,r to utake a long_shorernan acceptable at a societr- t,ait t rt'el)ro' wils this s,per-porver f r r l soap. Anc l t l re o renr l , . , l i r r i r rg p r .o r l - t l ra t r , r r c ,o r r ld s r r re l ltlre rnorrie't vou ope'ed the *,rapper-rr',/, tl,, ' ,rt,rrrg )rcdicitl(ilorlor built into eaertt crtke.

This is the si'rplest. arul olten the rrost eflbctir.e ki'cl o{'re-definition. A si'rple c'ncept-judo. A conipleter rer-ersnl. T'rrrrrga habilitv into ari tisset, rvith a single iclea.

\\there'er \-olr ci' rrse this flip-fl,p 'etJrrcl. clo so. But ,-rost

p rob l i ' r t r r , , :

cornpl ic ' rr t , . ,v i c e s n t ' l ,

[ , t ' t r r .senl i ln r ' r I :

t l tA t t v t l t t r , , ,

be for t ' l t , t r ' , l

O r r r ' { i r '

lrct t lttLt ' ' " '

t t tnore t . t r

Book i L t l t 1 , . ,

A s t , , t .

cause tt 1tr ', :

u tas cor ts i r l , :

the acl .salrl

Therel i r r , '

that l te u, , :

easv ar t t l ' l r

the acl out

Tl r t . . ,

dorvns lu r, l

er r r l parrLgr ' , :

no t ha r t ' t ,

Lip t,r.vorltl rrr,,:exPert Ci t l ( :

rrtttst ltt .j, . ' ,

Th i ' l ,trtursit ior r , :j a r . I n t l r .

thr r t r

Page 168: Breakthrough Copywriting

i . i I - I ) I ]F ' IN IT IO\

: . t l r t e 'norrgh-' l ' , , , t r l enough

: , , o t t t t t ch . I t s

t . i r r i t s c l ass

, r . r l l o1 ' t hese

: : r i t i o r r - he lps

: r ; t l ( ) l ) t o \ :Ou l '

, ' l r r t { . I ts ob-. . r l r i t , . befr r re

: rt Lifebuol'

, : t l i t l a good

i rL lurrrible

: ' . r r r o v i r r g 1 | 1 g

: : , , t r . P l l t S i r n -

r l , r i r n asse t 'P

, : r r l ) . r i q l l . The, ,1 i 11 [1Od1--

,. .ur(l u,hich

rrot u- i t l t an1 , , t l r c job-

: : , . t k t , r long-, . t l r is super-, : t orr lc l srnel l,, ; trrcrlicinal

kirr t l of re-Ll. Turning

., , Uut tnost


problems of redefinition nre lnore conrplicated, and dernand tnore

co,nplicatecl rneans of dealing rvith tlrenr-Lrsing rntlny of the rle-

Vices rve har-e just exanrinecl in the process of Clraclualization.

Let us no\\/ tlrrn to these clevices. and see ltou'they carl Pre-sent an entirelv cli{'ferent intitge o{'the product to tlie prosPect

than r.-ou noulcl har,'e irnaginetl, hatl \'rlrt not tliought thern through


l. Simplilication

Our first categorv is the ortrcontltliciitetl produci-the procl-

uct that sounds too hirrcl. To see lttxr. to replacc this irnuge' u'ith

A ntore far.orable one, Iet'.s lriok aqrrin irt tlre Tt'levision Repilir

Book ad that rn'e cliscussc'd irl tlrt ' l i lst t ' lra1ltt'r '.

As vou remernber, the <iriqirrirl atl 1,r tlris pr'c|rct liri ierl be-

callse it prolnised "Do ,u,clur oul T\- re,pairs" irr its heaclline. This

was considered too diflicult ln the il\ erilqe set tlurier (er-en though

the ac1 soid"It's eas\r, its sinrple. rt's qrrick" in the nert paragraph)'

There{bre-since the acl confl'ontecl the prosPect r.vith the i'act

that he u,ould hal,e to rnake rePairs be-fore it niade those repairs

eas\, :ulcl simple and quick-he sinrplr-turnecl the page and trrned

the ad out.The seconcl aci did r?of cliscuss repairs. It cliscussed break-

clorvns and expenses. Ancl. as \\'e ha,r,e seen. it spent its first ser'

eral partrgraplis shrllr,ing that thesc' breirkdouns ancl erpenses clicl

not ha'e to occur at all, i{' tlre seis \\rere given the proper care'

Up to this point, the acl has ttrlked irboui the prospect's

u'orlcl-zrncl cor]tpirred it u'ith a liir triore promising rvorld u'here

erpert care produces trouble-fi'ee TV Vieu'ing. llrnt tlrc trct rcorlrl's

nrust be joinecl througl'r tlrc pntdttct.

This joining is called bl- the pitchrnan, "the turn"' It is ir

transition of gretrt clelicircr. It rltust be accomphshecl rvithout ii

jar. Li this ad, it begins in this paragrtrph:

Ancl rtrost itnportant. ihese erperts have discovered

tJ.rat r,,,' clo 'ot have t. be a hanclvrlan or tr urech:rnic in

Page 169: Breakthrough Copywriting


order to corr,r this performance otrt of vour set! Here,su l rv . . .

\\Ie ha'e alread' seen. ho*, the repetiti'' ( . . . these expertshave cliscovered . . . ) and the paragrapl parallelisrn tie this state_ment into the stre:u' of belief that has been built up before it.Norv, h*ve\-er, \\re .re goi'g to look trt this ,"n.," pur,,lraph {ror'another point of ':ie1v-fs see ho*, it pr'r.icle's tir" fi'.st'step rrreliminating anr- fear of making vour o\\,rr repau-s.

Not ice, of course. that the'er ' f 'errr , l f t t r re average o\\ ,ner.that he is n,t a repair'an. is rrere brought out in th? 'pen-specificallv stated-brr/ rrou frarnecl (L\ a protnt,se.

Notice too that there is no rnentio' ,rf th" *.ord, "repair," atthis point. It is still too earrlv at this point. Though trre *'=rn'g" orn-,er rnight be willing to accept the iclea that he cor,l,l .."o*il

betterperfbrrnance out of his set, it worrld still be too rnuch to ask hir,to belie'e tliat he could nmke repnir,s on that set at this p'int.

Tlris leads to th^e final step. The ttrr rntt't rtLtrc recrejne urtatthe reacler thinks of rclrcn he-hears the tto*r "rnpoir,s)'It rnustnorv la' a ne\\' fburdation of firct-slio*,ing that tihnost all therepairs the ou'ner rvill have to make are aciuallr.onh. rninor er-ternal adjustments.

. rt norv proceeds to do this, in the foilo*.i'g three puragraphs

rvhich rve ha'e alreadv studied in the last chapter, o,.i rr4,ih *,"will norv look at again to see the seconcl process of persuasion_redefinition-ri'hich is also occurring in thenr.

Here are the paraqraphs agairr:

Five N{inutes a \\ieek for perf'ect Re,ception.These T\r erperts have discor.ereci tlirit i,our TV set is

a great deal l ike-rour bodr i , t l r is reslrr . t_t l r i r t , t g i ,es,o;* 'arning signrLJs berbre i t rras iL rrrrr jor. l l r -erLk,ror,- , - , . -F,, , r- in-

:_..i.r,r,::; "fl:. vour set uas instailecl.'it probablv plor=d p"._

rec.r-to. the first *'eek. But then it begrui to sriffir h-o,n'thevibration. the jarring, the interferen"" ?,f ualr". electrical ap_ptrances in rour horne. The picture rniqlr t srrdr lenh begr ioflop over or flicker-lines ma1. appear" lrn ,.ru, screen.

FOURTI . I I t . ( I { '

\e r r lq , ' t 's i c l t ' t , : . 't ( l t t t : . .

c o t t l t l : :

tllt 'r '.r , I

I Inrakt' Iu ' i l l { , :t t I C ] ) . t l :

Ntlu'. ',, I

def ini t iort , ,1in three st '1, .

1 . B r r :bod"', arirl ti,

signals qrr t'r .

B v t t i . , .

technical rr ' , l

and fhrr r i l i ru

ing coitl. 13,',

set is erp l i r r ,

f idence irr ,1.Att t l . . , :

t leen t l r t ' : ,

f requert t r r , r :

as easih . t . :

2 .B r .as

" \ \ -Anl i l 1-

or "repail' '

t rouble. u l , r ,can clevel, ,1 '

3 . , \ t r , Iments c'arr

' l , '

the outsir l , .Ther t '1 , ,

on the T\

Page 170: Breakthrough Copywriting


. , . t1 Here's

tlrese' experts:, tie this sttrte-I t rrp l tefore i t .r.rr.iqraph froln,,. first step in

r\ t ' l ' i t9€ O\\ner.

: : r t l t e o p e n -

,r-tl 'repair," at

r' .t\('I'age OU.n-

I cotx" better: t l r to ask hirnt l rrr l to int .,', rlt 'f irrc uhat

, , . r r r . " I t rnus t. . l r rrost al l the, i i l r r r r inor ex-

r.(' l)i it 'aglaphs.,:rtl u'hich ure

: ) r ' l ' \ l l i ts lOn-

I \ \r ' [ lS

: l ' . ( , \ \ 'ou

F-or in-, . , - , .1 per-: : , t r r t l f e' - . . , t , , -

. . ! L r ' ( r 1 r -

: r " I l l tO


Norv-ancl this is irtlptlrtiint-if vou hacl the .knou'l-eclse to quicklt. Itake a f'e$' ntititlr acliustlrents. oll tlle otlt-

, "untiol,

ui"o,r, set. tl)eli r.o* coulcl correct those sunp-

;;t. i" could keep tliut -st't per{bctlr' and \()tr

could prevent n-rajor l)l.eitkcl<t$-ns ill -eractlr'' the saure

"r'zr"'ther.' sLre pret'"r-tiecl in thest' rtiirtrtrfiicturers' tests'-- .-

If votr'clo not htlve this knos'leclge ".if rou do not

'rake tliese adjust'rents. 'ttttr st't *'i l l *'eaketr. r'ou

lvill get:r consistentlr.barl Pictru:e. alt(l \()tl lvill have to cirll

a rePairmiru.

Nor r ' ' , r r4 ra toccurs i r r these l i l t t rp i i rag l . i rphs iSac t r ra l l v r r re -

definition of the term. "repairs" itr tltt ' rt 'atler's rrtitrcl' This is clone

in th ree separa te . l l r t t i r r teq t ' l r t t ' t l ' u r t r s :

r. By,i,l]r,r",liut",rp,rri,rg t5e tele'isi'r s.t to the, h.rntrn

bodl: a'i therefore rnir]or 'alrrcljrtstrtit 'rtts itt the set t' r'n'arniug

,tg";ft given off bv the both bt'l irte it be'cortte's seriouslv il l '

" Bu"rouklng this corlrpiiriso'. t6e copr reltttes the irltricate,

technical working of a teler'isrtltt sct to sonlethillg i1s collrlrlonplace

and familiar as the rtlnllinq lrtlst' tililt \\'tll'lls Vou of an approach-

ing cold. Because of'this coillpitristll 't. sollle of the rnvsterY tlf the

,"i i, ""pluinecl

au,'n,; tr'cl tlitl o\\rler grrius il nerv f'eeling of con-

fidence in clealir-rg witli it iiirnsel{'. rts somethitrg he understands'

And, at the saue tirrie. this cortlparison distinguishes be-

tlveen the relativel)' ,,.l"" tlrajot' llreilkdo$ms' and the lar more

fieque't rrlinor maiaclj.sture.ts. r.'hich ite can now treat hirnself

as easilv as he'd ttrke a colcl tablet to stop his running nose'

2 .Br -cont inuous l r , ' c lescr i l l i r rg these l l l i nornra lac l j r rs t rner r ts

o, "r"nrnir]g signrrls" ancl "srrllpt,trts" rather thtrn "breaktlo*'ns"

or ..repairsi; Tiuis nake,s tlrcnt 'ou,rl ea,sily corrected-be{bre real

trouble, u,hich might reqrtire teclrnical skill and colrrplicated tools.

can develoP out of thern.

3. Ancl finalh: bv stating outright that these t]rinor irdjust-

ments can be correctecl br, "iltaking a ferv tninor adjustments. on

the outside controls of vour set"'

Therefore, .,repairs'; are reclefined as "adjustments." Troubles

on the T\. screen are reclefined as "rvarning signals" or "svlnp-

Page 171: Breakthrough Copywriting


to'rs." And "repair calls" or "breakdo*,ns' rlre ctrrefullr,.segregirteclirrto the least-likelr-t.-occ'r svc, of ail possible n. tru.,bi"r.

The'efore. rvitli this re.clef ition i,-'*.ith this reorgarl_izatiorr of'fi icts acc,'iplished br-the copr--there i,s no lortgcr ctrtyreo'o, -ftir the oLcroge 'et ou),er n.t ti rrrtkc lti.s tncn rrti'ratr or!-

jttst,rcnt', rather thrrn par,' n repai"a' to ,rake thern {br him.The objectir-c lras.been ircc''rprisriecl. The acl can 'o\\, go

on _tr

specificall' sttite horv r',ch urone' the ^r.'er ri,ilr sal,e br.rntiking these arlj.sl1,1g1.l5-ancr *,here 1,,,

"n,, lrt^,the book that

t e l l s l r i r r r l u n r .In exactl' the siu,e rvar', rvhene'er tlierc. is rr. pr.ocess rvhich

is . , . rr1,"r,".'er there is a procl'ct rvhich is harcl t, use,or dilTicult to appll'-the c,pr,'r,rite.rls task is to sir,prif'triatrpplication in his prospect'.s rnind.

This liolds especiallr.true fbr nen,i'r'e'tio's *4rich .ct'allr.s i l r rp l i f r p ro( 'esses * l r i t . l , l ' , r r r re r r r * -e r .e to , t l i l l i . r r l t r * t t , " ln : -erage prospect. A ner.r' breirkthrough is n,t rrerel' acceptecl be-cause its r'a.rrfirctrrrer sa's so. Its claiurs {br ease a'd sirrplicitr.rnust be proxerl, ir tl ie

".1, ,,. trre 'euder *'i lr sinrprv shrrlg his

sho.lclers trrcl sar' "itls just rrnother copr,rr.r-itc.r grne i"ilcl.',S'ch il situatior is ,'e of trre rnlst fi-ristr*ing

"rp"riencesvou ca. ha'e. Here is a procluct u4iich r.ou ftn,rc is far easier touse than anr'thing e'er intrrd,ced in tr,rs fi"rcl rrcfore-bccatt,sellou'Le u,sed it! Brrt no matter horv loucl vou screanr EASY in vourads, people just seern to ignore r.ou.

\,\'hat clo vou clof The ansrver is tu,ofolrl:1. Redefine (as this chapter shou.s r.ou).2. N{echtinize the re*, sirnplicitv (ris rrrr'i l see in the next

cl tapter ) .Rerrer,ber'. ir'o'trtion ''ith'ut acceptanc,e. is 'alueless. The

nrore people knou' that sorrething is dif'ficrrlt. zrncl the ,rrre rer-ol'tiorarv (and therefbre cli{rerc-irt) ro'r prrcl,ct is-the 'r.reresistance t-ou u'il l nreet front the,r. ir, accepting it.

Ycrrr '*rst. therelbre, lei' a base fbr accepta rr,"e by recrefiningthe entirc Jtetd.fitr tltt,nt, before \.ou bring i. r,our procluct.

F O U R I ' l l l l t :

L t ' t .

v e r t j s i t t g . . , '

proclttc't .t .

O l r t ' '

C o d r - i t t l I

ther . t lo i ,

p t l f i u l ' t ' 1 t "

that hiul -B r r t t l

v incct l t1, . , '

to le'ilnr it l

coulcl l r t ' .

g l i s h l i ) r ' t lcert tr i t r l r : ,

Eng l is l r l , :

T l r t ' t

be t t t e t ' ' , , , '

ever . r i i t L : '

p i ece o1 l ' :

s i u rp l t ' i r l ,

r l 1 t .

i s l r r ,

\ \ O t . L .

I t ' , , t . :

l ) l | ' .

t l r . r r ,\ \ ( ' l

o l 1 ,

g l ' . r l l

\ \ i , ,

Page 172: Breakthrough Copywriting


r1h seqregateclt rorrbles.

, t l r is reorgan-, , , l , t t tger any, l t t r t i r to r ad-

, r r r l i r r h i rn .j | i i l l l lOuj gO

: ,.r i i l silve by:1 , , , l rook tha t

! ' . r )( .( , \q $f i ich

l , , t r r l to use,. : r r rp l i f v tha t

: , r t l r i ictrral lv: 1i , r t l ie ar.,. t t.lttecl be-, ,1 . i r r rp l i c ih, , r . l rn ro h i "

' I 1 . .' . \ | ( 1 .

, . rpt ,r i r . 'nces

: . r t ( , i t s i e I t o:'. - ltct '

\ : \ i r r vou r

. : i t I r t , n e x t

: , l t , ss . The| l l { ) f ( ' l .e \ '_

t l r t , r r r o r e

,' ' tltfirting, I r rc ' t .


Lets ktok nt one lnore e-\a'tple of' such breal<thrtluqh rrcl-

vertising, rrnd see the solutions tlte copv ol'fered that rnirde the

product a success.One of the great acls of all tirrics. of cottrse' is tlte Slienvin

Coclv acl. Though rnost rrdvertisirrg nren irre fiurrili:ir u,ith the ad,

ther,- do not reirlize that the cotlt's(' itst'If 'u'tls a trernenclous cle-

p,,rt,rr" {or the times-firr easit'r' arril sirnpler th:rn anr,thirtg else

that had gor-re befbre.

B't the prospects fbr sucl I ir L.orrrst u.ere tibsolrttelv con-

r.inced tliat good EnSlish u'ris too lrrrrtl l irr thent. Thev had triecl

to lerrrn it before, and hacl liLiletl. Tl rt'rt ' l i)r't '. itrr\ rleu-t'ottrse thtrt

could be successfirllv solcl to tlrerrr uorrltl ltrtve to reclcfine En-

g l i sh fo r thern . . . rec le r f ine n t i s t i rk t ' s i r r F . r rg l rs l r l i r r ther l r , . . a . r l t l

certaiuly redef ine the proc' t 'ss of t t rrr l i r rg l rr t t l Errql is l r i r t to goocl

English fbr thern.

The CodV ad is a i l tasterpi t ' r , t , ( )1 ( l rrr<hri i l izat ior l . I t s l iorr lc l

lte rnernorize(l-llot nterelr strrtltt 't l-lx t'\1'l '\ copur-riter. FIou'

ever, u,ithiti it, in four pirraqr-aplrs. is r'ontiiiriecl rtllother lntlster-

piece of breakthrough redefirrit j1y11-ll '11111 harcl to easY rvith a l'er'r'

simple ideas-that goes like thrs:

Onlr' 15 Nlinrrtes a l)itr.Nor is there ven' t l l ttcl i to lt 'rtrt l. l tt \ lr. Codv"s vears

of erperirnenting. hc ltr.rtrrqlrt tO liglrt sorrte highlv tlstou-

ishing facts about Enqlisir.For instance. statistic's sltori ' t l l i t t a l ist cl{ ' sixtrnine

n,<rrcls (u,ith their rept't l t iotrs) rt inA't ' tt l) tnore tlrun lmlJ'yf

all ottr 'vteach and Icttu'r-tt 'r i t i ttg Ol^' iorrslr. if we cotrlcl

leirrl to'spell. rrse rrrrcl pr.ttottrrc,e' t n.'rcls correctlr,

,,.'e r.,o.rld^gtt {irr t'u'arcl i:lilrlilratirig ittc.rrt:ct spelling ancl

pronuttciation.Sinrilarh, N{r. CJotlv proi'ecl that there lvere no lnorcl

thirn One dozen {undirntetrtiil prilciples of punctuation. I1'

*,e 'rrlsterecl these pri*ciples. t|erer *'otrld lle no b'gbetir

of punctuation to hturlper tts itr ortr lvriting'

Finallv cliscoverecl tliat tu'entl'fir'e trpical errors in

gratnlnar clo'stit.te .ine-tenths <tf o'r_e."'er'clar.- '.r ist.kes.

\\'lt"t, one has learrlecl liou' to rtroicl these tu'e'nt"-fil'e

Page 173: Breakthrough Copywriting

160 F-ouRTl. I 'Eci I rNreuE oF BRE.{KTHR().c;Hcopy: REDEFT\- . r . l . r ( ) \

pitfalls, lio*' rcirdilr- one ciiri .[itai' tlre {irci]it' of speechu4ricli clenotes the per.son rif 'brt,erl ing anrl eclucirt iori l


\\ 'hen the st'dr.- of' English is rriarle so siurple, it br,_co'res cleirr that progress cau be 'racle i' . \'er' s'hort tirnc.No rnore tlran fiftc,err ntinutes a clav is r.erlrrir.ecl ... tJre co'plicatecl bec'ures sirnple-the lrrrrcl bercorrt,seasr'-. This is the first use of Reclef ition. N'*, let'.s krok at tlrt,seconcl:

Here t'ou areis acknorvledgeddoes not have anrnarket.

2. Escalation

dealing rvith a prodrrct u,hiclr u,orks. ancl u,li iclrto be €rasv enough to rrse-lrtrt rihicli sirnph

appeal broad enough to ussure it clf a urass

Yo'r job here is to escaltrte r.onr prochrct. To gir-e it rii,r.i t t t l t t t f tn r tcc in to r r r p rosp t ,c ts e .es .

do this again b' Reclefinition. yr'r lrro.cler trre ho'z,riof' ber-refits o{' tlre prrcluct. \brr redefine the role that the procl-uct pla's ir the pr'spect'.s lif'e. you u,iden the trrertr ,{'rervarcl thrrt'our procl.ct ' ields to the prospect-sho*,in.q li inr that it entersi,to dozers rf ital situations

"r=rr.dar, palirig of1'for hirr *4rer.

he might least expect it.For- exa''iple, lets look at another arl fbr anotrrer English

c'olrrse fort' r''ears late'r. B' no*, people .re not as sensitir.e t'the'ir punctuntion or gramrn:lr. Noiv tlte negatir.e irspect has lostits :rppeal; people *'ant gocld English as ir" p.rsuasirn tool to *-i'or,er other people.

- s9 good English r'ust cease to be a' ercl i ' itseli. It

be redefined, to bec.rne instead ar nrea's to a 'ore importirrtend-o'e *'hich is desirecl b' far rnore peoprer. A'cl. sirice thepositi 'e aspect rrust ,or' be ci,'rirart, that p,rrt ,f goocl Englislru4iich has the greatest value fbr persutrdin{ p,.opl"-.l,rcabularr._mrrst nonr be featrrred

i ( ) ( l i I I I i I

I l t ' t . ,

. \ , ,j l \ i .

( ) : . i , '

t l t : '

t , , " -

r . \ \

( ) t ' ' '

pror l r r t t : .

Page 174: Breakthrough Copywriting

\ R I ]D} ] IT INIT IO\

,t speerchr l t ( ) l t l

: . , ' . t t l t e -t . , r r t t i t n e .

i , . r r t l l recornes:. iook at the

l . Escalation

r.. .rnrl ri4rich'. i lr sinlplr, ': t o l a ntass

j i r t ' i t l iorz

' i l r t , ho r i zon

r . r t t l re ' proc l -: I-r '\\ 'r lr(l that: r . r t i t enters

r l r i r r t u ' he re

i , , . r Engl ish. ' l 1 \ i t i v e t O

, . r t l ras los t: , ro] t r t ur in

. i t I t n rus t. t l r t P o r t i u l t

I s inc,e the' ' r l Engl ish( .r l ) l l l i l r \ ' -


Here is the ad:

Revolutionarv new \\brcl Pou'er \'Iachine tttakes "'ttu

a rntrster o{' English overnigl'rt.Automaticallv gives \o1r a po\\'el'packed vocabulirr\'-

to rnirke vour ideas crackle u'itli ercitertent . . . to holcl oth-ers spelltound rvith the pou'er of rour speech ancl r.'ourrvritten ',r'ord.

Automaticallv spots erttltarritssitrq errors itt gritt.t'ttlttlr.

spelling, pronuncirrtioll voll tliiLt't er-en kttttu' r'ou u'ere

rnaking. Clears ther.n up rtt otrce. F-rees rrtttr r"ttind frorn

worr \ : . . . le ts vou l -eel at east ' in at t r . u( ) l r lpan\ ' . . . g i r -esvou the blazins neu'self-confit lertce vott tteecl to tttttke att\ 'hod r t i ke . . , u - t , r r i t r P t oP l - , , r r t ' i t j t t ' t i : t i l ' l r t , , r o r r l ' 11 , r i t r t

o f r . ' i e r ' , ' . . . .

This approach reclefines the ltrnt.f its o1'tlrt ' protlttct. shi{t ing

thern frorn a less desirabie arerr to otte' t l t i tt u' i l l gt ' l ierirte tttore

sales appeal.

But this use of escaltttion-to increast' lrertefit appeal-is onlv

one o{ the u'avs it can sera'e \()ll. Ancttlrer is to ittcrease the irn-

poftance of the product-sltou'inq that sotttething the prospect

rvants verv much hinges directlr rtirott the perforuance of Your

product.For exarnple, in an acl fbr spark plugs, this fact was pointed

out to the reader:

Yes. You par.' $2,000 . . . Sll.000 . . . $4.000 for vour c:rr.Anrl a single 99c part robs rltnr o{ the real power and en-jovment that car shoulcl qive rou.

Or here, in an aclr''ertisenrent for a speed math course:

If vou rvant to get irheacl {ast . . . if vou rvant a posi-tion of real importance ,rncl responsibilitr'-then a knod-edge of this kintl of ,x4ter-.fust, ,super-accurrfte mathenatic.sls AN ABSOLUTE NECESSID' for ryour future!

Or escalation can be used to shor.r, the prospect that vour

product is not something to be put to rvork just once or tu'ice ir

Page 175: Breakthrough Copywriting


u'eek-brrt that it u'ill be neeclecl, and usecl. bv hirn ahnost er.'erru'aking rninute. Here'.s horv this *.as clone, in ir single sub heaci-line, in rru rrcl frrr ir course on liandlin{ people:

Yciur Entire l,ife is Spent t<t Cet Others to Do\\'liat \tirr \\hnt-\\'itliout Friction!

You nust agree u,ith this staternent. And thereibre you rnrrstredefine the iniportance to \.ourself of a technirlue u.'hich allou'svou to accomplish the all-penaclinq tilsk rnore easil1,, rnore el-{'ectivelr- and rnore rapidlr.

This is the second user of'Reclefinition-escaltrtion. Nou, let.skrok irt the third.

3. Price Reduction

Here vou hi,l,'e the procluct u'l'rich. rpite sinrpl1,. costs toornuch. \bur jolt is to rnake that price seern less. you do it bv averr- sirlple uct of reclefinition, like this.

\\']rv doe.s the product cost too mucliP Becotse it's beingcornparccl rcitlt otlrcr products in the srtnrc Jtekl. And hor,r, clo ,r,orrrvlrittle arvar.. psvchologicallr', at this price? Bt1 srt,itching the cont-porisort, ond relating it to stnne other, nu)r() (.rp€n,sioe ,standorcl .

For erarnple, here is tln enorrrio'sl'' srrc,c,essfirl 'ail orcler arlfbr spark plugs, *'hich s.lcl frrr sl.lg erirch. 'r 'e .'cl a half'tirnes the standtrrcl {br the fierld, ancl iis nruch us the dis-count price. Dicl the coprs,riter therefbre sav thart "Thev mtrvcost rr little more, but therjre rvorth e\-c.r\-

""rrt uf it." Of

"o,lrr..not. He nacle then clrcop, trncl he dicl it in these trvo paragraplrsof psvchological reclefinition:

Up to nou.tliese extraorclinarv SA FIRE INTECTORSu'erc. practicirllv nirrcle br hirncl and rxnkl har.e'to sell foras hieh as g5 eacli. But ive kneu' tliat 30 or 40 clollrrrs u,asrlore than the averirge drir.'er corrlcl irffirrd clecicleclto get the price clour-r so kru' that tltese in jectors lvclrld pavfor 12 tiures in one vetrr of So liere is

l ( ) t t t l l l l l , i

l l l \ . ! ' '

l i , n ' . , : .l ( ) l - \ '

t l r , ' r L .)

l l t ( i l

r . r t l , t '

l ) o r

l r , ' t l o t ' t t t

t l t ' [ i r t i t i o r ,

j r r s t l i s t t i , ,

1 i ' t ' l i r r g , , l

I l t ' r ' , '' . 1 ) t ' ( i , '

l 1 ( r t i

' ) t t

p r i c ' e ' l t r i ,

( ' r / l l r - r ' ' , :

pr r tc ' t i t iL l i ' ,

t l t i s t i r r r ,

i t t t l r t ' r r , '

"-lr '. . 1

l o \ \ : l t { . '

I t i t t t t l - t , ' . , , i '' ' t l t t , '

( ) l l ( ' l l L ( i I

Iou- l t t ' i t , :

f iqrrr t ' t I ,' 1 l \ l

t l t i t t t l r ,

s o r r r r t l . ] r -

t i ' c ' t i r t ' r : ,

i t - i \ I r , . .

i L l i z t ' s t 1 , . , '" l t


Page 176: Breakthrough Copywriting

I - I I I )F ] } ' IN IT ION

. r l r r rost ever \ :

i r sr r l r hei lc l -

. to I )o

, l ' t ' \ Ol l l l lust

, , i , ic l r alkxvs1,. . rrr<lre ei--

: , \ou ' le t .s


\ r.( )sts toor , l , r i t b r . t r

, t t 's being]r{ ) \ \ ( lo Vou, , - t l r t , c t t t t t -' 'trtttrlorcl.

. , : l , r rc lcr acl. t rr t I i r l r t i l f '. , . t l re c l i s -I' lrt,r n-i:rv( )f c,ourse

i),rf irqrirplls

I 0 R S. . ; 1 r ; rl . \ \ i l S

, i t l t,r l, I piLv' . : . t ' i S


ln\ irstoilishing proposition. Il vrlrr Niil check Yurit' c'i\I's PCt'-f. i.niancc. before and afier I 'orr irrstall \r)r1r SA Firt ' Ir l j t 'c'-

tor Sr-stern i lnd then tell Yotrr f i i t ' i lcls antl ne'iqlrl l t)rs al)ollt

thertt. here is vu4rat I rrt lt Ptc|rttt-t l tt ' clrl {br r 'orr'

) itrt ctut hrrce a set t if 'S-r Flnf lVEalfORS' .for t lu'

year cuvl nodel t tJ ' t lo t t r ( ' ( t t ' . l t ' r , t t l t1 u f rcu ' t - i t t r t t l f ' t l rc i r

irthrc. If vou ttct trou'thc'r 'rtre tttt lv s;l -1!l each" '

Do Vorr see how he. r lOes i t l DO \ r )u see horc r tmrty t i t r t t ' .s

he cloes it in tL"r" trl 'o slrrtrt piu'irqrxplts? As a lttst re\-ie\\ 'of re-

clefinit ion-because its tcclrnir1rl( 's i lrt ' so i l l l lx)rtt i l tt to r-orr-let'.s

jLrst l ist the inclivicluirl pltrasc's thirt lruilt l rrP. again and agtrin' thc

i-eeling of value aucl barqitin.

Here thev are. Dicl votr cittc' l l t l lcrlr rrl l?

"practicalhl nmrle bt1 lmrxl . "

' : tconld hare t t t 'seLl . f l t r t ts l t ig l t r ts 5 i t r t r ' i i "

"30 or 10 rlollurs.. ." r\otir,t'tlrrt he repeirts the hancl-n-rade

pr-tce ttcice. First he gives it to rritt pcr Plug; and then Jor thc

errtire ,sef. Thus the ne$' c.rli lr1trL|rrtive price is reintorced; \'Ou

practicallr,- s,iilce at the $-{0 figrrn, sirtc'e rrli want the_ phrgs b1'

ihi, tiu-r". And ,.tu're qoitrg to tcc,l prettr.' good u'herl he brings

in the no\v-lower figure irl the rrt'rt pitragrapll.)"get the price dorcn str lotr'. " (Hc're is the rllagic

"kru,"; no\v legitilttatized in rtrttr evi's bv tlie clescription

hand-rntrde set in the phrases thlt preceded it')

\\()rcl,of the

"that these iniector's rcotilrl pTy Jbr tlrcnuselue's f2 tirnes itt

()ne Uear of drixing. . ." (Not onlv r-alrte, but reu'ttrd. Not orllr-

le1i.pricecl, but Anrl itqai'. tlte c6nrptrrison t<l a higlrer

figure-this tine the lltonev xrtr'l l save on gas.)"a,stoni 'h ingT:roTto' i t iLtr t . . . " (Nos,the pr ice l lecotr les so lou'

that the rnere statetnent o{' it rrrav cillrse votl surprise. It nlav

souncl slightlv cornY rrs we clissect it here. but it is increcliblv e1-

I'ective in the context of the ad. Arxl rtrost of it-perhtrps trll of

it-is never consciouslv noticerl ltr- tlre. prospect. He sirlrplr.- re-

alizes thtrt he feerls that a bargiritr is being ofTered to him')"If yotr dll check tlutr cor'\ 1,tt:rfornrtnce . . . and tell gtntr

Page 177: Breakthrough Copywriting

161 FoLrRTrr rECHNreuE oF- BRIIAKTHR.'.H copy: REDEFTNT-.r()\

friends and neighbor,s about thern .. ." (The i'troducti.' .{'a c"-clition-an action 'ou urust perfbr*-in order to get the no*--Ilorv price. Used befbre in the last chapter in a difTerent contert:here rve see hou' the sarne cle'ice *,orks again to substantitrtr..with equal po\\rer. the feeling of value.)

"prepared to clo .. ." (Again the connotation of {irvor, of al-lor.vance. of discount. )


'lctu can haxe .. ." (Not, "You can ltuv'." He is letting rorr

the plugs at the lou' price. Again. he is cloing vou a'favor.are getting a bargain.)"only $1.19 each . .." (The classic rnodifier. The tenth bargair r-

phrtise in these hvo pirragraphs.)Notice how sirniltrr Gradualization and Redefinition are. No-

tice horv each operates belorv the surface of the conscious rnind.Gradualization bv its structure-bv its arrangement of facts anrlplrrases. Redef ini t ion bv i ts rearrangerlerr t of perspec.t i r t , ,

Each is an extrernelv subtle and porverful *,av of builcri'ebelief. Each clesenes rnuch 'iore studr-tha' \ve can gir-e it i 'th is book.

Let us nou' trrrn to sorne equallv pou,er{ul but more appar_ent mechanisms that also build belief.


good irrh t 'r-r:

P i l r l r , :

rAdio u ' in , ' .

B r r t t l l

in vorr r pr ' , , .

act i r r ts i tn t :

nr inc l ant l l , :

A c t u r r l . .

i ng i n i t s i l , . :

i r nages r r r rL i

b a c k t o , , , ' r

Yo t t l r , , l

Page 178: Breakthrough Copywriting


l ( t ion of a con-l {(,t the no\\ '-i r . l ' t , t ) t context ;, , \ l r l ) s tan t i a te ,

,t lirr or, o{' trl-

;. lett ing I 'orrL l \o l l a favOr.

t r . r r th l t r r rgain-

r r f ior t t t re . NO-'l r \( ioltS trt inCl.

: , r l facts and) r - ( t t \ e .

r '. of building

- . r l r g i \ e . i t i n

: l i t t l ' e dpp0 l -


Hou' to Verbally Prove That your

Product Does What You Claim

As u-e hrrve obsened repeatedlv,good trclvertising copv erists sinruittureouslv in two different places.

- Ptrrt of that copl' is *''rcls or ir page. or sounds carriecl by

radio r''"'trves. or pictures ancl sorrncls conring out of a television set.But the other part of that copr -the crucial part-takes place

in 'our prospect's brain. It is the series of reactio's-planned re-actions and anticipatecl reactions-that vorlr cop\- ..u,rr", in hisnrind and lris emotions.

Actualll; rvhen 'y'our prospect reads vour copt., he is engag-ing in a silent dialogue *.'ith'orr. \b' are feeding him ideas andimages ancl e'rotions, in a pla'.ecl patter'; and he is feedingback to vou reactions to these icleas ard iurages ancl emotions.

You hope-vou plan-that these reaction.s uill be farorable.


Page 179: Breakthrough Copywriting

166 F I ! -Tr r rEcr rNreuEOFBRE_^KTI IROI .c I rcopy : \TECI I_ \Nrz , { l . r ( ) \

That tlier. *.ill be c,ontrollecl reactiors, That he *'ill see the iur-ages vou are projecting. That he ri'ill unclerstancl rind agree u'iththe ideas thtrt vou are adr-ocuting. That he u'ill slrtrre tlie erro-tions 'ou 're s'ggestirg he feel, tr'd e'en e'bellish nnd inten-si f ' r ' therrr .

But trlso. at the silme ulonlent. voll rnust be a\\/are of thc.{act that-incl.cled ilnlorg these reacions-are also ir 'urnber rf'inevitable rrnticipaticlns, or clernancls, or clrrestious on his ptrrt. Andvou rnust rlns\\.er these rpestions or volrr c,op\. u'ill fail.

\\''hnt are these dernnncls he is going to nrake fronr tine t,tinre orr vorrr copr'? Basicallr,, thev firll into three cltrsses:

1. De'ranrls for nore i'fbr'rntirn, rrrlre i 'age, 'o'e cle-sire. \bu htil'e rvhetted his appetite; llow \.oLr \-e got to s:rtis{r, it.He is stwing to rou: "1-ell rne rnore.'

2. Dernands for proo{. He knou's he u'irnts it; nor:r, he rvantsto knou' that it 's tnre. He is telling vou: "Oh veahP Who savs so'p"

3. De'r.,cls for a rnechanis.. H" knori,s he *,a'ts tire enclresult: nou' he u'tr.nts to knou' horv r-ou're going to gir-e it to hin.He is s l r r inq : " l lou t loes i t u r l r . k?"

To u'rite goocl copr., r'ou ha.,-e to plar- a cluirl role. At thesarne tirne, r'ou htu'e to be coprl,rlter and prospect. You have trrclerelop irn ahnost foolproof sensiti'itv to ine'itable rerrc-tions. You have to knou' the eract point that ther are going tocome in. lbu hn'e to anticipate thern. You htrve to su,itch coprdirection, fill in the u'anted rnatelial, at the precise point tlirrtyolll prospect krses interest in one therne ancl cleniands the other.

This is one oi' thc. rnost difficult parrts o{' u,riting copv-, itndthe exact spot u4rere 'ran'' good acls break clo*,n ancl lose theirprospect. And-since sttcl't antic'ipation poirtts occlrr sel-eral tinresi' a si'gle rrcl-r'.u u'ill find 'ourself *'orkirg or-er the sanie pilrrl-g raPh,1" 'un i rnp , r t i rn t " . ,npr - 1 r , , , , r . a l ie r h , r r r . A l l r , r r kn , , r , i sthat at this point son'rething rvent u,roug-rtt this point xlrrprospect is dissatisfied.

\\'e n'il l cliscuss these problerts of copy clirecti.rr . . . orttici-potion 1:oints. . . etc. in Chapter 1'1, on Intencetxing. At this

FIF-TH ' I ' I ] ( . I I \

point. l ror i ,c lernanrl 1, ,1

T h i s i . : li s a s k i r q r , , , ;

prontisr'-l ,,r.' inced tlrrrt '.

\ l r r r l r . t '

so tha t l r t ' r . ,sul t vou pr ' , , '

S i n t t , t l , 'i u rn ishes t l , r .been ca l l t ' r lBu t ther t ' 1 , . ,uot usc i t t ,rvorks.

In f i rc tc levice. u l r , ' rI use i t? ' ( ) :

s i tnp l r . : ' 11 , , ' .

I I O u r r ' , .depencls-.,.Avtlrettess , :

bv u,hic ' l r t l , r .ptrrt oi r ort rtheir nrorrt . r

\ b t t t r r , t '

nanting Iln

pr ice or ot l l

F O r ' i r r r :

Page 180: Breakthrough Copywriting

I ( I I . \ \ I Z A T I O \

. ( ' ( ' t lxr inr-r l i tqlce \\ ' i t l l

, l ' t ' the e lno-

l r ru l ( l in ten-

r. ' \ iU1' Of the

. , r r r r r r r be r o f

l r i . l t i r r t . And

: . t r l

: , ) l I I t i n t e t o

l \ \ ( ' \ :

' lnot '€ t de-

t , r s i r t is fv i t .

' .. i lre tvants

i ro s i tvs SO?"

, r r t r the encl. , i t t o l i n i .

: ' , , l t ' At the

\ , , r I l l i1 t ' " 1u

: t . r l r l e reac -

r: '( ' g( )l l lg to. ' r i tc , l i copt '

poi r r t that

: . t l re other .

: (()l)\. i :utcl, i lost ' t l ie i r' ' . , ( , t ' i r l t i lnes

. . l l l l ( ' P n ] ' d -

' , ' r knou. i s

i roIr t t rr t t rr

' , rtrtt ici-r , - \ t th is


point, hcru,el'er, letls look more clos€'lv at the thircl demancl:c le r t ranr l fb r N le r ' l ran is r r r .

Verbal Proof

Tlris is the vital question: "IIott rlrtc.s it tt:ork?" Yorrr plospectis asking vou here to gir-e lrirrr a rriechiurisru. I{e likes u4rirt _r'orrprorlise-he rvants rl,hrrt rrn prontise-lxrt he has to lte con-vinced that vour procluct can ac'tuirll\ gire it to him.

lbu have to clernonstrate \orrr procluct. iri u-ords, krgicallr,so that he ctrn unclerstan(l eractlv llO\\'it givt's hinr the enrl re-sult I'ou prornise.

Sir-rce the beginnir i { o1'athc,r t is inq. o1'corrrst ' . t l re copv thatfurnishes this inf<rrrnartion-tlrat prrrvitlt 's tlris nreclralliqlli-hxqbeen called "Reason \\'hr" c'opr'. (.l iurclt' Hopkirrs u'as its lirirster.But there htu'e been feu' greirt sellirrg irrls ol arrr'pcriocl that clcrnot use it to convince prospec,t tlrat their ltrocluct acrtuall'r 'works.

In fact, the basic (llr€'stion \olr n]rlst ask r.ourself, aboLrt tli isclevice, rl 'hen vou sit cloun tri u'rite ir pi('c('of copt, is not, "should

I use it'P" Or "shoulcl I build a rrrec,lianisnr into this copvP" Butsirnplv: "Horc rrurchl"

Hou' much nrechanisur doe's this cclpr- need? This. clf'course,depends-tts so man\- other thirrqs irr vour cop\'-on the Stiite ofAl'trreness of vour prospr.ct. Is lre fanriliar u'ith the n-iechrinisuibv u'hich this procluct u.rrrks'l l)oe's he accept it? If so, then thispart of r.our job is done {irr rrru. Other nch.'ertisers huve sperrrtheir rnonev to rnake this ureclrunisrn farnilirrr to vour prclspect.

Stage One: Name the Mechanism

You rnav nou. take uclr.irntrrge. o{' their investment br- sirnplvnatning the rrechanisrn, ancl going on to lleat thent ujth yourprice or other features.

For instnnce. in the cclnr-entiontrl carnerrr itd. to back the

1 6 7


Page 181: Breakthrough Copywriting


headline claim, all that vou'd ha'e to do is narne vour rnecha-n is rns , l i ke t l r i s :


\\rith Electronic Light Setter. . . push-Button ZomarLens . . . Magazine Load. . . Onlr' $13,5.

Here, the three mechanisnts rvhich insure the per{'ect pic_tures are sirnplv narned, and not describecl at all. Tlie prospectis alreacl)' farniliar *'ith the *.'av they *,ork {iorl the other ads hehas seen, and an1' further detailing of their nuts arcl bolts u.o,ldsimpl' bore him. Therefore. uo,, nr-" thern in as bold trpe aspossible. and go on to corrrpete u i th vour. pr i r .e.

Most catalog cop)'and retail cop' neecls to assurne onrr thisahbrer iated forrn. It deals * ith prodricts * are alreadr- knurun,and rvhose mechanisms are alreadv understoocl and accepted.Therefore, any further wordage on these points rvould onlv b"wasted.

But norv \\/e colfre to tliat vast arrav of products ''.hose rnerch-anism cannot sirnph be .aured. \\'hv? For hvo basic reasons:

Stage lwo: Describe the Mechanism

1. Because the prospect doesn't understand their mechanisnr.And

2. Because everl'body'else has the str're rnechanism, a'd thesame promise, ancl the sarne price. And the rnarket is gettingtired, and vou need A ne\\r wav to compete.

Lets look at tlie sin'rplest'"ur"-"rr" #l-first:Here vour mechanism is not so well knourn. or not knorut

at all, and you can't si'-ipl)' narne it. yo' h.r,e to go into moredetail; vou have to describe it.

So 'ou have the classic situation of promise-Reason \\rhr.You build a strong, r|rick prornise-a.d then vou follorv up *,itirthe reason

"r,hv I'ou can deliver that prornise.

F ' I F T H ' I I . ] ( - I I \ i , ,

This o t , , .

erclvertisirtg rt.

First ther gr

\ \ lI I ,

I t s i r l r l t i ,

r n a k t ' i t '\ t ,

l l P \ \ i l \ l i l

f i 'or r r t l , ,\

h a l l t l , ,o r t i l r . ' . :

N o t r t ' t ' : ,

taken at t t l t , , '

p ro rn i se i s r '

spect i t 'es. r , ' ,

B l l t t t o I .

i t grou ' i t tg t ,

act ic ln c i t t t 1 , ,

be t t e r a r r r l 1 , ,

r-rotv sll( ' t,, ' , '

S o t l r t ' '

nou 'b t ' g i r r . :

I )' r ' 1 .

t l iat , l r ' ,

f r . '

i u r t l t l . .s 1 t o t 1 , ' . .

tt s t ' t ' t r ' '' l < t t t g t ' t . :

N o i t t , '

off chrt-i. .

i t t t o p t ' t t r ,

Page 182: Breakthrough Copywriting

IT ( - I I . \ \ IZATION

\ ( )l lr nteclta-

, zolnar

l)eriect pic-flrt, prospect, , t l i t , r ads hei,olts rvould

l , , r l r l hpe as

nrr ' ol t l \ - this,..rtlr known,,l irc'cepted.' ' r l t l only be

, l ro r t , l l teCh-

r| i lsolts:


l rr tc 'hanisrTl,

. r r r . and theI rs qetting

lrot krtorvnr I i to lnore

'.r.orr \Vhlr,rr rrp rvith


This one-hvo pllnch o{'prornisc i ind reason u'ln' is i is old its

advertising itself. Here. lbr instance. is hou' Rinso usecl it in 1926,

First ther. gir.e the protnise, l ikt ' this:

\\'ho else u'ants ri ri.hite'r u asli-u-itli no liarcl u'ork?Hou' u'otrlcl rou l ike to st'r ' r 'orrr u'ush conre out of

i r s i rnple soaking-u ' l r i te l t l r i t l r l , , , , r ls of scnrb l l ing couldnrake it l

\ ' I i l l ions of urirnen clo it ercrr n'eek. 1h,'1i1's givenr rp r r r Ls l r bo l r t l s l b r g , r , , r l , ' f l r , ' r ' r r ' l l e r ' , I t l r , ' t ns . l t i e s . f , , , s1 ' 1 ' , ' 1 '{rour the ltarcl u'ork artt l retklerrt ' t l lrrrrrt ls of'uashclar.

Norr . thev j r rs t soak r i r rsr ' - , , r , ,1 l runq r r r r t t , , r i r r ! Inhalf 't l ie t irne. n'ithorrt a bit of' l irrrcl rrrbbing. t l ie u'rrslr ison tl ie I i:ne-tchitt 'r t l torr t ' t ' t ' t ' . '

Not ice hou' t l te or ig in i r l prorr is t ' i r r t l r t ' l r t ' i r r l l i r r t ' l r i rs be. t ' r r

taken ancl in ten,s i f ied in these f i rs t thrcr 'par i rqrr rp l rs o1 'c 'opr . The

prorn ise is repeatecl , in c l i { ' f 'erent uor t ls i rn t l 1 l 'or r r t l i f } i ' rcnt per-

specti\-es, over and over rrgiri lr irr t lrose fir 'st t lr lt 'r ' plrragraphs.

But notice too tlt irt- iLs tlte c'opv l lr i i t ls t lcsirc-it also brri lds

a reaction on tire part o1't l ic u'orrriur reircling it. This re-

action can be erpressecl irr orie'u'orcl: "Horc.'" Tlris promise souncls

lletter and better . . . i t begirrs to sounrl too goocl to be true . . .

now she needs reassurrurce l irst.

So the u4riteness clir iurs stop. Tlie' cop\, shi{ts clirection-ancl

rrorv begins to ,sell t lrc ntt,clmril,srrr. l ike tl i is:

Dirt f loats o{I-stains go,The secret is sirnph' l l inso-a nilcl. granulaterl soap

tliat gives rich, lastirig sucls even in the liardest u,rrter.

Just soak tl ie c'krthes in tl ie creamv Rinscl srrcls-and the clirt irnd staius float o11'. Rinse-und tire u'ash issnot less.

Even the n'rost soilerl parts rieecl onlr. 'a gentle nrb be-tneen the fingers tri rnake thern snour-. Tllrs clothes lastlclnger. fbr thelres no l i i ircl nrbbing against a lroarrl.

Notice. f irst of all. that this nrechtrnisrtr-the sucls thtrt f loat

olf cl irt- is sold just as lmrd as the u4riteness storv it is lrrought

in tcl prove. The first nrle o1' rnechanisrn copv is that it is rrof

Page 183: Breakthrough Copywriting


scientific cliscourse. lbu nrust never allou' it to becorne clull. orrnerelv factual. You nmst kracl it u'itli prorniser, loacl it u'ith emo-tion. Everr, u'ord in goocl copr-including rlech:tnisrrr cop)--sells. Onh' in these palagraphs, the copv is selling a seconda.nclairn (dirt florrting off) that ploves the prirnirrv claim (a ri,"sh). But stil l-it sells.

Seconcllr', of course, r-cxr'l l irnrnecliatelr- notice hou' sirnplethe rneclranisrn is in this 1926 copt,, as coniprrrecl u'ith the same'field todav In those da-l's it \virs enough to nrention the lircts thatthe sur1.s fkrated off tlie dirt; the reucler ricceptecl, trs an evidenttmth, thc' fact that thev rvoukl clo so.

Toda1, of course, in our rnuch nore sophisticated and er-ploited rnarket, she u'oulcl no longer clo so. Todav vou u'oulcl neecl{hr more rnechanisrn, You rvorrld liave to explain rfiore, pronrist'deeper, perhaps er.'en invent a miracle ingreclient to do the u'orkfor you.

Stage Three: Feature the Mechanism

\Vhich brings us to case #2 ancl the cliflicult problern of u'hatto clo u4ren vour rnirrket is hlghlr. sophistictrted . . . u.lten proll-ises souncl alike . . . u'hen price competition becontes sLricidal'P

This takes us back to Chapter 3, rvhere r,r,e discussed market-sophistication fron'r another perspective. Here u'e cliscoverecl thatrnechanislr-r-strong rlechtrnisrn-saleable mechtrnisrn-is not onlra wa): to build beliei, but rnilv actuallr,'becoute so irnpoftant to thesuccess of vour procluct that -vou rnust put it into the headline.

These heacllines are all nechanisn'r heacllines:..FLOATS F'AT RIGHT OUT OF YOUR BODY.''-FIRST \ \ONDER DRUG F'OR REDUCING."



F I F T H T L ( l I I \ l ( , i

A n c l l l r r ,

rcaq tLt { t ' t t t i .

anism; t i l l t ' .1 .

e lse vor t ' r ' t ' t t :

Mec l t , t r , t '

mai t t c l t r i t t r . ,

tr iarket trl lr, ,

I f peopi ,or i f r r t t t r t l . , r

anisnt \ 'o l l l r ,

I f Peo1,1 'gni..1n-111 :,

to bel ieve r , '

I f t t l r I

ntechall isl I r.

o ther cot t lp , :

\\re'll s, ,

chapter. orr (

vour prttthr.. i

C) l l t ' r ' l

our re i l t l t ' t .

t l te t t t . F. r t r '

{ectlr- rtt i trr ,

u'oti lcltt ' t l ' ,

h t t l r , '

are sta l ' t l I t i

see r t r t i t t t t . ,

\ \ ' l r r r t I

l t prot l t t r ' t . , .

s t t ' t t t t ' 91 . l r r . , '


Page 184: Breakthrough Copywriting

I { \ \ I Z . \ T I O \

r r , ' r h t l l , o r' , i i t l r e r l o -.r 1r ( 'OP\'-

. r , ( ( ) l t t l i l fv

,r u'hitc.r

' , , i s i r t r p l et l r t ' s i u t t et .u ts that

r l r ( ' \ . i t l eu t

, l . r r r r l e r -, , , r l r l n e e r l

l ) r ( ) l l l lse

t l r t ' n - o l k


r: , ,1 n 'h i t t

r ' l I I ) l ' O l l l -

' r r t i t l l r l ?

, I r r r i r rket-

, r , . t l t l i r i t. r rot or t l r '

t : r t t o t l r e

. , t l l i r t e .

, \

) l

F IFTHTE( IHNIQ I IEOF-BREAKTI IR ( )U ( ; r { ( IOPY : \ IEC I I . \N IZ . \T I ( )N I 71

Ancl hundrecls rrore. I)ut,n1 onc o.l' thent o,ffcrs tlou o nucuatl to gc.t rchat qou'xe bccn tcutttirig. A NE\\'\\AY: a ne\\/ ntech-anism; a new ch:rnce to satisfr- rrxrr rlesire-e\/en i{' everr,thinqe l s e r r r r t ' r e t r i e r l l r i r s l i t i l t ' r l r , , r r .

Mechanisrrr, therefore. can l)e insiclc' r-our ttd. to prove r-ourrnain claiur, or on top o1'the ad. elcratctl l l ' the strrte of rrxrrrnarket to becoming the nrr i i r c l i r i r r .

If people assllnte that ther krrori lrou \'ollr prodllct u'olks.or i f l 'our claim is so ne\\ ' th ir t t l r t ' r r lorr ' t c. i r r t ' . t l r t 'n tr l l the nech-anism vou need can be srrnrnrt , t l r rp i rr lL r ionl or a pl trase.

I{ 'people r tre l rot r l t r i te srrr t , l ror i i t r rorks. t l t 'sc,r i l tc the nrech-anisnr- ln .sel l ing languagt ' -rrrr t i i t l r t , r I r iLvt ' t ' r rorrgh reasorr-u4rr-to believe vou.

l f r t ru have, hrtu,ever ' . iur t , rc ' t 'Pt ionrLlh st l r lnq or t l rarrr i t t ict lechanistn, or i f ) rou \ \ 'a l i t to t 'str t l r l is l r t l t ' [ i1 i t t ' sr tpt ' t ' i11r i t r t1;other contpet ing proclucts. t l t t r t st ' l l l r t ' l l orr t of t l r rr t r l t 'c ' l r t tnrsnr.

We' l l se'e sonre expert t ' r ;urrpl t ,s ol l ror i to tkr t l r is in our nertchapter, on Concentrat iort . s ' l r t ' r r ut , ' r ' t ' s l rourr l r rxv to col l l )ar( lvour product r.r' ith the rest ol iorrr fit ' lt l.

On the Importance of \Iechanism When You Wantto Convince lilur Reader That You're

Civing Him a Bargain

One o{'the sad trttths ol ottr 1i1111'-np6l Drofessioli-is thrttour readers clo not alu 'avs bt. l iert , t l r t ' tnrth r , 'h.rr , , ' " tel l i t tcrthen'i. Everr,' cop\, u'riter has lrrul. at olle time rtr ilnothc-r. rr per-fectlv rnan'elous procluct that lrrst c'orrkLr't be solcl-be.cause peopleu'ouldn't believe that it corrlcl do u.hat lie kneu'it coulcl do.

In the srllne wil\-, nralrv ntar)lrlirctrrrers. ancl their agericies,are startlecl lvhen tl-rev crrt a pricr'-aclvertise the recluctioll-i111{see no increase in sales.

\Vhat htrppenedP No onr. ltelievecl thern. A price ctrt-li l<e'a ploduct advantage-is onlv as good as \'rlur u'orcls. an(l \ourstr:rtegr', rnakes it.

Page 185: Breakthrough Copywriting


Price cuts rnust be justified. There rnust be a reason {brthen'r. A mechanism behind then-r. \\'ithout such tr mechanisrn-rvithout such ar reason-r,vhv vou shoulcl give this bargain-you aregoing to get onlv a fraction of its real sales polver.

The great master of price-cut rnechanization rvas Robert Col-lier. His boctk-The Robert Collier Letter one of thegreat classics of coplu'riting knorv-holv Here is just one exarnpleof horv Collier rnade his price-cuts, not o'lv believable, butdrarnatic:

Before the Price Goes UplDear Sir:A short time ago one of the old, reliable mills tliat

lnakes the {iner qualities of lvo.".en \ for shirts begtrnsending out S.O.S. calls.

Ther, had kept their pl:rnt going steaclilv for nronths,thinking that the itst,al deman.l'"'n,ri.l easihl take

"or" of

their ercess output.But, rvith u'e:rther so generallv unseasontrble, the

usual dernand didn't rraterialize. And there thev u,ere. heav-ilr.' overstocke.d-ancl needing mone\..-

If u,e n,ould trrke all their srrrrrlus stock of the finergrades of rvoven Madras. rrurorrntinf to a rltnrter o.f ct nil-liort qards, thev offered to let us hive thern at u,ai. belowanv price u,e had er,'er paicl {br shirtings in all orrr i.ears inbusiness-at /ar less than thev coulcl rnake the rnaterialsand sel l t l rerrr lbr todar.

\\re took thenr-the rr4role qrrarter-ntillion vards-:rt atrernendous sar.ings in cost. . . .

A Bargain lbu \,lar. Never Get Again. . . .

Let ure point out the di{Ierence betrveen this logical.carefullv-prepared introduction to the price slash, and a sirnple.bare announcentent of that slash. Here. the cop1, writer not onh,enrphasizes bargain or-er ant l over aqairr . brr t br ings i l qut i l i t t las a counter-desire tirne after time. He thus uses a rnechanislru:itl in a rnechanism: (1) the unseasonable u,eather causing (2,the factor', 'to becoure overstocked resulti 'g in the primarv rnark-dorvn-to build belief upon belief.

t I F T I I ' l l . ( . l i \ I

I fe r t ' t I ' ,

t l te l targiLirr ,( l reat i r t ' ( ' , , r

t t ' res t l i r l t l , ,rcaps to r t i r r ,

lrargiritr-r'rLlr L,

Page 186: Breakthrough Copywriting


lrt, a reason forir .r tnechanism-i,.rrqiiin-1'su .ra

. \ r ' l ' .

, '.r rrs llobert Col-.;-is one of thelrr t one example

lr t , l ie lable, but

. , r r r i l ls that. i r r r ls l tegan

: , r r r ro l ths.' . r r t '

C ' l l f € O f

. . ' , : r . t l r l e . t he' . \ r . r r , . l le i lv-

: t l t r ' f iner' . ' , l ' t t rn i l -: .r.1r |)€']ot, : r \ e a r s i n

. ' . r r r r r ter ia ls

. . . ,1115-;1f ;1

. r , th is log ical ,

, .t l l( l a sirnple.' . r r i ter not onlv

' i : r { \ i r l qual i t lJ. .r nlechanisnt

I: t t t ' t , t , t t t * , r ,

i r r r t t tarv ' mark-

I ' IF -TH TECHNIQT' I I O! BRFI . \KTHR() I ( l I I ( i ( ) l ' ]Y : \ I t l ( iF I , \N IZ . . \ ' l l ( ) \ l ; l l

Here the cop\ ' ,sf1l /1,s u' i t l r t l rc nrecl l r l l r is l )) , iu l( l or lh g(x 's i t l to

tlre bargain claiuts sir porogruplts ltrtcr. Again. lrt' lt irs takerr the

Cretitive Cltinrble: in this case'. tltitt lrt ' c'orrltl Iroltl tlrt ' r('a(lo"s irt-

terest {br those six pari tqraphs. Ant l . l r t 'cause o1' this garnblt ' . l re

reaps ten tirnes tlre belieralril itr lor t'r't 'rv u'oxl lre saicl alrotrt the

btrrgain-r-alue of 'his o1' r fhrrn t l t t t t poi t t t orr .

Page 187: Breakthrough Copywriting


Horv to Destroy Alterrrate Ways for

Your Prospect to Satisfy His Desire

As vou knolr,', in tlie final analvsis'

no successful copV ever sells tr product. It sells a wav of satisfr -

ing a particular desirc-. Ancl its pou'er to sell ultimatelr.' corlles

from the intensih- of tliat desirer.

If the desire is cornrnercitrl-that is, if it is shrirecl lly lrasses

of people, and if each of these people rvant that satisfiiction enough

to pay the price req,irecl fbr a rnechanisrn to strtisfr, it-then it

is highlv probable that rnany firnrs rvill trv to cleliver that mech-

anism, or product, to therr-r.

The almost universal condition of cornrtrercirrl life is cornpe-

tition. No one r.vho sells anything, of course. can tr''oicl it. As vou

write, one eye is fixed on vour market. and the other on vour

cornoetitors.1\t" hun'" described in this book ser-eral clif'ferent u'ar''s of


Page 188: Breakthrough Copywriting

176 s IXTI r rECI rNreuE oFBREAKTHr I ,Lcr rc ( )p \ ' : coNcE\ - I . r t . \ . r . r ( ) \

beating conrpetition. Letls stop fbr a *orirerrt arrl*. therr:First , of ' co'rse, is superi , r i t ' ' f 'Pr* l 'ct . This is t l ie , l t i -

rnate \\'eapon in the *'irr for thr. crns,urer.s rlol]ar. If rorr prr-cluce the berst prodrrct. r,orrr rrrlvertising lris a hrrnth.r,rl tlrues tlrt,chance of srrccess tha' if rrru prrcrrrce orl' rl {'air prrdrrct. Nlostgreat acls ha'e been associatecl *'ith gre.t pro,l.r"ir. Nlost greirtcopv clairns collle {iorri the assernblr. li,re. lf rorrrs cloes not. il\ o r r r ( ' ( ) p \ i s l l e t t e r t l r a n r o r r r p r r r l r r t , i . t 1 , , , , , , . , , , 1 i t t , r r r r r r . c . l i t , r r tinsteacl of vo.r prospect. a'cl tell hiui t, rrrake it a r.ealitr.

But er-en the best prclchrct reecls e,lrrall ' rrs t,f 'fectir.t, (,or)\kr induce people to trv it. Othenl,ise. the erc.essive cost of get_ting the first prrrchase rna' clri 'e the prrrluct ,ff the rrrar-ket. bt,-frrre the repe.t sales ca. build Lrp higlienorrgh t, currr it tlrr' 'glr.

So u'e corne trt our seconcl \\,eirpon to beat cornpetition_su_periorit' of prornise. A str'nger prrrrrise, that c-r'okes ,r'rt cle,-sire. A * ' ider pr. ' i ise, thrr t causc-s urore people t 'br^. A,r '* ,believable prornise, that brings in the skeptici iis *.ell as the srrs-ceptible. This entire book has been a biuepri't {br cle'elrPirrqsuch prornises.

Tliircl' *'e ha'e the *'eapor of' pr.chrct-role. The rrle, tlrt,procl,ct allo*'s its crnsuurer to plar: ih" p".r.,ralitr, the irrerti-ficatio^', the pre-stige, the stat's, tirer erciterr-i.'rt 'o, crrr lrrirrqorrt of rour prodrrct. or graft onto it.

F.'rth' u'e ha'e response a'd reac,tir)' rrs rr c' abilitr- tc't ,ne-rqt the c"rpetitirr: t, esc.ltrte clairrrswlren necessarv; to shifi ntechturisnrs; to rreu. nrarkers.

Ancl fifth-the techniqre \\rLr *.iil cliscrrss ir trris chapter-isdirect :rttack.

Dire'ct attack-the urechanisur oI' cont,tfizfirn_cli{I'erscornpletelr-fio'r the other fbur rrethocls *,e lrn'e discrrssecl alr,r.t,.All these techniq'es htr'e the cor)rro' elernert of ignori'g tlit,cornp-etitio'. The'crnce.trrrte o\ lJorr storr.. r70rrr pro*ises. r70rrr-benefits, r|our procl,ct. The'act as there i, ,rc, ,the-r *.arposs i l l l e o l ' g i r in i r rg t l re sa t is r iu ' t i rn ro r r r P ' rsPer . t r les i r . r , s .

Therefore, ther'' are uiost eftec.tir-e ri4re' rr'r cl''ri'att, rL

S I X T T I 1 - I ( i i

f ie l t l . r , 1, , rlovalh .t,1.,i s so l tou ,no t l t ing t , 't l te nrt ' . t r

I -

e v e l l l n \ r ( :

B r r t ' :

budget i r

prospe( t'be tr l t ' r r t ,rechturrr , ' l

B r r t t iut lentt ' r l I)/our I)r'( )\t

can ort l r l , .

t i tne , l t r l ,

lacks- t1 , , ,

uou ('(nt i '

T l r t ' r ,at t t rck is i ' :onh ' f i r r ' tparaqirrg ' .

n'rincl is ..,

l l r r tshort ' r r , , r :sen- ice . l ' ,vou l t r t r , ' . ,questtorr , '

( ) t , r t , ,

nesses i r r t iprospec tu,hat lrt' .,,,

Page 189: Breakthrough Copywriting

) i ( ) \ c l l \ - IRA ' I ' IO\

: , I r t ' r ' icu ' thenr :. l - l r i s

i s t he r r l t i -

. , r ' I1 ' \ 'ou pro-

. : r r l r t , t l t i n t e s t h e

r: prochrct. ivtlost' i t t . . \ l os t g rea t, , l r ' . r loes r tot . i {

i : l t o r r l r r c l i en t

: : .L r t , l r l i t r ' .

, . , . t l t ,c ' t ive ctopv' . r ' . r . ( '( )St ()f get-

' l r l r r r i r r ke t . l t e -

, r ' r ' r i t through.

I r r I ) ( ' t i t io t ' l -su-' ,k , ' r t t iore de-

1 , , l , r r r , \ m o r e, . , l l .Ls t l ie sus-

' : , r1 116' r 'g lsp '11o

. ' l - l r t ' ro le the

, r t r t l te ic le l t i -' .. ru (. i i l1 bri lrg

. .t c'onrpetit ive, ' . t i r l r t te c l i r i tns

: ' , ' . \ l t l r l f ke t s .

: : , i ' c 'h t tPter- iq

, ' , ' , r1 l r l i -c l i f lers, i : . t , rsseci r lbove.' ' i i { r r< l r i ng t he

' : ) l ' ( ) l l | l ses , r yo l t r. rro otlter tvr*-

: i , ' . i t ' t 's .

. , ' i r L l r r r i na te t t


field, rvhen vour primarv probleln is to protect vour custoltters'

lovaltv against the clain'rs of vour cornpetitor, or when vour storv

is so porverful, so different, or so fresh thnt tlie competition has

nothing to n-ratch it. In these ciises. it's better not to give hin-r

the prestige of attack, not to rnerltion his clairns or his product,

e\.en invidiousl)', in the space u'hich costs vou such a dear dollar.

But in manv other cuses-especiallv u'here )/ollr advertising

budget is much less than his-especiallv u'here the bulk of vour

prospects are alreadv custorners of' his-vour first problem rnav

be to crack his irnage, to shatter their lovaltv, before you can

rechannel their desire arouncl to rrtu.

What Concentration Is

But this process of CrtncentrrftiLtn-this careful, logical, doc-

urnented process of proving inefT'ectual other rvays of satisfving

vour prospects desire-i's nurcl't mctre than nlere attack. If you

can onlq attack another prt'duct-tcithout 'shou;ing at the sanrc

tinrc, by comparison, hrttc yotrr pnttluct prttuicles u;hot the other

lacks-then say nothing at all.t Nexer attack a roeakne,ss unless

tJott can prol)ide the solution ttt that rcenkne,ss ot the ,same titne!

The reason for this is siniple. Your prospect knou's that vour

attack is biased. If, therefore. \'ou are attacking another product

onlv for your o\\n good-in other rvords, to rvin the sale bv dis-

paraging vour corrllletitor-u'hat vou will probablv evoke in his

rnind is skepticisrn and dislike, atid verv little else'

But-and this is the critical point in this process-if you can

shorv your custorner that this attack is fbr his own good, in his

sen'ice, because vour product u.'ill elirninate this rveakness, then

1'ou have a sales storv he rvill accept. Then vou rvill rnake him

question even the most ingrainecl loyaltlr

Concentratlon, therefore, is the process of pointing out weak-

nesses in the cornpetition . . . emphasizing their dissen'ice to vour

prospect . . . and then proving to him that vour product gives him

r.vhat he wants r'vithout them.

Page 190: Breakthrough Copywriting

178 slxrH TECH\IeuE oF BREAKTHROUcIH cop\': ctoNCEN.I-R,\.troN

Notice that all the techniqtres that \\'e ha\-e cler-eloped in thclast ferv clrapters are usecl here. Inten.sification to shou.the penal-ties of continuing n'ith the olcl procluct. Cradunli:atiott to sliou'the logical cause of' the u'eaknesses ancl hou' thet' ctn nor,v becttrecl. X'[echtni:atlon to pro\-e that rrtrrr product removes theu'eakness. Ancl so orr.

Concentrutlorr is therefcrre a cornplicated process, taking upsizable space to clo its job properlr', and coritbining trhnost e\.er\-trick vou have learnecl in this book. To see hou' incrediblv ef'-fective it can be, horvever, let us look at trr-o nrirsterfirl eraniples.

T l re f i rs t i s o r r r spr t rk p l r rg i rd i rga i r r . As vor r re r r re rnber . i r rtlte copr., the copv utiterr has tolcl his prospect tliat he ciur nrrrhis czrr r.vithout sptrrk pltrgs, that he can get ntore gtrs rnileagerancl rnore power if he puts "fire injectors" into his car instetrd o1'the old-f-ashioned plugs.

Norv he {Ioes on to:1. Provide the rnechanisrns u,ldch prove his clu,n cltrirn; ancl2. To clestrov the prospects conficlence in plugs fbrever in

this brilliant piece of lrit"r.o'"nvirrg copr.:


And fbr vou mechanics trncl engineers let nre tell vour.l4n' fire injeciion rnust gir-e vou these results.

A spark Tlug.jtttttp.s a s1tork of electrir:itt1 ocross rtrt airgrry. This is the n'rost r,r'astefirl rrrrcl poivcr consurrring u'avto get electricitr' {l'orn one pltrce to another rincl it linritsthe size of the spark.

A Jire injectLtr Jiras on thL, ,vttface of rtn elt:r:trical cort-ductor Tliis is the urost efiicient u'av to get a big power-f r r l sn , r rk i r r to r r r t r r r . r l i r rd . r .-On

orclinortl spirk Stlugs tlrt' trir guTt bettcet:rt tltL, t:lec-trLtrle ancl tlu: .fiiing point is alrctry.s !etiittg bigger becnrrsethe electrode is all-avs burning au'al-. Tlris nreirlls vciu htncnrisfiring u4ricli nieais loss uf' 'puu,,:. pltrs u'astcrl gas phrsraw girs to cliunrrge the cr'linders irncl piston rings. Ott .fireinjectctr.s there i.s rro oir gap unrl tut elcctnxle to bttrn rucatl.That rneans n'ttrximrrnr gas erplosiorr u.'hic,h nreans firll

S I X T I I I ' I . ( I i \ :

I)o\\ I l

p l ' t t t , ' L '

\i r t t ' t l r ,

s t ' i t t t r -, \

t r r r t l l l 's ' i l l . , , 'u i t l r , ' , . '

\t L r r t l l i :

\u i l l r ,a t t ' t l I

\ \

l tL ' t t ' :

t l t r t t ,

c ' i t ' r r t\ \

l / i ( ) l - r -

e i l \ l ( ' l

a r r t l ' ' '

l i r r t r ,

1 1 1 s r I

u i l l i\

l f ( r t l t '


I t t t i '

t l r , t ' '

t t t t - . l '

I l r ' ' 1 "

he us t ' : t

Se( l l1( ' l l ( ( I

I i i r ' ' t

the o l t t ' r ' , ,1

Page 191: Breakthrough Copywriting


L r t,lopecl in the. l ror i ' the penal-. ' : : r t t i t tn to shou'rr '\ L' i i l l nOrV be

;r t lt 'rnot'es the

,( t .ss. tak ing up

:r ' t i [ l l l iost everv.,. rrrc'reclibl-v ef-

: , r ' t r r l er tunples.' . 1 ' ( , i l te l l t l )er , in' l , . t t l r e can n ln, : , . g l rs rn i le i rge

: . t . t r i ns tead o f

, .r r r c' laini; and' , ' i l . l i r rever . in

' t , . l l r o u

' ' t t t t r t i r- : i t rg u , r l v

: r t l i n i i t s

" - t , , t l ( t tn -

: : _ l)o\\ 'cr-

' . ' l t r ' c l c c -

. 1 , , ' c r r t t s e. . r r u l t i t | e

: 1 . t : p lus

: ' ( ) t t . f i re' , , ' ' ,1 t l lL '( l !1.

' ' . , r , t l i r l l


po\\,er, fiill ecrnront)' alrd no ra\\' gas to lvaslt a\\'av the oil

protection i}on cvlinder rvalls itnd pistons.

A .spark pLug occtttttttlatc's Jilth and carbon because of

inefllcient firing. Tliis meilrts vou need regular cleaning.

setting ancl c'rpensit'e repl:rcernent!A Jirc injcctor ncxcr necd, cleaning ttr 'setting. It ac-

tuirl lr. '"breaks in" alcl becotnes rnore ef{icient rl ' i th use. It

u,ill actutrllv outlast vour car. clelivering u:Lxilntttlt efTiciencr"

u.ithout sen'icing tt i replacerile'nt.A spark plug gite's ytttt tr tlin skin4nl spcrk that uc-

tuallv blou's out under pressllrL' of less than 120 pounds.'A.fira irLjector gitis tlott (t ltcaLtl Ttorcerful flane that

u'ill not blclu' out at pressllr('s {irr hetrvier than tllose cre-

irtecl bv even tlie liigliest c'orttpre'ssioll engille . .

\Yitlt ordirrunl s1tork Ttltrgs tltttr are Lttirtg, or ,sluxild

lte usitrg prenitntt gcs u'lt ich cttsts {i 'orl ' tr to 8 cents more

than ordinarv gas, trnd des;litc this vou're setting inefll-

cient, n'aste{ul gas cousutiiptit l t.\\/ith fre injcc:tttr's rL'grtlttr gcrs uill gixc tlott ttp to 8

nu)ra gos nila,s per gallon. rr1t to 31 nore lu)r'selrotce4 plus

eirsier starting irr all \\'eilther. .\dcl these sar-ings together

irncl see for voursel{'rl'll. I sirv that fire injectors u'ill ptlv

l irr thernselr'",. ' , '"., siri 'qle rtttrrtt l r that voriclrive vo.r.. 'oi.

Ordinanl \pork plugs lrrttt' to be replacad reguhrly.

In soute of the ner'v higlt-ccttttpressiou cttrs, :l set of ph-igs

n-il l burn up in ir couple o{'rt lorlths.A Jtre injcdttr instollatitttr i.; gttaranteecl for tlrc liftt ttf

t loltr cor rcithcni cleaning. st:tt ' icing, or rePlo.ittg'

Tliese ilre solne clf the reasctns that the L'.S. Air Force

pay,s prenfutnt price's for 'vrrfrtct: sultpotted i lt jector's .fttrthiir aircraft ancl u4rv vou u'ill ultimatelr' find fire injec-

tors in all rrutornobiles. . . .

Let's See How He Does It

I hope that bv no\\' \'otl htn-e spotted llttrnr' of the technitlues

he uses to gain his efl'ects . . . to build the overrill Po\ver o{' this

sec{uelice. Letls just check oil a fer'i' of thern right nou':

First . of 'L 'or l rse. is t l re i rr tenr-el tr ing ( 'u l) t rast. . \ u 'eakl tess i t t

the opertition of the sp,rrk plug is pointecl out. and then irnnrecli-

Page 192: Breakthrough Copywriting

lE0 srxrH T'rcHNIeuE oF BREAKTHR.U.H copy: coNCENr.riATIO\

ateh' counteracted bt'the benefit the injector gives vou. Bad_good; bad-good; bad-good: this is the uncleriving stnrcture ,1'this sequence.

But this is only one use he makes of parallelism. IIe repeats'n'ords t. contrast the inherent *,eakness u{'th" plug *,ith t}re i'-lrerent strength of the injector. ,.A

spark plr,g j.r,-,rpr'u rpnrk. . . .. ."Af i re injector. f i res on.. . ." spark is aiveakrun.d, Tgre is rn,crrstronger r isrral l r . And lre later intensi f ies t l r is r .ontrast o{ ' i r rr i rqt ,by saving: 'A

spark plug gives volt a thin skintpy ,s1tark. . . . ..

against "A fire injector gives l,ou n herrcry, punn'r1ul fartrc. . . ...You can picture the difference.

Throughout the copr,l definition and re-clefinitio' take prtrce.spark firing is the "rnost *,asteful trnd porver consurning \vir\,.," ASopposed to "the rr-rost efficient rvav to get a big porveri.,l spa.k.Misfiring rneans "loss of pol,:. pr,r, . . .1" oaril"',r-,ari'rur-. gas e\-plosion means full power, f,ll econom): . . ." (Notice the parailcrsentence structure here shalpening the contrast.)

And, in a beautiful image. the fire injector act'allv "breaksin"-a

_rnasterpiece of redefinition bv analogv.of course, aL''ost e'er\- benefii hars its docurnenta^. 'rech-

anis'r. The air gap in ordinarr., plugs gets bigger ..because thi,

3lellrode is burning a:vay" The spar[ pi"g g"tJ'iirrv ..because o1'

inefficient firing." And so on.Let me point o't again the general st*cture of this se(rlrence.

I t is:Bacl.Good.Bad.Cood.Bad.Cood.And so on. It thtrs oflers repeatecl, direct, one_for_one corr_

trast' It explores a number of perfo'nirnce factors of ital i' the prospect-shorving the bad and then the good side o{.each of them.

S I X T I { ' I

I , ( } {

T l r i . .of' c'or r r'r, '.

to col t t r - , r . '

Llv ont,. \ '

rercrirrir r,1

r t t i l iar . rLr , , l

u ' i t l t t l r r , . ,

I n t l r

e l l t s tn l ( t , :

\ \ ' l n r l

a r c ' t r s r r rg ;

\ \ - l r . i l

I I t ' r ' ,

Letls look

Ip l r r r , .(l l 'L ,

o \ \ t l '' lror

l,,q i r t ' '

. \ I ' I ' It L r t , , :r l o t l r :

I .. \ ( i l \o l l t r .t l t i r t . .l- ( )t i t

\g l i ' , 1 :r O t t t . L

i l , , ' '- - \ l l ( l : i '

l ! 1 ' : '\

tt 'r 'r r i

Page 193: Breakthrough Copywriting


l \ ( ' \ \ 'O t l . Bad-

rrrg stnrcture of

I r . r r r . I Ie repeats' l ' rg s ' i th the in-, l ) ' r t sPrlrk. . . . " ,, rr l : l t r t , is rnuch,rr tr i tst of i rnage, , i , r 1 . s p a r k . . . . "' ,l irl .flnnrc. . . ."

r t rorr take place.. r l r l t t t t { 1Y2Y , " i tS

;' ', ",,,'rfirl spark.". . r \ i l t l u l n gas ex -' t : t t , the pt r ra l le l

. , t t r r r t l l r ' "breaks

t : r r r 'n t i l r \ - tnech-

, : l leciiuse the

i:rtr "because of

, t t l r i s se rgence .

r i r ' - l ( ) r -or le con-

:. oI vit ir l inter-

i r , . lor ) r l s ide of


A Second Strategy

This is one \\'ay of accornplishing vour Concentration. But,

oi'course, it is not alu'a-vs feasible, ltecause the points 1'ou rvish

to contrast lnav not be so easilv iurd cletrrlr- broken doun' one

bv one. You rna-v be dealirrg, ittstettcl. u'ith a tit'tre sequence-tl

recurring, rrnpleasant exPerience ri'ith $-hich the prospect is fa-

rnilirrr, and rvhich you u'ish to sharpen lte{bre I'ou provide hirn

ri'ith the antidote.In this case your Conct'ntratirtn copv u'ortld adopt a dif{'er-

ent structure. Something that lttrtks rtrttrt' l ike this:

\\rhat happens to vou no\\'. u.itlr the procltrct or products vcnt

are using presentlr.rWhat u'il l happen u'heli r-tttt ss'itclr to the tleu'product.

Here is such a structttre. lirr ttn acl sellirlg a reducing pill.

Let's look first at the negatir e coP\':

For l'ears doctors ltttvt' ktton'tr thtrt orclinarr'' reducingplans-that vou pi1\'S5, ,$10 attcl er-eu S15 fbr in the stores-ire corrrpletelq passirc.t That tlrev depencl strictlv on vourou,r'r u,ill power-on rorrr abiliti' tct storxe that fat off 1'ourbodu AII that these orclitrarv recltrcing plans are elble tog i r r j r o u . . . f o r r r r u r $ j 5 , t ' S l 0 o r S l 5 - a r e H U N C E R -Appn,tSIxC PRODUCITS-pills. pou'ders and liquids thatclo nothing more than sr.r'ell up itt vour stornach-that donotlting more than "dull" r'our hrurger a little.

But not one of tl.rese prochicts could do anr'thing t<lACTI\ItrLY help r-ou recluce rour n'eight. To take the strairroff that stan'ation diet. To irc'tuallv help vou BURN UPthat uglv fat. . . OXIDIZE tlrtrt fat. . N'IELT IT A\\AY-F'ORE\IERI

So u4rat happened? If I'ott u'ere or''enveiqht, vou strug-gled to do the job of reducing BY YOURSELF! \bu tookvour hunger-appeasing pills religiouslr'. You pushed arvtwthe foods vou lo','e. You spent u'eek after n'eek of tofture.And finally if votr rvere lt,cLr..ot, can'ecl ofI 5, tO, or even12 precious pounds.-

And then tlour tcill porcer snapped! \bu broke vourterrible cliet. You discovered that vour little pills were use-

Page 194: Breakthrough Copywriting


less to keep vou au,av frorn trie ibocls rou lovecl. Arrr trtt,fnt f , 'u avl b,rck-/rcai ' icr rrr t t r , t / icr at , i r t t r t t r t ' t r t . t t t i l r l r r t t t t teuer brfore!

. Again. let'.s glance at the rneAns trre u,riter rrserr to get his

total effect.I' the first a'd second paragraprrs-Definitions ancl Reclef'-

inition. orcli 'a^' reducing plans are pn,ssite . The.r- depe'cl ,rr rorrrorm u'ill po\\/er. The-v can do nothing to actixeitl birr, ,,7, tit.

Ancl i ' the third-p.ragraph, the equ.ti 'g ni'tokrng ,,.,l irrn.,reducing pills ri ' ith "doing the job of reclucing ,,n,rrr"li."

_ Nert. logic-cause ancl effect. Gir-en the acceptance rf'the,se,

clefinitio's bv the reader, the thircl a'cl fo'rth p,nrrrg.upl^ becorrt,a logical necessih: This tone of'cause ancl ei1'ect is conr.e'erl i'the phrase: "So vr.'hat happened?

Nor'r', of' coLlrse, the thircl and fourth pariigraphs condernsean experience $'hich is all too comrl]on to c'r'err'\\,onlan $4rO hasever tried to reduce. She has lir.ed throush thisirerself. tirne altcr.time' she recognizes etrch of the svrrptorns. A'cl so sher fincls her-self'nodding her head, agreeing *,itir each i' its t.m. b.irrlirg'p u streaur of .cceptances *4iich carries rnore .'cl ,lore coll-'iction as she finds her or.r'n experiences 'rore ancl rnore thor-ough\' described.

A'd then, at the clirnar, in the last line of the fo'fth ,uru-graph, the destmction of the olcl 'rethocls of'rechrci'g i,

"nr,,il"t..Notice the use of the u'orcl 'Anrl" to tie this firal inclict,ne't i,r

structurallr.' rvith the strearn of se'sorv experiences that ha.r.e. g'nt,be l 'o re i t . T l re re i s no t lo r rb t t l r * t t l re la t l r r rs r , . r r re l r iu .k r rg i r i r r i r rthis rvornan's life-if it hadn't, she rvoulcl''t har.e .end thi, uruchof the ad. But here the ineaital:le implication brtrierl irt rt ,sr:1tt:1r:t,u;ith tthich no u)ottl.,_could dLsagree-i,s that it rca.s tlte .fuilttrt,of the pills that crnned the failure of the diet.

. Thl r the stage is set lbr the hero-procluct to ernerge. It has

alreaclv bee' foreshaclo'r,ed in the. ,""o,-r,l pzrrtrgrtrph-ir, the ,,"g-ati'e acc,sations that these ordinarl' 'ethods c:in clc, nothirs" iu ' t i relr" to "hrrrn au-ln-" lat .

S I X ' I ' I I I I

\ r ' '

\ r r ,

u 1 , ,l ( , 1

l r i r r

i t (

t l r ,

i t

l l ( " ' .

t l l r

o 1 i

t o I

t I r , .

t , \ l j ,

c i t \ ,

\ ( ) l l '

t l r . t :

t l r , I

l i r r

i i

\ { r . r

. 1 1 r ( :

pictrr r t ' - : '

I l r r 't r t e t t t r L t i r ,

p ro r t t i s t '

i t s o r i g i r ,

ne l s o l 1

do t ' r u r , , ' : ,

Page 195: Breakthrough Copywriting

t I , \ ( -o \C]ENTRATIO\

. , , 1 . . \ r r l t h c. ,1, rttl ltl than

' : ' ' rst ' r l to get his

,:li,ns ancl Reclef'-' ' , r l t ,Pencl on \our

" i l t r rn t up {a t ., : t r tk irrg ordintrrv

l r ' ' !, , r ) l l 1 ' ! ; ( ' l l .

, , p t rL i rc ,e of ' these

t :..r, lr irPhs lteconte' r : i . c ' t t t t t 'eyed in

, - : . . tP l rs condense

" .\ ( )l Ir ittt $rho hits

i , ' r ' ' , ,11. t i rne r r f ierj ., , . l tt ' f ipcls l ier-

: ' . t un r . bu i l d i ng' ' r l r ( l l ]1Ore cOi l -

. r i r ( l i l lore thor ' -

' : i , , ' l i r r r th parr t -r r , I r , l is cornplete.

: . . ,1 i r r r l ic t r rent i l l' . t i i , r t l tar . 'e gone

: : . , . l r i r c ' k a g a i n i n, r ' ( . . r ( l th is ntuc l r' ' : , , l i tr u ,\entanc(,

: ' ' r / / \ t l rc . fa iht rc

i , r ' l r r C t ' { € . I t h i r s

, i r l r - i n t he neg -

r . r r I ( l o no th ing


Norv the copv goes ott, lrottt failure to prornise, l ike this:

And so vou tried artotlter passive plnn. And tulother.

And rinother. Ancl then if rrrtr u't'i'e' like the tllell and \\()lnen

u'hose ftrntastic case histt,i'ies \\ ert rt'Ported bv leading lned-

ic:rl journals-perlitrps rtrtt u-ertt to votrr doctor trnd askecl

him for en (.osu tccttt ttrtt rt ' i t l torrt tttrtttre-<tncl rcit ltotLt. : l i c l i t t g l , t t ck . '

These cloctors hird tht' rtrrs\\ 'er in rt t irtr. grer-pil l-ancl

i . t ( o l r n n( )n-set rs , ' n l r tn .In their hanils-s,, t irt i t irtt th.. 'r c'otrlt l balatlce it on

the t ip of thei r l i t t l , : f i r rq, ' r ' - \ \ i t \ perhaps t l te greatest\\renpon ever cliscor-ereil i tqit irtst cleirt l lr ' , e\cess ftrt. It u'as

a rnirircukrus compotrrrcl c' ir l letl L,E(IITHIN-brancl-ng11,-s'[e5e attttrzing firt-clissolrirrg properties l i ircl l leen

discoverecl bv a Nobel prizt ' r i ' irtrtt 'r-the co-tl isc'ttr-erer

of insul in . . . ' .Becittrse this prodrrt 't urLs pt'rfecth' safe-trncl as etls\ '

to ttrke irs an itsDirin-rltirll\ liatl trsecl it theriiselves lvhen

l l r e r r r a n l e r l t o i , r s c u i ' i ' q l r t . .Ther''uvere trot givetr iutr stirtlatiittt cliets . . . thev never

experienced il single hrtngrr tttottte'ttt . . . thev reportecl, in

case a{ter case. tliat ther lelt rttore pep. luore e}rergi'. lrore

vouth :rncl vitalitv thirn tlter hatl krrttrut iu vears!. \ n r l t l r r r r . i l a r r t l i c r t L t r . l i r s t , ' r ' i t r t t l e a s i e r , r t t d s r L f e r

tlt:rn thev hacl erer'krrtr.ttt,t ' . ' . t l re ugh-excess fat:irouncl

their boilies riielted au.trvl \\-h jle tliev s'ere eirtiuq three cle-Iicious nieirls ir clar', tlter'utre slreclcliirg as tttttt'lt its 5 porurclstr rr,eek. \\'hile ther- u'ere 1t'risting on tttctuth-u'aterir-rg

steaks. . . .

And so on. Right back into Intensificirtion copr', u'ith its strong

picture-intage sell.

Here trre \()ur contrilsf-1-sl11 lnechaniztltion-t'otrr docu-

lnentation-\'our rei'erence trl attthoritr'-ancl theu xrur return to

prornise, in the form of case histttrr', u4rich ttou' ltas tnanv titnes

its originnl po\\,er, basecl on both the eliminatiort o{'iilternate chiln-

nels of fulfillment, ancl the strong supporting mechtrnism u'hich

clocuments its cltt inrs.

Page 196: Breakthrough Copywriting


One Final Word on Concentration

I have purposelv chosen extreme exarnples to illustrate eirclrrnechanism. These copv blocks are longer than Concentratiottneed logically be. The sarne effect mal'be boiled clown into tu<ror three sentences, or even a single phrase, as in tltis classtc'headline:


Here is contrast-irnplied r'veakness in other products-cour-pensating promise in vour ou.r'r.

Again, it is not the content, nor is it the length of copv usedin a rnechanisrn that ntrkes it effective. It is simplv trnd solehthe problem it solves for you in the developrnent of your cop)'-

bi' the emotional retrction it produces on vour reader u,'hen he

encounters it.If, in this case, vou have caused hirn to question a habit . . .

shift a lovalt-v. . . take a chance on )/our product-vou have done

t.our job, no rratter hou' ferv or hou' rnany rvords vort have ttsetlto do it.


i l r i l t t ' u,r. ' .

u-e s l ro r r l , L

eu t i re l r , L : '

r r l l t l r t ' i , ,l - l r , '

ktr t ls. 1, ,ot l t t ' t ' t r r , :

publ ic ' rLt : ,kec l t i t t

p e t l l l ) { . . t :

" 1 t g1 ] . o l . .

\ . . i

l b r i t r r , ,

t lercat t r , ' : .

H e l t , L r ' ,

Page 197: Breakthrough Copywriting



: , , i l l r rs t ra te each'r ( .oncentrationI ,kru'n into two. i rr this classic

I H( ;ERY. ' '

p roth rcts-cotri-

JIr ol 'copv usecl:r , l )h and solelv, ,f r our Cop)'-

: , ' . t r l t , f u 'hen he

\ ! l ( ) l l i t h a b i t . . ., , , , ' r I rave done

. '., ,u ltave usecl


How to Borrou' Conviction for Your Copy

\\ e har.e nor'"' cliscussecl fir'e sep-ru'irte \\'avs to build believalii l it i ' into vour copr: I do not thinkri'e shoulcl leave tli is subject u-itluurt at least mentioning one other,e'ntirelv di{I'e rent, upproach-th ut o1' l xt r rou i n g bel ievabili tr. f rornall the places irt orrr societv u'lrt'rc it is storecl up.

The process bv rvhich rrn clo this is quite sin'rple. As vouknou'. people clo lot lxn' a ne\\'spaper. or a magazine, or rrnvother nreclirun of courrnrrnicirtion ftrr its ircls at trll. Thev br-rv this

publicaticln-or thev turn on their raclio and teler-ision set-fokeep irr tottclt rcitlt tlrc rcorkl anntncl thent: to learn u4rat'.s hap-

pening. and u4n' it's happening. To be entertained, or enlight-enecl, or sinrplr- kept up to clate.

Nou,. u,hen a persol clxroses one of the publicirtions (and

fbr a rnonrent u,e'll clisregarcl radio unrl television). he does scrbecturse he belier-e.s that that publication is telling hirn the tmth.He lras .faitlt in that ptrblication. He beliexe,s in lt.

I fj,")

Page 198: Breakthrough Copywriting


_ A'd, as lo'g as he has faith in that publication (as an), space

bur''er can tell vou) it rernains trn excellent mediurn for advertis-ing-becrnt'se sonrc .f hLs tnr,st carrie,s oDer fron the ed.itorktlpages to the orl.-efti,sing poges. He sirnplv assumes that hls pub_lication u.ouldn't carry' the ad if ;t r,r,eren't true.

Ard, on tlre other ha'd, r,vhe' he loses faith in that pubri-cation, the eirectir.eness of its iidvertising just goes to pieces. If'he no longer belie't's in the publication, he ncrn't berieve i' theaclvertising it curries. This factor-the belier.abilitv in the meclituni tscl f- l t l r i r rk is a f i r r rrrore i l r rport i rnt r , ,nsiclerrr t ion in bur ingspace than r.nere circulation.

All this is of ital interest to the space, of course, butu'e have to go zr step further. You see, not onlv does this readercorne to believe in the publication lr,hich he htivs repeatecllr,, butafter :r *'hile he becomes ,secl to recei'ing his tnrth couched inthe stnle trncl fonrat ancl phraseolog- of that particular puhlication.

In other rvorcls, a conclitionecl reflex has been formecl here.The rnan belie'es i' the publicatirn. Tlie publication phrases itsrnaterial in a certain *.ur'. Afte'r a r,r'hile. tluft phraseologl beginstLt cnrry an ouro of truth all by it,self, no nmtter rchat nraterirtlit entbracc,s.

Thus, vou har-e u'aiti'g for 'o'r ad-r{'it is adapted the right\\/av-a stored believabihtr... A believabilitv reflex. which vou ciur,tp_bl' aclopting this particular publication.s phraseolog) ruire,-, vo.,at l t l ress i ts aut l ierce.

Let's Look at a Few Examples

I'll trv to sho*'''ou the three diff'erent *,avs vou can borro',r,this built-up believabilitv:

First. clf course. ancl nrost olrvio.s, is F'rrnat. Each publi-cation htrs its ou,'n look. lbrr have Your cop\'. your job is to rnergeboth of thern into a cornhination that rvill:

l. Allorv the reader to e'ter i 'to ,u'our ad rvith the learstpossible rnental shifting of gears frorn "eclitorial" to "advertise-ment . "

s l t \ . I . . \ ' l t I r !

l . ( r l

tl irougl r ,

I l r r t t ,l ier-e l iL, , ' , :

st t l ts o1 r , , , .i r r l i r r r r r r r t

\ i r r r r '

poss i l r l t ' t lTh is t r r t ' r t r .o f h e , u l l i : ,the i r s r r l , l

O r r t : ,hand l i r rg li lcl thirt ri ., '

succ t ' ss l r rn-lI l l ( ' .

the \ \ al l '

so tha t r :t c c t t t i t r r , .

] t ' t .

con t i r t t r , , i

I . - l ' l

i s n o r l i 1 i , :

hear l l i r r . . l

i s s t t e . ' l - 1 , ,


is t rn i r r l : :

i n a l l t , r ; , .

2 . ' l - l

o t t t l t t ' , , i l .

ago l r r l l t r

r rnc l t l r , ' r ' , :

thrrt it r. -

t h t r t r r r r r t l .

Page 199: Breakthrough Copywriting

I I ' \ ( , \ \ I O U F L A C E

' tr irs an\- spaceirn li)r aclvertis-t,t tltt ' editorial, . t lu i t h is pub-

lr in that publi-n. . t r t pieces. I ft I ' t ' l io 'e in the, rrr the rnecliurn.r trort in buying

: , rl c'ourse, butl, x't t[is reader:'t 'pt'atedll: but

:, rt lr couched in, :1. ,r Prrbl icat ion.: . l i ' r 'nrecl here.r t : , rrr pl t r i tses i ts' , . , , , ,1 , ,g11 beg ins, , t ! r t t t t tmter ial

i . , i r t t , t l the r ight\ \ l r i ch vou can

-, , . i l ,5 $'hen VOU

fcs' Eramples

, . r rr I t , i l l l bOrrow

.rr [ '.ach pLrbli-' , ,1 r i s to lnerge

. r i t l r the leas tto "tttlvertise-


2. ClarrY along the greatest possible ail]oLult o{'l lelieraltihtv

through everv sentence of the acl.

I har,e not cljscussed ltn,orrt in this book, beciruse I clo not be-

lieve ln,out is nearlv :rs effective as c'opv in deterlnining the re-

sults of r-our trtl. Here, hou,t'r-er. larrrtrt is irnportant. A single- chtrnge

in {brniitt can add 50o/c to r-orrr reaclership, aud r'our results.

YOur job hert-, oncet trgirirr. is tO trpprorirnate as ckrseh' trs

nossible tlie forrtitrt o{'tlic llic(lillrll irl ri'hich \-oll are trdr''ertisirlg'

ihi, ,.1't"ut-,r, icleallu letting tht't1 set your t1d ' ' ' using their kild

of headline-toltoclr..copv transitiott . . . using their il lustrations,

their sub hetrcls, their brt'itk-rrp ()l sPtlce'

On the follo*'ing Pages irre hrtr ads {irr the s:rrne bo'k ott

handling people. The first is arr all-prrrpose, house-set tutrgazine

ncl thzrt ivas shotgunned o\-('r' hveh'r' or fifieen tnedia. It u'as rnikllv

successful.The seconcl is thc sirnre iul. atlapte'cl featrtre lbr I'eature for

tlre \Vall Strect Jortrnrtl. It ri 'tts cttorrttrluslv successlul-5s ln11sh

so thart it has been repeiltetl ,irt tltt ' tirre' o{' this u'riting) nine-

tc.en tunes, once il trtonth. u'itlr rtrl drop-off in pLrll '

Lets look irt the chulgt's tlriLt gir-e this trcltrptecl ig1r-rtrt slch

continued belier.abilitr',

l. The heaclline, set l^ tht' .lottntrrl ir-r Journal trpe. There

is no clifl'erence behveen this old-lirshionecl, upper-atrcl-lorver-cirse

heaclline trnd anv other heirtllint' irt thc' i:ditorial content of this

issue. Therefbre, it cloes rrttt irttrtletliatelv signirl the retrcler: "This

is an ucl: lterr,arel" To have rrtixle it lltllcler or lllol'e rtlrltleru' clt

in il l l caps, u'ould sitrlplv clitlririish its eiT'ectiveness'

Z. ih., sub lieaclli'e,i-t\\.o .1'ther', one fbllo*'i'g clirectl'

on the other. \'erv Nineteertth Cletrtttn', retrllr'. Abandoned 1'ears

ago b1. ,c)9c/o o['all Artrerican ne\\'spapers, But the Journal ttses it,

a,ld tilere{crre the ad uses the srune trerrtrnent. Ancl the ver-v fact

thtrt it is so unnsual, ancl so olcl-firshioned, makes its adaptation

thzrt urr-rch tnortt behef-can'r-irtg in this colltext'

Page 200: Breakthrough Copywriting

t c

r'IIIIIlC,,l i ,II p

t;t,I,l i"It"t:,t_,t"II| , . .

t:I r,',I '1. ,-l . tt,.I .:


Crn Populrritt Br purch,'ed? Tbt Anru8, ir y.s!lnd th. Cort ir Approrinrttly fuo to Th'ro Hou'3 of you. TinF.

Popul.rity crn b. lranc.t.JuEt as dr iy ing ! c lr crn bal! ! rncd. And i t c ln bc madalust i l automatic, and just asrt l iabl ! .

Tbb hs beo prev.d by thou.$dda oa commullt l.a&B M?D&d *mao *ho *cr sol to kmpo9ubrrty by $ch corpontlolr arCc&dl MdoG Dopora, 5..6RebkL, A & P, Esruo Xodrt.Fo.q 8or&!. Cct-Co|a cood-ycu, Sr&d.rd Oil, Gcmnt Eltc.trL ald ord r hudrd Doe

T}c* corporat ions paid ote, oncmil l ion dol lars to a srnglc man lotcach th€rr crccut ivcs the scrcrs olpopulart ty.

Tley paid up ro t22.J0 a rr$ntO lcarn thc* prrcalcis tachnrques.

How 19 5u1a pcoplc want tose you agrin from lhc v.ry 6rrtmomcot lhey hect you.

How.lo avold tha cveryday blun"oc15 that aulomatiFl ly an(agonizepcople.

How 19 [6a416 aa5"rrassin8 i i tu_alrons, wlthoul l6 ing thc othcr per-9n I rcsrat.

How qs gg1 olher peoplc to l is lanto no one but you

.How ro gel olhar pcople to doYnat you wanl lhem to do - aodlovc doing ir .

Ovcr onc hundrcd of Amarica.starSest corporat ions paid up tot22.50 a pe.soo to lcquirc (hcslechnrou6.

You can learn tham al l , in you,own nome ncxl weckcnd. withoutrtsktng a !Emy. Hcre's ho*:

Th? Sooh That Tooktorty Ycers to Writ.

In lhe cnrrre Unircd Sralcr, onl ,oDc man tdches lhes lcchniaucs.H i s n a m c r s P a u l p . p a r k c r . L L . D .He har conccnlrated hts entrrc Lf. .l tma in onc f ie ld - dr$ovcnne thcdst hcrhodi of *mrng FoDlcovcr lo your way of rhint ing, wlth-out antagonrang lhch_

Dr. Parkcr bcl icves rhar rherclhodt are morc imponant thanknowlcdgc or "connccrions. . MorcrmponaDl thrtr tcchnical skj l l . Fe,rcrc rfrponant rhan hard worl-

He bclevcs thst rh.y arc r lc tcyro @f,c Mcrs gk you out.

And hc bclrcvcs that tfus pcMdalhagne[sm cao bc lcaancd. ln rp_ptoxtmatcly twO tO thr€ hour!

Ovcr ?J0,0OO hcn and wohcnaSrcc * i th hrm. Thc* l re thc Irople who t@L his cours jn pcr$n.

For ov.r fony y.ars, this t22.50pErsonal courk was thc only wayyou could lcarn thc* tachnrqucs.

Bur snilt today, *it-b tiir u-Doun*@dt, you caD haya cvcryword of thjs 122.50 cos€ to youov! bo&, for edy t4.99.

- Hcrc rs rhc Informatton you * i l lhnd In thls bml

How to MahrP.oplc 0o tthrt youttrot Thlm to Do!

How lo int foducc yoursl f tootDct! . so they ncvcr forret you.

How ro halc immcdrarc ioniu.rin r .conlcrsal ion - c i tablEh anamotronal aappof l .

How ro wrn lhc fr iendship, loy_alty and suppon of rhe pcoplcworttng w(h you.

How to r ivel a(ent ion toyour rcharls. Direcr a discussionIn rhe nght path, wtrhoul lc l t inc i tbc srdclrackcd or wander of l

How to hakc ycur poiot of v icvstrck indcl ibiy in yo!r l istcDcn.hrnos.

How to pa6uadc withoul rrru.6g. Crva ordcrs w,thout arousi-n3resnrment Cri t icrza othars wi lhoulhuning rhcir fc.Lng5.

How to tho PaoplrWho Rctlty Count

How to prcgnt youa idcas ro$p.nor! in a way rhat automal i-cal ty wins acccptane.

How to ovcrcorc favoritisnHow rs b3161q obj.ct ions. Stop

p.oplc from *ying no. Malc rrcaty For Ihch to say y6.

Hov lo maka a cohpl j rer l twiear affcct ivc.

How to u* your om fr jstal6 tosin Srcata. coo6dcncc for yoursl f .

ThrG oaSjc *ords rhr l automal"icsl iy arout crahusias&

Thc onc gtaat rcrct of halingp.oplc bclcv. ir y@. ncly @ you.Fol low you.

And t}rc Ert *ctioo is Gvcn mlcrcwardtd&

Hor to Siturtion3

How tg calm down dantcrous si t .uarrons. that midl t othcryig ipl{up fr jendships or lndo y!a6 ofhard work.

How 16 qaj61 a man dom whcnhc slafls rljsin8 his voicc.

How lo controt angar stom sothal thc olhcr pcrrcn apologi4sPi lhout your taying a pord.

How ro brodlc rbc lirtlc flllo?ebo rhinl . bcr ! bb lhot, tho"cridc." dlc wis 8uy, rhc rmudccl, rbc "lGtjsrcer..

How to win ovcr uofr icndly ct-Pcns. InC man who waDts tO 8at$herhrn8 off his chcst, lcalos rub-ordrnatcs, angry custorcB.

How 16 1"ao rhc othcr Dam!from ralrng rm long, without in-$[rn8 h@

How to cotrfol om ma, ot !wholc group of pcoplc_

How to malc thc othcr DaerComprofr i$ f i ,s1. How to at lo* hinlo swal low his words Sr.cful ty.I um Insuls Into apologct Hatrcdinto trut .

Wheo and whec ro gjv. in, rndhow to gat thc mos( for yourgl f .

Thc orc thitrg pcopk erot morcIhan anylhing cls in thc world.And how ro put youru in a pori.lion ehcrc rhcy 3a it from y&

l lcct Dr. Porkcr

. Prur P p.. t . r , f t 0. . i . r coci l t4trOn'r t i l r t - I ' ta lrha In i la l ia ld: O[cOv-rrnt t i .0art nat idr ot iarahtrt XcDr: - rno thrr int tnrr vt t . t Inoatadtarrrr otnart Ha ta Amarrca'a wtr lan-d.

tutnoiliy on tia rub,act, iav6r0 D. lo fa hor . lh rn s .mo, . i t . ;

r@ ont t , 'aud ia i ra r . Na h t ,0 Y . r J 5 0 , 0 0 0 D . o D t . i n t l t p r . l . ;

l8 i ,

Page 201: Breakthrough Copywriting


r d O r P o r l t r

b , ( \ 0 , ia ! cscanka l td l/ { r ff. ti.l6: D,tCOy. Ir a!rx! o, n$dtiftt ,.o It .a l f , t v r ta l lnor lad l ! li r Maf ica t d l t tand, lr : t !d l ! c t , Mr t { l . c - |E . rvn 5 ,000 . . t ta t rd ,n3

|4.{.1 h hat cocnad Ia , . c D a I n l | | a P t ? l . r l


aa aqloo it cven mtc

r to HrndltEtint Silu.lions' .= do$n dangcrous si t .' f, t]it olhcruig spltr- o. undo yca6 of

-a . man dom whcnsa 16 lolca,- f , . . .1 angca slolru IY: Frsn apolod4rs t n t e * O r d .

d€ r.bc litrlc fcuotE ! | bit rbot, thots tuy, tb€ lman

Dldct."- : , . r unfr icndly Cr.

r i $ho waots to gctt i t ch.g, ,cal@s !ub.3 l : r q o m 6 .4 rM othcr pc&orr- tont. v i thout i r .

r .ol orc ma, ot !o/ Foplc.r l . rh. othar FM!- g H o v r o a l l o * h i h!- t Lordi geeful ly.d Ipologlcs Hrtrcd

!r<r ro givr in. andr B( for yourglf.aa Nopk Panl mora1 . , ! r n t h € w o r l d .q Frelf io e p6i-q tq ir from y4

I 8 THE WALL STREET JOURNAI- Friday, April 9' 1965


ow to Malce'Anybody


Lilce You!



lCo, Popularitr Re Purchased? The An s,rerl

lis Yes!'Artd tlte Co.sf is ,lpproxirnately'Tu'ol

| ,o Tltrea lilturs ni You, Time". II Ropu lu . i t y . " t u " t .u r * * l " i - f l , j l ] ' re r r r rs i r be ' : " " ' l "d o ' I

I a r d r i v i n g a c a r c a n b e l e a r n e d . -

r , * ' ' , m o k e y o u r - r , ; l ' , " i ; , . *

. " . 1 |r A n d i t c a n b e m a d e j u s t a s

- j ' l : ) v r n v ' J ! l ' ' r ( ^ r

| "uion'" i i . ,

and just as rel iable. . 111*";: ' . ; i i ' ; ;"c,", ; ' ;hi . : : : l : : ' "1s c:f i t : II T h l ! h r e b P P n p r ^ \ , d h \ l t ' r ' t ' 1 , ' l t " ! ( s w r t h o u l h u r r ' r g r l c r r f e e l i r l '


| ;:" ' ; ' l ' j 'J;l ' ," ' ' i l ' l ; '" ' . l l : ,1,, i; l" l ' . ' i

1.". l l-" i R:'* th" Pcnpre If - i " r i o n i 6 " , . n n " , , i r i ' r ' , r . o , t r ' r ' s , r " \ \ } ' r I ( ' r l l y C o u t I

! fiilniE*ii:':il;.','.'..i'l*i:;'i;il, i r'',',lTr:"{;rr :1,'. -:.::;:",r: II T n . . . . . o r p o r r t ' o n s 1 " d o r e - r r : . ^ l - . ' '

l ' * , , . , " , . " - . f a r r r t r s n I

I l,?,i;l l:J' ';? :.".' l i ', '.f i";. ': i l ' l '"" ' i i " ' l i".i i. "ii.-, ' ' ". s'op.p" pru I

I f l " r p a r d u p l o $ : : s o "

p . , ' n l e a : : - : t u ' ' ; n o J \ l t k c r t c a s y i - r l h € m r o I

| " ' ' ; : ' ; ' , : ' : i - 'J ;1: 'J , : ' l : : : .o L.c ! . " . , . , '

; " " mdke e corp ' I i : r - r r* ; 'o " r I

I a g a , n { r o m r h c v e r y I r r s t r - ' - ' ' " " ' ' , ,

t * " ; ; ; { "

" ' "o ,u" . \e r } rav r - . ' , ' ' l I ' ? ' ; ; ; "1 ; ' ; ' i l i " l i ' 1 " " " * : " I. t h a l A r t o o a r , " " l l y a n . t g c r r z c p , c I i : e c n a S l c w o I C s r t l r a L ' o n a ' l ( a l l y

I l t o w ! o h a r i l c c * b e r r r ' \ : r s ( ' '

" ' - : t e x ' r u s r r T l

! -'i,""1i;;1;i;"ii.:J,iJ::i:';;' ' , ' : :'.*::"1.','"""'li ' i ' , ',i '; ' '""

I| "^ '"0" ' i f iu*", o,n., re r:e ,o I k f f igI y o u s a n t r h e m r o d o - a n l r . . . : . '

l i ; - * S \ |

! ",sr!1*i"ii*}r':ri:1+r.:'4i:;' L *"& :i ip;l'iri:l;':j'i;,;;i'j;:.: - Ptrmi:g,b II ir'i*.- lI Y o u ( a n l e a r n r h c n a l l i n ! 1 - ' q l

f h o . e r " ' t . w e e k e n l . w . l - - u t I ' i r c a ]

p e n n y . H e r € 3 n o w

I rh" eook That Tmk

I F o r t y l ' c a r s t r r \ \ ' r i t e

I f n , f , . e r , r , e U r , , e d S , r . c s . n r t r o . e

I m d n t p ! ' h e | h r ' e ' . - h _ i 1 . s I l r s r r _ - t '

I P r p t P P a r k e r . L L U l l e h r s L o n ' , ^ " r " I' h , r c n t r r e I f e r r : e , r ( r e f , l l - d c * r '

I r n s r h e L e \ r h e t h o d s o f $ r n n r C f p p ; e

I . ' i . ' o y c u r . B a v o f r F , r ' r l c \ r r h . - t_

a n l a S o n r ? ' n g l n c m

I D r P , r l e r b e l r e v e s t h a t r h F ' e r ^ \ c d s

I a r e r o , e r m t r ' r n ' L , a l , n o w ) . l c € o r-

r o n n . c t ' o n t I l o r e r n p o r t a r t l h d n l e . t n r _

I c a l s k r l l F i r r t e r n p o r r d n t t h ' n r e t e

l -h4 l lYo tk -

I 1 9

P . d P P . . l c r , L L D , b d ! c o n . r t r b . l . d n l r. n t L 1 6 I n € t l n r . b o ^ . I ' c d D 6 . o v t n n g U 6 & nn t r L n . ! e , l h a n d l r n g r . ! r l 6 . e d . h a r u t { f i t

v i r a r k o w r e d l . * i L b . L h . r r H 6 ' ! A m . n c . r o u ti l i o t u a s u t n o n t y o o l h e o b r e c t , b e t u t l c t l u r € d

b r r o r o h o r o $ a o t , 0 @ \ l " n d r n a e d o n v "b r r o r o h o r o $ a o t , 0 @ \ l " n d r n a e d o n v "

s u l , c n . e r l r o h a s c o a . n e d o v e . ! 0 . @ F t l . Eu € I a r ^ . . N t d o d

Page 202: Breakthrough Copywriting

1sl0 'E\-E\TH TECHNIe.E OF BRE-\KTHRO..;H Copy: ci . \r loul.r--{(;r

3. The t*'o bars clirectlr, ab,r'e trrcl bel'*,the first sub oi'those srntrll touc.hes that clrfines incliviclualitv The arlu'ould krser sorne of its irtrnospher.e u.ithout thenr. Antl atnr<rsphere (belie'abllitr'. trrrst) is *'hat \-oLr're seeking u,ith tJrest,atlaptrttions.

4. The pluce'ent of subheacls tr the ertreme reft of the crl-rirnn. Another rnirrrrte detail. Bacl lavorrt trccoxling to the agen(,\art clirector'. But irg.riu. in perlect ir"r,n,r,,r.u'ith the fbrmat o1tlie c.clitorial contenr.

5. The li 'e clra*,ing '1'the a'th'r. An rrgrr. rencleri'g. Firr-less attracti'e thtur the photograph of'the strrnt, nran in the rnaq-iizirre trcl. A'd vet tlte Jottntal cloes n.t rrse photclgraplrs of tht,nren thev pictrrre in their eclitor-ial columns. And so this ncl rnrrsrclo the srlnre, cven at the cost of harrou,ing scrcrrnrs of pain frornits turtliors (until ther see their rovaltv checks).

Th.s, *'hat has lreen cl''e b' these trcltrptatior-rs. is that acoln\'. olcl-fhshionecl. rtither rrglr ixh.ertiser,-,erit has been rler.el-opecl {br this specific' 1n€'di11111-11'hich hris tiborrt tu,ice the be-lie'abilitr: tu'ice the prrlling po\\/er, irncl tu'ice the po\\(,rof the strrne eract copr- ancl illustration presentecl thl


1'rr ' , r r l r rr . r , t l u rLr.Is it *'orth thc' ertra'l yes. Sho'ld it be clo'e for- eaclr

irnportant rnecliunr in trrrnP I'es.\\'hr'? i' sr ckri'g, \-orl rlre tapping the i'grairerrl

tnrst that the retrrler has fbr eac'h rnecliurl in turlr. turcl clrannel-i'q trt letrst part of it, u'consci'uslrr, r'to l'rrr pr-ochrct.

Tlr is, thc'rr , is the f i rst rnethorl i r t 'borrorvine this bui l t - in be_lievabilitr': trdopting .fo nnrtt.

The Second Way to Borrow Believabilitv

Tlre seconrl-sliglrth' less spec'ific-is arlopti ng phrctscoktgtl.This rnetlrocl sterns fronr thc lirct that certirirr rreclia. or cl.sses

o1' urerlia, trse celtain stereotrpecl phrasers o'er iincl o'er irgrrirr.rr'hich a{ier a *'hile tiike rn tr belie'abilit' rf their or,r,n.


l t t t , ,

usttrrllr .,r

of thes, ' ,

acld l r t ' l i '

exi i r t tpl , '

a l l ( :

T h e t ' r , t : :

ot ' a r ' , i ,' f l ,

< t l t r i , ' , 1 :

r t ' s 1 l r , l r , i ,

u i t l t o r t :

( ' l ' l l l l l ( ' l L :

l r i g l r - p r . 'I r , :

olo{r I

1 t l , t ' . , t ,u i l r t ' l l [ . r :

\ l r .

\ t l , , p t ' ;

, r t l . r " , ' .


t . l l r ,

Page 203: Breakthrough Copywriting

' , 1 ' \ ( . . \ \ I O f t l - L . \ c ; L

' f i rst sub hetrcl .; ,1 r1 .111 i1 ' . The ac l, : r r . \nd r l t l l o -

. : r r ,1 n ' i th these

, 1 , . l i o { ' the co l -.- to tlre ag€ltcvl t l r t . f i r rrnir t o{ '

r , 'urk 'r ing. Far: t1 r i l l t l te rn t rg -

, : ' , i r i rp l rs o f the. , , t l r i s ac l must. . , , 1 p a i n f r o n i

r : : , ) r r \ . i s t l i t t t i i. , . l , t ' t ' r r r leve l -' ' i ict , the be-

. t , t \ t l l { po \ \ /e r

. : , ,1 t l re mi rss-

l , rrr t , f i r r each

: '1 , , , ingra inec l. . , r rr l c 'hturnel-. , , l r r r . t .' : : . I r r r i l t - i n b e r -


- 1 , lL t ' r t1q ,g lpo71.' , l r .L . o r c l i rsses

: , I , , r ' t ' r a g a i n .- , r , . \ l l .


ln nelvspapers, to take the lllost obvious exalnple' there is

usuallv an issue date, a citv of origin. ancl perhaps a br'line' Etrcli

of thase neu,s-indicafors rntt'"- be picked lrp bv the copv \\Titer to

add belier.,abilitl, to his operririq. its in this ertren-ielv snccess{ul


SrIN Spsct-qr,ISl ' I) ! l \ IONSTRATES

HO\\r TO RINSE A\\.\\ 'IOLrR BLACKHtrADSBv Cllairt' Ifollluarr

Nerv \lrrk' N Y--\ leacling cloctor tocl:u'

shou'ecl an mrclietlcrt' ol tlletl' \\-olllen and shn-

troublecl teenagers ltrlu' to cleiul oilv skin and

shrhlkenlargecl.l loresriit lral()-ri i irrutelrorrretr-ietl-ical trezrtrnent lie llas pt'r1i'c'tt'cl' .''

Ancl so on. The ne\\is tone hils ltee'tl set bv the opening phrases.

The entire relnaincler clf the collr ltas lleen given the irtrnosphere

of a repoft rather thnn a sales st0r'r br these first f'e$' sentences.

The same principle ciui lre rrst't l l irr e,rclt of the otl 'rer classes

of meclia vou empl;\'. hr tlirec't rnail' krck fbr the ker'' cor-

."rpor]d"Ir"e vorlr prospe,c't l'r'c,t lves thalt trre Ope.rled iusttrntlv

rvitlhout exception. Son," "r",r,ples

uo*ld be refu'cl checks, go''

ernrnent correspondence. tliviclt'ttcl tiotices, conficlential reports'

high-priced newsletters. etc."

ir., ,udio and T\,', aclopt tl*' rrc*'s fir''ert ancl the news phrase-

ologl,.. EVen, if possible, trrlopt tlie neu.s "511111{"-1he clippecl

phr,ir" of the nei'scaster, the i'sirlel to'e of the anirlvst, the cloc-^umentarv

feel of the neu's. harld-helcl clllllera'

Stuiv the c6annels o{'co'r.r' ' ic.tion that people beliere in.

Adopt their tone, their feel. their str'le, their sinceritr'. V'rke Vour

adsLlenrl in, so t5ere is n' iarrirrg triursitio'. Canou'flage the'r.

Believability-Borrowing Strategy #3

In a later chapter, u'e'11 cleal u'ith rttoorl

as the last rnethod of borrou'ing berlievabilitr',

directlr'. Hou.'erret,

I s'ant to tnention

Page 204: Breakthrough Copywriting


tu,o rr toocl aclapt i r t ior is that r ig lr t l r l r t ,k l rrq i rr t l r is r l iscussiorr\ \ 'e ' r t seett t l tat t r t t t l rorr t l r r- \our ' prr l r l i t . r r t iorr .s {or.srut. l r rr t i

Yor r r pu l r l i ca t io r i . s p l r ruse , r logr , r r .s t r le . r ' l res t . t * , , r r t , t l r ' r rs . raclding co' f ic lerrc ' t ' t , 11v111' . . , , I ' . ,1. .1, , , r<[ r l i rer. t l r , rr t l r r , P,ut ic, , ,_la r r 'e r t l i r r ra \ ( ) ' i t l ' r ' r rs i r t { iL t , , i , r p , , r t i , , r r r r r r . r r r ' r r r t , r t .

\brr pick rrP t l rat prr l i r ic ' i r t i ' r r . , ,1,1r, ' , , , ' , , , rc,e rLrrr l i r l i ' r r r . i rs i tu 'ere' . l lecatrse' 1l t 'o1l l t ' l t i lve crrrnt ' to t 'orr tr l rst t l r l r t cr l i tor i i r l r rr l r r-ner of ' r t l r t i ' r r rv i t l r "aclr .r t is i rrg l i r rrqrr trqt , ' . i r r ge,rr .r . i r l . i r rrr lbecattse thev at l tot t tat ic ' i t l l l tnrst tht ' f i rst . rLrrr l i r rr tor ' rr i i t ical l r t r l rp ro i tc l r the sec ,or r r l r r i t l r r r i r i r rq r . r r i r r t , r l s l i t ,p t i t . i s rn .

Irr ot l ier u.r tr<ls. achert is irrg l in)guirg(, . , i l r i t , l , is r I t i t t , r ratrrral l rbiased lar igr iage rurt l . r ' r ' ' t i ' r rui l r -"1 '" , 'g, ' t r i i r rrgrr i rgr ' . t , , , , ,1, ; . ; ; ; ; -cLrce a ( ' ,urter-reirct i . rr i r r i ts 1rr 'sP.cts l^ i ts, , , , . . ,qrp,, , , ,1", ,a, , , .

T r r o r -e rcor r re t l r i s ins ta r t a r r r l iu r to r r r l i t i , , r r , , ,1 r i i . , i r , , , - l r , , r i , l , , ,l lorro$' i l lg Ottr l tost prr l r l ic 'at iorr ,s i r l iorn--*r , i r ls, l r i^. t , t*rr , t l r t , r .icli.riis *'hich all,*' rrs i, escaPe the "hirrrl-st,il" st.*,.tr?r,.

Th t ' f i r s t rs I i i r1 r , r -s t r t ta t t r t , t r t . s i r r rPr i r , i t r . . - \ I iLc . r i ' i f ' . , , , r , , , .* 'o^ls. Fer ' . r . r l ject i 'es t l rar t l r t , . . . , , , l , , i . r , , r i r l r l erPc.. t . \ , s._pt ' r lat i 'es. Sh'r t t l r i r t 1ir ] l r i r t l re,r . t l r i r rr r ist , i , t . r re i r t, lt t ) ( 1 1 t ' r ' n ( 1 .

For er irrrrpl t ' . t i r l . . t ' r i l r r Vr i lJ,s$,uq.n iul . (rorrrr t t l re, nunrber. , r1lroul)s Pt ' r st 'nt t ' r rcr ' . urrr l c,ol i l l ) l r r( . i t t , t l r t , r rrr i r l l t , r '1. i rc l jec,t i r t ,s.Seer l r , * ' t l r t ' . r l k i t l s i t se l f - - r r " , , ' , . t r rk t ,s i t s t , l l t r< , s . r . i , r rs l r . \ ,_t i ce h , * ' i t r rakes i t s Pr i r r t r1 . i . th . i r r r r l t r r t . r r s t ,Ps F i r . r r l , , r , , t I , , ,e r t re r ' c l ' s l r r r t . t ' r t r t ' r r re l ' s i r r rP l i ' se r r t t , r r r , t , s t ' r r , t r r r . r , i r c lc ls t r i t l r .f 'eeling of' sincer-itr-.

. I iere is-a c 'r l r rplet t ' \ '<r lks*rrq., ar l . rr ' r r ic ' l r l i 'atrrres ore s.-

perior i t r ' '1 the cr l r o 'er c,rrrpt ' t i t i r . t . r rrr t l t , ls. c,rrk l ryrrr ht^,c t ' l t lt l te st ' r ' r ' as * 'el l . e 'er i { ' r r ' r rrst 'c l terr t i r r i t ,s l rs .r i r l r ' *r l rc ls?

\ i t t t t tcr .cr nt t t r t t t t o f - r t i t . .\ o r r a l so u r r r r ' t l r n t l i r r r

f l us l r i r r q t l r - r . r r , l i r r l , r . i r r sp r . i r r g .Or l r os t ' s .()r u,itter ptull).( ) r n r s t .

u o l r i t , s l L l l o r r t r l r r t i r r i r r g o r' l ' l i t , r t , i s r ro r . r r r l i i r to r . .

sEv ta \ l r r

l i L i l

l t t t l .t ] r r '

- f I n '

i t s sc l l , , 't l l r \1) i l t '

". \ | : ,k ins rrr l 'to qct t lOr t l r t ' : '

T l , , 'r i t r i t r r r , , , -ing pro lcartrprLi ,gi .

l - 1 , ,i X l \ . ( ' l ' t l \ ' '

t h e i t ' t l , r

I t l 0 l l l ) l t '

l ) e l l r ' \ t ( I

S i t r ,

I l i l l ' \ t t t1 I

r i e s g l i ' , , :

I l t t ,

j o b . u l , r , rjec t l r iL , I i

' l ' ( )I I

l l t ' !

\ ( ) l l

Page 205: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ ( . \ \ l o L I r l , \ ( ' l '

r , r r r l i s c r r s s i r l n .

, . 1 i r l r r r a t . i u t c l. , r nc t l r ods o {

. r r , t l r r ' l t t t r t icr r -

I i t l i o t n . a s i t. , l i t o l i i r l n r a n -

' ,g , , lc l i i l . ar r t l' ' r ' r r t ic i t l l l a l t -

; r u t t , r r i r t r r r i t l l r -

: , r r ( l s t o p ro -

t l I | ) t ' i t l ' i l l l C t ' .

' ' ' , - l r t ' s i c k , s

, , . t r i r r o t l te - r, I i ' 1 ) t \

l ) ( ' .

l. ol' c,olorc t . \o s r r -

. r l l l t o l l ( ' i : t t

I l l l t l l ) c r ( ) 1

, t r t t l ject ives.

r i , , r r s l r ' . No -, ' r r I r ou ' t he

. t r l r l s t o t h t '

. l ' ( \ O l ) e S u -

, r l n r t ' t o l c l., ,,i , lr tls P

r l , l ' ( ) 1 '

1 (

And so tltere' are l lo \\1)rries allotrt anti-l l"ecze irl t lrt '

fall clr crrrcke(l blclcks in the' u itttt'r.

If rou ft 'el t l iat lolt o\\1r r.rltrr \tr lkslvagell enqilr€' a

litt le soiretl i ing special . 'r, 'r ' , si.rirrq rLrrcl f l i l l . rrrtt catr cltr

this rnrrch.

Jrrst nrn it once arottttt l t lrt ' lr loc'k iurcl let it air itself 'r lrrt.

This is grettt copv ltec'attst'

its sell, nll o{'s'hich itttcrrrct ttr

illlvone looking fbr u neu' c'rtr'.

ol its sirnplicitv iurtl its inrirge trrtclgirt'u \'('rv po\\'erfirl i lrgurttertt to

Also. I 'd suggest thi t t rrr t r strr th i i tn ' o1' the ol t l ClaLrde FIop-

kins acls, <tr John E. Ke.nrrt'rlv il l 'orrr tht' olcl Lorcl & Thorrrtrs clur-s)

to get the sanie. po\\'€rr o1'silc't 'ritv ri ' it ltout the linlitirlg ultirusr'.

Or tlie great rttclio iurd T\' pitt ' lrt 's of the Fifties.

There is littlc, ilclvt'rtisirrg ltt,irrq \r'itten this \\.a\-. i ln(l its Ven-

ruritv utakes it eveu ntort' t '1it't 't irr'. It u'il l not soh'e even' serll-

ing problern, but ufierc' it is t'11i,t'tivc-especiitl lv in contir)uous

campitigrts-it is ven' ef{'ec'tir t ' irttlt 't 't l.

The seconcl lno(Xl \()ll nlir\ r'rrrltlor-to ltreirk ruvav froru the

"aclvertising" sterc'otrpe is nlritt I t 'ttl l Dearlhl Sinr:critrT This is

the techrr i rpe of lent ing t t t ' t , t ' l t r t t 'ktcai ls tLt Ttr t i r t t or i t l rc - f lurcsin nn offer, so that the berir,fits. u'herr r-ou bring thent irt, u'il l be

belier-ecl that ttnrch n'iore tlt 'e'plr.

Since this is nof dclrrr. irr oxlirrirn' aclvertisitrg-siucc ortli-

nrrr\. cop\. ckres not knock its prothrct as u'cll rrs praise' it-it car-

ries grertt ertrotiottirl intptrct. t 'speciallv in highlr'-cortlpetitivc fields.

Here is irll exiuttple. {rlr a lltlok on getting ahead oll \()ur

job, rvhich litrcl to rult after a lrrtntlrt:cl ltooks ott the stttrle sttll-

ject hacl alreatlv appetrrecl in tlre sanre prtblicirtiorl:


Arrcl u'ho is s'il l iug to tttirke the increclibler sacrificesnecessarv to get there itl tl it ' slrortest possible' ti l l le.

Heie is the rttost realistic' ittrrltlbtlok ever u'ritterl l i lr1'911-;1nd rrtu til.tle.

Page 206: Breakthrough Copywriting

194 SE\-ENTH TECIl \ reuI t oF BREAKTHR()ucrI copy: cAN{oLrFLA(;r .

This is a private aclvertisenreut.It is not rreitrrt ibr ninetr.nine rnen out o{'er,erv hun_

t l 'e r l . Thcse rnen do r ro t l ra ie t l re r I r i re - t l re i r r rn i rss ib r t ,pricle-the absolute cornpulsion to srrcceed thut ihis arcl-ver t i ser r re l t r le r ru r r r t l s . . .And so on. You ciln see irnrnecliatelr., in the first feu,para-

graphs of this acl, ho*, the tone of ,tter fra,rkness is set. The 1,s,,of sucli "'ertisirg phriiseol'gr,-" as "incredible sacrifce" , . ." i r r tT to 's ib l t : p r i c le " . . . "abs t t lu te cc ;n tp t t l , s io , " . . . " th is aduer t i s r , -nrcnt detnanrls" set the acl off {rom the others nrouncl it-give itirn air of' unpreclictabilitv that induces the rearler to go on.

In rrrrr nert chapter r.vhe' rve discuss Reinfrtrcenteiif, rve shallsee hou' this tone rf complete fairness, rrrrcl er.'en criticisnr, cantnake a conrparatir.'elt- nrinor clairn take on imnrense ernotionrLlinrpact. But for nou, it is suf{icient to point out that this is orrernore way to break out of the harcl-seli stereotlpe, and gain al-nost the sarne h?e of belier.'trbilitv thrrt u'o'lcl be gir.en to a {irc-tual report.


t t p t o t l r -

s ick'r ,\ \ ,

t e c ' l t t t i r 1 r : '\ \ ,er( ' u\r '

portru t t 1

part o|- l - l

r ,

por tu t r t l '

Pros|( ' ( :

l i r ie ' I r , i , I

tha t l / r r .

pa l r l t ' , , :

\ . l .

pcr l r r t l , .e r i l t t t i r r , :

c l e t t t r t t , , ]

c t ' t ' i t t i o t r

Page 207: Breakthrough Copywriting


. ! . f V l ) u l t -

, , Possiblet l r is acl-

: l ' : t f6'11r nnro-. . t ' t . The use

' , t t r i f tce" . . .l,r' rtduettise-rrrl it-gir-e it

' r d ( ) O l - 1 .

' ,, rrf. u'e shall, rr t i r ' isrn, canr . ' ' ( ' l l tO t iona l

. , t t l r is is one.,rr t l qain al-

: . ' . t i t o a t a c -


[-t't 's rtou. revie\\'tvhat u'e'r'e done

up to this poirrt. and the last letr ltrolllenrs thirt u'e htrve to con-

sider.\\'e stnrtecl this lrool< ri'ith tlrt' iclea that tllere u'irs a clefinrte

teclirrique tlttrt coulcl prodttcc' ltettt'r lrcadlitrc,s than the ones \rou

\\,ere lrsing vesterdtl\. Ancl. sirtce tiie he:rcllirle is so vittilh' illl-

Dortilnt to the sLtccess or fhilrrrt' o{'r'our ads, \\re clevotecl the first

p l r r t o l ' r , t t r l l ook to t l r i s t ' t ' e i t t i r e s t i i t r t ' l r .

Then, irr ther seconrl pitrt. u't' irlr-estigtrterl the eriu:rllf ittt-

porttint problelt of hou' to t:yiloit tlrtlt heaclline. Htlu, to lerircl the

prospect front the fet:ling of irtterest itttcl crtriositr that \()l1r hea(l-

line hacl itrollsed in hirri, ittto a coustantlv tnottttting conr-icticltt

tlrat fhls pnttlttct htn u.h:it lte u'artts. trncl thtrt it is trbsoltrtelv ca-

pable o1'qiving it to li jnr.You use boclr- copr- to accortrplish this second rlbjective-

perhaps ir lot of it. perhaps verr' ' l ittle. In either case, \\/e'\rtl

exrlmine(l the three interlocking paths lrv u4rich this ef'fective

cle.rnancl is create'cl: first. the iutensificatiott of ]csire; therl the

creation of tru ttccepttrble procluct personalih' or rrlle u'ith ullicl'r

r 9 5

Page 208: Breakthrough Copywriting

r96 1'IIE I. ' I\.\I- TOL](]IJI.,S

tlre prospect u'il l u'ant to identify:iurcl then tht rather abstrac,lstnrcture rrnclerlving \I)ur cop\. al'rangelnelrt that prorhrces 1ir,-liexability of' r'our strrr'.

so rrou'\\'€"\'e seen hou'to retrch orrt to vollr prospect.s nrirrtlon all tlrree ernotionill levels: Dcsire . . . Iclentification , . . anrlBelier-abilitr:

Nr^r'. as urr last problern. tcr: lur'r: ttt Ttttt rll tlrcst, tlantt:ttt.stogetlrcr. \\ 'e ha'e to take all thesc- prcr.isr.s. tlre,s. inragcs, tliest,devices, these stnrchll€'s-2111d \\'eave thcrl togcther irrto ol1e c,o-hesive rrnit. tlrirt holds ronr prclspect.s attentirln froni bc.ginnirrgto encl.

hr other *'orcls. htr'irg broker rlo*rr tlre acl tcl a.rllr.ze tlrt,eleuients thrrt rnake if 1vo1[-q'e 1lo\\, har.r, to rlerrl u ith tlie rt.-verse probleni: tr-ing it together oncc agairr.

\\ 'e hrr'e se'eral adclitio'al cle'ices that help rrs cb this. \\e'rt,alreadr- to.ched on tlierl ir passirg ir prer-itirrs chirpters. No*let's eralrine theu-r rrore closelr. se'e utat rrrakes tlienr oDc,rirr(,.lb l r r r i t l i ze t l re rn i r r to uor .k i r rq r r r les . L ike f l r i s :

\/erification-How to Offer Authorities and proof

No*'. 'f corlrse- co'res tlie 'rost 'br.i 'rs ki'd of'belier.abil-itv copr'i \i[rr proof: r'orrr strrtisticsr vorrr tests; rrxrr testilrorri2]s:t'our autlurrities: rour trenclsl r-our clocrrnrerrtrrtlt,n: rorrr. serrls ol'a p 1 l r , n i t l : r c l r r r a r v i r r r [ s \ \ ( ) l l . A r i r i r x . t r r t i r l l t l r i t t , . , , r t , . , , r , r r s ( , . l u r \ -$ ' l re re i r r t l re r 'o1 l r . lo s l ro r r t l r i i t \o r r r l )11 , t Iu t . t r i , , t , s u l r i r t , , r , , r , , ,i t does .

Tlie ke'r'*'ords here ilre arn1rclrcrc in tltttrr ct4tt1. BecttLrse. irsI ha'e tried to shru' in the last {bur chapters, rliri pku,:tncnt o.l'qour proof i,s' a,s in4xtrtont to it,s oxerrill cffr:ct ns tlrc corttt,ttt itsclf.

I can't tell r.ou anr.tlting about gathering proo{'thtrt rour ourrreserrrch clepartrnent cloesn't knou. rr hrurclre'rl tirrii's be,tter. or, il'vou have no research clepartment. thrrt good lrarcl diggin{ u,orr'tgive' l'ou.

There iire no special mles to phrtisine proof--ercept. perhaps.

to ker 'p r t ,

as p r tss r l '1 ,- \ r r r i i

n r rn l i r r t

a" lorr ' . I thungrr t , ,

prorhrr ' t r rF ' i r r , ' I

i r t vor r r ' , r , I -r l1 1 t ( l I

a ls o r u l , , t '

p r t t t l r t ' r r ,

r lo t l rcr r :

\ \ ' hc r t r l , ,

\ \ ' t , I , ,

co t t t t ' r t . 1 ,

h i t r - i ' l r , ' , ' : ,

p ron t i s t . \

c l a i t t i s . , , r '

accept i r r -' l ' l

r , ' ,

l .s l t io .s l ' l ' .

rc l rcr t 1 , , .

T l r i ' .

i s a p p l l t . ' '

\ \ ' ( , ' ,

t e r i l t r r r r ' 1 ,

l . ( ;

t t l l lC ' ( 'S T l - ( ,

iner i t i t l ,1,

2 t i ,thc pirr t , '

u ' i t l r lL rL , ', t \ t. ) . \ /

u 'orks t l , ,

Page 209: Breakthrough Copywriting

" . , r l r ( , r ' abstract

:,r., rt lttct, 's Lr:-

' , .1) ( ' ( t 's ln i l t ( l

: t . r t i o r l . . . i u t d

' ) , , ' t ' c lc t tu ,nt ,s

. r i r . r g ( ' s . t hese' : r l t o one co -, ' : , l l t ' g i n n i n g

' . t r r r t l r ze the

, i i t l r t l t c r e -

i , t l r i s . \ \ ' e ' r e; . r I t t ' t 's . \ -ou '

' i , ' r r r op t ' r ' a te .

t '. irrtcl Proof

, : i r t , l ievabi l -: . : , ' . t i r t t r l t l i a l s '

' . , , r I serr ls t l f

, . . i l t l t S ( ' . t l l l \ ' -

' . lr.rt vou sitv

, , l )( ' ( ' i i l lse, i ls

: t r t r ' t ' t l l ( t f t ( t

, t t t t ' r r t i t se l f .' t , . t t r 0 t t r o t r t t

. i ' , . t t t , r ' . O r . i f

i :gg i r rq u 'on ' t

, pt pcrhaps.

THE FI\ .qL TOLr( iHlrs 197

to keep it i ts sltort t ls irossil) le. irs t lrtt l l latic t ls possil)le. as silt ' tr if ic

as Dossible.

Ancl. rl l love i i l l , retttertt ltcr t lt i tt Pr(x)f c'oP\'. I ike everv other

u'orcl in \()lrr rrd, is sc1/lng c<lpr'. It cru'l lrot lrer€-h' of'fer prool'

ir lorle. It ntrrst ofI 'er t l ie kittt l o{ ltroof' t l t i l t rttakes the prospect reacl e\-el-\.\\()r(l <lf it. irnrl it rrtrrst rltt lke hittt \\ 'al lt the

product ntore itn(l l l lor(' i tt t l l t ' errtl o1't 'r-en' l i t le.

Fine. But the nert rlttt 'stit) l l is: \\ ' l i( 're clo rntt place the proo{

in vour adP At u'httt poittt or l)oirrts u i l l i t be tuost ef{bctive?

Ancl. ne\t. ho$, ut,ur. ' , l i f l i ' , ' t 'rrt l troof.s or tests or testi lnotl i-

als or ultrrt hilve rrtu shotrlt l r '<lrr irtc' lrrcle' in the tlcl? \\ 'herl do rott

nut thetn in . r r r td u 'hetr { i f ' t ' \ ' ( ' l ' r ( lo vo l l le t rve theln outP \ \ 'hen

,ln tlt"t n'] irke the atl tot, lrr. ' iLrr l \\ ir. ' lr clo thev rri irke it chrll?

\\lhen clo thc'r ' rttake it tt lo tt ltrt ' l t to l l t ' l lel ieveclP

\\.e have lteen cliscrrssing tltt 'st ' rItestions, though riot in this

contert, for thi: lrrst lorrr clt it l ttt 'r 's. For the last lbur chapters rve

htrr.e bec.n cliscussinq the plttc't ' tttt 'rtt i intl strt lcture <t[ ' ckilnx, of

prornises. \\ 'e have lixirrt l thirt t lrt 'r l lore \ 'oLt PrcPare firr those

cltrinrs. rrncl the lrlore agree,tlt l t 'rott have rntrcle \ 'our reader to

accepting thenr, the tttore pori 't 'r ' f ir l thev becoltle.

The stttne erttct ntle's holtl f irr vorrr proof . ProtfJikt: cluint's-

i,s ttto,st cffectite rcht'n tlv rt 'rtr lt 'r tttt(ott\(-ioltsly dernantl,s it- ancl

rchert lrc is reudtl tLt rtccttltt i ls cttrttt 'nt os necessunl (md logical'

This is the nrle. As sirnplt ' iurtl corrcrete as this. All the rest

is iipplictrtion.

\\Ie'r 'e gorle over. r|rite c'art 'f ir l lr.. the fotlr processcs that rle-

tennine position in rttttr atl. Tllcr i lre. on('e agiri l l :

l.' cler'r.krpn'rent clf a str€.atlt trf' trc'cep-

tances {htnt vortr reader trl trtttr stittt ' lr lents, leading fir lallv to arl

inevitable clentirntl on the part of' that rettder for vour prodrrct.

2. Redefinif lon-the retttoval o1' preconceivecl objectiotls on

the ptrrt o{'rour prospect tou.irrd rrtur proclttct. br' provicling hirn

u.ith il neu, definition of that prochrct.

3. l ler' lmni:. l1lor?-the verllal proof that vonr prodrrct

uorks-tltirt it does u'htrt r-ott sav it cloes.

Page 210: Breakthrough Copywriting

19E rr{ l , t l - . tN. \L TOLCTTES

4. Concertrrttittn-tI-rc verbal proof thtrt other alternate protl-ucts do not clo this essential lrrnction as ii 'ell.

Nou,, even' one of tliese processes is ef-fectir-e. rrot onlr- iliucretrsing the belie'ablhn- of xxrr clalrir.r. lxrt alscl in increasingt l re l re l ie r i r l r i l i t r o I ro r r r ' ] ' t t i t t t i .

Ancl, in er i rct l r thc surr ie u'ar, in cver\-ol tc o1' t l rcse pro-cesses, there is a plilce firr vorrr proof to apperir u'here it n'il l tkrtlvice as nnich goocl {br r,our copv irs it ri'orrlcl anrl4rcre elsc.

For example, go back ancl look at the ()onct,ntrrftlon copr irrthe sptrrk plLrg ad thtrt u'e antrlvzecl in Chapter 12. Here \\,trs irpoint-after-point cornparisorr ,,i ' tl,. ,,-c'ak,,,lrr,,, o{' spark plrrgscontrasted u-ith sintilar strengths in fire irrjc'ctrus.

At the encl o1'this seqrrence. the utitcr- harl brrilt up trenren-dous believrrbilitr: [Ie coulcl liave done nrarn- things u'ith thatbelie'abihtv. Ile coulcl hir'e s*,itchecl it i 'to tur i 'rretli irte re-sttrternent o{' his rnain claims. FIe coulcl hin'e channelecl it rli-rectlr'- into asking {br the orcler. Hc coulcl have gorrc into t'r rnone\l ra r ' k g r r i r r i rn te t ' . e tc .

Insteircl. he chose to pile' proof rrpon bclier-abilitv in tlris u,rrr':"Tliese rtre sorle of the reasons that the [.r.S. ,.\ir Force 1,,tr1,,

preniurrL price.s for .wtfacc strltpofterl injcctor,s for tlrcir air-f , - .

c r o f t . . . .Arrd, in so doing, stre.ngthens the pou'er of both thc belier -

abilitl' copv thtrt u-ent belbre, rlrrd the authoritr-re{'erence thtitr rou I 'o l lou s.

TIms. and rve'll take this up in greater dctail in the Rclrr-

Jbrcernent section that fbllou's, itt co1tt1 I + I r:an o.ften cryurl 10.Bv adcling one pou'erfirl piece of copr'-at preciselr- the right nro-ment-to irnother, \:ou can ger iir) overirll ef1l:ct flr grctrter tharrthese hvo pieces of copv u'oulcl ever prorluce. if thev u,ere jrrstspread out all the pagc.

Position increirses po\\'er. \\'e continue to fincl neu' criunpk'sof this er.en' time u'e' erplore another copv process.

Anrl hou, abclut the other three processesP Hou' cloes r.orrr.proof interact u'ith then-rP

\ \ i , l l :aga in . \ o : .

are brorr , j l

is bcggir t - '

lms i r t t t ' t t ' : '

l{ t 'r.,

He re t l r t '

i f i t u ' t ' r ' r ' 1 , :

becat t ,s , ' t i , '

readv to , '

. \gru r ,

t a t i o r r i s t l ,

e r c i t en r t ' r r i

dratnir. rr, ,.

t e r s as t l r ,'ul'itlt t't t rr ,: .

e D e [ \ l ( t t r , ;

crox( \ .

I c o r r . ,

ancl car ' l r ,

g r r i n l i L r r r ,

s iw ing t i r : .

I ) o t r r :

e t c . - t l r . L t

) l t ' , 1 , .

conl i ts ior r :

ancl t l t t r ' , ,

l l O t l l t ( t ' r . . r

al l to pt ' r , r ,

i t s s t r r r c t r l : ,\ i ' r r / :

pIOC('sS { ) l

i t ga i r rs t l , ,has tht ' ,1r '

T l r r r '

Page 211: Breakthrough Copywriting

I I \ \ I , I 'OLTC] I IES

,1t , ' r ' r ratc prod-

. r rot onl l ' i l

in inc'retrsing

, ,1 t l re 'se pro-, . i r t ' t t ' i t r i ' i l l d o. . - . , I ' , ' r 'e else.' ' , i l ir t l t copr.- irt

I I I t ' re ' u , r rs i l

: \ l ) iu 'k p l l lgs

. : i t ' r p t r en ten -

: r ' l ' u it l t thtrt

: ' r r r | t ( ' ( l i i l t e r e -; . , 1 , r , , ' l c r l i t d i -

. ' i l r t o i I l l one \ :

: . . i r r th is n 'ar- :

\ ,. 1:ttt '(:C pAU,t' i ' t l r c i r u i r -

. , : l r t l r c be l i e r -- r ' , t ( ' l ' ( ' l lCe ' that

, : i r r t l r e R r : l i t -' : , t L ( ' ( l u a l 1 0 .

. t l r t ' r ' i q l t t r r o -

, : , l r ' ( ' l r ter than' l r ( ' \ \ \ e fe jUS t

: : r ( \ \ ( ' \ tu l lP les

l l , ' . i r L r c s r - o r r r


\\iell, take Gracluali:afjon. Stuch the T\1 Repair Nlalnrtal ircl

again. Notice the exact prolnl thirt tlte ' 'ri itrnufacturer's test rtlrtrlts"

aie bro.,ght into tlie copr'-at tlu.,ten1 n()nLant that tlut reorlt:r

is beggingft)r'onle 3ort gf sohiiotr to tlrc problents that the coptl

l u t s i n t e t t . s i f i t ' r l , , t t ' t ' t t t t t l , ' r , ' r ( t ! ( t i t t

Here, at this point, the reatlt'r is searching lbr trn answer'

Here the ernct srure proof s'hiclr rrriqlrt be tllerelv dull statistics

if it were presentecl earlier. srttlcle'rth'takes tltr a shatpenecl clrattta-

becatt,se tl.te reacler n(nD i.\ .fillrl trtt'trrt, o.f it.e irttpctftutcc, anrl is

readr to erplore ererr rvot ' t l .

Again, I must repetit that tlre rtrrrin problertr $'ith clocutnen-

ttrtion ls that it is inherenth rhrll. \irrrr job. therer{bre, is to aclcl

excitement to it. YOu hiI-e tO staqe it. \lru ha\'e to cler-elop ir

drama, in _vour reader's urirrrl. intrt rilrich vour doculneutation en-

ters as the hero. In lr,hicii statistics sucldenlv becoute chalgecl

rvitlr ernotioll-fis65111,sa tlotr t'(' rtrtrtlt' tlrcm the .stthftittrt to tchat'

et;er stancls betrccen yLntr rcttdt,r un(l the sotisJcLctirtrts thut he

croDe.s.I could go olt, a'd give e\tlrllplcs of the interaction of pro'f

ancl each of the rernrrining llecliiulisn)s, brrt I think )'ou u'orrld

gain f:rr rrore bv ckting it vlrrself'. lristeacl, let rrte surtr up bl'

sav inq t l r i s :Docrtmentation is all\- sort ot llroof-statistics, facts, tests'

etc.-that your procluct u'orks.

MecLLani:atlon o1 t|e gtlter [ilrrd ii1 cilse there llrtlv l)e a

confusion in vour rnincl) is the vcrllal and logic:Ll detnclnstriltion,

and thus also proof', that r-orrr protluct u'orks. llechani:atlon tloes

rlot necessarily have to incolportlte tlllv outside docunientatiorl trt

all to prove its point-it cloes this on the strength o{'its logic ancl

its structure alone.\/erification-r.vhich is di{I'erent frorn both of therl-is the

process of arranging r,'our cktcurtrentirtion rvithin \()ur cop\/ so that

it gains the greatest irnruecliarte trcceptLrnce frorn VOllr reilder, atld

has the greatest ernotional eff'ect on him.

Thus, I rvould suggest that vou stop thinking of placing vour

Page 212: Breakthrough Copywriting

200 TI I I ' F INAT, TOLI (J I IF , \

docrurentation clnlv irr the heaclline o{'rour ir(I. or in the sulr-l re lL r l . o r i , r , , sep , , ' : , , t t , l ro r l l r l re l le< l . "Heres pr .oo l . "

I u'cxrlcl suggest insteacl thilt xlr start thinkiug of'clocuuren-tation irs one nrore elenrent {aLrrq rr-ith plornise.s.'belief-u.rlruls.momenturrr-brrilclers, inrage-sharycners. e-nrotion-clefi ners, ancl irllthe rest *'hiclr u'e'll explorc befirrer *.c finish) to be irrten\()\'('rrtogether. side lrv sicle'-so that. conrbinecl. they gir.e .",ou {irr greato.ernotiontrl po\\'er irncl be]ier.abilitv than Alr\- orre o{' theur corrlrlseptrratelr'.

Reinforcement-How to Nlake TwoClaims Do the Work of Four

The first rrrle rf' all cop* ,f course. is that it pr'd.ce arrenrotional ilnpact. As n'e have seen, ancl irgrtir-r. even irrbelievabilitv cop\', even in clocurnerrtilti<-nt. etrnl tt:ord trLust r:rtrrtlirnage, pit:ture, feelirtg.

Nou'. the u'orrrler{irl thirrg about cnrotiorral u-riting. o{'ri4riclrcopv is one fbnn. is this: That if vou emplov it skill{irllr ', then tlrt,irnpact of'ont' e'nrotion. phrs the irnp,rc,t u{',i ,""u,rd ernotion, *,il lofien aclcl .p-ror-rriitherr.ticulh'-to the inipact of' FOURerriotions.

In rntrtheu-rutics, one plus one alu'trvs erlrills h11;-11€, niore,In e'rotional ri 'riting. one pl.s o'e can often er|ral ten. In other.rr' 'orcls. ttco etruttionol inmgc.s, .fttined together in the rigltt rcttr1.can often huxe TEN TIIIES the inpact tluft eithar of irtr-age:; lms bry itself.

For exarlple. in the c]assic A'is cti 'rpirign. the rrrri ' therrt,u'as "\\'e trv herrcler." Clood br-itselfr but no*,here near its po\\.-elful irs it becarne u4ren it u'ers reinfirrcecl Ix the rca,strrr u./i17 a'istries harder: "\\e're onlv seconcl."

These tu,o se'parate iclerrs: tl) \Ii"re ,sccorul; (2) Tlterefbrt.t t ' t ' l r t l l to r ( l ( ' r . - \ \ l re r t l re r l r re r . r r r r r l r i r re r l . t l r ke o r r i r jo in t i r r rp i r t . tlar greater tha' r'ou co,ld e'er logicallr. erpect if r.o' sir,plr- er-aminc,cl each one of tlreni br itse'lf.

In fact, we ciln ", "rr

,i.fiu. ,rt- tr-1)e of' creilti'itr' as r/r.

T ' F I F ] I ' I \ \ ]

ohi l i t t t I

l l l ( t l f i ) t , t ,- l ' l r i r

s l t l q i t t t r . ,

) ( ) 1 t l

i r t r i rq t ' 1 |

l " o r . ,

i r t g l t ' s s t i

l i n t t ' l t r L1 , t

1 r l 1 ' 1 ,l i t , i .

l t ' "

I I t t i '

\ o t t ,

u ' l t i t ' l r g , , ,

i n i t s 1 r r , ,

c l a i t t t s o j

a b l t ' i t r , , l

c ' o t t r i r r r ' , ' , :

I t i r

i n g l r q l r t

e { } i ' t ' t i r ,( . r r 1 r ,

pos i t i o r r .

t hc r r . I .

a n t l t t t r , ] , r

c l i t i r r l i l , r

i r t t o i t , , r

S o . , "

o t r t ' t ' l r r i r r

i t t t t l t t r , , r ' ,

Page 213: Breakthrough Copywriting

r , rr in the srr l t -

::,1 oI rlocrrn-ie'n-, . lrt ' l icf'-u'rlrcls.- , l , f int ' rs. ancl al l, , l , t ' i r i tenvove l l

, r , rrr tirr greater

, ,1 t l rern coulcl

r to \Iake Two' \\ irrk of Four

r: rt ploduce an' r ' , r , l i r i r ) . even i n,. r 'r l rrtttst corry

, . : ' r t r r r { . o1 'u f i i ch. : l l , r l h . t h e n t h e: , , I , ' r r r< l t iou . r . r ' i l l

: ' . t t t o1 ' FOUR

\ , I l l ( ' \ ' e f l l l O f e .

: r t t ' r t . In o ther, '1, , r ig l t rcoy.) r . r . r ) l t l r cse in r

( . ln i r i l r the l l te

n(' irr rls pow-, l . r r t i t t ' hU A ' iS

i I 'I-lu,refore,

, r , . r i ( ) i r r t i rnp t tc t: rou sirnplv er-

: , . t t i r i tv Lrs the

a '


abi l i t t l I t t t 'o t r t l t i r t t ' , \ (p(n l t l ( ' l r t r r lgr 's i r t to r t r t t ' tc tu t i t t l t l t r t t i ,s t t t t rc l t

n tor( ' potL: ( j ) t l t l t t t t l l r r t t t t ' t ' i ' lq t ! r ' r r l \unt ( ) .1 ' i l .s 1t r t t t ,s .T ' l r is is h<xl r r t 'u . \ \ 'or ' ( ls i r r t ' l 'o l r r . , ' \s uc l l i rs ne\ \ ' P l r r i tses.

s logrurs. c 'on( ' r 'p ts . i t l t ' i rs . , ' \ r r t l . o l ( 'o t r t s t ' . l r t ' i t t l l i r t t 's .

\ i l r r r j o l r - a r r r l i t s i r t o r rg l r o r r . i s t o r l o j us t t l r i s . i r r r ag t ' l r r -

i n t a g e . t l r r < l r q l r o n t t l t t ' t ' r t t i r t ' l r o , l r c ' o p r o l \ ( ) l l l ' r t ( I "

Fo r e ran rp l t , . i r r t l r t i t < i l i r r ' ' t l r .

r r r u r r r l r o u i l l s c t t l c f i r r no th -

i ng l css t l r an t l r e p res i ( l ( ' ] ) ( ' \ o l l r j s f i l r r r " t l r r r t s ' t ' t l t t o te t l i n t he

l i r t c l r i rp ter ' . th is s t ' r1rr t ' l r ( ' ( ' o( ( u l \ :

T l r i s i s J o l r r r l l o l n s 1 i r - r t l r , r o l . I l , i s t t o t i u l i t L ' c o r ) l -

p l i s l r c c l u ' r i t t ' r . i u r r l i t l , , L r l l i r r r . l l r , r r r l i L r l i i r s t , , l t ' . o r l i l r

i i t , ' . " t . r l r r a l i t r . t l r i s i s r r o i t r i L r 1 , , , , , i ' .

B t t l t l t t ' t ' r ' ( t t 1 ' l ) ( t t ( / t : t ( i i t l t ' t r L l l t t ' 1 t , , , , 1 , i r l L ' r t i t t t l t t . s

l t o t t l ; 1 t l t t r l t ' t ' l t t t l t l c t - . t i t t l l t t ' 1 , , , , , 1 , l i t r I r i t l t r t t r n ( , t ' ( ' t ' \ ( ' ( ' n

p t r t r l o t t ' t t o t t l ) ( t l ) ( ' t ' 1 , , ' l i , t , ' \ t t ; l t l u r t t n ( t t l t ) l ) ( ' t t r l r t t t t ' . : l t t

t l o t r - t o n t o t ^ n t r t ' - t l t t t l r t l l t t t r r i : , t t t i y l t l l r r l ; r ' t t l i f i ' t i r t t t ' t y f

u : r t i t i r t g . f i t r t l t t t r l t t r t t r l l , 1 i 1 i , , t r ' , 1 t '

Notice l rou' t l rc strrr t l i r rq l l r r r l . r r t 'ss o{ t l i t ' f i rst pru'aeraph.u'hich go( 's out of i ts \ \ i r \ to t i r l l t l r t ' rc iu[r ' r 's at tent ion to f l t lvs

in i ts l l rochlct . s( ' l ' \ r 's i rs iul i r r l l r rs i l r i r tg t 'ontrast to t l re Posit iveclairns o1' t l rc secon(l l l iu ' i rqr i r l ) l r rrrrr l i i r rq tht ' r rr l r rr ntore bel ier ' -

t rhk'ancl theretr l re f i r r nrol t 'pout ' r ' l r r l to t l re ' l 'ea( ler \ \ ' l rc) is no\\ '

corrvince'r l that l ie is rcct ' i r i r rg rL l i r i r rr 'port orr this l rook.I t is t l ie. j t t t t r r l t r t ,s i t io ir ol l l r t 'sc tuo l l l t lagraplts-ott t ' f i r l lou'-

inq r ig l r t o r r top o1 ' t l r t ' o thc l t l r i r f u r r rkes t l te ' i r cornb ina t io t r s< l

ef-f ectrrr'.Oopnvri t i r rq. i r r rrr i l rn- plrrrscs. is t l re st 'arc ' l t for srrc 'h j rxta-

posit iorrs. Tlrc l i rst f i r 'e clr i tpt t ' r 's l r r t r t ' l r t ' t ' t t l i r l l of 'e\ulnples of

thenr. I srrggest t l r rr t vcn qo l i rx ' l< i i l r ( l rea( l thest 'c ' ranrples aqairr .arrcl rrnrlerlirre the ('onlll i lrirtiorr poirrts iul(l jrux'trlres-l1'he16' rvnc

c' luinr blenr ls into iulot l ler. rrrrr l c i t l rcr s l tarpens i t . prrrrs strerrgt l rintr i i t . or l l i rk( 's i t r t tort l re ' l i t ' r r i l rk ' .

So . on t ' \ \ i r \ ' \ -ou t ie ro r r r :x l toqe ' t l re r i s t< l cor ts tan t lv l l r i l c l

one clirinr on top ol iurother---als';rvs st'ekinq to nrake eac'h stronger

a l r ( l l l ro r ( ' bc l ie r i r l r i c ln t l r t ' ( ' o r ) l ) in i t t io t r .

Page 214: Breakthrough Copywriting

202 l.Hu !.rNAL Tou(jHr_s

This same principle applies in a snraller \\/av in our nertdevice.

Interweaving-How to Blend Emotion, Image andLogic Into the Same Sentence

Let rne mention at this point a thought that has probablroccrrrrercl to vou severarl tirnes over the past {'erv chapters:

The big trouble r,r'ith analvsis of the kincl rve'r'e been doinqin the seconcl part of this book is that afier a rvhile it begins t,souncl c|rite nrechanical. lbu'r'e probabh- thought that I'm sug-gesting that vou abandon tinv kincl of crerrtive flou., and rvork likert sort of phrase-cirryrenter. Here vou put in ir promise; there rorrnail on a believabilitv sentence; then cover lroth of them rviih ,,goocl strong iclentification.

This is u4rat it sounds like bectruse it ttrkes so long to iclen-tifv each one of these cle'ices .ncl shorv v,u hou, to lr,ork the.r.Because of this neer-l for analvsis-*'hich alu'avs requires that ''rrcut indi'idutrl elenreuts out oi the "life-flo*"' of il growing ad-it so.ncls like vou slioulcl actuall' be conscio's of each device a.stJou ore u,sing it to rcrite that ad-even going so {irr as to narnethe cler-ice as vou u'eave it in.

I do''t thi'k I ha'e to tell vou that this 'recha'ical approtichis irof rnv icleir, ancl that it u'on't u,ork. \Vhrrt I'rl trving io au i,exactlr'' the stune proceclure that a golf pro uses rvhen he rvantsto irnprove vour game. He cloesn't just let volr go out and plar.He stops vou, rnakes vou notice vour hrrnds, rationalize vour grip.shi{t vour fingers, get ,sed to the nerv f'eel 'f 'the clul, as vou lil iit this new wa\,, iu-rd then ttrke a fer.v prrtctice s*,ings-ali at tht,sarne tirne that hels telling vov rcht1 \,'olr're cloing it this wav

\\/lien )'oLl're srvinging lbr the first f'eu.tirnes. this ner,r, rvar.l'ou f'eel prettv ttu,hvarcl, trnd \ou're conscious of er,,erv ,...,r"1.irlr'our nnns. That'.s u'hv he has vou keep .stt' irtgirrg-through ont,bucket. . . trvo buckets . . . ten buckets of lrtrlls.

Prettr,' soon, though, tliose ann rnuscles tlr€. going to feelcornfbrtable in that ne*' srving. And \()u're going to lose yrtrr

c o t l s c i o r i r . ,

ca l b t ' f i r r , ritiott-fit, '

T l r i ' : .t r r . inq t r r i ,in tu i t i i t , . i .e t l l < l t i o l ' , , .

s c i c t t t s o l t r , ,

g t t i t t r o r r r ' , :

o n t l t e t r l r ,

I l r r t . i ,

a l l t hes t ' , l '

neu ' i t n r l r , .

t3 1, t - i t t , t . , , :

atrcl lrr u', r r

tnirt icit l lr , '

V O l t \ \ ' l l r l t i

attd vour ' . . ,

T l r i : , :

Abi l i t r ' j ' . ,

teN ' Ie i t \ r r r l

\\raltcr S t

Et t ' r . r ,

F ic t io t t - l

l , '

b o o k s r , , , r -

ta t t t onr ' ' t r( l i u r r l ' : '

l t u t t h t ' . t :

i t t t l t e r i r r , . :

c c t r t t a i t t : ,

er - r t l t ra t ior r

i t t t p< t r t i t r r t ,' f l r t ' . , ,

sentent ' t ' . r ,

u o t o n l r 1 , , -

Page 215: Breakthrough Copywriting


. r \ i r r our next

rn. Image and:rrne Sentence

,t Irirs probablvr i r . rp te rs :' . , , , been do ing, r i , . i t beg ins to: i l r . r t I 'n- i sug-

. ,rrr l uork l ike' : , t . t ' : t l te re vou, 'l tlrenr r.vith ir

, , Io l r { to iden-l r r r \o rk them.

, l r l i r . t ' s tha t you

r Jrou'iug ai-, .,r lr clevice asi .rt. irs to nalTte

rlr:t rrl l ipprOach

r r . r i r r g t o do i sr i r t . r r he wan ts, , r r r t i ind p lar ' .

. , i : z t ' r r l t r r g r i p ,

. I ' r l , as vou l i f t

:r l:- 11| at the

: l t l r is rvay.

:lr is rrerv rva\, ',r ' \ ( ' f \ - f nuSC le

t l r rough one

- , , i r rg to fee l

- to lttse 1'our


conscious awareness of'tlrenr. ,{t tlrirt troint. urliat u,rrs nie'chiuri-t ' r r l L r e [ i r r e l r e t ' , r r r r e s i r r t r r i t i r e r , , , r r . , 9 r r 1 i r ' . s t t t r t ' t t ' l ; i t r t l , , 1 ' i t t l t t -ition-'far tnre skillfil oncl effi,ctit:c tlrrnt yotL lrrtl beJorc.

This is the kincl of i r r t , i t i ' ' I ' r r r t ' r ' i r rg to l ' r i lc l in r-ou. I ' r rtrr-ing to take *n {h'n Crcatiritr #l t. (ircati' itr.-#2. B'th tlre:i r r t r r i t i r e s t i r t e s . u l r < ' r ' e \ o u \ \ r ' i t , , ' l l ' , r r r r t l r t . l i r l l t t e p t l r s o f r o r r r .emotions i rs u'el l as vour nr irrr l . t t r r t l r i l r t ' r t ' ror1 r l re l lo nrore col l -scious of ' the nrechanisnrs arrcl t l t , r ic. t 's t l r i r t \1) l r are enrpkx. i rrg trrgain vonr ef}-ects, than r, 'ou are ,1 ' t l r t ' r rrort ' r rrr .nts of vorrr f ingerson t l re t r p t ,u r i te l Ler s .

I lu t , to ge t r -ou f ro r r r S t i r t t ' # l to S t r r t t ' #1 . I l ra i . t , to l r r ingal l these cletai ls to cottsciousl l ( 'ss rurr l rrrrr l ' r , r t i r r i ru 'ku' i r r t l i r r atre$. ancl r i l r l re c '{ I 'ect ive u' t t"r ' t l l r rr rou \ \ ' ( ,1 ' ( . rr 1, . j , r r , rrr [ i lst l t , l r r-rreclt o \ r i t e ( ' o l ) \ - s o t l r r t r o r r c i r r r t ; t 1 . , ' t l r , . ' , . r r r . r 1 l r t . i r r r , l t , , t . l r r r i , 1 r r e saucl burv thenr inside \-oul ' orr rr t l r l t , r l r - \1; t l r i r t rorr r , i r r iLrr to-r r r l t i t ' i r l l r e r r r l l l , l t l r t ' r r t . r r i l l r , r r r t t l r i r r l . i r r , g r r l r c r r t t l r , . r , r l r t l t l l . r r l r e r rYorr rvrrnt to expless rnost poucri j r lh rorrr i t lerrs. rorrr enrot ionsa.ncl vour silles pliikrsoplrr.

Tliis u4role proccss o{' "\r,ri _\u lsi'ur.thiess lcarlinq to Neu.Abi l i t \ / ' is seen rpi tc ' c lear i ' i r r t i r t , r t ' r r s inrple tcchnir lLre of ' In-tenveaving, u4ric'h I learncri 1l'orrr ir lrrii l iruit nran llv the ntlure ol\ \ l l t c r S . C l r r r p b e l l .

Evert' copt' *'riter shotrlcl rt' iul (.rLrrPbcll .s b',k. \I 'rlflrrg Xr,r-Fict ion (The \ \ i i ter, Inc., 1961I. I rr tht rrert c lrapter I ' l l l ist ot l rerbooks vou shoukl hrn'c. Brrt this is r , r ' r tainlv orre of the i rrrpr l r-t a t t t o t t e s t l r i r t r o r r t . l r n p r o l r l r l r h r r r r r s l e r . i t r l r u e e k t . r r r [ .

Cilnipbell is talking irborrt r.t 'por.tinu ancl not copv u.riting,but tlie stmctural principles irre tlre sallie. Her savs thilt elenin tlre rnost factrril l reporting. rto ,antt:ttc(, can bc eJfat:tir,c i.f itcctr t t t t i r ts only t lLe fact,s ulont, . l t r r l rst also contain emotion,evirlutrtion, inipact-if tlrose lircts iire to be given nreturing rurrlirnportance to tlre rettcler.

The silme is tme {or cr-erv senterrce r-orr *,r' ite o{'copr'. Tliatsentence shoulcl contain rrot ollr prorrise . . . not onlv irnage . . .not orrlr- logic-but as rnuch rf ull tltree as lrossible.

Page 216: Breakthrough Copywriting

201 f l I E ! ' I \ A L T O T ' ( ] I I I

\ \ ;ctrc tog' t l tcr rr l r r l l r r t rrr ise. \ol l r logic. r-orrr etnot iol ] . \ 'o l l r .i rnage'. Ptrck vorrr scntt ' r ict 's f i r l l o1'ever\ ' one o1' \ ' lake t l icrrrblenr l i r r to eirch othcr. t i l l i t .s alrnost i r rrpossi l r le to pul l out t l r t 'incliridual thre'irrls til ' tlrt ' riclr patterrr of c'onvic'tion iurd clcsrrt,\-oll re s-eavirrg.

F'or erarrrple. go lruck to the fire in.jr-ctor acl in Chapter 12.turcl scc l rou'prorrr ise is intenvoven ir i t ' r -rrv sc'rr tcncc of the be-licr-abilitr c'opr-u'here the injec'tors arc ltcing c'ontrristecl u'ith tlrt.olcl-lirslrioncrl plugs. In tlrese hrrr sentences. lirr instiLnce:

"\ \ ' l f / r orr lhrrrnl spurk plugs t lot t or( rr , r i r rg. orsl tot id bc usi t t ' !prett t i t t t r t ga,r i thsaclr-antaqe) ul t ich c 'osts {r 'orrr J to 8 cents l lor( ,tlrrur onlinrrrv gas (clisirclr-rurtitge). atrrl tlesltite this (disadviurtagc

)'orr're gettinq irrt'fflcicrrt (clisadvtintilge). u-itstc{rrl (clisaclr.anttrqe,grts consrlnrirtion (clisaclvantiige)."

Lr this first scrrtence. ufiich is ltart of'a logical s('quellce o1-f'erecl as proof of' suprrrioritr tl irorrgh cornparisorr o1'perfbruitrnc't'chtrrtrc'tt 'ristics. tlrt. c'opv uliter htrs ll lanirg('(l to lirr the reatler to rente'rtrlter the nert tirnt'he consiclcrs l l r r ing orr l intrrr- plrrqs.

Nou' the copv u-r'iter goes on to lris c'ontrirsting sentenc,r'irborrt tht' irtjectors:

"\l ' lt/r .firc itt.ft,r'tors rt'gtilrtr go.\ (,) tti l l gitt: ytttt rtlt

to B tni lcs ntor(,p(r gal lot t ( ,protr t i ,sr :) . t rp to 3l ntore lutrsepotc(, t '(prorrt i ,se), plrrs ei ts ier st i t r t ing (pronrise) i r al l u 'err ther (prortr-i s e ) . "

Five pronrisr.s in this seconcl st'rrtcrrcrt.. Tlre packing in o1inrage upon irnirge to llrild an or-enr{rrlnrinq efl'ect.

Or. trs An evelr nrore colnplicated erarrple. invoh'ing the irr-tenvern-inq of iihrrost ever\'('opv c'le'rrrc'nt irr the book. let's lookat this surrte'nce:

"; \ td. t t to,sl i r t tTtor lnr i f . ( t t nroorl- l l t r i l tk,r . indicat inq the r . i r lut ,to the rerr(ler of thc prorlises u-liiclr irlc' alrorrt to follou') f/lr,lct : tpt ' t l ,s (r t ' f i ' re 'nce to rurthor i tv to brr i l r l bel ier-abi l i ty) lnt t ' r l :c l (urclre bel ierabi l i t r - throrrgh the use of ' the scient i f ic 'i r l i r rrrr) t l rat qort do rrot lut tc tobc u l tanr lr lnrzrr ( tht core-prcnrise

. T I I E I J I \ \ i :

0 f 0 l t l t t ) r

C ( l d I l l ) 1 ' ( ) r l

a l l t l i t ' r ' 1 , , r :ta i le r l i r r t l ,

\ o r r ' .

k n c u ' t l r r rbefbrt'too l to 1 , , ' .

ex i l c t l l l ( ) r r '' I l 'r

i l

p r r ck i l r t ( ) . ,

rn t rc l r r i t L ,

11101'€ \ Oil r

i n l o r c ' t ' r r , , : . '


Sens i t i r i t r

\ r x t . :

ct l t lol l l l l )( , .

e l l l ( ' l l t l lP r '

t o o t t t t t t ' l L - ' ,

LD(l l l t t() -

. 1 1 r r i , .

rytrurstl . l ' . , .\ \ i , L ,

t e r 11 , I . , . -\ \ re I 'e g( ) i r r -

i l t , r ,

r t ' t us t l r t , . , :

i ts rerrc l t ' r \

i s t r i u t s i i , r ' r r ,

n ' h e r t ' 1 , , : .

t h i s i t t s t t ' . , , i

Page 217: Breakthrough Copywriting

I } I I \ \ I , T O I ] ( ] H E S

; t ' ( ' t l to t io l t . \ 'our, , r r r . \ l i r ke t hen - r: , r p r r l l ou t t he' r ( ) l r iu l ( l c les i re

r r r ( . l r a p t e r 1 2 .' . r r t . t ' o { t he l t e -r : ' . t : t t ' t l u ' r th t l ie: t \ t i I l lC ,e :

' l t , , r t l r l bc t rs i t t t '-, , \ r . t 'nts ntr tre. r l isrrrh ' t rntage)

, l is iuh'antage)

, . . t ' t1116 '11g€ ' 1 ; f ' -, : p, ,r ' forrnnnceir r irrsert ,5.l.II l r l I re r t t i r le

. . l l t rg sr , r l tence

' , . i t ' t ' uou u l )

, ' ' l t ( ) t ' . \CporD(: r

, . . r t l r t , r - ( p r o r t -

r , , t t k i ng i n o { '

, , , l r i r r g t h e i n -

" , , ,k lc t ls look

: : r r g t l r e va lue

t , r l iou ' ) f f te ,sr :: : ) l tu tc d i ,s-: l r l sc ient i f ic .I t ' r ' - l ) l 'o ln ise )


or o , lcclu i r lc (r 'estrr terr .rr t , { ' t l r t , r ,ol-( , -px) lr ise) r / i . t - r l t , t - t .c 'a r (p 'o r r i se , f ' t ' l r s t ' ) f / r r ' , r ) t t J ) t t - t1111111r , (P . r r r i se . c ' r r r t , r rs i r rgi r l l t l re c . l r r i r r rs o i 'tairecr in tr,e,,,"''i,li1i:'::,;,1;:;jl'':|,ii]:i I::

arrearrr r,e.r,,re-Nrl* ' - is t l i is c l ' r r t .c.*sr. i , r rrs ir . , \ r t i r t rr l r . Brrt the c 'Pr ' r . i ter.

kneri ' the pr inc,rple ol ' i r i tenrt ,r t , i , ,g . . . l r iu l t , rPerinrcrr te 'r i u. i th i tbefbre " ' turcl l lacl i t st , r t ' t l i^r l* i r r I r i r rrrc, ,rrsc, iars ers ore rroret 'o l to be ,sec l - i r r t r r i t i r t . l r - { , ,_ l r r r r r t l r t , r , l l i , c , t l r t , * , r r r te t l . t i t theeract niorlent lie neecletl it.

- TrV i t Yourself . See- rr ,* l r i i l r \ ( l i lJr r . t rr t . rrrot i , rrs \ , () ' crr : l .u

p i t c ' k , i r r t o i t s i n g l e s t , r r t t . r r t . r . . l , , , r . , , , l r . , r p l r . . . , , , , 1 , , , , , , , : . , S , 1 , , 1 , , , r ,m 'ch r i chc ' r anc l ' r ' r . P , * r ' r '1 i , i . , , ' , , ' . . ' , ,1 r , r , , , , , , , , , r t , s . I I , r i . , r r rc l rlnore You c i l l l sa \ - i r r the s iu l l ( , s l ) i r ( , ( , . l l , r r r , r r l r t ,g i r r t0 l r r r i l r l r .e_i r l b r c e r n e ' t - ' i r r l t i p l i e ' , 1 , , , , 1 , , , , t i r r t . r r r r i r l , r r r r t i r r r 1 1 , ' r r r r r r r .cop\1

Sensitivitv-How t. Gire )irtrr. Ilt,:raer \l,hat He DemandsStep lx Step Throughout the Copy

No*' , i { ' r 'orr corrt i r r .e t , Pi i r ' Pr-,rrr ist , . i )olr I l rol l r ise. idert i f i -ctr t ion upon ic lent i f icat iort . t lot ' t t r rr t ' r r t i r t i ' r r uporr c l<lcrrrrrcntat i ' r r . r , l -er.rrent upon elerrertt. tru'rc rr,t tl,ttt stttrt." \r'rtt:rt: d.t:.s it btcrttrtct.o nutcltl wherc docs trrt' , 'r ',r,ri,, 'rtt,r'.rrtr,,strtirtttrr or rxttttr. rtttdu(n l t to go on to u t t ( tL ' i t t t t tg r ' t ) l t t t tL l t t t t t r t i , s t . , o r ( ) [ ( , , t l t t . , t : lo ,sa . )

At_rclmt Ttr i r t t urt ' r lLtrr ,s[r , t i t tg r , t t t : t , t .sci l i Htnc dut,1u,t i , .atcr,ryour.self, orrcl ,srcitclt tff."

\ \ re ha'e alreaclr t , , , r t l , , ' ,1 ,rr t rr is Prorr lerr i bel i rre, i r r chap-ter l l . I s,ggi 'st thir t 'orr re 'r , lu l t l r rr t r i lscLrssi ' 'o*. . e 'e, t l r ruglru'e're going to erltancl on it at tlris ttoirir.

Here r .o 'are *,J ' i rq () l r \ ()rrr , , , , . , , 1rnrr."rs , f errpat l^: \ i lurnust bc" at the sa.e tirre'. rr't ,rrrr. the rr-r-iter 'r' rr'rr arl. L'rti t s r e i x l e r ' . \ ' o r r r r r r r s r i r r r t i t . i p r L t e r l r i r t P , i r r I i r r t l r . , t . , , 1 l r H , , r r ' - , , , i tis trtrnslortllecl into tt series o{'irrrpres.sions jrr r-orrr rsacl.r.s rrirrl-

ll{]"* he is going to sal-: "I're ri,atl enorrsh allrut t|is. 6iyg r1t,

this insteacl."

Page 218: Breakthrough Copywriting

206 THI I F I \AL TOLI ( ] I I I - \

Ancl then rorr mrrst shift the clircctiol of tlre copr- to rireethis neu' clilt 'ction of interest.

In otlrer u'or(ls. u'hut u'e ttre tailking about nou. is tltc ot:t,t'-rtl l .ytntciltrc o.f tlour ar1. Not a sc'ntence. or a paragraph. or a st'-tluence: lrrrt fhc arcltitt'r:trtrc o.f tltc tcl as rt rclttir:.

Er-err-tirl has rur trrchitectrrrc. as I'nr srrre rrxr krrou,. This isthe or'er-all pattern o{'thc irrl. inclucling s'hcrr

"ritl rr-h.,'e rrnrl hou

nranr- tirrrcs r.ou shilt fi 'orn one trpe of'copv to another. It is tlrcabilitr to recoqnize' tlrese shift poirrts. ancl to chilnge' u'hen vorretrcotttttcr thertt lirrrt-sar-pronrisc c'()pv to nrechanisrn copv toclocrrrnenttttion copr- to proruise copr- trgail. tlrat nrakes r.-orrr iulstick toqcther, or {all apart.

This is rrn irlrnost inrpossiltlc skill to c,on'rrnrrnicatt.. since itrelies so nurch on thc feel of etrch iridivichral sitrrtttion. Hou'ever-.I carr shou' it to vor o.fte r it's occurrecl. in a serics o{' four arlson thc sirlne genel'al trpe of prochrct-lrooks ancl hou, etrch clil-i 'ers fronr the others in the u'iir. large bkrcks of'copr- elenrents rrrt,blenclecl in rurd orrt of the over-all sell.

As I'r'e silicl lrclirre. I use rrrail orcler ils nr\ r.\unrple becarrst'nrail orck'r is the longest generrrl l irnti of copr. ltecarrse it usrr-allv sells thc lrrirclest. ancl because the teclrnirlues I'nr talkirrgabout are rrsrrirllv uutlinecl nrost clearlv in this trpe of copr-.

Letls look at our' loul irtls. ancl see 1r,r,.,"""1,-,rpp.oacirr,, tl,, 'basic task o{'sclling tr sirrilar procluct in a clil lerrent u'ur.. irncl u-itlra diflererit blerid o1' elemerrts:

Sample Ad #l

This is the fl'iencl-u,inning acl u,t kroked at in orrr last chtrP-ter. I'r 'e inclictrtecl erach nrajor ltlock of c,opr'. irr st,r1renc,e. lx' irletter of the irlpliabet; rrncl each o| the shili points lx- rr nuniber'.

I trrrr rrsing trs erilmples rrll clirc.ct-pronrise headlines. Tlrt,pronrisr. in this headline is rrlntost rmiversill (A): that voLl cliulnrake anr-bodv like r-ou. (See paee 208.)

Insteacl of intcnsifving tlrt pronrise irnntecliatelr'. hou,er-er. as


r.tttlnr otl,,

by rcs t i r t i ; ,

ryou l l t ' t ' , , : ,ognizt ' r l 1. , ,

\ \ ' l r rrr l tnost yt ,r :es tab l i s l r ,and tht ' :

altt'ttt's rr t :

a terrclr t ' r 'that so r :I ] lan s() ]

p lovc t ' s

T l r i ' . 'sitioual rr :in to t l r t ' f r :arg l l i u r r , ' , :

T l r i .P t ' o t r . :r \ II - r | l l L

D o r ' ; '

I l i g l , :the f i rst ,1,the clocrrr


aga in t l r ,lr' ith rr t ], :s ta tes t l i r ' 't e e ( l

T l r t ' r ,res t o1 t l r ,recit i l t tr r t l

p rep i i l ' i t t i { ,1

for tl rt'r r ,

put i r t t i r ,

Page 219: Breakthrough Copywriting

i I I \ \ I , ' I 'OL ' ( ]H t rS

' ( ( )l)\ to rneet

: , , . r i s t l te oxcr -,g I r t1 t l t . o r r l Se-

: krrrxr ' . Tl i is is, l r l l t ' a l l ( l ho \ \ '

, t i r t , r ' . I t i s ther r r , l ( ' \ \ ' l t en \ ( ) t l; , t r r i s r r r c< tp r - tO' , , . tk t ,s \ r ) l l r i tc l

: . : t , L t t ' . s i nce i tr ' t o t r , I lO f f r e f ' e f .

, . ,I fbur acls: 1,,,,r e,itch clif '-, , l tntents are

L : r rP l i ' l t ec iu rse, , . ( , r l l se i t t r s t r -' . I r r r t a l k i ng, , , , 1 COP) .

' : , r r ro i tc 'h t s the, , r \ . iU ld \ \ . i t h

,anlp le Ad #I

, , i r l i rs t chap-' i r l ( , l t ( , c . b v ai , \ i r l ) l t r nbe r .

, , , , l l i r r t ' s . T h e' i r , t t vo t t CAr )

' I rou t ' r 'e t , t ls


manv other acls in this categor\' hit\-e clone, this cclpr. starts orrtbv restating the original headlir. pror,ise (na.kirtg)ittfuod.q lrkt:you becomes pttpularifrT) trnd l^ clefi.iug the prer.iorrrlu ,,'.""-ognized fact that this popularitv c,an lre taught. (B).

Whv u.tis this done? For tu'o reirsors: [) bectruse t]ris nor.el.alrrrost paradoxical reclefinitior i clair lt.pttlrtrity be pttrr:ltused,t)establ ished an imrnecl iate point ol di f lerenc,e betu,een this bookand the dozens oi 's i ' r i lar t i t l t 's t l r i r t l r iur c ' re befbre i t -ahvavs a cr i t ical problern. Art l i l , l r t , ( , rrrst ' th is acl ls subiect * ,asa teacher, and the acl ' .s u, 'hr i le l r t ' l i t ' r i r l r i l i t ' r . t ,ster l rrDon the factthat so rnan' large ancl re'sP.c,tt'tl r.,r.l,, 'rr.rrti,rs lracl paid thisrnan so n- iuch nronev to t t ' l Lc . l r t l r t . s t , t . r ' l r r r i r l r res to t i re i r e rn-plor ees.

This is establ is]recl br the iul 's f i r -st s ir i t t p ' i r r t iurr l f i rst t ran_s i t i o n a l s e n t e n r . e r l r . I / i i r l t r t , 1 , , . t t t l t t . t , , , , 1 1 , , 1 . l , , r u l s < l i r . e t . t l rinto the first cloc,'entati,r lrl.c'k (. . irr ,, lric,lr tlre c,,rrr'ruti 'rxi r re narned.

Thus *,e ha'e the cler.ckrpirrg prrtterrr .l 'the rrcl irs:PromiseDefinitionDocutnentatiorr . . .

Right 'p to the nert t ra 's i t i r rr s.r terrce (2), u4r ich br i 'gs inthe first detailed pronrise block il) r. 1i1111 u,hich then echoes agrlrrthe docurnentation (E) antl pric,e conrparjsor.r.

Norv, after a brief trarsitir,irl pr.' 'rise (F), the acl clefinesagain the irnporternce of thc' ri 'er-all pr.'ise (G), brrcks ir Lrp*'ith a thircl restaternent of' th. cl.c,,irentatio' (H). ancl theustates directlr.' the price crir.parisrir irncl rnone'.-btrck guarar-tee ( I ) .

Then, rvith the classic triursitiorr (3), it goes on to cler.ote therest of' the .d to a de-tailecl cutalog'ing oi the prornise (J). Arecitation of prornises that are flr stronger 116111-l;ss21,,r" oi' tlr"preparation of clefinition and clocrunentution that has heen laidfbr them, tha' ther *.oulcl ha'e er-er bee' the'siurplr-beerrput at the beginning of the acl *,ithout s,,"h p."pr,ratiori.

Page 220: Breakthrough Copywriting

ffiffi$ iff *lii,iffiff*t; ;c:!F;5;Eg;Eti$;';;rg;gr*EiEii;

il gi,@'

ffiffiww; 6 ; @ A u t rL



l(I IT

- -





\- J!Ei t

.EP ;il'rs li.ii!i ,3 IF! : ;E

iii;:iiiif lEliii

:E: : :;- i.. i'


Page 221: Breakthrough Copywriting

996r 'Avht r 3Ntztltvt{ ,su3Nto i



! l

i 3;r: t- t,2


IEEsE o8 €IE



;i€;li ig'EFi giF:g; 5!i

ffi#o i€ c

€ a3

6 e

E io ]

d c rP N

o o! oc . !

e d

: 5PE9

o g

a rt io . lE .c !

' i5 i- a

i EE N

: i !;sEefeI E ;

89Et> ' B ,o o : oPI13I; e

gE€ 8EED Eo.l!

, 3 ;igeEit#:E } Y

IEE36Eej.Et E >9-.e.

5 i

3DtO i

4 0F E

* i5 . .- !96' U | ,oE

gc8 .a 5

oU >.s '

T Oa =E 8 FEiET:F; : ;iE;E;i$€" 9 ic o c- ; <


i E :

rg!, Eril g E :5 o >558

9EiE Oe a

1fi g le 'eEsHI E G '


. E i'Eo ' e

sEi . ;o =

E3;5 g,-3efie; e




:EgEg iagg s:,, o q c i

- 4 E 6 5 :



' E ; E3 8 te 2e.i i ;! i iSaE

a :9 ; l

e5:I > l



! io

4 .a '

l !affi

ffiA u t l t -

Page 222: Breakthrough Copywriting

210 'rHE FrNAL ToucrrEs

Inciclentallr', notice hou. the negati\-e prornises (K), and thcfirll list of clocrrrnentation (L), have been placecl out of the nrainstrean of'the ad u'here thev can be read. or not read. bv thosethrrt are interested in thent.

Sample Ad #2

An acl {or a book on the po\\'er of vour mincl.Again the prornise-headline (A), intensified lrr'-this time-aneltrborat ion of this prornise (B). (See page 212.)

Nou,', using its first transitional sentence (1), the ncl nror.esinto hvo partrgraphs of negatir.'e (C) and positive (D) reclefinition.Ancl then, u'ith a single transition-rvord (Slrrip/r7-2), agzrin elab-oriltes the prornise, making it strongel ancl stronger and nctreancl more detailed, and at the strme time gi'ing it the belier.abilitr -to r re o f r le f i r r i t ion .

This definition-tone is unchangecl throrrghout (F), rvhertpromise is again intenr.oven rvith firct, leaclirrq irnrnediateh. intoa tra.nsition (3) in rvhich the tone is that of proof, but the con-tent is straight prornise (G).

Then this proof is connected (4) rvlth the entire prornist,catnlog (H) ri 'hich fil ls the rest of the acl.

This ad-enonri<-rush' successfirl-is oue of the best examnles< [ i r i e r u ' t ' , r ' l n g * e l r i t r e . T l r e r e i s s , s r r l r t l e r r l r l e n t l i n g l r c r i , , ldefinition, docurnerntation and prornise, tlrtrt everv *,ord of tliecopv soon takes on the aura of pure fact.

Sample Ad #3

Nou.' rve rnove on to the straight-pr-omise acl. Tliis is therock-em, sock-ern trpe, clominated b1' prornise and rnechanisnr-pnrmise, u'liich gains its po\\rer from the sheer rnonenturn anclre.lentlessness of its clalms. (See page 216.)

It again sttrrts rvith the over-all prornise. (A), rvhich it irrr-rnecliatelv follou's up u.ith a second, elaborating prontise (B).

T I I U I t \ \

T l r 'u 'hic. l r r t

greir t i r , i

{ i r l l r c ' , , r , ,t l I ( ' S t i t l r

( 3 ) i o t lpt ' t t t t t i r r

I l t r ,

o f t ] r t , . . ,

t ra i r r .

. \ t r r l

h e a r l l i r , ,u ' l i i c ' l r : i : :erast ' l r . , ,

atelr t L,( '

ptll ' l)( )\(

c t tss i r r ,[ ' . t '

D t t ' t r t s . : '

( D ) . i r '

her i r1 ,1 , ,i n g t l r i '

\ t t ,bloc'1.

l l r :t o t l t i r r t r i

t less ( )1

pas t . ' l

I -

c l o r t t ' . i r : .

e n t r n ' ' :

l ong t ' ' t

Page 223: Breakthrough Copywriting

l i l I I \ . { I

: \ r ' \ K )

i r r r r t o { ', t | t ,a t l .


. ar)d thethe rn:rinby those

S:rrnple Ad #z

r ol rr)ur mind.tlris tirne-an

tlre acl movesl) rt'rlc.finition.' . rrgain elab-

' : r l ( . t ' art( l mOre:1 , , . I r t ' l i evab i l ih -

, , r r t F ) , rvhere, r r , , . r l i a te lv in to, : l r r r t the con-

, . r r t i r ( ' p r o m i s e

,. 1, , ,st i . rarnples, . r , r l ing here o f:,, ri orcl of the

\arnple Ad #3

, ' l ' fh is

is the,' I rrre'chanisrn-. , , r r r t , r t tu tn anc l

.r l r ic,h i t i rn-: , , r t r i s e ( B ) .

T' I rE FIN\L TC)t :ctHEs 2l l

The' it r'o'es directlr i 'to its lir'cla'rental definiti.n (cJ).u'lrich it e'r|rates i' a' sirrqie phr.rLs. ttltctr tlru corild-r) ri,ith agreat l 'c letai led pro'r ise (D). arrr l t l re ' f r l l r l* .s rrp *. i th a bc.aut i_firlh' corrde'secl parngrapli *'hic,rr crrrsists of'a trir'siti ' ' in (2) t<rn restatenrent of its funclarnerrtirl rt,rk,firrition (E). uncl out agilrr(3) to the rer'rri 'cler of' tlre. arl. i F r. ri-lric,lr is sheer prrrnise anclprornise-rnechnrr isnr fr-ont t l rerr r ln,

Here. ckrcurnc:ntirtiori is rlisr.t'qirr-tlt,tl entirelr. The firll *.eight, r f t l r t ' s l r l e r l e l l e r r r l s o r r t l r e l ) ( ) \ \ { . r . , , r r , 1 1 , , , ) l n ( , l r t u ; } r o f t l r e l l r o r r r i s t , _tral l l .

Strmple Ad #4

. _1".1 f inal l r ; * 'e har.e a l r . i r rr t r l r r , rk, I l t , r . t , . t l r t , rr i r i r r p*rrrr ise-

h1ad. l in1 (B) is prec'eclecl l^ t i r . . l . r i t i r . . r rLrr t l r , . i t r -* , f t , r . i 'ce (A)\ l r i t ' l r : f i r s t . s e t s i t i t p i u ' t l l i , r r r t l r , , , r t i r , , r . r i r r r i l r r r . l u - o r l r r r . t s i t , , r 1 s rera-se f ' "r the prospect.s rrr i r r<l : i i r r t l st 'c,rrrr l . l , r i , rgs i rr i r r ' recl i -atelr- the-ker-persuacler of i ts iurt l ror. . iSce page 220.)

(c) block. * 'h i le p'orr ist ' r , ,Pr. rr ls. se'r 'es the si . rul talreouspuryose o1'being ir rrrc lrnt ' r r t rrnr- l rrr i lc l t , r . -a tcchniqrre *,e *, i l l r l is_t ' r t ss i t t i r r r t r_ l t r te t r t .

using the clifl 'ere't trle lirc,e,s arrl sizes as tr.nsitio'.I ele_rnerrts' the copr theri irrt.chrc'e's its cnrci.l co'centratior] copv(D), in u'hich it rerlefines u.lrat tlie urlr'er .ppeara'ce, ancl i' *,'ic.h it ,,,,t,tut"f I'i;1fil;,:il"Ti,l:::ing this frrlfi l lnrent to her.

Atter (1) Becuu'a. . . co')es the first pror'ise-eLiborati' 'l l rt) lo( 'K.

But ther-e is no pilin{ up ol'clairrr upon cltrint her.e. There istoo r'uch irgrrrirecl skepticisnr ir this prospect-to' r-'.ch a\\, o1' other, prer-i'rs that li.r'e distlppri'terl her i' thepast' This skepticis.r rrrust be ti 't icipatecl. ,,,i i o,-,r.,.",-ecl. This isclone' first (F) bl. iigre'eing *'ith it, irrcl the' (cl) br- shiflinq theertire storr" onto tlre clrctor fbr h'er'e pn.agrn1,l,r-l^- {'ar thelo'gest ref'ererce tr arrth.rih' of an' o{'o'r {b.r sa'plc acls.

Page 224: Breakthrough Copywriting


eorld!" H. h! r l2 5 0 , m 0 m . n . n :A d a r i c a , h o * r f . ,lbt lt9tur.x.6ortEltlt, rltl Fiul!

l r l l l l r t r b r l .Maloat fach!lcpl'l of Hro Itl s l ! H c E - b I- &a Co6pkl. -

dont" oo ObrdillEllbsl$o, F t|laht, n.9ld.L. |6lrCl.cTlbrba,

".f,blbr, ?rll..lbr16l, CdA.d d@ t

Y!t ! Hcc rr .tcchnique! th. l dc o m a c t i p p l h t . tYout thoutht! Lrcrch 8o. l l ShorLqcltdly end.t .c!E* frakc &dir6dalayr - l . ran ! t :dt t | 3 l . n e - r *lFwtr, . l t drt lacvd monw on d

H c r a a r a t . r t a"Thouthts(inubEliF you mjnd - ddw lor8ioatio. - ro u t p u t - h c l g t o rcvartlhitrt yo bri

HcrG rc "Cda



( fcil Horo ol lcrl lr yorr choncr lo goir ttr THltll(lNG-MACHlllE MIXD- J yor'vodroorncdoborl . . .roocri lyctdgriel lythclycu' l lbcarlorndtd... oadD L ao f wilhoul rirling o ponny!

( l ) - + L c t h c c x p l . r n t I d o n l c . r . h o y I w h r t y o u . r c 8 o i n 8 t o d o i n t h a t G E o f t o u . o r n r l n d . . . p o r . E O tv I wrly o$.ilacd your mcntrl po*crs I v.ry ffts( hou. you rccctvc tlc b@1, tou br?c allrged bclor b b*l

I rrc today - ho* drf f icul t i r is tor you I i r rhi ! Turn to 9a8c l{ . Rrad lhrcc ish.a . . , ooi beu3ht to r ia rq{hI to on..ntratc hov b.d youa I ihon p.8a3 - no mo.c! And th.n, put - o.8e| ' .d r l tb ih9l . todl l$ b

1 1 I n c n o r y m a y b c . . . h o w m u c h r p r i s . I d o * n l h c t - o k R c v i c r i n y o u r o w n d o l b L a h . l t p o a c a c t - i d D k\/ \ onar 'ou arc ot crrpplrnS h.nral habiB I hrnd tha onc 5implc c. t . t l 'vc shown lorcrar . l tdr bact Fd . .1t , r . { '

I , . . bo" lort la trlcr td .el Eor. I you - ho. lo ted trclt itto tolt to to to rorl toa toa al lbc blbt dI | r r r o t c t y o u ? o l n d t o l n t t l t h I D l n d p t h . l t h . t . h t l h . F - D . t e t . t . l N h :\ ddlnf.D.chlnc ,p..d rnd ..drlntt: I D.!lV * s lo.a $ tor tl$! For cramptc -

/ I IDLIEVE TITAT YOUR MIND I lh.n 9ul lhr i t rm9rc l rrc l to worl DO YOU WANT TO DEVELOPI rs woRxNc ToDAy AT oxt_y I to. you._ rhar v. fy.semc irour l . .5TEEL-SHUTTER coNcENTRA.I i* iO ic" or rr i fnUE powai | . ca| l in your fahi ty_o. f t , j ! .q.r-4* TloN,,_ ovERNrcHT?

J/ 1 - SIMPLY BECAUSE YOU DONT I tnch lo max. a l r i t oI anv r WEIYE Thcn iurn to p38c 85 . hrr l . (I xXow lgi nCft w,1Y iO- | hcts. nam.s o. obr<ts th.v wrth. at onc simpt. crcrcr* , ud rhnt ro

/ i l \ FBED rr DrREcrroNsr ( t l ' i . : :_ ' : . : " :1. : l t l :_ l?. ' !_1.^iT__i '1l l rou. abr l t rv to absorb husc rmo.n, 'gH ,,."',.'JLi:"i::J'J"::.:,:1":,:[:- I 3?1,",:ii]i:'.i". il'J;ll l.:1:-i"lj 1;*f'f,"1'i;'l'1[n 'J,"" '.:[":

{ i.-; - ;. };1-;'; };5yg_i:1 | ;i:.'::lirli lf.T.'# ' sr'erc o'nbr dor'tr how'r cbrtdE!!

I lboE DrcbLor h.lf-rlt.r hron you .vcn rou.! *coi | ,osr ornd, ,.

"rit itll'f#'ill *?RJ"orr/rtflTBo?urlr.r8:

I f,.oir you o"*,*.::,1" I -ilr

ii.'.'liRtr^nrrr ^no 98l,i"Ii,t"iJr,.tHAr AMAzE

, ;!Tt-#.::"i::1":";.'..T1'..'i;:'i I I'i.*:lx3;l?t"*,,:* .;ill,fi Dasc rr5 pr.,E ( nL:T#'Hi#"'?*3f.:,if,l I i,;*t';:j:l'j:illl*';,','il'Y":; :ii:;"'";:'J:";:"'.T'1,;;'.1T1[l

I 'T;;i, rFc.& ,ou do,',.r,N.ilE I in*;.'jl*illil'.",1"n:i:* li'";.11,[""'ol"oi"l'",i.",;f"i:;:::

I rtd. wrr ro t..d you?.,:o":ry1: | .ir..iirii,-., rJ';;;.;';;;ie-r: ?1._._.,._o-(-.:,.d:*.-rhrr rb.r Fn| glllc! 9I._E-1T1-uLFji^:,3 | srn on rr,d,. p.orr.;,-i.".i --i.. .'.1^,r::1T:,t.:.* rh.r r. dr!I lirl r Erl tD Intlulu 'vcry--Eomrtl I rcct ofi alreE fr.ts $ thou3h rhGt;.1c Do You WANT To sEE Ho*

I ;'# fii I trtf ifiLf:.:i \ 3*.lia'.i:' il- - ru' u'ic' " ii"Y'i'*li"'ff^!ii.'i3', :ii\ii';,,'iJ,T3[f"^TTt*#;',-,fi"il{*im':.?11,'!l,T',,".11 "?ll'l? ?l], ,o. *. ..,.,"uon/ rnoa?cw.r13arrr.l! (t)iff:l:"ti;T:"j"'-"'['.',""'H:'"'l ,'jr''"::: i;t;"r"1'i;,,'""'ll .d.,HI l ' l l ?aa3l l l To Yor h

v I schcdule - wrrh cach apDoinrmcnr r l l t lcat toq b.d D.bla! bE* 3|.+

I . -o:: wet*d! I li'jl,T,',i:':[il''JJ:'l::xi#.1x1 ;'J;'-fi',lTj:..'-' b'rdr' 'orrr'| - Y6! Problcm-solvinS . i r . . I r ick! | you ncca ir t

-or a shopprnj t isr - or yESt AND DO yOU WANT TO

, Uonccnlrr l rcn s . i t lct l -Mcmorv l l I thc out lrnc ol I e sal .s CENERATE ENTHUSIASM . .E ( | t r i . k l H a b i t ' b r . a l i n 8 . i 3 a t r i c k l I p r c s c n r r r r o n - o r i h . h i g h l i 8 h l r o f d F R T E N D L I N E S S . p E R S o N .| \ t u 4 a D 9 t c a u , S c n c t a l l n g I n c - * r u I i n g o r t a n r a r l i c t c _ o r r t i l o f r h i n S s A L I T y A T A N T N S T A N T

I qg?!_r-- t ! l t lucccst l ) A I that h.yc ro bc donc o Da.[ .cr o.d.r t COII{MAND?I TRICK! Mind.9oecr c'n bc mdc^rc

| Anr on. ot rhcm - rhcy inro ThGn rc.d .vcry wo.d rtanlnt dI ol*r :y_1u 191 1-h1:.- t9--F- F-T I ror 'nind auroma(icaf ly. rs rh@3h p"e"- iei i -L"- how to ovcrcodI wiu r t l Inq $Jttr-o.r- 'J, t : :1: | f , t

I tou prcr*d. buttonl And lht s ld. j t incss ud tcr. , . t tyI lt:l:p11 IlllK-119_I.19111-E I Lr'r"i..or.i rrrr-'bt.r 'tr Fd. -"r. .nyo* rirc you . . dltdnI MlNu u a slmPl"t tylnS_rcur lnc-' I to! avcry da, ,oa aha Ftl ol toua llta oppqilioo *iri ! Iitttc a I tlna1.\ he! Ala tt rluLr_ro -ryt:-ti_19 | _ t-roio-r--- iic vcry irt tor v'oid. . . crm bo$ rrot xd spel

fl -f pr-^,14;. rry ttthf . D.ut! , o"ir;;;ti';e thdb-&t rrom cvcrylnc yo ret-rra L'\9f+

rea x'I U 1,

And v.3 itl ontv .hG b.siminrt rter - fc rooatTlo Yrry Flnl Hcrr Afttr ,'

' _] Wycl Ancr Of lorr l{trd 3cd ll for Trr Dcyr _'lijtlii"jl'.?rt

1!|l I o',li f,""iil'.?ll[::'1" - :-.i,,.ii. o.. .,,rr

A Frot of lhd ?crer 00- | Ccrclrrct-tor. WttL?cwrr. tl."JH"#;,,""r.,LT.T:f"H;Tlcf Wlll Artcrrd I ir||.€crflcucr. ro you on rtu5 p.8c r ,6t I iad,l

/^. , Ycrr ff{ordrl I H.blt-tnothgf iimlriini or irr. into.frrrion e.clcd(9D( .#,'*tf*,'?'"*b-X1;Tlil3 | "ff'1,:-R,',f.1,','s?"'.'ilJl l?,1i 3f ili*'f,"i6'*tigH:r'ifil

/ 8q: ftri!.tlnt b@tt yq hrrc cv.r I bclin tc*int th.wordlr.torting Gch- o.ty throuSh thit dicLl, rcrd. Wh6 thb b@k Mls, Fl I riqu6 ol Autmtic Ort.nizrri,on on Hcrc .t l{t ir . pr.cticrl, lelnr!I r td nomcntr Gtch drt trcn I cvcry udrnincd @rEr ot your mind! ln3, ..ry{ercrd book @ lhprcvi.{I tlolouwbtrcclcnd.GlEetircusi IYd b.Sin bF.kinS th.osSh hcnrd lhc poecc of tour nird aLr r-D| ,ua G drprcr. Al a.t tut lc I b.rricn-relt.l liniutiG rhar hrvc iqtrl lB.utho., Hrrry Lonye, b!

F I a oa Oa rd fifl|la Gfa- d I bGcl blalins you tor ycro! bac! qucd by crDaro "rbc D! 116

\ ' ( r o c a t t I t a r d ! l t l I Y q l e f E b a f i l t { . a F . O c m d p i . r @ c n . l m h o t ' l n r bII

Page 225: Breakthrough Copywriting

IEI{TAL3.HACHlNE MIND, .. lound.d .. . ond

|* or! tlnd . . . Dora6 .i.1F. tlltp*d b.toF b baLl. . . -r brculhl lo tic rs.harfr rlri rL.9lc ,orilI lo

LL td.n.t - ud Dt adr tor b.rl sd CrU, raat

. -rt to. tq rt atc blht oa- :}OL * 'ANT TO DEVELOPL sHLT-TER CONCENTRA._ O \ E R N I O H T ?. - : i r o p 3 8 c E 5 n a r t a a

' ; * . r . r . r * . e d t h r i l l t oi , r 10 absorb huSc amount3. - r : r o n - c a s t l y a n d s w i t t l tI r E6 fillcd rltb lr.l .

F\ .UldE6:\ U L W A N T T O D E V E L O P} E Y E S ' ' - P O W E R S O F

I \ A T I O N T H A T A M A Z EI R I E t D S ?'-d io PaSc 136 . . . pl . t

r r . f r t r n g 8 r m c 3 . . . a o d t h a n' * . tncnd!, t inc ed t imcF rour abrl t ty to tpot rcYcrl .r i r - p u t r o g c t h c r i i d d a n

: l . ' r&ncc - lbaa lbat wB.-.\d t.r lh.r at dltIOL * 'ANT TO SEE HOWII IS TO REPLACE BAI)I WiTH HABITS YOU CAN) L D O F ?rr t..dy b. thc lcvcl.tlon. , . on prg. l0 l . . th.rra,{ t erth fun. . . thal ro,* bd b.bltr bc|l tl.D

--i tqr badlt aora|lrs

^\D DO YOU WANT TOI T i E E N T H U S I A S M . .D L I \ E S S . . . P E R S O N -I ^ T A N I N S T A N T

I \ D :d.d.vcry word $anbt 6

6 L..rn how to ovcttodd tcrr , rutomatkl t ly. . .

l F l r l c y o u . . . d i e l y c- ' r r i a t i r d c x r r l n a l c

.m borh rrot sd gFctfrc y@ ret-ua l{ t- t . a l

i h l*Trr Dcyr-i{r{y At gr llrtlb rriu i! iurt trrc b.tluilf!lltq lanyn ir d*rib.d- lls tatc i3 isa r raal.lI d U* inlormrtid prf.tcd@3 Ew b&:,SECRETSrD POWER - trd rvdlrucr! rl.b utlcLlr f ir . practicrl, f&lntt-f+ard bool @ loprcvbt6 cl rour mird tbt r-trtE .erb., H..ry lrary&, hsd t .rro "t.bc rua 116

,46<r€nd fthory ln tb


"Tb! hua.n b.ln3 ?lrb tb. h6! Dha.o o h . n a l h . m o a y i n t h . w o ! l d . " H a r r yl.raync h! Lctur.d in tront ol l'barrnuo l A h . r i c a r . l R o l a r l r n . , E t t . , I . a o n a ,Chahb.r o( grou9. hrva aU calbdon thir amarint nrn b DovG lha burinar. n d . 6 i . l g o w c r o a I T h i n l l n t . I E h l a aI ind! Loratn. ' r hind i r ro wcl l orsrni :rdl i r t ha c.n Fm.hb.r thc n.ea., fE6. rd.dRrra rnd ncuprtioi. of ovar zO0 Ait.r.rap.opl. i r - . - . ingl . ,ala^ingatt .r ra.air^ o^a of al .n onl, oi . . l

f r . Loreync'r nf . t b@k "HOW TO DD.V E L O P A S U P E R . P O W E R f , E M O R Y " h r .j . . .dy.howa ova. 250,000 ncn end womrn,.ll ova. Am.aict. how th.y r.n achlava ru!.Uina in thci ! hrmory. ovcr-D i 3 h ! , w i l h j u . t r l c w m i n u k r e o r k . l r t6.i tdbiltu P!.f, N.rory r. -onrt- on. .d.ll ya?t ol |,,lit grcal^.e tor-L! Now l l r rry Lorrync 8ivcryouGrctr lhat gowcrful ly r t r .nrth.n EVEn?AREA o( your mind - Conc.htr t t ion, wl l l .P o w r r , - P r o b l . m , S o l v l n a . I d e r . C r . r t i n f ,R r g l d - L . . r n l n 8 , e t c r r - T h i n k i n a . W o . . t :@nlrol , rnd dozch! m.e ! S.c. . t r t lct our l iov.rnaght! a^aa cot choagc lot t . t .._!1.- -frt.- in E .i^gt uect - OR EVERVCENT OF YOUR AONEY BACKT

_R<.d_th. thr l l l lna l . on lhlr Fr3.!{ry thl . a€.t work - ENTTBELY A?OUR RISKI

Porld!" Hc ba al ,crdy !ho*n ow!230,m0 mcn and *omcn, all ovarAmcrica. how thcy can rahhva tllil.lht |ltFvccrtt la llclr DcD@laro?.nltlt, rltl ,$a r tci !l!rt6iorll

Bua t l l r t rDBlorr PrJh. luIorMcsort T.clulquc k olly qr 0llpsl ot X.B lrntlc'r tEra nrtl@l! N.F-lr rddlllo to M.D.t- rc coBphta ..Psh.8udo. s*.llolr" o! Obrr.llot, Conalanals,flaicl$D, Wlll.Por.?, td.r.Cua.l!t, RrDlrt.L.rr!lnt' Tldr.Srrht,Cr.eTlbtbr, ?.Mtl|tt, trrlqa.iltfbt, hbl|3.ED.rlrr, Wor?{oDaDl, co.{tart ot F0, rd utnEl

Ycr! HcG rrc dozcB ol tidglctlchnlquct rh.t cnrblr yo! lo ovGFcomc c.ipplhi .hotio[, ud lsDyour rioutht3 hcrdcd ,t ri8ht 8o.l! Sho*ln8 yqu hor to thirtclculy .nd clLctlrcly in uy dturtio-frlkc d.cltiou witlrcur rSonLisSd?htt- lcrrn Yitd tHt ed ApHat . - *ork 8t ful mltdlp*c., .U dry tgna, tor Vet! udcv@ notrtl! on 6d!

Harc ara tct lad. l td Dtovan'Thouihr.SrlDdaron" tD! lrrlrGllrc you nltrd-dcvclot ygur crr-3iE i6qllrtio!-lec& !'Nr drltyouttut-hclp tou 6rtc t iee ,orcv.rttilna t4 to dol

Hcra arg "CdndcoGccEtrtorl"

tlrat lal tou hugh oi woariat &dtctr - malc your o*n 8@d lucl -Ltcp othcr gaopl! faom taking rdru.ta8c ol you - rln b.d banlt lnroo p p o t t u n r t r c ! - y t ! . c v ? n t h l f p a nYour &nF of humoa and l t ry to rD..k *cl l , ehctblrin privt(c convaBatioo or bcloro rcro*d oI!l

l l llrrt Worl For Yor -Or Ycr Dcr'l ?cy A ?rrryl

Tbc Ari@ o( thir l&in.tin8, ooc-rclE! MjndPorar Enc)clopcdir i!

t4.98 - ftr lcs tian limllr( bol.ttrrt do lot do iB job a w.Ul

llt .r.o DG LlErt !a & lruddl{ql tulrcl W. Elb.O.a lblt b@l || ol e tdr ao ta! !1.r . l l doq.r.?t t lht r . larr!rc.b.d t{! fiFlc, ic elorto lo Erd la .l E rLt.

ll t| ti. od ol 6rt ilr. t{ n.ol dal l t l lcd l . . r . r t rr t , l l l.btlt rlud aL l@l la .r.t a6lol toq 9!Fl& DrLr h.fl Tlaan @ odltlo.r! Yo! e tL 6tlrdt.l Scld l! ahc No.nhl crd.rbhrt - IODAYI

t 1 3

PROVEN TO THE COUNTRY'S TOP LEADERS!,!r, a aar of th. r|qlrd6, iilatt

lbn9 of tb. gorcr oagLlltt ibo rthaJ3ad Het lrrudaan ortanbad olrd: Tta Dorat tou cecYoltS - tlatrol .btl4 | rut3

- rE dla rltl tou 06t

Alc.|.u Cy.illtd @. Mcrrll Ln.t. ?|re. Pf,rar L.b.BcU T.hploc Cc f.aet Sil6

- Polt.. ot Alcrkr

F!: I : t ----- Mbtt t t lDDlPEA'e -c.o"6- l logPJ=I*Rs' RrlrrrtErtn co'-ffi;::,i;*'

|!.' lgnir-yGgoug.,ot . ootGcrcni'Elrcctc, X.y,C, N.r yott Ltr ru. Co, S.i; io;b-E:l-


Gdd Jurt Ars. Fl.t Yqt Scbr' ol Sta|||bt SFrtr Co.I BM arlad &u.t&d(fuco,bd.Ms4@tCFl P!.ArM.!. tcx U.s.Rsbbcco.XddL Co. Cltb Y.tlot r.-16 As.

Page 226: Breakthrough Copywriting

211 lH l . r , r \AL TOUc t rL . s

Then tr transition (2) back to pronrise (H), u.hich fil ls orrtthe rest o{'the ad.

See How the Structure Differs

Let rne srn-this. Althorrgh I hiir-e not pointecl orrt everr.tran-sition, nor e\-er\- blencling o{' cliff'erent trpc.s o1' copr-, I have. Ihope. giren vou enough mirtcrial to seer clearlr-hou. uds cliffer ilor-er:rll stnrcture. as ther- clifl'er irr conteut. as thc clernrutcls rilt l r e i r r r r i r t e l i r t l t l i l l e r .

Ther- range fi 'orn the sirirplest prornise-t'l iLltoration (exau'rplt'3), to the rnost subtle blencling of all the valious eleurents of ck'-sire, irnage, proof, clefirrition anrl u'hat have rorr (cxarnple 2), totl 're most cornplicatecl prourise-ilnd-proof'. . . pronrise-ancl-proof'reinfbrcernent (erarnple 4).

Each probleur clemancls a clifl 'erent stnrr,trrre. Each signals.rrs \rou urrite it, that here-at this precise point-rTrrrr r copq ln,sleft qour reatler. You Jrave golre on stririqlrt u{rerr lrc u,ants toturn le{t. You are piling on pronrise trficr prornise. u,hen }rc rrolonger believes \ou. \bu rrre burr-irrg hinr rrrrrle'r rr serr ol sttrtis-tics. r.rfien he is conr-incecl vorr are telling tlre. tnrth. arrcl u,antsvou to rnake those clelic,ious pronrises ,.ll

'i,r'e,' rrqain.

This is r,r4rat vou fi:el rvhen \'tlu iri'e u'riting thc ad. Probabha k i r r t l o l i r r i t i r t i r rg t .o r r f r rs io r r . . \ b lo t ,k r rq r , . A s t ' r rsc t l r r r t t l , * r ,op ihas sudclenlv gone cleacl, ilrrcl trll vclu are utitirrg nou,is u'orcls.

So rrnr stop. and think, ancl look {or rr neu. clirection. I this section, thr'rt I hru'e given \-ou rr firint indicrrtion of u'hiLtsorne o{'these directions nright be.

\\rhat. on the other hancl. cAn vou learn tlom arralr.-zing thestructure of vour acls (or other u'riters') a{ter r'orr har-e finisheclt l rctr i l

Prinrarilv-tohat kind o.f acl you luLxt: rcrittcir. Is it straiglrtprorniseP Too much docurnentrrtiorrP Too little definition of tlic'neu' urrrlcl of'possibilities vour prochrct has creatccl?

Does it stil l souncl too much like c.r'elr-one else'.s conr ? Or

T I I E F I \ \ I

prochrc t : (

anv r l i l i i , r ,

I t r t r ,

sale? ( l ' ,

s o l l l ( ' t r r , , I

t ion i - \ r r ' .

\ l i r r , lI f ' r ' rn t , ,1 . ,are q( )l r r't :

s t t t ck sor r , ,copr 11,," , ,t1 ' , t1, '11 l , r :

I r i . t : , '

b r i t t gs , , r r :

f lar-or. t,,". ' .

t ions t l r . t t ' .

5 l r r . ' ,

heacl l i r r , \

the c'o1tr

he i t r l l i r r , ' .

e l u r t t r t t ' ' i .

ba r f t t l t ,

T l r i ' :

a lu 'ar s I ' , . : '

Just r i i tk ,

a l l o1 t l , , r

\ l o r

T l , , ' r ,he$ t i . r

I l l r ' : :

copr I- ,

t h e r r r i t l , l l

Page 227: Breakthrough Copywriting

: t I I \ \ L T O U C j H E S

. i l r ic. l r f i l ls out

nrcture Differs

: , , r l t ( ' \ 'c r \ - t r i tn-

r l1)\. I htfr.e, I' , i rtt ls cli{I 'er iD

: i . ' r l t ' r r iancls of '

, : , t i { ) t i ( exa rnp le

, r ' l l l ( , l l ts Of Cle-, ' \ . r r n P l e 2 ) , t o

: : r i : t ' - ; 111 { -p1gg f

' I ' .rtc lr signtrls,

" ' , t t ' r ' t t1ry ha,s

' : , l r t ' \ \ 'a l t ts tO. , ' . i l r t , n he n< r

r . t . . r o l s tat is--. . ' : , iu t(l \\ 'ants

, , . t r l . l ' robabl l ', r l r . r t t hc cop r '

: , ' .i is \\-or'ds.

: ' , t j o r r . I h o p e ., r t i o r r o { ' u | a t

' r r i r h z i ng the: : r . t r t , f i n i s ] red

l . i t s t ra ig l r t

: . : r i t t o r r o f t l i c .

: -

. , r r op r .P Or


productP Could \rou put another brrurtl-nturte on it, ancl not lnakeany diflerence'P

Hate qou left anrytling out.'\\-il l this bare proniise carr.r'tl ie'sale? Or coulcl t'cxr increase its inrpact lx- prir-ing its u,av u'itlrsome nrechanism or belier-abilitr copr ? Hou' ii lrorrt ti procl{' sec-tion? A use photo? A lirller tlescription o1'the u,ar,' it ri 'orks?

Mind r,ou, this is not conl(nt ttlont, tlmt u,)e are r1l,scu,s,sirrg.If l'ou take the same contcnt. anrl give it tl lle\\r stmcture, \()uare going to create :l ne\\' acl. Trr it. St't' lbr vourself. If vou'restuck sometirne, throu' a\\ra\' \1)ilr l rcarllirre. throu. a\\rav vour roughcopr- f l<,u. ancl st i t r t of l ' , tq,r i ' r l \ ( ) t l t ' , , r ' , ' ( 's i t \ \ i t \ f , ' , , ' i ' t the, '" 1lustartecl befbre.

I rvilnt to repeat this aqain: '\ rrr.,rc .stntchtre i,s a nett ad. Itbrings out nerv ideas. Gives \1)ur prornises neu' shur?ness, ne\vflal'or, new believabilitv and even beqins to creirte u4role lle\\r sec-tions that you never dreiutrt'rl u'e're there in the procluct befbre.

So u'e'l'e corne frrll circie. \iru stirrt vour acl bv creating r'ourheadline. You develop your copv storv frorn thirt hearlline. But ifthe copv storv r/oasnl clevekrp-if'r'ou graduallr' fincl that theheadline isn't reallv that gotitl afier all-tlrcn 1:erha7ts the uenlelenrcnts that are begghtg to t'onrt' orLt of your 6point type slutuklbe at the tup ,rf qour ad.

This is r.vhat n"rakes this c'opr rvriting so interesting. You'realrvavs being surprised-u'ith irleas fl'orri the n-rost ungoclly placers.

Just make sllre \olr'\'e got rrrur eves open u'ide enough to crttchall of thern.

Momentum-How to Draw Your Reader Deeper andDeeper Into Your Crpy

There are hvo other devices u.'e shoulcl cliscuss. Both of thernhelp tie )/our ad together, thorigh thatls not their prirnarv functiou.

The first is Monenturn. Hou. to drau'l-our reitder into vourcopv. . . keep him reading . . . rnaking sure he cloesn't r1-rit r,'ou inthe rniddle.

Page 228: Breakthrough Copywriting

^ { Y(lU ARE TWICE ASa { nnarhesc seven simple qcfions will prove it to yov in

lhir onnouncemenf lr going to *ock fhclife out of you-becguse It eaily royo"bunk" to eyery idec you hove ever hod

C { obouf how "diftculf, it is to lesrn!This onnouncemenl soys lhot if you could

only liberofe the exoct some totent qnd In.lelligence ond oblllty thot you hove tled upinside you todoy-then you coutd:)-4l

. . . md .ntthln! ycu rlrh,tuica cr fcrl !r tcu on tordfodoy, , .

... obrcrb lcctr l l lr . ttoni.,and r.p.ot fhom ahncrt rordfor word yrcn htar . . .

. . firsh throu8h mdh. bu3inc$. nnan.cial Drottcm3 ftrt hrvo you ttoppcdc o r o t o c a y , . .,.hold pcoptc spcllbound vlth th.powcr ol your 3pech atrd your rrltactrw o r d . . .. .out.ahint othcr whcq you hrvt to,torcr over ihcm In JudSmcnt, outthln.

A ,\thcm complcicly ln in.8inrtion.ItH And do ii .lt-rct by 3tru8ttin8v \ lhrouSh drcary tcrtbookr . . . not big 4 .ii"ii. r-"ri iii.rii'' ii'"-,i1.ii,iii#

ply by puttlns yout LOCXED-IJp^ / lElRAtrNO POWERS to *o.k-


bool3 in thirty ninutr3! Elrn . mria.Iinc artlclc lnto your mcmry In iv.nloutca! Mara3r thc hcrrt of I$ rcport in thrcc mlnutctl

And you'll frb thcr frctr rrry lnyour mind in such Dclfcct ordcr-rutomrticrlly-thrt you crn pult thcmriSht out r8rlo rt u instrntrr rctlc.lSo you can back up cvcry polat yoymak. ln cout.Eation rlth .toz.N oloecrwhclatng lactt . . . filt aeary oaaof your ttdtamantt vlrh authorlty ar,tconvlct ion, , . * tn otha paopb toyout tiawt to com?lataty thct nO OE.clt. could aw? tura thaa o*qyl

And this i r jurt thc bci innin8!

Lont4 Actlo. #t

Glr.. ta | ..T.DlRG6dct

Ma[qt" tot ]i. rpokan iord! tor ltcr. ilddcn ractih poplc'r coilastlotr ab.tti.y don't hor tirr'nrcvadl.t !

Thb $snd rction nqu,trt you lolsk yoursll lour rlngla qu.stiotrrcv.ry alnc smco6[ t0 talt toyou!

Thc$ quctlont rivct your rilcntloro n t h . t o l h c r p c r c n ' s e o r d t . .t * p y o u r n i n d f . o m * a n d c r h ! . . .lct y@ slorc up hlt thd8hrs s th@8blhay yaro co8rrvcd In your mcnoryl

Thcy rotomaticrlly rllow you tolmate your frirtrdr by quotinS-rl-no'l *ord by rord-tron ConvrBr-tlon3 you had with thcm monthtbsforc!

Thcy rllo* you ao wh acr fricod!by rcmcmbcrlnt dctrilS ordinrrt pccplc complctrly fortct! lnplcs toutrupc.ion by rcparllo8 brcl to thcmthclr nod cr$rl oidcB, ,rcp by !tc9!

And, r| rrrctlt rha m tfmc, thcy

E X E G U T I V E R E S E A R C I { I N S T I T U T E I N C .I T 9 F I F T H A V E N U E , N I W Y O R X , N . Y . I O O O 3

2 1 6

c,l|blc you to .'r..d b.tvaan/'Lc ilMr-of rhrtcvcr ahrt othcr 9crcr !t!lGivc you ruch iicrdiblc comcnrrrlaon whrn you rlnt il. that you rl|!upcDctrrlc inta thrt oticr paH'!mindl Di$grcr trcts h3't trtint tohldc! Gorlt hcrs tryinr to coErtiEuS8cntion3 hc'3 trtint to ErLc tqbclicvc !

You' l l bc rnrcd r t hoe. la.r l tahcF qulstlont opan uD olhal FopL'rthoulhls to yotll And th.y'r. ttill w,h. bctianint!

l*u| | tA.t la*3

Bulldt to I! Glrct to tiaiordt to md{ranurt-lo lord tqr ahqaitr rtttrarbd dJDmltrl

This 8afrc t .kcr two nirutcr a d.rrYou can prrctk. it rntrhcrehtEd r . s s i n S i n t h c m o r n i n 8 . . . d r i v i n ayour c.r , . . diniu riti t'our tri.ndror frmi ly!

And cvcry alnc yd ary it-yqrulom.l ic. l ly lctrn rc? wordt: EFtion.p.ckcd vordt, thrt nalc pcogLrtop.nd l i3t .n lo yo! Cqlof.grct .dword! thrt matc yout ldcat.ndt(orici crrcklc wllh arcitamcnrlPo|'.r-packcd *ddt, thet mol. repla t.. and l..l and do .t.c,ll |'hoa,hatt wordt ,.ll tham to do!

Thlnk of i t ! Thc ncxa aimc you pktup . b@!. you'll rulomrtkrlly uodcr.sbnd hundred! of Ew rord3. withstcvcn lookinS at I didionrry! Thc Erlrlm! yoq $rn lo 3Darl in r bsimgdiscu$ion, ot r privrtc convcilrtlo!,or I club mcctinl+ry cyc in tlxroon rill b tcurd on you i!rtfnhd rdmfnllon! lad tih k lut,h. b.alnnbtl

LGbt a.ator $a

Doucr tor pFbk!{lr.lrt rbqftl llrtcr DD tobL r u . . . D u r ! t r G s D o b l c ! .. . . fmlcld prcbLE fiALP.SOLVE T}IEMSELVES Dc.tor tou cvco aoci tic!!

Thir .ct lon Ir u i t tcnldr l i t tLlrick us.d by cycry profc$loDrl ilultutor In thc coultty!

You usc ll balgrc yw 3tltt tO ?Orlon r problcn! Ia trtB rcoldt torpply! lt rcquiB abrolctclt no nrubrcl8rcund!

And lr worl3 mirrclcr! lr tun! tsinto I m.rhmrtlcrl daudl lf tion



aoday4 .6tly add togtcdly u thtt:

LmlrS Acalio! ttt

Laar td sll[ drsai Ib a L h u l l a a | - s 6 l r r , r t . -rtcs Dult otltn *lah tdtlsbn.t |rto lt th.t a6y $d.nEhl!

Thir tctioo is litcr.lly r brrnd-ncwway lo rcad thc prlntcd p!8!! Y.t iltcquir.! nothing morc thlo an otdl.ury pcncil!

Oncc you arc rhown lt, you willtrcyar rcad a b@k frc6 covcr to covlragain! IBtcrd, you *lll flrsh rirhtthrouSh it-autom.tic!lly !tlppinS thcborina dctailFautomrtlc.lly !C@rFio8 up lhc maln ldcit .t faa rt youaryca crn travcl down lhc pr8el

Yo!'ll rbsrb thc tcy ldcst ot Dorr



SMAIo single w

L l m l n g A ( l l o . t

L a l r ' o u b . d t l*hola bool l E:oo r t l W r l l . r l E g kpcl l lD! f nt l l ' l - nI t you ctn 60rrr l t h o u l | ! r ! t L .spcl l lnt : *)rr r .lhc doran! ol dlal t l - l lccnta lat ' lUOn laJl t ta- l h t l a r a ) o u r t rbl t oon.):

l h l t I t t h c p r r - : ?t v d l n g y o u t k . . . : . l lo l l i l c y o u ' v t a , . s ' t

E x a m p l a . i . , : . -

Page 229: Breakthrough Copywriting

CE AS)vc itloyov in| ,o) to "r.d bat||aal itc t tct',.lF thrt othcr 9"rcn $yrlr sch incr.dibk conccnth.-! yQ wtnl il. thrl yo! tlmorra. ior. thll otbcr 9cM't

Dt aorcr lact3 h!'t tayint loGo.h hc't lryin8 lo coru.l!mtpnr ha't lrylnt to Ertc yd

I b. rl how cbrrl,FrFnt opan up olhtr !|aoplc'arr to you! And ,hey'rc t,ill lytt

r-mhtAcrlof l

btar t€ . porr{& Gltcr yq ah.ra F rcd{rrnbll-

b.a td. l'|stilr rlall ayrrltr!

t rd l .kct two minutsr I d.y!r. N.ctk. it rnrl|rFrhllca 6 t h . h o r n i n 8 . . , d r i v i n ay . . . dinint with youi trlcadrr t '

.E y (lhc you try ta-ys..rlt lcrrn Fr words: Em.t.d rordt, that malc paot l3a td.n to yq! Celor.prcl.dtur your ldcS rnd

d.. l lc v i th crci tcmcnt!F.l.d ||ord$ tha, aeta pb-d l..l and do ar&tly vh.t

-lt t.ll th.a ao dolt el ir: Thc ncrt limc you glcld, ya'll lutomrtkrlltf uodcr-rdrdt ot me lordr. rilholi'or rt I dictlonrry! TIF Ertr rru to !9c.1 in r bsln.3l6. or I privrtc convctntlon.a mtht<Ert cyc lo lhct|n b. lcuxd oB you ln

.d6irrtion! Airt thlt ,t trtl-i.a I

l.n|{ Acabr *a

-Lr tcr p?oblrFlr.* l M*.t nalDobI b0tb.$ DDblcm HALF.rf THEMSELYES D..r .r.! lqci ahat!

FF! ir rn irtcnlst llttL!a b' lvcry grofc$loltl mrol

!!a co!!tfy!- f b.lo.. to! Sttn lo rctlroolnl It l.lct taotdt !o! r.esiH rbsolutclt ng nrlhE :I qtt mirrclcr! lt tutt tgur!.Eor.tkrl vlartdl ll tlro[

I t N C .1 0 0 0 3


SMART AS Y(|U THIt{Ifio singte weekend-by doubling Your Power to learn!

EUGTNE M. SCHWARIZf o r t i c D a s t s i r y c a r i . C e n l

s c h w a t k i a ! w o r t . d * , l h 5 a m e o fl h e c o ! n t r t s l e r d r n E p i o n a e r 3 i nd ! ! t r o . l a t r n i n 8 , t h e m o d e { n s c l .a n ! , o t l S r r n i n S i o r i o l a e t n . A sw n l e r . e d r l o r o . p u b l j s h e r , i a h a sb e e n r n s l r u m a n l a l I n b r n S r n g l ol h e A d e r r a a n p u b l r c b o c l r o nM e m o r y l f i g r o v e m e n l , I r r c ! l r v aT r a r n r n g l e c h n r q u e s , S r g h S p a e dt a a r n i n S . C r a t t r v e T n r n l r n g , P f 0 b .l ! m . S o l v r n g , l r m e 0 r g a r r r a t r o n a n d

8 u l w h y n o t t a k e r i l t h e s a i n .c r a d r b l y p o w e . f u l l e r r n i n S b r ! a l .l h r o u g h s - a n d p e . h t h e m i n l o o n !f?rt l lo l- that qn br ul td ! tt t t nrn of ronrr ?0 t i t f oY!r.l l tht fet ! l t r in thai f l ! r rninglofer-ant t t rnrnl tor l r - !0rtart l int thrt th! t hry l i t ! r r l l tt l ! th. i f l r l r t t i r rr t l

T h i ! i s l h e g o . l o f t h i t b o o l !" I h a t o b w a 3 t a O i m p o f l a n t t Ol ! l v a t o s o m a o n e a l s r . " M r .S c h n ! f l r s a y s . I c o u l d n t r ? ! t u r .l i l I d r d r l m t ! a l l l "

you tha answcrs to do2ctu of problcmsbaforc you can cvan pick up Yourrnci l l

I t t ivai you a "fccl fo. fEurcs'that wrl l lcavc your l r icndt 8a!pin8 t lw o r k ! l r l c t ! y o u " l a l k l h c l a n 8 u a 8 c o tburincs"-stal ist ica. balancc shtcl !prof i l rnd loss- lhat compl. lc ly myslt 'fi.s most pcopl.!

I t 8iv.s you inctcdiblc ncw pow.( lo f h a k i n g a n d h a n d l i n S m o n . y l P t c 'di4t ing th. stqcl markct , . lunnrrSI busincsr sctt in8 uP a budgct. mal ing on. dol l l t do thc workol a hundrcd<?l th. tc tk i l l t or.yourt , onca you laotn lha t?cral olilakine frtur2t ||ork lor You ai lhatnop ol yow fingart!

And i ! ' r st i l l jurt thc bc8innlnSlW.i t t i l l you thiF

Lcmlnc Actlon! *5, 6 sd t

Lcts you b0.n hcts, fiturcs'r io l . boolr | ! to your ntn.ort! Wtllc $lmplc, .l.rt' .oD'p.lllDt Ettllsh-llndl $ t.saIt y@ can mov! youa hand-rt thout r s ln8l . nl i l r l . lnsgGlllnt: Whk rlgil lhtou3hlh. dorrrs ot "nr&t{r.bmrL"aat l t - l lacnit la l l t . . ' I tof follon lalts Pa'{l$ lcJla-tht l ara your 8ata*t t lo lhcblt

!h i3 l r th. 9rrofr l Noe fou t tdltyrnlng your kho*tarltc brlo lhe *lndol lll. you'v. alvayt ol!

Errhplc, wol ld you l l lc lo marc

r h o ! \ a n d r o f b o n 6 d o l l a r s P i h ) o ! .p . r . S ! ' l c b ' 6 , n e ( r r . P o r t s a n dm . m o 5 l h a l l t f ! y o u h c . d a n d s b o u , -d c r s a b o v € l h t c f o * d l O r v r i t . t h aslory or novr l ,ou vc always wanladto put on patcr l Or dash of i salesl c t r . r r r h i t s c t n . * r a c o r d s r O t o p c nup a part- l imc mai l otdar busincs!from your hod., that has the ordcrsp o u r i n g i n !

T h . n t r y t h r s o n c f i l h c s ( r c l o laf f pro[c$ionaf pr i t . rs-How to malafout thcughtt organlac thefr talvat, to) o u a 0 4 ( u p y t h e m t t t h t d o v n o n t h ap a p e t : A n d s c a f o r ) o u r s a l I h o w c a s ,i t , s r o * r i t c P o s . r h o u s c E n S l i t h -to opan up a wholc ncw wortd ol


O Exccu(iyc RrHrch lMltura lnc. l96J

accof ipl i rhm.nt wi lh onc simplc rc_t i o n l

Or-and thi i is thc most imDortaotb . e a t . t h t o u g h o f a l l - s o u l d Y o ur c a l l y l i k c t o a a r n t h a t c t t l a d i p l o m ayou harr al*ay' drcamcd of!

W o u l d y o u l i k . t h a t b l u c c h i P 9 r o -mo{lon that has alwaYs saf i led iusltwo or thrac stcps out of rcachl

Wol ld you l ikc a t i t lc af lc. Yournama . a l jccnsc on Your wal l . .l h e r a s D c c t a n d a d m i r a t i o n t h a t t a s t a dlnowladgFptovan knot led|a bt insain i ls wakc, cvery singlc t imt!

Th.n prcpara for onc of thc mostrhr i l l inS cr.nings ol your l i lc! Wh.n) o u p ! ! I h i s " T c s l - s o l v a r " A c t l o n l o*orkl Whcn you' lc Shown a simplcf iva-minutc r i lual-bt lotc you tala at r s r - r h a t b r c a k s t h a t l . s t * r d . o F c n !T h a t d r a i n i ( a a r a n d n c r v o u s n ! 5 s o u tof your body l ikc magicl Thai Pulscvcry f .c l you'vc lcarned r iSht at thct ips of )our f ingcts-tcadY to go toNotk lot you at M lnt lanl t nol iaa-raody ,o ?irc you odvoncement tcoresto high that yor movc ahead l6larlhan you havc crar draamad!


L. t mc bc pcr lccr ly f lank! Th!$s € ! c n 3 i m p l . a c t r o n s a r c t j l e r n l l y t h cdif [?rcncc bctwaan b. ing f i tst in Incfor l i fc 's t raasurcFor bcing lat isncdwjth oth.r mcn'! lcaYings!

Thcy arc al l yo0rs-and mott- i tthc rcvolut ionary new book, HOW TOD O U B L E Y O U R P O W E R T OLEARN-yours for only $5.9E co6.DlClC.

Ful ly Suaranlacd, i t opcN a vholcnc* eorld of tO you.Scnd in thc NGRisk Coupon to tcadit faom covcr to covcr at our t i tk-T O D A Y :


Cen(lamcn: wrhou( obl i8at ion. plcasc rush mc y@r ravol l t ionrryncw bool. HOw TO DOUBLE YOUR POWER TO LEARN. I ucnclosinS only t5 9E completc, I undcrsland this b@k i ! ful ly Spl le-t c c d . l f i h i s b o o l d o e l n o l d o c v c r l h i n g ' o u s a y , . i l I a m n o t c o m -D l e r a l y d c l c h r . d * r r h r n l 0 d a ' s , I w r l l r a t u r n j t f o r h y m o n a y b a c l .'

f i i f vou stsh rour o!d!r scnt CO.D.. chcck h.rc. Enclos. onlv t lg6o-* ' i t dcpos'r . 'Pay posrhan br lancc plus C.O.D. pot(agc sd bao-dl ins ahaatcs. Samc moncy-baqk guarantce of courScl

t 1 ;

Page 230: Breakthrough Copywriting


co-p1.'s first job, .f c.urse, is to be 'eacl. If it'.s not read, itcan't sell. And if vou take sorne tirne to rnake r.,our points_to in_te'sifv 'o.r clesire, to b,ilcl .ncr rerruircr ,'n,,,-i;i;;;,titn, a *inlorce o'e clairn *'ith a'clther-the.n r,.,rr'cl bette, ,r,"'k" d,rr,,sure t]rirt 'oLr'\-e p't plent' of nutrnerrttrnt-ltttilder,s into 'our conr.

There are trvo trrles:L A r , t r r i r l , r ' r ' n " i r t ' , , , , l l l r r . a s e s : i r r r t l2. Incornplete state're'ts, or teasers, that clrtrrv the reader

{irrther into the copv in orcler to cornplete tliern.

- Tlre first trpe, the 'rorre'trr'-p1,rtrses, al'e tirne-honorecr.

Thev are rrsecl in al'rost an' sort of-'e or eclucatio'al*'riting. Yru insert therr i ' .\()ur c()ll\-prirnarilv in vour transition-se'tences, to keep irterest fro'r flriggi'g, to inclici,Lte to vourreader_ the ge'reral trpe o{' rrateritrl tirat s going to follow. ihevare 'adclr,"

b-ut thel'rvork. Here are ir f'e'r,, exa'ples, taken lio'rthe four book ads u'e looked at in the last section:

, "Tliev ptrid

,up to $22 50 a person to le.arn pricelessteclrniques like thcsei'

"Yru carr learr thern alr, in vo*r'*.r ri.'e 'ert rveek-encl, rvithout risking a penlt\.. Lit,rt,'.s lrorci'

"Hnre i,s the infonrvttion tlort rcill .find itt tli,s book.,,L('t lnc e.tuItt itt.

"All I ask frorn vou i:s this."

"Whot Uur are goitrg to rlo, in the r.err. first hour that

vou receive the book. i,s this.,'

"And vet it ' ,s onlry the beginning."

_-__ _?HEN qnft .t_h1s

,sinpla trick to rork for yott_that\/ER}' SAXIE HOUR,"


. \ r r t L

u ' r i t t ' ] o r , *- l - l

r ,

sub t l t ' . . , :

re i r t l t ' r ' , ,1 ,

s i n rp l t ' p r :

reat l t ' r ' . . ,

s t i l t t ' t r t l r r :

l r c r c i l l , '

I t l , , ' '

I ( :I l i ,l l , l rI I , r ,

r l i r ' . , '

"For avrrr4ilt,:-"

"Reacl the tldlling (nt,trcer beltnc."" . . . t os tu t t u : i t h . . . "

" rcait till ryou try this."

] , , :l r , t . '

1 l ( t :

\ . t '

( 1 , ,I t r ' .

I l \ 1 ,

l t , I :

u ,\ \ \ ,

i r r - )

I t '

Page 231: Breakthrough Copywriting

I \ \ I - TOI IC]HES

t r () t read, i ti l I I l ts-1n i t t-

, l , r l i t r . to re -. rr i i tke clarnf , r \ o l l t " C O P V .

' t l r t ' r e a d e r

r r r t ' - l ro r to red .,.r h rciitional

rr trrrnsition-.r t t ' to vourt , , l lor i ' . They

t.tken from

' : . , t t ' l c S S

: , r t , t ' k -

- , , , ,4 ' . "

: r ' t l r a t

t l tu t

l l e

Ancl so on. These iire rrctuirl irrritatiorrs to retrcl on. 11 x)lr

\\ 'rite' long cop\'. tlrev shoulcl be sprittcrl tlrrorrglrout it.

The secorrcl categorv o1 r i rorrrcnt l rnr-blr i lder is nrucl t t t tc l re

srrbtle, and gj\-es vou thuusanrls of' u'ln's to kcep clran,inq \()ur'reirder along a{ier volrr de\-rlopinq tlrought. lt '-s based on thesirnple principle thrrt if '\-ou nrake a statenrent tliat interests r-ourr."o,-1"r. nrr,l i i '\ 'ou purposelv iLrtl sl.i l l l irl lr tlo not con)plcte tlrlt

statelrlent. so thirt therc is ir (lu('stior o1'lrou' it can be cloue. //telt

lrc ril l read on to Jrnd ottt tnot-('.In other u,orcls, \'oll rrrc' c'orrtirrrrirllr tlrroughorrt tlte copr':1. Creating intt'rcst irr rt spt'r' if it ' point;2. Raising a r l rest i r l r t i r r l r is rninr l about that point; ancl3. Irnph'irre ilr] rlns\\'er to tlrirt r|rcstiun lrrter in the copr.Ilere are soln€r e\tullplcs ol tlris technirpe:

"Arrd rorr u,il l clo it olicrr rrsinq nothing niore tltiur or-clinarv tap u'ater. \1)llr o\\'n te'rr fiirqe'rs. rrncl the contentsof rorir grrrclert tutcl rour rt' l i ' iqcrator."

"Brrt nou'. rr-lrerr vrrr trrrrt ort tht: ignition. o rtutdL'ntntiroclr: oJ'crtgitrct't ' in g rr'l( ' i r' {' (i)r/rr'.\ to li it ' rtndcrnt:tttlt ryttrrrt t f . .t i { )o f l ;

"\1'sl Here rrt l irst is the' Engineerit iq \ l iracle \ioLr'\ 'ebeen heirring rlurors aborrt l irr rnonths. The liutti lstic Pou-er-Booster thrrt (lontinr:ntirl rrri l l iortit ires use to sottp rrp tl ie

Dcr{bnn:urce clf 312.0(X) c'arsl T}ie rcvolutionarr- neu' (lrrs-

Saver tl iat actrrt i l lr- givc's c'oirrpar.'f-(- 'alt- ecrtttr,tt, i- t., Forcls.Clher-rcllcts. Ph'nroutlrs ancl t lozens o{' otl ier r\ttrericrrtt ci lrsrrou- clrir-ing in Etrrope! TIre sirtr-second attachrtrerrt t l t irtHAD TO Btr BANNED fl'cinr the great Europerittr race-\\''r\-s-l)ecause it gil\'r' so nrrrcli aclcleil Po\\'cr'. so tttttcltadil"d efficiencr- to rrnr. car tirat usecl it-f/rrt tlu: officiulst t ' t ' r t ' f t t p ' 1 11 l , , i ' r t l , t l t r i t i t { t t t t ' l l t r ' . : t ( ' ( t t ' \ ( u t { \ / - . \ iR . \D -VANTI{(;E tn:cr l l tose tlr it ' , t:rs rclto uttrlr ltr ' I olttaitt i t.t"

"Hor.r' to (lrou' Thousarrcls clf Flou'ers-\\'ithcxit Dirtr -

ing \bur Il i lncls."

"Here it is ttt lirst. '\rrthoritatir-e nre'clic'al nroof tlratrneu iu thei r {br t ics arr r l f i l i ies ar tc l s i r t i t 's c , ,u. t t i , , r - , , *er

Page 232: Breakthrough Copywriting

^tnew book shows how any woman over 30 can

Hollywood pfastic surgeon's amazing

,{ toolc[enrs[ounger,t in 10 short daysr

Poutotul. Ho? c.D hcr f!c. b. s unlincdrnd tlorlng? How d€ rhc r.m tohugh rt rhc vcry ys[ th.a d6tro,othat Poncn?

R.rd thr thrlllint .ril.r lrlctThat world- l rmous tctor lnd !Ur.

l!t., sho dido't scfr to hava aged !day ovcr many ycats-that samg onlyto haYa grosn mora handsomc, nor.vir i le, morc att t rct iv! whh cach pa$-ln8 yc.r-how dld hc dcfy thc wcrrrnd lcrr of timc?

nlrd thc tiflllilg rnrrlr bclerOt lhat r .y i5hint ly lovcly nrt ion.t

baauly contcst wlnnar you'vc wrtchcdin thc paScr of your ftspelEl fo.alhost as long a you can rcmambar.How dcs shc maintt in hcr f icurc?wh.t d6 shc do that prcvcnrs wl ishrfrom tormiDs on hcr body? And shatprcvetrq ata fron ctchinc h.r rklo?

Rrrtl ti! tlrilling rnsrtr lrlrrY.s-dozaN upon do:cro of othcr

cclcbritlB *hom yos would rEo8niz.r! a 8l.Dr&ck out thcs scrcts otlonS-livcd bc.uty rnd yathl

.And- oow thir book 8tv6 you knop|.o {@o ltlt.

Ovcr tsvcoty-lq !& toeladt i r c . , . l r e6c pdroa ol

r.lp brl4 D..ltqal ao arsrfFdrl

itod Y(ith-

tlon!, yq lrcraw rorld of

ncric riorctevc bccn tc-*ounds!firg tlmc, alclauc. bcluly-

now ir sacn oftcn on Tv-ygu know I raf loaing pwcrr of n. turc l ts l f toshc must bc gctt ina old. How csn hcr I ohbat *r inl la<ruaidr dryG!shc must bc gctt ina old. How csn hcr I ohbat *r inl la<ruai!8 dryGrbody b. so youn8, s sllm. p grrcc- | tcb Eett cct o.a At! iud cu

l !0

lb! bt DFYldlrt rltrl loLarr tLat. i.h rdld otlwb. hcrlt|lb16 ric! tq Ds 30 a 33.

Thc* @thctics lrc mada frcn u-lur.'r o*n dowcri .od frultr. Tbctcott practlcally nothln8. You crn mtrtn€m lo pcrfctio! in minutB rkh.ny hstshold blcndcr. Ald Ol Iihra O.y s do lq tot

Thcy crn. l ran your i l ln wlthfrdctcrscntFlhcaca* tha bcm6t '@8ct out ol your clcansing craah alnight In taconds.

Thcy can invitlbly 8uffd your ttlnaSainrt lun rnd elnd and othcr GL.ncnts i! thc rir-h.lp Slvc yoa cDtir . skl i , r l l day, that lorcly, hcrt t iy8low jt would (orrclty, raka on ontiaftcr . brltk watt or ! full dry itr tlEopcn.

Th.y 6 8lvc you Slorlou lhjic royoua hala pjthout orc crtn motbnrn yout ta8uhr thrmlHin frrl!b l .achcd or slorcd heir I@k.!diu(.- Thcy can giv! you ! naturcplErauty thrt v i l l smpht. ly rlax you ia ju$ frftccn mlnutcHhrrwi l l hclp dr.w out lmpuri t ics l rohyour rkln, rnd hclp lcfrshcn lt ltr hEft !aan minut6.

Thcy can 3ivc you an cnt i rc ly ncrwry to takc r tun brth ncxt sumftr_tDcndlnt lcs tlhc to 8c( morc lrFI t .n that lasas loiSrr-and ah.t ' !ydrr, elthout utly p.clin8, or nrf.hg, *ithout freklcs, without wriFtLr, withoot 9i8m.nt sporr.

Ald rhlr b ,usa .i. b.t|'tbr Crt.l O.* ffi16 il do ld rf.a d6Fb rt. prlr}! of til onloF llqa rtlbs I mr.

lust Yloit fill You lry lhis-5 Simph foce.Soving

Exercisor Tha, Af,.d theSorar Areos fhot Go inlo

a Focc Lill

Now thit unlqu. b@k glvq ys In.tomation consming rmszlngly rih.plc fraltl novcmcnlt thll trta $ littlea thiily aond. Gsch, thrt hclp tobrira ahra tlr.d chtrlllc b$k tnror h r p c . . . h c l p 8 l v . t e I i m F i .

l l n c . . , I w . l l { . f i n . dt h r c r t l l n a . . . c v c n , i f ihclD !o ihprovc thlr c: ltht t PIa8u6 s r lnt r8tow oldarl

Plus prcf.ssiolal H::! P s d c l s t h a t m i y h : r .8.spi f ,g wi lh dcl j8ht r f .u9 thcm. How to tr i . iBpacial ly und.a lh. . ' rt h j c k n o s o r E i d c 1 . ,f .$inat inS hlSh crc.riunkissad and n!t ! rr l

Plus a brud-n.B .rbath that soothcs ) : ! :m e k c s y o u r t k i n f . .s@th al l ov€r . !ItG Epl.Blt Etlrolci ud haala ot to.

P l u s - s n d p c r h a p i : ' .tant of al l -a comp:c c !in8 to br lnS r ' .t t .ccful body you hr ir iSht down to 8?l i r f ;td8ic Iule t idges . l r lmay tE devcloprng on : :rnd lhiShs loday!

How lo Toke Yec'

Appcoronce of Ycin or little oi ll

Thc brand.n.* NAT'.dlct+hc simplc scrr.ra H o l l y * o o d 6 i u r c r ' i .Thr( v ir tual ly cl imrn: cr '

. . . s3lris You ln r fcr Ibceut l ful ly on your rr :ducin8,

Plus incredibly &l- i .prclcd "Hol lyw@d d..mlY ncval hlve dr. tRiB e m c a t l o a f , v . 8 . u : .s luf icd Snpc laaY.r.FY kiod of bcct Srrrc t t . r H o D 8 K o n 8 , P . ;d ' O c u v l c ' . . , c h c a * r ddcstts and orhcrr - .sat.ritrB full-iitcd drr.p.cial ly d6iSncd to r . :rnd figurc.

Plus thc tcn.seconJ rL-{hal bui lds your cs- .- t h a t h i y s t u n ) c - 'tcry f i rst wccl you ur ,r

Plut " t*crtar 8ir l c! .

Although you may ncvcr hlvc hcrrd I ltr th. vcry fidt hqur rlon!. ye lrcof hid by namc b.forc, you may s f brcu8ht Into !n cntlrcly r.w *orld of

lr rnrE hci tDo {@O*orld to lqm. Ovcr tst

ryt thrt yo clq !& tcI UrC cficcts of tirc . ,p.rrtncc ,rom 6c pdgcttdar rtt.,. l.lp lrtrtml tlor oi tqal aot c r t e u . l L d t l

omple: lo Stod Wircry fi6t hqur rlonr, yqlnto !n cntlrcly raw rotcormatict - conctic ia inSrcdicnts hevc bcct.d to hclp hc. l *ounds!fo. pcrhapr thc firg tlmcl thrt ura tha lauc. bci

lrcw.r! of n.turc ItSl*r inl lc<euaidr dryG!

hi l r .sulG ottcn whcn you to to thc I naturr l cormatic6-conct ic wbocmovics or swirch on your tc lavl i ion I Incacdibl . jntrcdicnts hevc bacn tc-

Page 233: Breakthrough Copywriting

:ingrr 30 can

uusr,.rbt Ylid Dqbain all'-I d.ilE lreilrutE F!. 30 q 35.Fat ara mtda frcn o.

torcn rod frul1'. Tiryr: t mrhlng. You cu m*arrfdico in mlnutB wlthrold bl.nd.r. Ald Ol I- & t d t q lr chrn yoqr rkln wlthst-nr.r* rlE bcm6t yos

tdr craanslng ctatm atF6,r:rr [ ib ly 8uard YOU! l l lnL rDl wind and othct clc-t rir-h.lp SlYc yot cD.d dry, rhat lovcly, hcr l thyE formrly, takc on onlyI hll or . fuu d.t in thc

F . you BlorloE thilc tonttqrt oft Crlrr motbnlLr rhrmpo(Han mllaob,.d hrlr l@k rrdl.nt.

r |fa you I datuGPurt rhrt *ill omphtcly cFr t\fr..n minutcFth.t

hri out lhpuritlcr fro6.d h.lp rcfrsh.n lt In ,!d

| ' ra tou an ant irc ly ncfa aa trth natt sumrer-

a t@ lo 8ct norc t tFt nr long.r - and that, t

-r utly pc.ling, or n.t.a l r<t lcs, without t t iFa prSmant slFtl.

t lr &c!!la ot-16 c! do ldtet i. Flr-lr oa tc on- rt'bt I

, lill You fry lhis-y'o foce-Sovingu flrol Afrecl lhctnor lhof Go infoo focc Llft

-s. b@k 3ivct yd ln.FmidS .mulnSly ja.f tnb thr i t rka $ l l l t l .#r arch, thrt hclp aortd chlollDc Drck Intor-8, tlr. ta r Gm rrr.

?ounds {,rtrhterl lnc, , . r wlu.def incd snd ssth.rthrcrUlnc . . . cv.!, if$ary, mrthclD to inprovc tblt dr@pi!8 contourahat pla8ud s 6any wonan as thaySrow oldcrl

Plus prcfassiolal Hollywood nekc-up $dats that nay hava your hurband8.spin8 wilh dcli8hl $c n.s( (inc youu9 thcm. How to blot out shadows,Eprcial ly undaa thc cyas. Narrow athick nos or widc jasl inc. Crcateta$inaalng hlgh ch.ckbon.s. Lookrunkis$d and nrtural .

Plus. brdd.rcw way to takc lhat sothcs you. ncnesm e k . s y o u r r k i n f c c l s i l k c n . n dn@th all ogcr . . cra! moolbE|ie ulplcurl r@tt spolr o! ah.loLr ud hcrh of tour f..1.

Plus-and pcrhaps thc fiort impor.tatrl of all-a completc scction on try-in8 to br lng back thc sl im, young.traccful body you had as 1 bridc-r iShi dowtr to gett ing r id of thor.a68lc IUlc r idgcs of l@s f lcsh thrtDry bc dcycloping on your hips, wai i tand thiSh! loday!

How lo Take Yeors Ofl theAppcorance ol Your Figure

in os liftle os l0 Doys

Thc brand.ncw NATURAL Crarhdlct+hc simple sacrct of how many. Hol lywood f i8ure stays that say.Thst vir tual ly cl imln!tes hungcr pan8r. . . st.ds you in a fcs thriuin8 daysbaaut l ful ly otr your vly ro f igure rFducinS.

Plus incr.dibly dcl lc ious, h.ekh-p.ctcd "Holly*@d di.t mc!b" youmay ncvcr havq draamcd arlsted. Thcocw mcal lorf, vcgctablc brosd aicc,gufird 8nDc lclvcs. . . ! complciclyrcw lihd of bo.f Strcgrnofl, t t c s H o l g K o n 8 , P o t D o u r r i H o r sd'Ocuvrar , . . chca* lnd *alrut lorfdcsrtr snd othcrs - mora mouth-w.icrinS full-sircd dire.s that d6l8n.d to sid your bodyrnd 68!rc.

Plus tha tao-rccond tumqry-tlShtcncr{har bul ldr your om natursl Si fdlc-that hry slun your huaband thcvcry first wc.k you us il.

Plut "rwaataa gir l " Gxcrci&r. Excr.

cl tat thr l you u* to sl im down hips. . . t o h c l p c o n t o u ! t h c l i m b i , a s p a -clrtly ltde sofl lnrld. lhlsht thrrcol ld Bln )our 68!r. In . brthlntsDla,

Plus cnt i ra scct ions on how to si t .s t a n d r n d w a l k a s y o u t h f u l l y a n dg r a c c f o l l y a s a t o p f a s h j o n m o d e l , . .t t ickr of Hol,ywood voicc coachcs.for pul t ing clcct. ic i ty into cvery wordy o u s a y o v . t 2 5 0 f c , . l n e l l n t S t a r t i n g t o d a y t h i s u n l q u e b o o kprg.Fjeh-packed wirh thr i t l ing new by an int i rnat iona[y.know; ptast ici d c a s o n b a a u t y , v i t a l i t y a n d y o u t h - s u r S e o n w i l l s h o w y o ! 1 7 w a y sy o u t r t o r . a d t r o m c o v c r t o c o v c r i n t o w - a r O s m a f i n J i o ' r . t i " o u n oy o u r o v n h o m . w j l h o u t l i l k l n g a b o d y l o o k y o u n l e - r , s l i m m e r , t a rp€nny! mori beaut i tql t l ian you have ever

d r e a m e d !

Reod tt ot our Risk! f ""illrtT"l"rfi" t.:Jl;:o"i:;

prove tt ot our Riskt c 'l l"1li:;i,"'.""iJ":"1"1:::";tr"::;f refr iEerator.

ova! twcnty yaars w.nt i r ro thc dc-valopmcnt of thclc tcchniquat. Thc8ac!t_major i ty of tham arc p,obably complctc. I t js snt to you without thecooplctcly unfamil isr to you loday, sl ightcst , isk on your part , you teadOnCa you put them to woak, tha rc- i i ior tcn ful l aays. t f you are not de-Sults Dal/ bc ro star( l in8-that you l ighted at lha end of that t imc, slmplyhay f ind i t hard to bel icvc lha di f iar. Ftom l t for ayery aent of your Dur.ancc tn your appaaranca aloDe! (hsse pr lca bscl .. Tl-c namc of Dr. Franklyn's book you havc nothjng to tose. A wholets, o( cour*, THE ART OF SfAy- ncw *or ld of beauiy ro 8ain. Send inINC YOUNC. I t ! con is onty 94.9t rhc No-Risk Coupo; betow TODAY.

EXECUTTVE RESEARCH INSTTTUTE, Inc. pRr-DI 19 Fi l lh Avenuc, Ncw Yorlr N, y. lOO0l

Gen(lcmcn: Y.s. I went to try ! copy of Dt. Robcat A. Franklyn.samaln8 ncw book THE ART OF STAYING youNc-cnrir . t i aryour -r i r l , _ l !m cocloi ing thc low introductory pr icc of onty gi .98complatc. I wt l l u* this book torb ful l tcn days at vour rrsk. l f Iam nol cohplclc ly d. l ighted. , . i l rhi i b@t docs noido e\.rvrhincyou r6y. I * i l l l ihpty rcturn i t lor avery cent of my money b!ck.


- L l r r y o u * r r h l o , y o u r o r d e a * n r C . O . D . . C h a c k H e r e l F n c t o s et! . Sood-wtl l dcposit . Pa, pos(mrn balancc. plus Dostace and han-ottnt chargas, Saftc moncy bacl guarantac, of course



t t t

Page 234: Breakthrough Copywriting


lite in ltanv \\rays as satisf\-ing as u,hen thev u,ere in theirtrvert t ies- i f t tvy tr t t r t r t l r i . r / , , , r r . i , l t , , r r 1, , ( , ' t ) tul) t t t t l t , . l t i t l -tlerr force,s taitltin tlrt ir tttinl.: trttd lttrlic.s tlutt litcrrilltl tlrict,tlrcnt into .t"

"Caught! 120 Fisli in One lIour!"

"Just picture tlre scene rrs tliese c.ollege liorticulturistsbegan this rlnrazing, flrlrvering test of' roses. F<ir here gath-erecl in a tcst fielcl u'ere irll the liiqlrlr-prizccl qrreen's cifroseclorn . . . r'ose blenrls thirt toclrrr sc,ll l iri rrs lrigli as 33.75f r r r l L s i r r g l e p l r r r r t . R o u u l ) o l r l - { ) \ \ , , 1 r , , r , , r . . . 1 ) r . i z e - r r i r r r r t , r . sin co.rpetition . . . the best tlre, *rrrlcl l ias t<ioffer. . . AND THEN, NEARLY-\\TLD ST.\RTtrD TOBLOON{I"

And so on. The objective here is to keep tlrt, rt:nder going-fbr clne 'ore se'terce. one rrore paragrtrph. ,re lror€r seq.enc(,.Notice, of'conrse, that e'erv one of these e'rrrrrPles not

"h' pr'-

cluces rlonrentuni, not onlrl raises rpestions irr tl ie reaclerls nrinclthat he virtrrallv urrrst read on to ansnrer-lxrt is trlso. at e'rrrcth'the sarne time, loridecl rvith sell. Again, inte^r'et^'i'g-maki'gench elernent in the acl arccornplish hi'o objectives. No rl,trstervorcls.

Mood-How to Pack Your Copy With Drama, Excitement,Sincerity or Any Other Emotion you Wish

No'"v *'e to the rnatter of r.r'ords-a'cl the color *4richrvorcls crertte,

I have given 'o, doze's o{'di{rerert exiurples i. this bookof'selling copr: All these c'xtrrnples htrd certii i ' ele*ents i' corn-lnon-1hs1' rl'ere strong, successful, conr.incing and so on. the szune tirne, each of' these copy blocks rlifTi:recl frour theotlrers in one irnrnecli.teh- apparent i,la.--ir, tlte rrutocl thilt etrchset, sinrpll' bv the. rhr-thn-r ancl u'ords that tlre ct4l. u.riter usedto erpress his thouglits.

\\trrcls ancl rlt.,thrns. The' trre to the cop' *,riter *,hat li'e

f H E } ' I \ \ I

ancl c 'ol , , r '

c i rrrr t l r , ,

rvhet 'c t l , ,

corn i r rg 1 r 'F o l ' , '

at bef i r . ,tnttkt ' , ' , , . . ] .

( ) l r j l

i rnaqc:


l r r , l '\ t t l l '


r . \11( ; \ l , l

/ / t 1 , \ .

\ t t t 1 l


, ' ' , , "

t '

\ o t t , '

inr i rqt ' : ' l : .

s o r t t t ' o f t ! , '

dou.rt .

iu l t t 'hr , , r

c i o r r s . ' :

i rn t ig int t l i- l - l

r , . '

to . f l ' t ' l . ,1 , ' ,

The i r r , : .

t he rn . : :

f lavr) t ' , , i , ' ]( . t ' t 1 . ,

\ \ ' l re r r t l r ,t l t t ' r t i . , r : , l11 , i nq 1 r i r r I

i q - i 1 1 { l ' . ,

Page 235: Breakthrough Copywriting

: \ \ I , ' I ' oU( ]HES

: r t l r t ' i t '' : . , l t i t l -' , , l t ' i r t '

, : . t t l f l s t s

: g . L t l r -

. ' t t : o l

, . \ : ] . ; ;' . . l r l l ( ' f S

I r . t . t o

I ) ' fo

, , t , i ' , : r t i t tg -

, . \ r ' ( l l l e l l c e .

, , i r r r r l v p r c l -' . r r l t ' r "s t t t inC l

. i t t ' rrrct l l '

: r j - l l tak i l lg

\ o u'aste

-rciternent,r liru Wish

. , ,1 , r r u 'h ic l r

: , t l r i s book: i l . i l t C O n t -

. , , on . Bu t ,, i l l 'or r r the' , r t l r r t e t t c h. . . l . i t t ' r r rsed

: i l r i r t l ine


and color are to the painter. Thev set the rttood o1'r'ortr stor\'-

carrv the emotion so subtlv tltat vottr retider llever reirllv reaiizes

rvhere the ercitement or the irtiage or the cclnviction is acttrallr

coming from.For exalt'rple, here are several o1' tlie passages we'\'e lookccl

at before. Norv lets italicize the rrutod-lnilders u'ithin thern, that

rnake each so different lrom the others:

Objective: to empharsize coltlr. beautr': exciterllel)t. r'isrtal


Ancl u'hen that tirird prcciorrs irrgredient retrches tlt<tsebtrds-then that t-trt1 ,iir)/-rrl/r( r-orr s'il l open tlrc: cloor tttvour house-AND YOU \\'ILL BE BL/N/IED BY THE.EXPLOSIOII

OF COI.OR THAT GREETS YOU IN YOURGARDEN! . . . You u'ill see rose btrshes tceightul tlLtrttr ltvnlosses of blossttrrts, of a ricltrtt:tr artcl perfurrtc trttcl co/rrryon lrave never lntaglncrl be{brel You u,ill rcalk past ,ulid,bla:ing rous oI'chn'siltttlterttlrrlts ,so fftlcA' tliat r'-ou r.'ntt'feLen see a leaf in betrct'rt. . . .

Notice that you don't even distinguish rnilr'Iv of the separate:

images until the)' are calletl to t'our attention. Notice also th:rt

some of the words are primarilv visuirl inruge-'slmrye nars (u'eightecl

dou'n . . . solid, blazing ro\\rs, . . so tliick )'otl calt't even see a leaf'

in behveen). While others corlve\, not irnage, but entotion (pre-

cious. . . thai verv rrorning. . . bhnded. . . greets. . . ) -ou never

irnagined be{bre).These words are enTotion-deJurcrs. Thev tell the reader rcftaf

to feel about the in-rages ancl itleas vou are presenting to hirn.

Their ver-v essence is tliat thev are so subtle that he clcles not see

thern . . . that thev do not call rtttention to theniselves, brrt sinrplv

flavor and evaluate the images vour copv is fbrniing in his rnincl.

Ceftain classes of readers rcl// notice these ernotirln cle'finers.

\\rhen thev do, your cop,v- becornes either questionable rtr cornv trl

them, and you have lost thern. Therefbre. r'ou have to knou' irl-

ways u'horn \/ou are u'riting for. \\"hat their level of sophistication

is-in tone as rvell as procluct-arl'ilreness. Ancl vou rtrav htn-e to

Page 236: Breakthrough Copywriting

221 l .HF. F-rNAt. TOt:6H1ts

change vour tone when vou take the sanre ir(l fro. one class '1rrredi i r to lnot l rer- t lourr in uel l i rs rrD.

of course, *'hen e'e^ lroch sees r.rrr e,oticl' *,ortls, th.rrvou'\/e got a bad acl. tincl vou'cl better reur-ite. lint.

A'd clo.'t ibreet the rhrthrns. Reircl the' rld orrt lorul. Se.ho*' r'ou ctur alrn,st sca' it, as thouqh it *'ere close to lllarrkverse. This richnerss of rlnthnr ptrrii l lels the riclrness o{'irnage-helps build the excite'rent irncl sensllo'sress r{' the rroocl.

Nori' let's look at another piece of p'rr.rlirrg copr. trncl se.hor.r' ll'ords ancl rlnthrns ildcl to the po\\,r'r arrcl rr-ronrentrul thatare pu t be l r i r rd i t s s tacc .a to s t rear r r o f ' r . l , , i , , rs ,

"Tli.s letter ,snr1,r that if r-ou coukl onlv lilx:rata theeract ,srnne talent ancl intelligence rrncl abilitr that r.orr har-el iul r t l t insir l t ' t l r t r t t tx lor l - ,1lrcrt r orr r . , , rr l t l :'_'read atultlting ryou rcislt, ttcicc rt.s as \.oll crur rcircli t toclav. . . "

"ab,sorb facts llke a ,spong(.. ancl repeat tlierl a1riro,s1rcord frtr rr.'ord vears later. . .''7flos/r through natlt, business. financiirl lrroblerrs tliathave vou ,sto1tpecl colr/ toclal' . . .

_ "lutlcl people spr,llbottnilu-ith the p(nc(,r ol xlrr speech

and vour u'ritten u'ord . . ."ottt-tlink others n,hen r<xr huvc tcl. tott:t,r rtter thorr

in judgernent, orrtyhlirt' tlterrt crttrltlettlry in iuragination . . ."

Here. again. there itre trl'o tvpes o{' enrotion-clefiners. Thepo\\'er rvords (liberate . . . hold spellbouncl . . . out-think. . . tou,erover . . . outshine cornpletelr-), u4rich builcl a subconscious currentof potencv thtrt penneates eirch incli'idual cltrirn as it occurs inthe copr.l And the frankness, mAn-to-rnan. letls-let-our-htrir-croulrtone-builders (this letter savs . . . tied up insicle ):ou . . . l ike asponge. . . stopped colcl) thirf sar-silentlv that there'.s rlo nolrsensehere, no high-faluting phrtrses-.jtrst co"r*-sense *4rich cur beabsorbed hr-anvone.

And, of course, the mtrchine-gun rhr-tlrni. Short, choppvsentences. \ 'erb. . . r 'erb. . . r 'erb. Clairn . . . c laiui . . . c laiur. pr ' -

pe l l i r rg t l

i s e . i r r r , r j

\ . 1 .

h iq l rh - . , r

e t t t < l t t t r t r .

of s i r t ' t ' t I

rtttio ot

\ \ t , L

artc l s t ' , '

alt,vt 'rt, ,

fir'ul tl,, :brr i l t ls. i r

l-, ' lc ln r t ts , . ,

the c'op''tht ' r l r . t r ,

u - r o i t ' t l ,f ro r t t - t i , , .est i t l tp: '

\ l l '

utr l t ' t r . '

int lecr l :\ 1 " '

t t t t t t o t t t ,

f e s t ( ) l :

ln l l l ( ' r . ( ( :

Page 237: Breakthrough Copywriting

, \ I I ' O L ( ] I I E S

)rr( . ( ' l l tss of

, . , r r r l s . then

: lo r r r l . See., to bl trrrki l | 1111;196 ' -

, , , , , , (1 .r ' , i I l ( l see

, : r t r r r n t h i r t

' . t l i e' : l , , r r c '

; . : t ' i r c l

- ' r t r r l 1

. . t l r r r t

' j " . ' ' t l r

; t : r , ' t ' s . T l t e

r . . t<xver, t : . C' l l1 ' l ' ( .1tt

: ( ) ( ( l l r s l t ]

- ] , . t r t ' - t lour i

: . l i k t ' a, i 1{ ) i lse. l tse

: t l r c ' i t r i b c

:r t lroppr'. . r l r l 1 . P l ' o -


pelling the reader through tlie copr. Piling prornise upon prorn-

ise, irnage upon ilnage in an ilttett)pt to ovenvhelm him,

Notice especially the vitst clifference betrveen these tr'vo

highh-511g.essful pieces of copr'. Their vocabularl', the tr'pe of

emotions thev strive to arouse. the inrages thev use, the rnodels

of speech thev borrou', tl"re length of sentence and paragraph, the

ratio of adjectives to noutls ttllcl r-erbs' etc.

\\'e could go on, of course. (lo llack to the \rolksr'vagen copr'',

ancl see hou, the emotional tole of sinceritv is conve)ted by the

absence of adjectives, in all the places vou'd ordinarilv expect to

find them. As r.vell as $'hirtrser'. ir continuous self-kidding, which

builds, first, a sort of cotporate affection, and then trust.

Try the fire injector acl ilgain. Notice hou' the long, rather

clumsr,. sentences give a f'eelinq of ingenuousness and reason to

the copv. Trv to read therl out loucl. You catr't. Thev don't scan;

thev have no definable rhrthn'r: thev don't look like a "copy rvriter"

,r,rnt" them at all. Ancl, rtf' cortrse, there is the same straight-

from-the-shoulder phraseoloep'. to reinforce this feeling of hon-

est appraisal.All this, I repeat, is clone unconsciousl-r'r You do not see it

unless vou look for it. And sontetilltes Vou have to dig verv deep

indeed to get everv piet 'e of i t .

N{ood-building is delibertlte on the part of the copv r'vriter-

unnoticed on the part of I'ris reader. As rvith so much of the

rest of the ad. it l ies undernetrth the surface, to do its rvork


Page 238: Breakthrough Copywriting



I have 111111, gi'r'en I'ou rvhat I've

learnecl about qr-iti1g cgpr. It lias ttrken rrany Vears to learn it-

three tnoret to set it clourl t<l tttv tlurr satis{'action. I hope it u'ill

help vou in the onh. $-rtv tirat reallv counts: to do :r better job

and nttrke a little tttore tltone\'.

There are. of co,rse, l'i')\- lt']iiuv rnen in this industrv rvho

knou, f:ir rnore aborrt these teclinirlues, and rvho can produce far

be.tter copr. thar-r I N{1. excuse lirr rvriting this book is that thev

clon't seent to have incluclecl-at least to tnv presetlt knorvledge-

rranr.' clf the specific technirpes u'hich I've discussed rvith vou

here.Some o{' thelr have u'ritterl books cln the subject-great

books-iurcl I'd like to list them here {br vou. I think vou should

Lnr,, ancl read, everr.' one of thetr. and then thurnb through thenl

irgatn eyer\'\-ear or so, just to catch rvhat r,o1 rutl.u' hiln'e fbrgottel.

Here t l re r l t le :

hrclispensable. of'course, is Julian \\ratkins' great antholog':'lht: 100 Greotest Adteftisentr:rtf,s, lvloore Publishing' 1949'

z z t

Page 239: Breakthrough Copywriting

22E EprlocuE--\ copy \\-RrrER's LTBRARy

Claude Hopkins rvrote a great book, l{y Life in Aclueftisirtg.Halper, 1927. Make tlierri dig it up fbr vou. And see i{'r'ou can't

get sorne of tlie old tlopkins ads.

John E. Kennedy (not F.) 'rvrote zr little parnphlet nlanv \:eArsago called lnten,siue Adueftising, rvhich has just been republisherlbv Printer's Ink. Get it. It'll be the rnost profitable evening's reacl-ing r-ou'r-e ever don...

J. K. Lasker, r.l'ho rvorked'ul'ith both these great u'riters. lrever'rvrote ani,thing hirnself. But he did give tr series of trilks be{bre]ris staff one 'nl'eek, and Printer,s Inft hiis agirin capturecl tlrern.Tlrey're called The La,sker Story.

Robert Colliers Letter Book \s publishecl bv Prentice-Hall.Its a gold mine.

David Ogilr,r.rvrote Confession,s of an Adxefti,sing trIan, u'hich

-vou can bu'u' as a paperback. Chirrrning nnd rioncler{ullv pro{-itable.

Rosser Reeves' r.er1- short book, Realitt1 itr Adueftisirtg, ispublished bv Knopf, and rnust be read severrrl tirles be{bre vouget er..err,thing out of it vou should.

Milton Biorv's book, Butting ln, is rnan'elous in the first hal{.repetitive in the second.

And don't forget Carnpbells book. \I/rif ing l{on-Fiction. Or

those by Caples. Young, Glim and Bedell. Or the rnotir':rtion re-search books bv Dichter and Martineau. Or the great book onlavout, Yi,sual Persuasion, bv Baker.

Then there are the books on American societv todar.-lx'Mills, Riesrnan, Fromrn, Kardiner and all the rest. And the ar-ticles on the ernerging trends in the media. And the rneclia them-selves. And of course-vour primarv source-the ads theurselves.

Keep reading. Keep analvzing. Keep rvriting. Keep lookinsfor the new idea-the rnillion dollars hidden sornervhere in thrrttlpervriter of vours. Alu.,ays shoot for the moon-it's one of theferv real thrills lefi todavl

\c'c't ' l l t l tt l t r . ' '

{ t c e p t l r l 1 , , , : '

l 1 9

{ c t r r r r p l t . l ' r , ' '

n t t l t , r ' i . ,

i i c l t i t r ,

, \ c l t i e r l t r t . t I

A c l . f i r l r t t , , J : -

A t l . t t ' t l t r r r , t , l , '

A d o p t i r r g p i ' r , .

l r e l i , ' . . , 1 '

A ther t i s j r r ' l '

. \ l e r a r r c l t ' r I 1 . , '

- { , l ka-Se ' l t z t ' r i -

. \ l te l r t i t t r ' 1 , r , , :

( le \ l l r r \

A i r rp l i f i t r r t i , : I

A r t i r l o g r . , r . ,

Ar tah s is . r r r ' .

t lec ( )s \ i i l \ : - -

111a l1 .515 o1 1 , :Ant i t i l t t t t io r :

App l i r :a t i i , r ' , '

t o p r , , , l .

A p p l i t . r t i r t r , , '

I r r t t ' r t ' '

r\ppror ri l l t '

A R a y 7 , ' 1 . ,

Arc 'h i t t ' t t r r r ,

A r t t r o t t r . l , , r . '

A s s t t r t l t g p t , , ' :

l l l i l l l ( (

At l r osp l r t r ,l r t ' l i t ' r . i i

, \ r r l i e r r t r ' . l , : : -. {uthort t r t ' .r \ t i s . l ( X i l i ' l