(breed saviour awardees) - 2013

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NBAGR SEVA Honey Bee Network BREED SAVIOUR AWARDS 2013 LIVESTOCK KEEPERS PROFILE

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Page 1: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

NBAGRSEVA Honey Bee Network

BREEDSAVIOURAWARDS

2013LIVESTOCK KEEPERS PROFILE’

Page 2: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

© Copyright : SEVA

June 2014

All Rights Reserved

Published by

45, TPM Nagar, Virattipathu,

Madurai - 625 010. Tamilnadu, India.

Ph : 0452-2380082, 2380943

e-mail : [email protected]

web : www.sevango.in

Sustainable-agriculture & Environmental Voluntary Action (SEVA)

Printed with financial support from

National Biodiversity Authority, Chennai.

Layout

V.R. Balaji, Madurai.

Page 3: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

ForewordThe fifth round of Breed Saviour Awards 2013 - a commendable effort since 2009 -

has been meticulously planned by SEVA in collaboration with LIFE Network, and, this year, with HoneyBee network as well. National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources, Karnal, which is premier internationally known center dedicated to characterization and conservation of livestock and poultry genetic resources of the country, feels satisfied in facilitating the process of recognizing and highlighting the breed conservation efforts by our livestock keepers. The 21 pastoralists/ keepers belonging to seven different States selected from 29 entries represent hitherto unknown local positive deviants who, by virtue of their own efforts, have met with success in protecting the local breeds. As evident from the recordings, most of them are also engaged in improving the breed / population through selective breeding, and, in several cases, using innovative ways. The documentations are a new source for the scientific community to identify lesser known and un-described breeds and to initiate steps for further characterization and recognition of the breeds and the communities responsible for managing these valuable genetic resources. We also appreciate the National Biodiversity Authority (GoI) for promptly supporting social recognition of breed conserving communities by SEVA and LIFE Network. I expect that recognition of livestock keepers through Breed Saviour Award- 2013 will motivate them to work with greater vigour and help in protection of valuable natural biological treasure.

I wish this programme a great success !

Page 4: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Acknowledgement

Article 8 (j) of Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes

indigenous knowledge. Under Access and Benefit Sharing regime of CBD, it

proposes incentives for communities conserving genetic diversity. In order to

fulfill this objective SEVA in association with LIFE & HoneyBee Network

volunteers supported by National Biodiversity Authority has been organizing

Breed Saviour Awards to pastoralists / livestock keepers / breeders association

from 2009 onwards. Now during this year we are presenting “Breed Saviour

Award 2013” to 21 pastoralists/livestock keepers on 8 July 2014 in a workshop on

“Livestock Keepers’ Rights” at NBAGR, Karnal.

We are thankful to National Biodiversity Authority for extending financial

support for organizing the “Breed Saviour Awards 2013” ceremony, LIFE &

Honey Bee Network volunteers for documenting livestock keepers conserving

native breeds, national level committee comprising Dr. D.K. Sadana, Dr. Kamal

Kishore, Dr. P.K. Singh and Dr. Anil Nivasarkar in evaluation of entries for awards,

NBAGR for arranging logistics, stay / meeting facilities at Karnal for the

participants. We are thankful to Dr. D.K. Sadana for editing the profiles of

livestock keepers’ and extending moral support at all levels of execution. We look

forward for our continued association in order to promote socially inclusive and

ecologically sustainable livestock farming by conserving local livestock breeds.

S E V ASustainable-agriculture & Environmental Voluntary Action

45, TPM Nagar, Virattipathu, Madurai - 625 010. Tamil Nadu, India. Ph : 0452-2380082, 2380943

e-mail : [email protected] web : www.sevango.in

P. Vivekanandan Executive Director

Page 5: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

C O N T E N T S

Mr. D.M. Papanna - Mandya sheep, Karnataka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

Smt. K. Roja - Malabari goat, Kerala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

Mr. V. Paulraj - Vembur sheep , Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

Mr. K. Poovendran - Ramnad white sheep, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Mr. B. Ramakrishnan - Pulikulam cattle, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

Mr. Ramavatar gurjar - Malpura sheep, Rajasthan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Smt. K. Arumugathai - Kanniyadu goat, Tamil Nadu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

Mr. Murali Behera - Binjharpuri cattle, Odisha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

Mr. Anadi Charan Das - Binjharpuri cattle, Odisha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

Mr. Kuppan - Madras Red sheep, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

Mr. Saravanan - Madras red sheep, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

Mr. M. Velusamy - Katchaikatti black sheep, Tamil Nadu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Mr. K. Ramanathan - Kodiyadu goat, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Mr. Sathyanarayan gurjar - Malpura sheep, Rajasthan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

Mr. Vinodh - Kuttanadan duck, Kerala . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43

Mr. Murid Ali - Gojri buffalo, Punjab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

Mr. S. Sitar Khan - Beetal goat, Punjab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

Mr. N.A. Jude Thaddeus - Malaimadu cattle, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

Mr. Gandhras Minj - Kuji pig, Odisha. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

Mr. P. Govindan -Malaimadu cattle, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

Mr. P. Pon Elangovan - Rajapalayam dog, Tamil Nadu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

Mr. Santosh Kumar - Punganur Cattle, Andhra Pradesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

Annexure

Mr. Sardar Mohammad Aftab Ahmad Khan Wattoo - Sahiwal Cattle Breed . . . 64

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Mandya sheep breedConserved by Mr. D.M.Papanna

Name of Livestock keeper :

Full Address : S/o. Madegowda Dasanadoddi village Malavalli Taluka Mandya District – 571 430 Karnataka

Mobile : 9900373991

thEducation : Pre University college (12 standard) Total area of land owned : 8 acres (4 acres dry land , 4 acre land used for cultivation of fodder with irrigation facility which is meant for livestock and other agriculture practices)

Sri. D.M. Papanna

Family Background

Number of animals Species / breed

Species

Bovine

Ovine

Caprine

Breed

Hallikar

Mandya Sheep

Non-descript

Number of animals

4 cow

180

10

Name of the community : Vokkaliga

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Breed Saviour Awards 2013

Family Members :

Relationship

Father

Mother

Wife

Son

Occupation

Mixed farming

Mixed farming

Mixed farming

School

Lifestyle

Details of Breed Conservation

Far generation entire family were dependent on agriculture along with livestock farming as their main source of income . Livestock farming were started by keeping cattle, sheep and goat , in which Mandya Sheep turned out to be as a boon to improve their economic status. As of now entire family members are engaged in sheep farming as their main occupation. As a result they have good status in their community and recognized by the villagers and other local people who will come to their door step to ask information on sheep farming.

Number of generation maintained : Mandya breed conservation by farmer's family goes back to 3 generation or more.

History of breed being conserved : the farmer's village falls under Mandya sheep home tract. Over generations they the maintaining and conserving Mandya breed. Due to its meat characters like high fleshiness / meatiness, tenderness and aroma Mandya breed became popular day by day .

Breed description :

Typical Mandya sheep is relatively small in body built and size. Coat is predominantly white to cream in colour and in some cases face is covered with light brown shades, which extends up to the neck region. Head is prominent and slightly Roman nosed type and passes glowing eyes, long and droopy ears. This breed posse squarely placed short legs, compact and square body with even rump indicative of high fleshiness / meatiness. From rear view, animal's body resembles a typical reversed U- shaped wedge type conformation. These animals posses short and thin tail. Fleece is hairy type. This is a polled type breed with fewer exceptions where males are tending to possess short and curly horns.

Selection criteria

Breeding rams are usually selected based on their phenotypic merits such as masculinity, body conformation , gait, size and meatiness. Whereas breeding ewes are selected on the basis of their femininity , body size, fertility rate, reproducing and mothering ability.

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Page 9: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Breed Saviour Awards 2013

Present status of Breed population Farmer's flock

Mandya Lambs - 45 Nos

Mandya Ewes - 131 Nos

Mandya Rams - 4 Nos

Earlier the farmer practiced sheep farming on range system. As the number of sheep increased he found semi-intensive system and intensive system of rearing as beneficial. Different varieties varieties of fodder were raised solely for sheep. Fodder storage had been made through hay preparation . Enrichment of fodder is also being practiced by taking technical advices from local vets and state government institute.

Breed has been maintained by several generations through systematic breeding and management practices. Healthy flock has been maintained by regular vaccination. De worming , health care and culling. Only true to breed mandya Ram has been used for breeding purposes. Breeding rams have been changed every year to avoid inbreeding flock . Aged ewes and unproductive ewes are culled to maintain good lambing percentage.

Revenue generation

Mandya lambs at the age of four months fetches for Rs. 4000 /- to Rs. 5000/-

Breeding Rams – Rs. 20,000/- to Rs. 30,000

Breeding Ewes - Rs. 8000

This achievement of the farmer made other young generations to take up Mandya sheep farming as their main occupation.

The farmer is exhibiting Mandya sheep in many exhibition, Krishi mela at both district and state level.

By this he is propagating the knowledge about Mandya sheep and its benefits in rearing throughout the state.

Farm superintendent. Livestock Research & Information Centre. KVAFSU, K. R. Pete Road, Nagamangala, Mandya (dt) Karnataka 571432E-mail : [email protected]

Achievements

Dr. Manju G U.Documented by :

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Malabari goat breedConserved by Smt. K.Roja

Livestock keeper Address:

RincyNivas, Keezhathoor, Thalassery, Kerala.

09645 356193

Smt. Roja K., W/o Manoharan, RincyNivas, Keezhathoor, Thalassery, Kannur district a

38 year old housewife after completing her matriculation started goat rearing in small scale,

after the intervention of AICRP on Goat Improvement (Malabari) she transformed into a

prospectiveMalabari goat breeder with elite breeding bucks. Her husband is a toddy tapper and

owns 27 cents of land, used for cultivation of banana and coconut. She is a mother of two girls,

studying at B. Com and 10th standard. In 2001-02, they found it difficult to run the family when

the coconut prices slumped in the market. Smt. Rojastarted to concentrate on goat rearing to tide

over the financial crisis. She carefully followed the planned breeding and good management

practices with the advice of AICRP on Goat Improvement (Malabari). Soon she started to realize

the potential of sustained income and become a model farmer in the region. Now, she owns 23

goats including three bucks and 20 desi poultry and earns a good income of Rs. 10,000 per

month through the sale of milk, kids and manure.

Smt. Roja K.

Family background

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Page 11: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Details of Breed Conservation

Dr. R. Thirupathy Venkatachalapathy

Dr. Rojan,P.M.

Smt. Roja K. and her family rearing goat in small scale since 20 years. Because of her

enthusiasm in the goat rearing she is included to AICRP on Goat Improvement (Malabari) as a

beneficiary and received an elite buck from nucleus herd. Thus with the support of the AICRP on

Malabari goat improvement experts she turned to a prospective Malabari goat breeder with elite

breeding bucks. She regularly deworms and vaccinates the animals. She selects the bucks based

on true breeding characteristics, body weight, height, length and girth. She is very much aware

about inbreeding and practice exchange of bucks between populations in order to avoid

inbreeding. She preserves jack leaves by spraying salt solution for the use in the summer and

also fed goats with cooked tamarind seed kernel mixed with bran. She motivates the fellow

farmers to follow these practices. She now acts as a source of good breeding animals/seeds of

Malabari for the entire village. She earns a consistent good income through the sale of animals.

The sale of milk and manure adds to her monthly income. Moreover she acts as a facilitator for

introducing new scientific techniques to the field/farmers.

Associate Professor and Principal Investigator,

Email: [email protected], [email protected]

Assistant Professor

Centre for Advanced Studies in Animal Genetics and Breeding

Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University

Mannuthy – 680651.

Kerala.

Phone:0487-2374461.

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 11

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Vembur goat breedConserved by Mr. V.Paulraj

Address of the livestock keeper :S/o . Velandi Vembur, Ettayapuram Taluka Tutocorin District.Cell: 9843251177

Paulraj is 57 years old sheep herder and he is illiterate. He belongs to thevar community keeping 70 sheep of Vembur breed. He is having 20 acres of garden land and is cultivating coconut, paddy, palmyrah, cotton and green vegetables. His main occupation is sheep rearing from 10 years of his age. His family and children education completely depends upon the income arising from sheep farming. His family members are also actively involved in the sheep rearing over the last 5 generations. His elder son Mr.Marisamy has been keeping 75 sheep and lives in the same village.

Vembur sheep breed exists over 40 km distance from Vembur village. The home tract of the sheep breed spreads over 40 km distance around Vembur village, Pudur block, Ettayapuram Taluka, Thoothukudi district. Few villages situated in the border of Virudhunagar district also fall in the breeding tract of Vembur sheep. This area has typical black cotton soil and the rainfall is less than 600 mm. Farmers in the area raise rain fed crops such as cotton, sorghum, pearl millet and pulses.

Mr. V.Paulraj

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

12

Page 13: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Agricultural laborers belonging to communities such as pallar, thevar, nayakkar, konar, chakkiliyar are traditional breeders of Vembur sheep for many generations. These families are landless depend upon sheep rearing as their sole livelihood. Therefore these communities / families by their stewardship and survival mechanism selected the drought tolerant, disease resistant and fast growing sheep and they adopted selection criteria for choosing the best males for breeding purpose. Most of the families are maintaining flocks of 50-200 sheep depending upon their capacity. These families are taking the animals upto 15 km distance and usually they take the animals for drinking water purpose to Vembur village where many ponds ( among 7 ponds 3 prominent ones viz .Gounder Oorni, Chakliyachi Oorni,Kudumbar Oorni ) are situated. Therefore the breed has become synonymous with the village pond. There will be rainfall only for 2 months in a year and it is almost dry in the remaining 10 months. Under this situation this Vember sheep are able to cope with this condition and its body growth (body weight) is significant compared with other breeds.

The sheep is identifiable by black or brick red patches on its coat. Ears are medium sized and drooping with short and thin tail ; males having prominent twisted horn and females are polled ; short hairs all over the body. As the breed is native to a dry zone, fleece (wool) is almost non – existent. Adult males weigh upto 50 kgs. And adult females upto 45 kgs. They survive even on dried grasses, shrubs found on the ridges and wastelands during the dry months. In general the breed is hardy.

Daily animals are taken for grazing for distance of about 6-8 kilometers. In the evening the animals will return and in the night it will be penned together with other sheep herds maintained by different herders. Penning is performed between Feb- September. During rainy season the animals are put in their own individual shed and manure will be collected for future sale. He earns income from sheep husbandry through sale of manure and through sale of male lambs and while disposing off aged or old females after 4 lactations.

The sheep herds of individual herders herd numbering 450 in Vembur village. These animals are penned during night time for manuring the farmers field. For example 1 acre field can be manured in 2 nights. A group of 20 sheep constitute one 'Moi'. If 60 sheeps are maintained by a herder then it will be 3 'Moi'. In a month there will be about 24 Mois. If daily penning income is Rs.310 for the entire herd then a person with 60 sheep (3 Mois) will receive 3 days income ( Rs. 1830 ) continuously. After a cycle of 24 Moi's it will start again fresh. A person with 60 sheep will receive a monthly income of Rs.1800 per cycle (24 days) through penning.

He has chosen the original female sheep for offering to god (the sheep will not be sold out and it will be maintained till the point of death and it will be buried after its death.). He has been selecting males are selected for breeding from the 3rd or 4th lactation ewe. Attractive physical appearances and quick growing of male lambs are seen as traits for good ones and selected before castrating unwanted males. One breeding ram will be maintained for every flock of 30 ewes.

Grazing System

Penning system

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 13

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For every 2 years male rams are rotated among the herds of relatives to avoid inbreeding. In male lambs, the growing horns during the age of 6-12 months will be removed so that the second growth of horns will be harder and able to with stand attack of other rams or enemies.

They earn income by selling male and female lambs during July- August and Feb - March or so. Three months old lambs are sold at the rate of Rs.5000/- per lamb. Old rams are sold at the rate of Rs. 12,000 /- . Old ewes are sold at the rate of Rs. 3000 – 35000 /- per animal .

Vembur Ewe Vembur Ewe Vembur Ram Vembur Ram

Documented by :

V.Alagumalai , SEVA

Breed Saviour Awards 201314

Economics of sheep rearing

S.no

Income through Vembur

black sheep

Amount in Rs.

1. From sale of manure per bag Rs. 40 (last year ) 40bags per month .

Yearly 40 x 40 x 12

19,200

2. Sale of lamb @ Rs. 5000 at the age of 90 days last year

he sold 20

lambs Rs. 5000 x 20

1,00,000

3. Sale of 3 old Eves above 10 years Rs. 4500/ Eve Rs. 4500 x 3

13,500

Income of Rs.1800 per cycle (24 days) through penning. 1800 x 8

14,400

Gross income

1,47,100

Cost of medicine expenses for 1 year, Cost of renovation

for sheep floor with gravel soil expenses

made twice in a year and labour

25,000

Net income / year 1,22,100

4.

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Ramnad White SheepConserved by Mr. K. Poovendran

Address of Livestock keeper : S/o. Mr. Karuppaiya

PasumanagarSolavanthan (Post)MaduraiMobile - 09894542500

Mr. K.Poovendran, aged 45 years is residing in Pasumai Nagar of Solavanthan in Madurai district of Tamil Nadu. He is a landless livestock farmer and actively involved in livestock rearing over 2 decades. His family is rearing Ramnad White sheep over generations and at present he is rearing about 500 Ramnad White sheep. Besides sheep, he is also keeping one cross bred cattle for milk production and ten goats. He belongs to Yadava community and the major source of income is from the sheep he rears. From the childhood, he is involved in rearing of Ramnad White sheep. He is maintaining Ramnad White sheep mainly on grazing in uncultivated areas and along road sides. The flock is a pure bred Ramnad White sheep as per our observations.

Ramnad White sheep is a medium sized animal, predominantly white in colour with black or fawn markings over the body. The head is medium in length with medium to broad fore head. They have brown coloured tapering muzzle. Males have twisted horns and females are polled. The legs are medium sized, straight and medium in length and squarely set under the body. Tail is short and thin. Udder is small and round, tightly attached to the belly with small conical teats

Mr. K. POOVENDRAN

Family background

Details of Breed Conservation

Page 16: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

placed laterally. Ramnad White sheep are reared mainly for meat and the primary by-product is skin. Ramnad White sheep is traditionally been reared in as a migratory flock and are gentle and docile

In Poovendran’s Ramnad White sheep flock, both males and females are maintained together throughout the year. He is doing systematic selection of male lambs for breeding purpose. He select few ram lambs for future breeding and others are disposed off and almost all the females are retained for breeding. He is selecting ram lambs based on body colour, horn condition and phenotypic appearance. Particular attention is also given to size, colour, conformation, coat and absence of horn. The rams are maintained for mating up to 5 years of age and they are mostly replaced with ram lambs selected from their own flock. The ewes are retained for breeding up to 6 to 7 years of age. He is maintaining the Ramnad White sheep flock under migratory system of management. They are allowed to graze extensively as a flock for a distance of 2 to 5 km. They graze for about 8 hours in uncultivated areas, along roadsides, forest areas and harvested fields. The main sources of fodder are local weeds in the bunds of dry and wet lands and leaves from harvested crops. He is maintaining lambs with ewes milk, local weeds, grasses, tree leaves, harvested crops and dry fodder up to 2 - 3 months of age and then they are allowed for grazing.

No housing was provided for Ramnad White sheep. The sheep are penned in the open harvested fields during nights. Fencing was made temporarily with nylon nets of about four to five feet high supported by crow bar like iron rods at the corners and throughout the length and breadth. The area of fencing for an average flock (size of 500) was 25 x 20 metre, penning site was changed almost every day depending upon the requirement of manuring in consultation with the land owners. During the time of changing the penning site, the sheep were let loose in the empty fields. The ewes in advanced pregnancy were also sent for grazing along with the flock. Lambs born during grazing were carried by the shepherd to the penning site in the evening. The new-born lambs were housed in the lamb hut up to 15 days during daytime and were allowed with their dams during night. Lambs were let with the adults afterwards. Lamb hut was usually made up of palmyra leaves and bamboo sticks and was placed outside the fence.

Ramnad White sheep is a medium sized animal, predominantly white in colour with black or fawn markings over the body. The head is medium in length with medium to broad fore head. They have brown coloured tapering muzzle. Males have twisted horns and females are polled. The legs are medium sized, straight and medium in length and squarely set under the body. Tail is short and thin. Udder is small and round, tightly attached to the belly with small conical teats placed laterally. Ramnad White sheep are reared mainly for meat and the primary by-product is skin.

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 16

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Achievements

Dr. K. Thilak Pon Jawahar

The marketing of live Ramnad White sheep is disorganized and involved middlemen and commission agents. Mr. K.Poovendran selects few ram lambs for future breeding and others are marketed at the age of 3 to 12 months and almost all the ewe lambs are retained in the flocks for future breeding. He is selling around 225 Ramnad White lambs in a year mostly ram lambs and the price of the animals ranged between Rs.4000 to Rs.5000 according to their age and sex.

In general, the Ramnad White sheep are sold to the traders who visit the villages regularly or weekly markets or sold to the butchers directly or some times to the fellow farmers for rearing. The major buyers in weekly markets were big traders and city wholesale meat dealers. The weekly markets are mostly owned by local bodies, which lack in facility for shelter, fodder and even in some place the basic need of water. In most of the markets, trading is based on muscle thickness at loin and thigh. The traders estimate the probable meat yield based on the muscle thickness and fix the price for each animal.

Professor and Head, Veterinary College and Research Institute,Tirunelveli, Tamil Nadu. Cell : 09444159820. Email: [email protected]

Documented by

Breed Saviour Awards 201317

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Pulikulam Cattle – A Culture Rich Breed Conserved by Mr. Ramakrishnan

Address of Livestock keeper :Manangathan,Chinnakannanur (Post),Manamadurai (Taluka),Sivagangai (District).Cell: 9626043257

thMr. B.Ramakrishnan is 53 years old livestock keeper studied up to 5 standard . He has 2 son and one daughter .He is living in Managathan village , Manamadurai Taluka, Sivagangai District. Ramakrishnan belongs to Konar (yadavar) community. Earlier his father maintained about 60 animals and Ramakrishnan is having more than 150 Pulikulam cattle's (117 cows , 30 calves and 3 bulls). He is engaged in pastoral life since last 45 years. Mr Ramakrishnan is instrumental in registering the cattle with NBAGR with support of SEVA and TANUVAS. NBAGR has approved the registration of Pulikulam cattle Many pastoral families in his native village of Manangathan gave up cattle keeping and Mr Ramakrishnan is continuing his pastoral life in spite of problems of availability of labour and water shortage during summer and drought period.

The herds are migratory and except few months at Manangathan village the animals are moving constantly from place to place where grazing /drinking water are available around distance not exceeding 100 km. During summer the animals are taken to Pilavukkal dam site adjoining the western ghat and nowadays cattle are banned for grazing even underneath the forests.

Pulikulam cattle are maintained as migratory herd with herd size of about 150-400 animals. The animals are with compact body and powerful. They are swift and vigorous. For bull riding events (Jallikattu) Pulikulam cattle are trained. It is medium sized, horned, strong cattle with good posture. Bulls are very strong, vigorous with well-developed hump, naval flap and dewlap. The hump, neck and some region of face and back are greyish / black in colour irrespective of the coat colour of the males ; the cows are proportionate and with compact body. The animals can well survive on grazing in the tropical climate of the area in the open housing system. The animals are contributing significantly in the organic farming of paddy, cotton, groundnut, bajra, maize crops of the area through manure and draught power. The animals are more resistant to communicable and parasitic diseases as compared to the crossbreds in that area under hot and wet conditions.

B.Ramakrishnan,

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

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The present population of Pulikulam cattle

breed is about 20,000 . This cattle breed is

noticed in Thenpalanji, Vadapalanji ,

Chettikulam , Perumalpatti , Maikudi,

M a n a p a t t i , S a k k u d i , U . Va d i p a t t i ,

Perumalkoilpatti, Idaiyapatti, Vellaiparaipatti,

Meenachipatti, Nilaiyur, Avaniapuram ,

T.Vadipatti (Madurai district), Meenachipuram

(near Kariapatti , Virudhunagar district) ,

Manangathan, Pulikkulam , Kattikulam ,

Milaganoor, Vallarai , Kilathari, Upparpatti, Vallarenthal , Kurunthakulam, Surakulam

(Sivagangai district ). This Pulikulam cattle breed is known for supplying bullocks for

ploughing, draught and for bull riding (Jallikkattu) purpose. Farmers are benefited through

penning which provides rich organic manure for agricultural crops.

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 19

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The breeding place of Pulikulam breed is almost alkaline soil with salty water. The farmers in

that area raise salt resistant crops like cotton, coriander, and paddy. Therefore the cattle herders

take their herds to distant green lush pasturelands and for good quality drinking water available

in Rajapalayam, Watrap, and Sivakasi regions of Virudhunagar District ( 50-100 km away from

home ). Their cattle are also taken to harvested paddy fields where the available fodder are paddy

straw, cholam fodder, pods of Acacia arabica, Prosopis juliflora.

Month Place of grazingFebruary Manamadurai.March – May Karuppayuarani.June Sirivilliputhur.July Koomapatti.August-November Rajapalayam and KoomapattiDecember- January Sivakasi, Virudhunagar, Thiruchuli

A herd size is usually 250 –300 heads of cattle. During night time they do penning (to provide

manure) in farmers field and collect about Rs. 300 per 100 animals. Cattle manuring help

considerably to reduce fertilizer consumption by more than 50 percent.

The herders earn income through sale of male calves of 6 months old and above at Rs. 3000 per

calf. Female calves are not usually sold. The sale of calves is usually peak during Dec –Jan, the

herders of Pulikulam are selling 2000 calves annually. Their calves are usually sold to be grown

as draught animal, for ploughing and for jallikattu / bull riding or rekla race during festival

occasion.

Jallikattu ( Bull riding) & Rekla Race

Penning

Jallikattu Jallikattu

Breed Saviour Awards 201320

Rekla Race Rekla Race

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The Pulikulam breed has established itself as proven breed for “Bull Riding” which is locally called “Jallikattu” and also for “Rekla Race” festival. Such fenstivals are common in Madurai, Sivagangai Districts and it will be celebrated during Jan to March. These bullocks are good draught animals.

Female calves are not usually sold. The herders of Pulikulam are selling 2000 calves annually. Their calves are usually sold to be grown as draught animal, for ploughing and for jallikattu ( bull riding ) during harvesting festival occasion (Jan-Feb) .The Pulikulam breed has established itself as proven breed for “Bull Riding” which is locally called “Jallikattu”. These bullocks are good draught animals.

Mr Ramakrishnan's family offer milk to the needy villagers and never charges and it is their custom not to sell milk. He maintains the cattle solely on grazing ad they allowed for open grazing up to a distance of 10 km for 7-8 hours per day in the harvested fields, uncultivable land and road sides. He is not giving any concentrate supplementation to the calves and adults. The males are selected based on the body size, color and growth rate after 2.5 years of age.

Every year he disposes 30 – 50 male calves for Jallikattu at the age of 3 months at the rate of Rs 2000 to 2500 per calf . The old adults are sold for meat purpose at the rate of Rs 4500-Rs 5000. In his 150 cattle earns income of Rs 35,000 annually from penning ; sale of manure through tractor loads ( 12 loads in a year 12 x 8000) Rs.96,000 ; sale of 20 male calves (3 - 5 months old ) Rs 50,000 . Female calves are not usually sold. The sale of calves is usually peak during Dec –Jan. He earns Rs. 50,000 – 60,000 annually as net income after meeting the cost of laborers.

For animals not taking food and fever : Take leaves of manjanathi (Morinda tinctoria), turmeric , pepper, cumin seeds and onion and the ingredients are ground well and mixed with butter milk or boiled rice water. It has to be administered orally twice in a day.

For Foot & Mouth Disease : The diseased animals are to be administered orally with banana fruits (2-3 ) mixed / smeared with 50 ml sesame oil .

For Wounds : Take seeds of Senkottai (Semecarpus anacardium) seeds boiled with neem oil filtered and apply over on the wound.

Economics of Cattle keeping

Ethno veterinary practices

P.Vivekanandan, V.Aalgumalai, SEVA

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 21

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Malpura sheep breed Conserved by Mr. Ramavatar Gurjar

Address of the livestock keeper : Navin Mandi, Malpura,Tehsil: Malpura, Dist : Tonk – 304501,Rajastan. Ph.: 07742480914

Mr. Ramavatar Gurjar, is residing at Malpura and is maintaining the Malpura sheep for more than 25 years. He belongs to the Gurjar community that is prominently involved in the age old business of sheep rearing in Rajasthan. He is illiterate and has been maintaining the sheep for his lifetime. His family comprises nearly 7-8 members and rear the sheep by united efforts of family. He owns about 15 biga of land that is mainly used for cultivation and also for growing fodder for the animals. The flock size of his sheep flock is nearly 170 sheep. He is involved in mainly agriculture and animal husbandry activities. He sells the lambs (mostly males) at the age of 4 to 6 months and the income generated is mainly used in home expenses. The flock is not migratory. The sheep are being taken for grazing for nearly 8 hours a day along with supplementation to sheep at physiologically critical stages.

Mr. Ramavatar Gurjar

Family background

22

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Breed Saviour Awards 2013

Details of Conservation

Dr. G. R. Gowane

Breed

Malpura, a heavy and famous descript mutton sheep of Rajasthan produces quality meat in addition to coarse wool of about one kg annually. It is found in Tonk and Jaipur districts of Rajasthan. The animals of Malpura breed are well built with long legs and having square compact body.

Usually Gurjar, Jat and Muslim communities rear these sheep since ages. The sheep rearing is the major occupation in this area and it is the only sustainable livelihood resource for the rural poor.

The Malpura sheep flock is being maintained under the extensive system of management that involves grazing with little supplementation. The labour involved is usually family members and thus the input costs is minimum. Every year nearly 4 lakh rupees are earned by Mr. Ramavatar Gurjar by selling his animals at the cost of Rs. 2,500/- to Rs.3,000/- per lamb and nearly Rs.4,000/- to Rs.5,000/- per animal.

Scientist AG&B, Nodal Officer PIMSCSWRI Avikanagar, via-Jaipur 304501Rajasthan-India. Cell : 07597288789

Documented by :

23

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Kanniyadu goat breed

Conserved by Smt. K. Arumugathai

Address of the livestock keeper : W/o. P. Karuppasamy,1/10, South Street, Sathirapatti,Shangaran Koil Taluka,Tirunelveli District- 627719Cell: 80567 74367.

Smt. K.Arumugathai (52) is agricultural laborer studied up to 2nd standard. She is living in

Sathirapatti village of Tirunelveli district. She belongs to Konar community and her family is

known for rearing this goat for many years. She is owning 1 acre of garden land and cultivating

maize, jowar, paddy and green vegetables. After her marriage she has been continuing goat

rearing in her family. Now she maintains 37 number of Kanniyadu goats. Her husband Mr.

Karupasamy is an agricultural labourer and occasionally he helps her in goat keeping. She is

having 2 son and both are married and now working as agricultural labourers and also help her

for goat keeping.

Family Background

Smt. K. Arumugathai,

She is keeping 37 goats and the particulars are given below :

Kanniyadu

goat breed type

Adult

Young

Total

M

F

M

F

Kanniyadu goat breed

Palkanni (white dots)

3 14 3 7 27

Senkanni

(red dots)

-

2

2

6

10

Total

37

24

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Details of Breed Conservation

The breed is black in color except in the head and

ear where white colored stripes are noticed. On both

sides of face and also on ears white stripes are seen.

Sometimes white color is replaced with dark brown

color. If white stripes are noticed it is called as

'Palkanni' and if dark brown color is noticed it is

called as 'Senganni' type. It gives birth to one or two

kids per parturition. This type of breed is common

in many villages surrounding Sathirapatti viz.

Maiparai, Kalingapatti, Sippiparai, Veeranapuram,

Naduvapatti. The breed is seen in dry lands (black cotton soil area) of Sivakasi, Sattur Talukas

in Virudhunagar District, and Kovilpatti Taluka of Thoothukudi District of Tamil Nadu state.

Good males are selected based on breed characters and vigor. She usually allows the males ( for

breeding purpose) as temple goat and the belief is that it is dedicated to local deity and will not

be sold for that reason .

Open system of grazing is practiced by the families. Smt. Arumugathai is taking her flock in the

morning by 10 a.m and grazing up to 1p.m Then animals are taken back to goat shed situated

adjacent to her house. In the afternoon again animals are taken for grazing between 3-6 p.m. The

shed size is open one with provision for protection from rains; the floor is renovated by

spreading with gravel soil annually (3 tractor loads with Rs. 1000 per load ) .

Income through Goat Keeping : Young kids are disposed off when it attains the age of 8 months

weighing about 8-10 kilos at Rs. 3000 per goat. She sells about 18 young ones in a year. In

addition she uses 2 tractor loads of soil for floor maintenance (Rs. 6000). She is earning a profit

of Rs. 49,000 approximately per annum.

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 25

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Economic s of goat rearing :

S.no Income by

Kanniyadu

goat rearing

Amount in Rs.

1. Sale of

lamb @ Rs. 3000 at the age of 120 days;

last year

she sold 18 lambs

Rs. 3000 x 18 =

54,000 54,000

3. Sale of 5 old animals (Rs. 3000 x 5 = 15,000

above 10 years) at Rs. 3000/- per animal

15,000

Gross Income 69,000

Cost of medicine expenses

for 1 year

Loading of 2 tractor load of soil

for floor maintenance per annum Rs. 3000 x 2

= 6000

10,000

6,000

Net profit / year

53,000

Knowledge in Treatment of Disease

V.Alagumalai, SEVA

For goats not taking drinking water and feed : she administers 100 ml of herbal extract prepared

by grinding the following items: dry ginger - 10gm, pepper – 10gm, long pepper – 10 gm,

asafoetida – 10gm, garlic – 20gm, common salt – 50gm. All the items are ground well and made

into a solution of 100 ml and administered orally twice in a day.

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201326

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Binjharpuri cattle breed Conserved by Mr. Murali Behera

Address of the Livestock Keeper :

Vill-Rudrapur

PO-Balamukuli

Block-Binjharpur, Dist-Jajpur

Odisha

rdMr. Murali Behera aged 80 plus yrs studied upto 3 standard. Married and living with wife, four

sons and one daughter, all married. Conserving Binjharpuri cattle for the past 70 yrs, he is

rearing 19 cattle heads (Cow – 6, Bullock – 4, Heifer – 4, Calves – 5). Three sons and grand

children go for grazing in rotation. The breed has been recognized and registered as cattle breed

by NBAGR. The sources of family income are from milk, from cows, draft, manure and little of

cropping like paddy and vegetables.

It is a dual type. Both milk and draft type. It is excellent for manure

Mr. Murali Behera

Family Background :

Details of Breed Conservation

Physical Characters : Coat color is white. Some animals are grey, black or brown in color. Horns are black in colour. Hump large in males and medium in females. Dewlap large in males and small in females. Naval flap large.Penis sheath flap medium. Udder size medium, Milk vein medium.

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Draught Performance : All agricultural

operations (ploughing, threshing, power

etc.). Average duration of work 6 per day

(hrs)

Drought tolerance : Excellent

Heat tolerance : Excellent

Traditional Knowledge of the keeper

Dr. Balaram Sahu

Tympani- Seven leaves of Dhanwantari (Cymbopogon flexuosus) and 50 grm of turmeric are pounded to paste and offered to the animal once. Tympani gets subsided by 1-2 hours

To increase milk production : lau/lauki (bottle gourd) is cut into pieces and offered to the animal @300-400gm /day for continuous 5 days.

Wound healing : Apply the paste made from leaves of Aaata ( Annona squamosa)

Mode of rearing : Free grazing for the whole day and feeding with straw, rice bran and rice gruel in evening at home.

Innovate Orissa Initiative

Keshari Enclave, B – Block, Flat No-401

Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar – 12.

Odisha

Ph: 9437290258

e-mail: [email protected]

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201328

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Binjharpuri cattle breedConserved by Anadi Charan Das

Address of the Livestock Keeper :

Vill/PO-Haladidiha

Via- Singhapur

Block-Binjharpur, Dist-Jajpur

Odisha

Mr. Anandi Charan Das aged 52 yrs studied up to matriculation. He is living with his wife, three

sons and one daughter. He is conserving Binjharpuri cattle for the last 50 yrs, as started by his

father. The breed has now been recognized and registered by NBAGR. Mr. Das is rearing 21

cattle breed (Cows – 8, Bullock – 4, Heifer – 4, Calves – 5). The sources of income are sale of

milk from cows, draft, manure and little of cropping like paddy and vegetables.

It is a dual type. Both milk and

draft type. It is excellent for

manure.

Physical Characters : The

animals are white to grey but

excellent for draught purpose,

as thes eperform all the

a g r i c u l t u r a l o p e r a t i o n s

including ploughing, thresing,

transportation etc. Medium in

size, the breed is locally well adapted. The livestock keepers also prefer the breed which has very

low feed/fodder requirements. The animals are regular in reproduction and have excellent heat

tolerance capacity.

Mr. Anadi Charan Das

Family Background

Details of Breed

Conservation

Page 30: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Herbal healing practices followed

Dr. Balaram Sahu

Deworming : 50 grams of turmeric ground to paste and fed to the animal once in every 3 months

Gangrene in tail tip : Mustard seeds ground to paste and kept overnight. Then it is pasted on

the affected part, once a day for 3-5 days

Mode of rearing : Free grazing for the whole day and feeding with straw, rice bran and rice

gruel in evening at home.

Innovate Orissa Initiative

Keshari Enclave, B – Block, Flat No-401

Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar – 12

Odisha

Ph: 9437290258

e-mail: [email protected]

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201330

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Madras Red Sheep breedConserved by Mr. Kuppan

Address of the Livestock Keeper :No. 921, Thee Panchammal koil street PonmarKancheepuram DistrictTamil NaduPh.: 9176902775

The family of Mr. Kuppan, residing at Ponmar village, has been traditionally maintaining Madras Red sheep for about 5 generations. Following that tradition, presently, Mr. Kuppan has a flock of 150 sheep, which he has been maintaining from childhood. He is illiterate and owns about 2 acres of irrigated land. His family comprises of three sons and one daughter. He utilizes family labour to take care of his sheep. He belongs to the IndiyaVettaikara community.

The breed is being maintained by the family ever since the days of his great grandfather (more than 150 years). The farmer has a purebred flock of Madras Red sheep. He is also a constituent member of the Network Project on Sheep Improvement, ICAR – Madras Red field unit. The farmer has his own selection criteria for selection of rams. He selects rams with short hair coat, better body weight, better dam's milk yield and medium sized testicles. Each year, 4-5 high quality rams are purchased by the Network Project from Mr. Kuppan's flock for distribution in other Madras Red flocks. The good attributes of his flock are;

i) Optimal Madras Red sheep breed characteristics. Most of his animals are deep brown/red in colour with some of the animals having a characteristic white forehead patch.

ii) Better selection intensity. (one year weight of above 30 kg)

Mr. Kuppan

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

Page 32: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

iii) Uniformity of Madras Red sheep flock.

iv) Pure breeding for Madras Red breed being followed for several generations.

The sheep farming forms a major source of livelihood for the farmers of this area because of the increased demand for meat and low initial investments when compared to large animals. It attracts the other marginal and landless farmers also to start a sheep farm. Even though, the Madras Red sheep are generally maintained on grazing alone, their meat yield is good as that of any other sheep breeds of the country. The non-availability of good quality fodder in this area was the major constraint in the farming system.

?The flock of sheep is being maintained under extensive system of rearing, using family

labour. The farmer follows a planned marketing strategy for maximum returns through sale

of lambs. The main lambing season in the region is during February – March. The lambs are

maintained until the Muslim festival of Bakreedh and Hindu festival of Deepawali, when

demand of mutton is at its peak. The farmer does not take any advance earlier. Other farmers

lose value of returns to middlemen, who fix the number of lambs by providing meager

amount as advance.

?Income - The family earns an income of Rs. 3.50 Lakhs from the flock of sheep.

?Innovation – Selection of progeny from high milk yield dam helps in better survivability of

young lambs.

Professor and HeadPost Graduate Research Institute in Animal SciencesKattupakkam - 603203Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu.Ph: 044-27453909 Fax: 044-27452224 e-mail: [email protected]

Achievements

Dr. H. Gopi

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201332

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Madras Red Sheep breed Conserved by Mr. Saravanan

Address of the Livestock Keeper : Amman Koil StreetMadurapakkam VillageKancheepuram DistrictTamil Nadu

Mr. Saravanan, residing at Madurapakkam village, is maintaining Madras Red for more than 3 generations. He is illiterate, and has been marinating sheep all his life. He owns about 6 acres of irrigated land. The flock size is 100. His family comprises of one son and one daughter. The flock of sheep is being maintained by the family. He belongs to the Naicker (Vanniyar) community.

The breed is being maintained by the family for over 3 generations. The farmer has a purebred flock of Madras Red sheep. He is also a constituent member of the Network Project on Sheep Improvement, ICAR – Madras Red field unit. The farmer has his own selection criteria for selection of rams. He selects rams based on weight and horn pattern. Each year 4-5 rams are purchased by the Network Project from Mr. Saravanan's flock for distribution in other Madras Red flocks. The good attributes of his flock are

i) Optimal Madras Red sheep breed characteristics.

ii) Better selection intensity. (one year weight of above 28 kg)

iii) Uniformity of Madras Red sheep flock.

iv) Pure breeding for Madras Red breed being followed for several generations.

v) Integration with paddy cultivation and small dairy unit (non-descript buffaloes).

The sheep farming forms a major source of livelihood for the farmers of this area because of the increased demand for meat and low initial investments when compared to large animals. It attracts the other marginal and landless farmers also to start a sheep farm. Even though, the Madras Red sheep are generally maintained on grazing alone, their meat yield is good as that of any other sheep breeds of the country. The non-availability of good quality fodder in this area was the major constraint in the farming system.

Mr. Saravanan

Family Background :

Details of Breed Conservation

Page 34: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

Achievements

Dr.H. Gopi

The flock of sheep is being maintained under extensive system of rearing, using family labour.

Saravanan gets better income through integration of his sheep unit with paddy cultivation and

dairy unit. The sheep flock alone earns the family about Rs. 1.80 lakhs per annum. He has shifted

to his newly constructed pucca house built from income on sheep rearing.

Professor and HeadPost Graduate Research Institute in Animal SciencesKattupakkam - 603203Kancheepuram District, Tamil Nadu.Ph: 044-27453909 Fax: 044-27452224 e-mail: [email protected]

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201334

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Katchaikatti Black SheepConserved by Mr. Velusamy

Address of livestock keeper : S/o MuthuirulakonarKatchaikatty (post)Vadipatti TalukaMadurai District.Cell(PP) : 9487146438

Mr. Velusamy is 42 years old living in Katchaikatti village , Vadipatti Taluka of Madurai District, Tamil Nadu. He belongs to Konar community and studied up to 3rd standard, he is having one son now studying in 10th standard . His main occupation is agriculture and sheep maintenance for many generations. He is having 1 acre of garden land and cultívates coconut and green vegetables. Mr. M.Velusamy is maintaining 157 Katchaikatty black sheep.

Mr. Velusamy

Family background

Sheep Breed Adult Young ones Total

M F Male FemaleKatchaikatti black sheep 2 130 18 7 157

Details of Breed Conservation

Story of Kachakatti Black Sheep

Kachaikatty black sheep are maintained in small herds. The animals are moderate in size, compact body and colour of hairs is complete black. The breed is identified with different types viz. Mooli Adu, Sonaiyadu, Ilaikattu Adu, Kenambadu based size of ear and horn in ewes. The animals are well known for ram fighting during village festival or sports. The breed is amenable for penning in farmers fields and it contributes manure in enriching soil fertility and growth of crops viz. sorghum, groundnut, bajra, maize, sugarcane, paddy and vegetables. Local herders who depend upon sheep keeping for their livelihoods are taking them to open grazing including Vaguthumalai forests of Sirumalai hills. The breed is susceptible to foot and mouth disease if animals are not taken to forests grazing during rainy season. The population of the sheep is around 2000 at present . This sheep breed is noticed in Kachakatti, Bodi Naickenpatti, Kulasekarankottai, Viralipatti, Vadipatti in Madurai District. There are 31 herds maintained by herders.

Few centuries back there were shepherds maintaining red color sheep in this village .They have been grazing the sheep in vaguthumalai forests . During that time kelaiaadu , a wild variety of

Page 36: (Breed Saviour Awardees) - 2013

sheep which crossed the local sheep resulting in the kids which are known for tolerant to extreme weather viz., heat , cold and rains . The color of the animal became black . They are known for good body vigor . There was also extensive growth of medicinal plants called sirukurinjan ( Gymnema sylvestre) and by feeding this plant the sheep acquired black color as claimed by few elders . The village name also prefixed in naming the breed .

Open system of grazing is practiced by the parents. Mr. Velusamy is taking his flock in the morning by 10 am and grazed up to 4. pm and back in to his sheep shed situated adjacent to his house .He selects few male kids for breeding and retains most of the female kids as a herd replacement. The male kids are selected at the age of 4 to 6 months, based on the body color, Body weight, Ear type and growth rate. Male kids with better growth rate and complete black color are retained for the future breeding and other male kids are castrated. Good males are selected based on the horn size, Body size and color (full black color). The old males are sold at nine to ten years of age. Usually bucks are retained for mating for three to five years of age and the does are used for breeding until two to five years of age.

Income through sheep rearing

The animals are taken for penning during night time in the agricultural field and gets income of Rs. 100-120 for a herd of 100 animals.

Mr.Velusamy who has been maintaining 110 sheep has told that he will dispose about 60 lambs and earn income of Rs.1, 20,000 per year. In addition they will get a manure value of Rs, 10,000. The manure is being collected through bags of 50 kg size and traders from Kerala procures it by paying Rs 30 per bag for using them as fertilizer for plantation crops .

Penning is usually performed during February- July for period of six months and daily they collect Rs.100 per day during that time. The flock is looked after by 2 of the family members. Few farmers hand over the sheep herd to a tenant who in turn maintain animals and the income through sale of lambs is shared on 50: 50 basis. This is locally called as “ Varathukku viduthal”.

Breed Saviour Awards 201336

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S.no Income through Katchaikatti

Economics of sheep rearing :

black sheep Amount inRs.

1. From sale of manure per bag Rs. 70 (last year ) 100 bags per month .

Yearly 70 x 100 x 10 = 70,000

70,000

2. Sale of lamb @ Rs. 4000 at the age of 50 days; last year he sold 60 lambs at Rs. 4000 x 60 = 2,40,000

2,40,000

3. Sale of 5 old animals (per sheep Rs. 4000 x 5

above 10 years) at Rs. 4000/-

20,000

Gross Income 3,30,000Cost of labor for 2 members Rs. 400/- day 400 x 30 x 12 Cost of medicine expenses for 1 year

Cost of Kodapu

(Sheep protective thatching

shed with palmyra leaves )

1,44,000

30,000 1,000

Net profit / year 1,55,000

Herbal healing practices followed :

V.Alagumalai, SEVA

i) Retention of placenta :

He administers 2 hand full of Veeli ( Cadaba fruticosa ) leafs ground well and made in to a solution administrate orally for 200ml in twice in a day.

ii) Animals not taking food:

Ingredients needed are onion - 30gm, cumin seeds -30gm, tamarind - 50gm.

All the above ingredients are ground well and add sufficient water and made in to a solution administered orally twice in a day.

iii) For Horn broken :

Take palm jaggery 100gm and mixed with lime (calcium carbonate ) powder 20gm and made in to a paste and apply over on the horn broken place and tightly tie-up with cotton cloth.

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 37

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Kodi Adu GoatConserved by Mr. Ramanathan

Address of the Goat keeper : S/o. Kathiresan,Ayan karisalkulam, Vilathikulam Taluk,Tuticorin District. Cell: 97512 00362

thMr.Ramanathan (36) is a farmer who studied up to 9 standard. He belongs to Chettiyar community. He has 2 children , 1 female and I male . After his study, he worked in local petty shop for 10 years then he has been looking after farming and maintaining goats. He owns 35 acres of garden land and cultivates coconut, plantain, sapota, agathi (Sesbania grandiflora), chillies and minor millets. His father was maintaining only ten Kodi Adu goats now he has been maintaining 24 numbers of Kodi Adu goats which includes 21 ewes and one ram (19 karum porai, 5 chem porai). In addition to goat rearing he is maintaining 8 crossbred dairy cows, 1 buffalo, 20 country chicken and three dogs. His mother Smt. Deivanai helps in goat rearing. He also attended goat rearing training in Coimbatore District.

Breed Description : Kodi Adu goats are tall, long, lean and leggy animals with compact body. In general Kodi Adu goats were white in color and the white hair coat was predominated by the splashes of black or reddish brown color. The dorsal line was dark and the color splashes down on both sides so that the ventral line was almost white. The extremities including face, ears and legs were generally colored and dark. However there were wide variations in color patterns within the breed. The splashes of black or reddish brown color were varying from animal to animal. Some animals were completely white in color with few numbers of splashes of black or reddish brown color. Based on body color, Kodi Adu goats were mainly grouped into two color varieties viz. Chem Porai (red spots ) and Karum Porai (black spots ) .

Chem Porai goats were white in color with varying extent of reddish brown color, whereas,

Karum Porai goats were white in color with varying extent of splashes of black color. Barring

color differences, morphologically the animals of the two color types were similar. Kodi Adu

goats of true to type breed are mainly present in Vilathikulam taluk of Tuticorin District. He

usually keeps ram only for breeding purpose.

Mr. K.Ramanathan,

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

38

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Maintenance of goats

Mr.Ramanathan is taking his flock in the morning by 10.00 a.m. graze them up to 1.00 p.m. and

then animals are allowed to graze from 3.00 to 6.00 p.m. in his own land . Animals are housed in

half-open type shed made up of tiles. The shed size is 50' x 30'. The floor is renovated by the

spreading with gravelly soil annually with 5 tractor load. Daily he uses 3 kg of husk of cluster

bean as concentrate feed to all his 22 goats by mixing it in drinking water. He spends annually

about Rs. 15,000/- towards the concentrate feed. In his own land, he is growing Sesbania,

Cluster bean and fodder sorghum for feeding them during the summer season.

Semporai (Red dots ) Semporai (Red dots ) Karumborai (karumporai) Karumborai (karumporai)

Income through goat keeping

Young kids are disposed off at the age of 9 months for Rs. 3500/goat. He sells 8 to 10 young ones (weighing 10-12 kilos when it attains 9 months ; in 20 months 20 kilo weight) and 2 rams annually. The old eves were disposed Rs. 4000 when it attains 6- 8 years .

Kodiyadu young kid Kodiyadu young kid

Breed Saviour Awards 2013 39

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Economics:

Knowledge in treatment of Disease:

V.Alagumalai, SEVA

His gross income is about Rs 92,000 through sales of goats; he incurs Rs. 32,400 towards cost of fodder, medicine and renovation of floor of goat shed. His net income is Rs. 59,600/year. He is active youth and curious in learning many techniques in maintaining purity of goat breeding and interested to show other youth that indigenous goat husbandry is a venture with decent income by living in village itself without migration to cities for sake of earning .

He is able to treat his goats by using medicinal plants available locally.

For Bloat: He administrates 50 ml of extract prepared by grinding Sukku (dried ginger), neem leaves one hand full and one tea spoon of soda salt.

For goat not taking food and water: He administrates 50 ml of Aloe vera extract along with common salt thrice a week.

Documented by :

Breed Saviour Awards 201340

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Malpura Sheep breedConserved by Mr. Satyanarayan Gurjar

Address of the Livestock Keeper:S/o Mr. Ratan lal GurjarVillage: Amli (Dhauli)

Tehsil: Malpura, Dist : Tonk - 304501,Rajastan. Ph.: 09928700541

Mr. Satyanarayan Gurjar, is residing at village Amli of Tehsil Malpura and is maintaining the Malpura sheep for more than 45 years. The sheep rearing is a family business for him and since last 4 generations his family is involved in sheep husbandry. He belongs to the Gurjar community that is prominently involved in the age old business of sheep rearing in Rajasthan. He is 8th standard

Mr. Satyanarayan Gurjar

Family Background

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passout. He has been maintaining the sheep for his lifetime. His family comprises nearly 10-12 members and rear the sheep by united efforts of family. He owns about 85 biga of land that is mainly used for cultivation and also for growing fodder for the animals. The flock size of his sheep flock is nearly 120 sheep. He is involved in mainly agriculture and animal husbandry activities. He sells the lambs (mostly males) at the age of 4 to 6 months and the income generated is mainly used in home expenses. The flock is not migratory. The sheep are being taken for grazing for nearly 8 hours a day along with supplementation to sheep at physiologically critical stages.

Malpura, a heavy and famous descript mutton sheep of Rajasthan produces quality meat in addition to coarse wool of about one kg annually.

The breed is valued for meat, wool and manure.

The sheep rearing is the major occupation in this area and it is the only sustainable livelihood resource for the rural poor.

The Malpura sheep flock is being maintained under the extensive system of management that involves grazing with little supplementation. The labour involved is usually family members and thus the input costs is minimum. He rears his sheep based on the knowledge and practices provided by livestock officers / attenders and scientists nearby his vicinity. Every year nearly 3 to 4 lakh rupees are earned by Mr. Satyanarayan Gurjar by selling his animals at the cost of Rs. 2,500/- to Rs.3,000/- per lamb and nearly Rs.4,000/- to Rs.5,000/- per animal.

Scientist AG&BNodal Officer PIMSCSWRI Avikanagarvia-Jaipur 304501Rajasthan-India Phone:+91-7597288789e-mail: [email protected]

Details of Conservation

Dr. G. R. Gowane

Breed

Documented by

Breed Saviour Awards 201342

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Kuttanadan Duck rearingConserved by Mr. Vinodh

Address of the Livestock Keeper:

Kithupurakil house

Thalayalam post,

Vaikom Taluk,

Kottayam district

Ph.: 09744741185Contact Cell : 09744234310

Nowadays due to labour scarcity problem family members by themselves alone involve in duck rearing. Mr. Vinodh and his brother Mr. Mohan (54) are looking after 8000 ducks. The ducks are taken for grazing in the morning and in the evening. In the morning time ducks are taken outside around 8.00 am. If the sun is very hot ducks prefer swimming in the ponds. In the evening ducks are taken to harvested paddy field for grazing the fallen paddy seeds. In the night time the ducks are penned in farmer's field to supply manure.

Ducks are given with starter feed in the off season (June – December) when cultivation of paddy is started in the field. From December – May ducks are taken from village to village for feeding in the harvested field of paddy. Sometimes ducks are taken to faraway places through trucks for the purpose of grazing during February – April.

Animal Husbandry department is providing free vaccination for duck keepers. Ducks suffer due to Vasantha disease and medication administered.

Mr. Vinodh

Family Background

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Breed Saviour Awards 2013

Documented by : P.Vivekanandan, SEVA

Income from duck rearing

Main income is through sale of eggs. He keeps 1000 ducks of egg laying stage will give 800 eggs per day and it is sold @ Rs.7/- per egg. Through penning they get income of Rs.50,000/- per year from the farmers association which manages about 600 acres of wet land for paddy cultivation. This money for penning is divided among the 10 ducks rearing pastoralists. His net income is Rs. 1,00,000/- per annum through duck rearing.

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Gojri buffalo Conserved by Mr. Murid Ali

Address of the Livestock Keeper :S/o. MasterdeenVPO BharoliKalanTehsil: PathankotDistrict: Pathankot(Punjab)Ph.: 09256096287

thMr. Murid Ali is 36yrsold has studied up to 10 standard. He belongs to Muslim Gujjar community of Pathankot district of Punjab. His family (5 members) and other relatives are settled in and around chhotiBharolikallan village in Pathankot, Punjab. They are pleased owner of Gojri buffalo and rearing these animals according to Murid buffalo keeping is their inherited family business. His forefathers were also keeping Gojri buffaloes. The name of the buffaloes “Gojri” is derived from phrase “Gujjar's animals” and is recognised due to the community who rear these buffaloes since time immemorial. Livelihood of their family is completely dependent on livestock rearing and from sale of milk, animals are usually looked after by female member in the family and male members are helping them in overall management and marketing of animal produce. In his family and relatives, most of members are educated up to primary level. His children are also getting education from village school.

At present, he has around10-15Gojri buffaloes excluding followers. There is one adult male (called Maali) in his herd which are kept for breeding purpose. Gojri is distinct buffalo germplasm in appearance, from extant buffalo breeds in the region, which are primarily animals of Murrah, Murrah crosses and Nili Ravi breed. Gojri buffaloes are well adapted for hot and humid climate and their feeding involves grazing with additional feed, fodder & supplements. Animals graze majority of the time but are given little concentrate twice a day usually before milking. Forage grasses like berseem is preferred and is fed whenever it is available. Gojri animals can thrive on very low quality of grass and roughage even during peak summer and are able to produce quality milk. In their village and around an average Gojri herd size are 7-8 buffaloes per family (ranging from 3 to 12 buffaloes) and 1-2 buffalo bulls / young male per household. Physical appearance of Gojri buffaloes include black coat colour with brown thick hairs; white patches may be present on black face / forehead, and has black muzzle. Males are brownish to black in colour. Horns are medium to large sized with curved orientation which moves backwards and then towards front to complete the loop, locally called 'Pattih wale seengh'. Udder is small round shaped but well-placed with cylindrical teats and milk vein was visible and prominent. Average milk yield recorded ranged from 3 to 6 kg perbuffalo per day. Animals were reported reproductively fit with calving interval ranging between 20-25 months and with average age at first calving ranged between 4-5 yrs. Adult animals along with their followers were mostly housed in open during day and in closed kutccha type houses during night time.

Mr. Murid Ali

Family background

Details of Breed Conservation

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Name of Community :

Gojri buffalo keepers belong to Mulism Gujjar community. Their community is distributed throughout Punjab and in parts of Himachal Pradesh and J&K. Pathankot districts in Punjab, Nurpur, Jassur, Chawari, Jyot, Sahu, Rakh, Bharmaur and Tissa areas in Kangra and Chamba division of Himachal Pradesh. They are mostly dependant on buffalo rearing with very small land holding. For their family, major part of the income comes from buffalo rearing.

Adult Gojri FemaleAdult Gojri Female Adult Gojri MaleAdult Gojri Male

Life style and mobility

Buffalo keeping is their primary source of livelihood. Their family is involved in rearing these animals round the year. They do not migrate, and are stationary herders. They live in semipucca house and their animals are kept in a kutcha house, which is usually part of their residence. Their forefathers used to migrate with these buffaloes but Murid Ali and his family no longer go for migration with their buffaloes. They have settled in outskirts of Pathonkot and have permanent establishment / residence in their name. Murid Ali and his close relatives are residing in nearby areas of Pathankot, Gurdaspur, and adjoining border areas of J&K and Himachal Pradesh. Some distant relatives do migrate till date, but it's totally up to the will of individual family and only those families are moving which are having a permit to graze animals in hill tops of Himachal Pradesh.

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They follow natural mating in their buffaloes. They rear one or two breeding bulls to cover around 30-40 females, other males are sold at younger age. Breeding males are kept free along with females and mate the females without any restriction. They select the best male from the lot and usually does not change the bull easily, and bull serves the herd for a considerable period of time, those farmers which are having 3-5 buffaloes do not maintain the breeding males in the herd.

There is high demand for buffalo milk in the region, the milk of Gojri buffalo is rich in fat content and has a good taste. Murid Ali has major source of his income from selling of milk. There is no problem in marketing raw milk in the local market and they get better price than cow milk. There are no cooperatives working with them for their welfare, yet they manage themselves and support each other's family. Murid Ali and his family have been involved in buffalo keeping through-out the year even at difficult times in his life. He has not discontinued his family's traditional occupation and is unlike others who has discontinued their traditional occupation and has moved over to other jobs. Gojri buffalo has provided sustainable income, employment and empowerment to women and landless farmers in their community. Marketing and sale of males and sometimes female buffaloes (in milk) and sick buffaloes fetches additional source of income. They have tradition of gifting one buffalo to their daughters in their marriage. Murid Ali is also rendering his services as member panchyat and has organized programme in collaboration with NBAGR Karnal and helped in creating awareness for Gojri buffaloes.

Senior ScientistNational Bureau of Animal Genetic ResourcesKarnal – 132001 (Haryana)Phone: 0184-2267153 (Ext. 209); M: 09729000511e-mail: [email protected]

Achievements

Dr. Vikas VohraDocumented by:

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Beetal goat breedConserved by Mr. Sitar Khan

Address of the Livestock keeper : S/o. Sehzad KhanVillage TalwandiMaliyanTehsil: Moga, District: Moga Punjab. Ph.:09988634712

Mr. Sitar Khan is 33 yrs old and engaged in goat rearing. According to him his forefathers were rearing Beetal goats since time immemorial and now they are the proud owner of these animals. In their village he is recognized as man with many goats. He is also having few buffaloes. He is rearing these goats for last 20 years, earlier he was helping his father in rearing goats. He has a family of 6 members. Sitar Khan has not gone to school but his children are literate. He owns a land of about 1bigha. His livelihood is completely dependent on livestock rearing.

Number of animals : At present, he has a flock of 40 goats of pure beetal breed. The number is variable and it may reach upto 60-70 along with followers during their kidding season. There are 2-3 adult males in his flock which are kept for breeding in the herd. The males are sold at young age in the local market for meat purpose but females are kept for milk. He is having maximum goats in the village.

These animals are primarily kept for milk purpose and average daily milk yield is about one litre and goat gives milk up to 4-5 months after kidding. Age at first kidding varies between 15-18 months. Twining percentage is about 50 per cent in beetal goat i.e. almost 3 kids per goat are obtained in a year. One male of this breed weighing around 25-30 kg is generally sold at Rs 5000 to 6000.Beetal goat is distinct goat breed of the region and possesses number of unique qualities related to better thriving and adaptation. It is well adapted for hot and humid climate and browse on peepal(Ficusreligiosa) tree leaves. Stall feeding is also practised when animals are not browsing and legume like berseem is used as fodder. It can thrive on very low quality of grass and roughage and produce milk with minimum input cost.

Name of Community : Beetal goat keepers belong to Mulism Gurjar community. Their community is distributed throughout Punjab and in parts of Himachal Pradesh. Muslim Gurjars rearing goats in Gurdaspur, Faridkot, Firozpur and Moga areas of Punjab. They are mostly dependant on livestock rearing with very small land holding usually in bighas. For their family, major part of the income comes from livestock rearing particularly beetel goat.

Life style and mobility : Their life is totally devoted to beetal goat rearing. They are involved in rearing these animals round the year. They do not migrate, and are stationary herders. They live in semipucca house and their goats are kept in a kutcha house, which is usually part of their residence.

Mr. Sitar Khan

Family background

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Details of Breed Conservation

They are keeping and conserving the beetal goat for many generations. They claim that their ancestors have evolved and developed this breed. They maintain and propagate pure beetal flock. Many household in around their village are keeping these types of goats. Due to complete dependency of their life on beetal, the population of beetal goat has been increased for last 10-20 years.

Sitar Khanhas almost doubled the goat numbers in last ten years. Although most of the members of his community are either illiterate or marginally literate, even then their community members remain in touch with each other for betterment of their livestock.

Breeding Practices : They follow natural mating in their goats. They keep two to three breeding bucks to cover around 40-60 females in the flock. Breeding males are kept free along with females and mate the females without any restriction. He selects the males for future breeding purpose from the best mothers giving highest milk in his flock. He believes that such a young one will become best buck and will produce better progenies in terms of milk production and health. Generally, he claims that 3 kids per female are born every year and there is no reproductive problem in his flock, except some seasonal mortality among new born.

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Adult Beetal buckAdult Beetal buckFlock of Beetal goatFlock of Beetal goat

Achievements

Dr. Vikas Vohra

Their life is devoted to these animals and is their tradition as well the only source of their livelihood. They sell the animals in case of need. "In present situation, when people in country are shifting from livestock rearing due to shift in lifestyle, our family is maintaining beetal goats, as cost of rearing is minimal with good returns." The goat milk has its importance in herbal medicine and is very good for sick people (especially during Dengue fever) and for children. Sitar Khan is utilizing his stock in best possible way by creating employment and nutritional sustenance to his family as well as public, which may help in further conservation of these unique goat germplasm. He explains that they are increasing the number of beetal goats and are determined to rear more and more. There is slight improvement in the number of goats in the region during last decade, as people have realized the benefits and prefer goat rearing as it is easy to rear a flock of goats compared to sheep in the region due to shrinking grazing land and intensive agriculture in the area.

Senior Scientist, National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources

Karnal –132001 (Haryana) Ph.: 0184-2267153 (Ext. 209);

M: 09729000511 e-mail: [email protected]

Documented by:

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Malaimadu cattle Conserved by Mr N.A. Jude Thaddeus

Address of the Livestock keeper :161/4 Rayappar Street

Rayappanpatti (Post),

Uttamapalayam (Taluka)

Theni District – 625526

Cell : 9677409124.

Mr. Jude thathyeus (54) is a farmer in Royappanpatti village,Theni district of Tamil Nadu. He thstudied up to 10 standard and looks after farming for more than 30 years. He is owning 15 acres

of both dry and garden land ;he raises paddy, banana, pulses, and sorghum. His family has been maintaining Malaimadu cattle over many generations. Malaimadu literally means “hill cattle” . He is keeping a herd of 80 animals (65 cows, 15 calves, 2 bulls). He is also secretary of Malaimadu cattle herders association (Theni district with 21 herders) and he has represented pastoralists delegates for meeting Parliamentary Committee members / policy makers of Tribal Bill at Delhi during 2006 for claiming grazing rights in forests.

Malaimadu cattle breeders follow some criteria for selecting males for breeding . They are : calf obtained through 3rd lactation ; horns straight or tilted frontward ; colour of the bull should be vellai (bright white), mayilai (milk white), sembor and karumbor. ;the mother of the bull, should be a high milk yielder among the cattle ; the tail should be short and thin and above the knee of the bull ; dewlap should be very little in the neck region ; lung frame should be wide and body frame to be lengthy ; the length of the face and ears should be short and eyes projected for attraction of the face ; the testicles should be small in size ; the skin should be nice, soft and thin. these last two features make the bull active and speedy in mating ; the bull must be ferocious in nature and taller than all other animals in a stock ; the bull must have a leading capacity character, able to lead the herd while grazing in forests and save the cattle herd from the attack of wild predators ; The parents, especially the mother of the stud bull, should be bright in colour as such as vellai ( white ), mayilai (grey) , karumbor ( black spots ) , sembor (red spots ) and even karumayilai ( dark grey ) ; the same is to be adopted for selecting the stud bull also.

Mr.

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

N.A. Jude Thaddeus

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Maintaining 5 Pairs of Plough bullocks

Mr. Jude thathyeus has been keeping plough bullocks. Seven years ago he has been keeping 11 pairs of bullocks and now reduced to 5 pairs. Now a days tractor ploughing has replaced the utility of plough bullocks. Many farmers have disposed their animals and shifted to tractors. He still utilizes plough bullocks for the reason that deep ploughing up to 1 feet depth is possible only by using bullocks and it least kills earthworms. He is keeping bullocks during the sowing season (July – August ) and during the off season he is sending them to labourers families on tenancy basis. i.e. The labourers maintain the cattle in the remaining months and earn income out of them. These animals were earlier given to them without cost but the labourers have to train the animals and keep them for ploughing operations. One pair of bullocks when used for ploughing the labourer earn Rs. 600 per day , However for the animal owner ( Mr. Jude thathyeus) he charges Rs. 300 for the labour wage alone.

Advantages of using Bullocks for Ploughing

?Deep ploughing up to 1 feet depth is possible ?In a single day 2 acres of land is covered ?Least damage to earthworms?Ideal for paddy puddling , banana, groundnut and sugarcane preparatory

cultivation

Breed Saviour Awards 201352

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Economics of cattle herd

V.Alagumalai , SEVA

In Theni district there are about 12,000 malaimadu cattle owned by more than 30 herders . Cattle

herds were taken for grazing in rotation to forests (seasionally ) and animals will be camped in

the night time during particular months . Nowadays forest department has declared the forest

area into Megamalai Sanctuary area and banned cattle grazing .However the association has

taken up the issue including writ petition in court and able to secure grazing of cattle in forests

but without night camping . The manure stored are sold to farmers on tractor load basis .and this

is major source of income for the pastoralists besides disposal of male calves for Jallikattu

/rekla race festivals

?He collects penning charge of Rs. 400 – 500 per day from farmer where 80 animals are penned during night time.

?He also sell the dried cow dung on tractor load basis. He sells manure of 20-25 loads annually and earn Rs. 1,25,000 . Usually he disposes manure at Rs. 5000 per tractor load.

?He sells about 20 male calves at Rs. 10,000 / male animal (for the purpose of Jallikattu, Rekla race, ploughing bullocks ) and earns about Rs. 2 lakhs per annum.

?He is paying Rs. 60,000 to the herdsman as wages to look after the animals as full time worker for grazing the cattle

?He also spends about Rs. 25,000 towards the cost of fodder and medicine.

?Net Income from so animals is Rs. 2,40,000 year.

?In addition for his 15 acres of land he is using his cattle manure and never uses inorganic chemical fertilizer for maintaining the soil fertility .

Constraints : When Malaimadu cattle are used for wetland ploughing continuously for a week they are susceptible to FMD. He treats the animals with neem oil , turmeric powder and making a paste and applied over the foot region for 2-3 days for complete curing.

When cattle is showing symptoms of fever he takes the extract of bamboo leaves (100ml) and mix it with ginger extract (30 ml) and it is administered twice. For diarrohea administers 5 banana soaked in castor oil. For indigestion he administers fenugreek 100 gm soaked in butter milk and it should be given twice.

The farmer is not using any chemical pesticide or weedicide over the last 40 years .

Documented By :

Breed Saviour Awards 201353

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Kuji / Pakhri pig breed Conserved by Mr. Gandhras Minj

Address of the Livestock Keeper : Khatkur Bahal Via- Kutra

Block-Kutra

Dist. Sundargarh

Odisha

thMr. Gandhras Minj aged 35 yrs studied upto 5 standard belongs to Oram tribal community. He is married and living with mother and three daughters. The main source of income is from pig rearing and pork sale. Now he is rearing 18 pigs. Pig rearing is the family business and he is following from his father for the last 20 years. His wife Mrs. Patricia Minj assists in management of pig herd.

Breed Character : Native breeds of pig are dark skinned, 2-2.5 ft length and 1.5 -2 ft height. A one year old pig weighs up to 30-35 kg. Some of the pigs in same herd and same breed; have a feature of a pair of wattle like structures on dew lap, below the muzzle. Local pastoralists term these pigs as “Ghantia” pigs. “Ghanta” means bell in Odia language. Pastoralists treat these “Ghantia” pigs as robust and lovable. Some pigs are also somewhat white in color.

Native breeds of pigs are relatively disease resistant. However these pigs also suffer from non specific respiratory distress, which is the most important factor of pig mortality in native breed. This non specific respiratory distress is seen in rainy and winter season. Sometimes Pasteurellosis (respiratory/pneumonia) is also reported in some clusters of cross bred pigs. But due to difficulties in catching pigs, vaccination is not practiced in almost all pig herds. The piglet mortality is seen in native herds. This is mostly due to lack of good food, mothers' milk after birth and also due to non specific respiratory distress. Hog cholera is almost absent in native breeds, but cross bred pigs are prone to Hog Cholera. FMD is not a big problem in local pigs although it is seen in crossbred pigs.

Mr. Gandhras Minj

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

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A 1.5 year old pig weighing 30-40 kg fetches 4-5 thousand rupees. A sow gives at least 6 piglets (some another 6 piglets die) annually and hence fetches Rupees 25,000 to 30,000 in one and half year. It is observed that there is great demand of pork by local tribes as well as by upper castes in urban area. In urban area pork sales at Rs 120/kg in all seasons, where as cost of one kg of mutton/chevon is Rs 320/. It may go high in marriage seasons.

In case of external wounds leaves of bitter gourd is used. Generally fresh leaves are plucked and ground to paste. The paste as well as the juices is applied on the wounds, two times a day. Wounds due to injuries, FMD, vesicular exanthema are also quickly healed up by this herbal regimen. In case of cough and respiratory distress, bark of “sunari” plants (Cassia fistula) are ground to paste and given orally with rice. This regimen is given two times a day for 3 days. This works wonderfully against cough and respiratory distress. Mode of rearing- Grazing in forests-Tribal pastoralists of Oram community graze their pigs in forests. Generally these forests are their village forests, in the outskirt of their villages. They do not give much time in grazing, Pigs are let loose in the morning and they return back home in the evening. Pigs eat forest fruits, twigs, wild tapioca, under soil nuts, white termites from ant hills and rainy insects. Sometimes animals are fed in the evening or in the mid day time, after return from the graze. Women folk usually keep eye on the herds .Women usually calls their animals from the forest by whistling. Some women also use the sound of utensils by biting with some solid objects. Animals listening to these sounds come back home and they expect food in their manger. A manger may be from wood or from a cut truck tire, where feed is poured in.

Keshari Enclave, B-Block, Flat No-401Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar – 12Odisha

Mobile-9437290258

e-mail: [email protected]

Traditional Knowledge

Dr Balaram Sahu

Documented by :

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Malaimadu cattle

Conserved by Mr . Govindan

Address of the livestock keeper :Koomapatti Post,Kodikulam Panchayat ,Srivilliputhur Taluka,Viruthunagar DistrictTamil Nadu..Cell: 80989 45102

thMr. Govindan is 57 years old studied up to 5 standard. He is an agricultural labourer ,belong to konar community (know for traditional pastoralism ) and pooled Malaimadu cattle from different farmers in Koomapatti village and looking after them for the past 50 yrs. He is living in Koomapatti village, situated under the foot hills of western ghats in Srivilliputhur Taluka, Virudhunagar District,Tamil Nadu . Malaimadu cattle breed keeping is the traditional livelihood for many generations in the family of Govindan since british period. Earlier his father maintained about 20 animals only but now gradually improved and at present keeps on his own 42 malaimadu cattle (14 no of milch cows, 10 heifers, 15 calves and 3 bulls) and in addition look after the cattle of other farmers.

Malaimadu cattle has been existence for 10 generations in villages situate in the foothills of western ghat in villages viz. koomapatti, Kansapuram, Sethunarayanapuram, Nedunkulam, Seithur, Sundaranachiarpuram, Mugavur, Devadananam, Thalavaipuram, Rajapalayam in Virudhunagar District. There are about 25 families owning about 5,000 cattle . The decline of population of cattle from few lakhs to 5,000 is due to various factors viz: the denial of grazing permits by forest officials , the unavailability of labour to look after the herds and tractorization , which reduces the demand for plough bullocks or draught animals. The forest has been declared as squirrel sanctuary and grazing banned in forests. These cattle have been taken for open grazing and during monsoon season (cropping season mainly with paddy ) the only place available for grazing was forests in the villages adjoining to western ghats . Therefore the local cattle were taken to uphills for grazing in forests for few months and this rotational system of grazing between plains and hilly tract might have helped them to adopt special traits and their body become campact and more strength or stamina for climbing the hills and evolved into hill cattle or Malaimadu. This is distinct from Pulikulam cattle breed. Malaimadu breed are short and sturdy and body colour varies from place to place based on availability of vegetation viz Mayilai (grey ) , Sembarai (reddish brown) Sembor (red / brown spots ) ,Karumbor ( pale black spots ) .

At present these cattle are being maintained by herders for the purpose of penning and manuring farmers fields. During the monsoon (north east monsoon in Oct.- Dec and April - June ) the cattle are sent to forests (western ghats ) for grazing; in the off-season after the harvest of paddy or other crops the cattle are let into the fallow lands for the purpose of grazing and penning.

P. Govindan,

Family Background

Details of Breed Conservation

Penning System

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Malaimadu cattle breeders follow some criteria for selecting males for breeding . They are : calf obtained through 3rd lactation ; horns straight or tilted frontward ; colour of the bull should be vellai (bright white), mayilai (milk white), sembor and karumbor. ;the mother of the bull, should be a high milk yielder among the cattle ; the tail should be short and thin and above the knee of the bull ; dewlap should be very little in the neck region ; lung frame should be wide and body frame to be lengthy ; the length of the face and ears should be short and eyes projected for attraction of the face ; the testicles should be small in size ; the skin should be nice, soft and thin. these last two features make the bull active and speedy in mating ; the bull must be ferocious in nature and taller than all other animals in a stock ; the bull must have a leading capacity character, able to lead the herd while grazing in forests and save the cattle herd from the attack of wild predators ; The parents, especially the mother of the stud bull, should be bright in colour as such as vellai ( white ), mayilai (grey) , karumbor ( black spots ) , sembor (red spots ) and even karumayilai ( dark grey ) ; the same is to be adopted for selecting the stud bull also.

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Income through Malaimadu cattle

Ethno veterinary practices followed

V.Alagumalai, & P.Vivekanandan SEVA

Mr. Govindan earns income of Rs 90,000 per year by selling young calves (20 calves fetches Rs 60,000 ) , disposing of manure (20 tractor loads of cow dung value at Rs 20,000) and share crop of about of Rs 10,000 from other farmers. This area is cropped with two crops annually by using well and tank water and crops like paddy and cotton and pulses are raised . The fields manured through penning with malaimadu cattle maintains good soil fertility and farmers reduces uses of chemical fertilizer to the extent of 50-60 percent as told by the herder Govindan and he arranges farmerwise penning by negotiating with other herders.

Black quarter (Santhunoi ) is one of major disease in malaimadu cattle . It shows symptoms of animal getting tiredness, swelling on the front ( neck region ) and back side ( Thigh region) of the body , high fever, no feeding. If all the symptoms are continue without taking any treatment the animal will die within a week.

For this he is preparing herbal recipe with ingredients viz. Thirukalli – 50 ml , Pothakalli – 50 ml, kodikalli – 50 ml, kalli – 50 ml , mosakalli – 50 ml, erukku (Calotropis gigantea) sap – 50 ml , vellarugu extract 50ml, cow milk or ghee – 50 ml, The powdered dried ginger -10gm , pepper -10gm, thipili ( long peper ) – 10gm , cumin seed – 10gm, fenugreek – 10gm, asafoetida – 10gm, garlic -50gm, clove – 10gm. All the above items are mixed in the new clay pot and put in open place of sunlight. After 7 hours the mixture will become violet color. Take the mixture with cotton cloth tied-up stick and apply over on the affected place for only one time . So far more than 400 animals treated were cured Mr. Govindan says.

He is founder leader of Malaimadu cattle herders association in Koomapatti and surrounding villages viz. Kansapuram, Sethunarayanapuram, Nedungulam in Watrap block . He is well known herdsman and negotiates with forest officials whenever herders face confrontation with forest department along with penalties (as grazing in forest zone is restricted) .

Documented by :

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Address of Livestock keeper : S/o Shri. K.V.K. Ponnaiah,

No.58, Thiruvalluvar Street, Rajapalayam-626 117, Virudhunagar-Dt. Tamil Nadu

Mobile : 07598311427

Mr. Pon Elangovan belongs to Rajapalayam in Virudhunagar district of Tamil Nadu. There are four members in his family; he is educated up to twelfth standard and belongs to backward community. Basically he is a farmer owning about 20 acres of land (17.5 Acres + 2.5 Acres Natham Porampoku) named Sadayan Thottam in Sethur village of Rajapalayam taluk. He is practising integrated farming with coconut trees, mango orchid, jackfruit, banana, sappota (chikoo), amla, lemon, guava silk cotton, honey bee rearing etc., Presently (January, 2014) he has 17 adult Rajapalayam dogs (15 bitches and 2 male dogs) along with chicken (desi), turkey etc., Mr. Pon. Elangovan is a progressive farmer who is interested in rearing indigenous dog breeds particularly Rajapalayam dog.

Mr. Pon Elangovan is maintaining this dog breed for last twenty years. These dogs are being maintained by him for guarding the agricultural farm and farm house which is located at the foot hills of eastern slope of the Western Ghats. Rajapalayam dog breed is also known as Vellai

Mr. Pon. Elangovan

Family background

Details of Breed Conservation

Rajapalayam Dog BreedConserved by Mr. Pon Elangovan

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Moonji Naai (white faced dog) because of its white color face. Rajapalayam dogs are medium in size with compact body, with white coat and pink skin, nostrils and eyelids, with semi-dropping ears, semi-curved tail and straight topline. The eyes are golden in color and nasal bridge is straight. Rajapalayam dog in his farm is kept under katcha housing with katcha floor with completely open on the sides. The dogs are being maintained with rice cooked with pig hooves with a frequency of thrice feeding in a day. The dogs in his farm are let loose during night hours for the purpose of guarding the farm house. The animals are very active, obedient to owner, easily trainable and will not attack the other species of livestock and poultry in their own farm. He used to breed the bitches with the Rajapalayam dogs (males) from places like Dindigul, Trichy, Sivakasi, Puliangudi, Marthandam etc. to avoid inbreeding. The bitches are being kept at the farm house of Mr. Pon Elangovan and the male dogs are kept at his residence in Rajapalayam town to avoid unwanted mating during breeding season. The male dogs are allowed for mating with bitches of other breeders' i.e. exchange of male dogs is not uncommon practice by Mr. Elangovan.

The dogs are vaccinated for major diseases like parvo, rabies etc., along with booster doses once, repeated once in a year and dewormed once in four months. The Megavac-6 contains the antigen for six viral diseases viz., Canine Distemper, Hepatitis (CAV2), Parvovirus, Hepatitis (CAV1), Leptospira canicola and Leptospira icterohaemorrhagiae. The major income is derived though the sale of puppies at four to five weeks of age. The vaccination cost is about Rs. 800 per dog per year plus vaccination charges and other management charges. The expenditure on food per dog per day is approx. Rs.50 per day. The weaning of puppies are practised at about one month of age and sold at a price of Rs.10, 000/- and Rs. 5,000/- for male and female puppies respectively and Rs 14,000 per pair of puppies if it sold together. Mr. Pon Elangovan is maintaining 15 bitches so he is earning approx. Rs 10,000 per month as a net income. As reported by the breeders Rajapalayam dogs with silver eye condition are suffering with deafness which is major problem for the sale of puppies.

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Economics :

Dr. K.N. Raja,

Expenditure:

Food of dog & bitches @ rs.50/- per day - Rs. 3.10 Lakhs

Health management - Rs. 0.30 Lakhs

Other management - Rs. 0.80 Lakhs

Total - Rs. 4.20 Lakhs

Gross Income:

No. of dogs - 2

No. of bitches - 15

No. of whelping/year - 1

No. of puppies per whelping - 6

Total number of puppies born - 90

Puppy mortality - 20%

No. of puppies survived - 72

No. of pairs of puppies (1:1 sex ratio) - 36 pairs

Rate of puppies/pair (male & female at 1 month of age) - 14,000x36

= Rs.5.40 Lakhs

Net Income:

Rs. 1.20 lakhs i.e. Rs.10, 000/- per month.

Scientist,NBAGR, GT Road By-pass,Karnal,Haryana-132001Mobile- 094160-87785, 097290-707770184-2267153 (Ext 278).e-mail: [email protected]

Documented by :

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Family background

Details of Breed Conservation

Santosh Kumar, works at Rishi Valley School as their Estate Manager. He is involved in Organic Agriculture on around 150 acres of land. Crops cultivated organically include Sugarcane, Turmeric, Ragi, Little millet, fox tail millet, proso millet, barn yard millet, brown top millet, sorghum, red gram, castor, ground nut, niger, field bean, horse gram...etc. Santosh hails from Hassan district of karnataka and is from a farming family.

Animals reared: 2 pairs of Hallikaar cattle, 3 halikaar heifers, 2 malenada gidda cows, 15 ND cattle and a mudhol hound male dog.

Mohan Surabhi, an arts graduate, works at his 9 acre farm near Madanapalle. His farm comprises of a plant nursery, coconut orchard (west coast tall variety), a poultry unit and land under vegetable cultivation. He also has Asil and salem fowl breeds. Mohan also has a pair of mudhol breed of dogs.

Cattle owned by Mohan: Tharparkar: 9 ( 4 cows, 2 heifers, 1 bull and 2 calves); Kankrej: 1; Deoni: 1; Semi-sahiwals: 5; Buffaloes: 4.

Jagadeesh, who has studied upto class 10, works at his 20 acre farm near madanapalle. His farm has a 13 acre Mango orchard, 5 acre Papaya plantation, and 2 acres for seasonal crop cultivation.

Cattle owned by Jagadeesh: Kankrej: 1; Malenada Gidda: 2.

The Indian subcontinent is a treasure house of Bos indicus cattle. India was home to a large number of breeds of cattle . Currently, we have around 30 breeds, many of which are endangered or are close to extinction, the punganur being one of them. The larger breeds weigh over 1 metric tonne and the smallest breeds weigh about 140 kg. The “PUNGANUR” cattle are the smallest of the Bos indicus breeds. In Chittoor region, the breeding tract is confined to the taluks of Vayalpad, Madanapalle and Palamaneru. These cattle are very small in size, perhaps the smallest of the cattle breeds. The average height is between 60 & 100 cm, and the weight is between 130 & 200 kgs. They are fair milkers and are known as “Poor man's Cow / Kamadhenu”. Their average milk yield is around 2000 lbs or 907 kgs in a lactation period of 10 months with 4 % fat. They are well adapted to grazing in the hilly tracts of this region. They are relatively easier to maintain for the average farmer. Their impact on the surrounding environment is minimal. Hence, They are a means of sustainable livelihood to the local farmer.

Address of Livestock keepers :

Santosh Kumar Estate Manager Rishi Valley School & Post Kurabalakota Mandal Madanapalle – 517 352 Andhra Pradesh. Mobile : 9849691869 [email protected]

Mohan SurabhiSuvera Farms & NurseriesChigalaBailu CheckpostBangalore RoadMadanapalle – 517 325Andhra PradeshMobile : 9290086715

Talla JagadeeshTalla Vaari StreetMadanapalle – 517 325Andhra PradeshMobile : 9866013046

Punganur Cattle Breed Conserved by By Kamadhenu

(Kamadhenu : An informal group of farmers in Madanapalle area, Chittoor district ,Andhra Pradesh)

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The cow is important in other ways as well, in terms of its importance for sustainable agriculture.

Effort to conserve the punganur breed started of in the year 2007. They started to look for cattle with at least one, if not more, of the characteristics of the punganur breed. They also frequented the weekly cattle shandy at Punganur town on tuesdays. Through this process they were able to identify around 6 cows which had some of the features that characterise the punganur breed. They planned to utilize the services of the bulls at the Palamaner cattle farm and get better progeny that could then be crossed again with punganur breed, so that, over a few generations, they could have good Punganur animals with us.

In the year 2010 a good cow and a bull were procured from the palamaner cattle farm. Looking ahead, they realized that they need to have frozen semen of this breed to continue their work. At that point of time, neither frozen semen nor facilities for extraction were available at the Palamaner Cattle Farm. So, under the guidance of Dr. Obi Reddy, principal scientist, NDRI, Bangalore extracted semen from bull no 53 at the cattle farm, Palamaner, took it to NDRI, Bangalore and were successful in making about 150 frozen semen straws. During the same time, the Tirumala Tirupathi Devasthanams decided to donate a 35 litre liquid nitrogen flask to store the semen of punganur cattle and that of other indigenous cattle breeds. Some of their friends have Kankrej, Deoni, Tharparkar, Gir and other indigenous breeds of cattle. Subsequently, the semen of Bull no 55 was also made available by the veterinary university at LAM Farm Guntur.

As of now they believe to have made decent progress. The calves that are of the second generation have good features, and so, there is hope and scope to do more .

Now they have 19 Punganur cattle comprising of a bull and a cow from the cattle farm, Palamaner, 6 cows with punganur breed characteristics, 7 heifers, 4 bull calves.

They have given a few animals (male calves with good features, mainly) to interested farmers.

One bull calf has been given to Agasthya Foundation, Kuppam Mr. Shibu, Mobile: 9449596370; a pair of male & female calves have been given to a far Mr. Srivatsa, Bangalore, Mobile: 9845707043; one bull calf has been given to the SEZ farmers Mr. Praneeth, Hyderabad Mobile: 9866900004 . centre at Sri City, Nellore . One bull calf each have been given to interested breeders Mr. Koteswara Rao, Mobile: 9440564726 near Vizag and Hyderabad;

Achievements

?

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Sahiwal cattle breedConserved by

Mr. Sardar Mohammad Aftab Ahmad Khan Wattoo

Address of Livestock keeper : Jahangirabad Cattle Farm44-T,Gulberg-11, Lahore, Pakistan.Phone : 0092 42 35757915Mobile : 0092 302 8442992, 0092 300 6891711Email : [email protected]

Sahiwal cattle breed is being maintained at Jahangirabad Cattle Farm, Tehsil & District Khanewal, Punjab, Pakistan from last 5 generations. This farm was established in1915 by his Great Grand Father, Honorable Sardar Jahangir Khan Wattoo (Zaildar, Khan Sahib & Hon. Magistrate). He set a sum of Rs. 100,000/-(one lac) for the development of land and animals. By the end of the year 1920 Sadar Jahangir Khan Wattoo purchased 482 cows and 6 bulls of Sahiwal breed from different Districts i.e: Bahawalnagar, Sahiwal and Faisalabad. Sardar Jahangir Khan Wattoo died in the year 1924 at the age of 50 years. Khan Bahadur Sardar Dost Mohammad Khan Wattoo his beloved son at the ripe age of 24 years inherited his passion and spirit. He devoted all his youthful energies to the development of the farm and changed it into a most modern, progressive and scientific concern. K.B Sardar Dost Mohammad Khan Wattoo had been a member of District Board Multan for 25 years, Life Member of Boys Scout Association, Member of Imperial Council of Agriculture Research & All India Cattle Show Society, New Delhi. Beside he was First Class Zaildar and Divisional Darbari from District Multan. He was granted the title of Khan Sahib in 1934 & Khan Bahadur in 1943.

The farm in its present shape owes a great deal to the revolutionary work by Kham Bahadur Sardar Dost Mohammad Khan Wattoo and his two sons Sardar Mohammad Subah Sadiq Khan Wattoo & Sardar Mohammad Akram Khan Wattoo.

Animals were usually spotted with red & white, black & white, various shades of red and brown were not uncommon. The foundation herd raised between the year 1915- 1920 and from there on the replacement was raised at the farm from the progeny of the original herd. The first dehorned cow with uniform red color, good udder, uniform teats, and three-wedged was developed in 1937.

In the beginning the milk yield of the farm was about 3000 pounds. There has been an extra ordinary increase in 1952 with per lactation milk yield reaching 14000 pounds in some cows. The champion cows have yielded here more than 14000 lbs of milk.

Presently Jahangirabad Cattle Farm is maintaining 207 pedigreed Sahiwal cattle (bulls 3, cows 85, heifers 40, male cows 31, female cows 48).

Sardar Mohammad Aftab Ahmad Khan Wattoo

Family background

Annexure

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Details of Breed Conservation

Breed Description : Medium sized breed, body is fleshy and wedge shaped with soft loose skin.Breed colour is light red to deep red. Muzzle, eye lids and tail switch are black.Head short and feminine, drooping ears, small and thick horns in females, head is broad in males with stumpy horns and small eyes like elephants. Neck is short and small with soft loose dewlap and prominent umbilicus in females and thick, short neck with very loose voluminous dewlap and sheath, broad chest in males. Hump in male is massive and in female it is normal.Udder has large and strong with prominent milk veins. Fore-udder is full, extending well forward towards the navel; rear udder is well rounded and ascended well up behind. The teats are of good and uniform length and size and are placed wide apart indicating the size of the quarters.

According to Global genetic resource, presently Sahiwal cattle breed is found in twenty nine countries of the world. High milk producing ability amongst zebu cattle, produces A2 type safer milk, resistant against tropical diseases, ticks and harsh climates , more than eight breeds evolved through Sahiwal.

Selection criteria for males/females : Selection done on the criteria given by ICAR with the

collaboration of progeny testing programme of Research Centre for Conservation of Sahiwal

Cattle (RCCSC), Jhang.

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Breed Saviour Awards 2013

The farm during its existence of first 60 years (1915-1976) had supplied animals for public use as described below:

1. Cows and Heifers - 4638

2. Bullocks required for agriculture purpose - 1770

3. Breeding bulls supplied to government departments and districts boards - 8608

After getting registered with the Research Center for Conservation of Sahiwal Cattle, Jhang, since 2005 Jahangirabad Cattle Farm has sold more than 100 male calves to RCCSC out of which 27 have been shifted to different semen production units of L&DD Department as semen donor bulls.

Sahiwal cattle is a Red Gold of Pakistan. Under the umbrella of Research Center for the Conservation of Sahiwal Cattle (RCCSC) and Sahiwal Cattle Breeders Society(SCBS), to encourage and create interest amongst Sahiwal cattle lovers, pure bred Sahiwal cows of private registered farmers, yielding equal to or more than18 kilograms of milk in two milkings during 24 hours are recorded under the supervision of the milk recording committee:

Furthermore three categories have been introduced under National Red Gold Club i.e:

a) Platinum Membership from 26 liters and above

b) Golden Membership 22 liters to 26 liters and

c) Silver Membership 18 liters to 22 liters.

Since 2009, 106 Sahiwal cows have qualified for National Red Gold Club out of which 45 cows are of Jahangirabad Cattle Farm, with highest milk yield 33.17 liters with two milking in 24 hours, National Dairy Champion Cow J1/4.1, Zebi.

NATIONAL RED GOLD CLUB (NRGC)

As regards performance of the animals of Jahangirabad Cattle Farm at All India Cattle Show, Dehli, Lahore, Faisalabad, Khanewal and Multan, neither any individual nor any private or Government farm has ever won as many trophies, cups, championships and prizes for Sahiwal cattle as this farm.

Year Bulls Cows Heifers Young Bulls

Young Cows

Cups Awarded

Delhi 1938

---

---

3rd

---

---

---

Delhi 1939

1st

, 2nd

, 3rd

1st

---

---

1st

4

Delhi 1940

1st

, 3rd

3rd

3rd

1st

, 3rd

3rd

2

Delhi 1941

1st

, 2nd

---

1st

, 3rd

---

1st

3

Delhi 1942

1st

, 2nd, 3rd

2nd

, 3rd

1st

, 3rd

---

3rd

2

Montg 1943

1st

1st

2nd

---

---

---

Delhi 1947 1st 1st 2nd --- 1st 4Lahore 1953

1st 1st 1st 1st , 2nd --- ---

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Year Milk Competition

Breed Show Adult Cow

Breed Show Heifer

Breed Show Milk Teeth

Breeding Bull

Total

Multan 2005

2nd

1st, 2nd

2nd, 3rd

1st, 2nd

2nd

8

Multan 2006

3rd

1st, 2nd

1st, 2 nd, 3rd

2nd

2nd

8

Multan 2007

1st, 2nd, 3rd 1st, 2 nd, 3rd

1st, 2 nd, 3rd

1st 1st, 2nd, 3rd

13

Faisalabad 2009

1st, 2nd, 3rd 2nd, 3rd 2nd, 3rd 3rd 1st, 2nd 10

Faisalabad 2010

1st, 2nd, 3rd

*

*

*

*

Milk Competition only

Faisalabad 2011

2nd, 3rd

1st

1st, 2nd

5

Pattoki 2012

1st, 3rd

*

*

*

*

*

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