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Contributing Editors: Jonathan Pickworth & Jo DimmockPublished by Global Legal Group
Bribery & Corruption
Preface Jonathan Pickworth & Jo Dimmock, White & Case LLP
Albania Adi Brovina & Dritan Jahaj, Haxhia & Hajdari Attorneys at Law 1Australia Greg Williams & Tobin Meagher, Clayton Utz 8Austria Norbert Wess, Bernhard Kispert & Dietmar Bachmann, wkk law attorneys at law 22Brazil Alberto Zacharias Toron, Edson Junji Torihara & Luisa Moraes Abreu Ferreira, Toron, Torihara & Szafir Advogados 30Canada Riyaz Dattu, Osler, Hoskin & Harcourt LLP 40Cayman Islands Martin Livingston & Adam Huckle, Maples and Calder 47China Catherine E. Palmer, Tina Wang & Chi Ho Kwan, Latham & Watkins 56Cyprus CostasStamatiou&AndreasChristofides,Andreas Neocleous & Co LLC 69France Emmanuel Marsigny, EMMANUEL MARSIGNY AVOCATS 78Germany Hans-Peter Huber, Knierim | Huber 89Ghana Esi Tawia Addo-Ashong, Ashong Benjamin & Associates 97Hong Kong Kareena Teh & Fabian Roday, Dechert 108Indonesia R. Suharsanto Raharjo & Pamela Kiesselbach, Hiswara Bunjamin Tandjung in association with Herbert Smith Freehills 123Ireland Jamie Olden, Brendan Hayes & Caitrona Harte, Ronan Daly Jermyn 128Italy Roberto Pisano, Studio Legale Pisano 142Japan Daiske Yoshida & Junyeon Park, Latham & Watkins 153Mexico Luis F. Ortiz, OCA Law Firm 164New Zealand Ben Upton, Simpson Grierson 173Portugal Paulo de S e Cunha, Marta Saramago de Almeida & Carolina Mouraz, Cuatrecasas, Gonalves Pereira 182Romania Mihai Mares, Mares / Danilescu / Mares 188Serbia Vladimir Hrle, Hrle Attorneys 203Spain Fermn Morales Prats & Thea Morales Espinosa, Gabinete Jurdico Fermn Morales 209Sri Lanka Sudath Perera, Deshan Hewavithana & Zahrah Cader, Sudath Perera Associates 219Switzerland Marcel Meinhardt & Fadri Lenggenhager, Lenz & Staehelin 232Turkey Gnen Grkaynak & . Olgu Kama, ELIG, Attorneys-at-Law 240Ukraine Svitlana Kheda, Sayenko Kharenko 246UAE Khalid AlHamrani, Ibtissem Lassoued & Andrew Hudson, Al Tamimi & Company 258United Kingdom Jonathan Pickworth & Jo Dimmock, White & Case LLP 263USA Jeremy B. Zucker & Darshak Dholakia, Dechert LLP 277
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United Arab EmiratesKhalid AlHamrani, Ibtissem Lassoued & Andrew Hudson
Al Tamimi & Company
Brief overview of the law and enforcement regime
Legal systemThe UAE is a civil law jurisdiction, comprising seven Emirates (Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras Al-Khaimah, Sharjah and Umm Al-Quwain). Each Emirate has its own court system, which applies local and federal laws at Court of First Instance and Court of Appeal levels. Beyond that, Dubai and Ras Al-Khaimah have their own Courts of Cassation, whereas appeals from the Courts of Appeal of the other five Emirates are heard by the Federal Supreme Court in Abu Dhabi.Dubai also has a common law court in the Dubai International Financial Centre (DIFC), a financial free zone in Dubai. The DIFC Courts are considered part of the Dubai Courts in the sense that judgments of the DIFC Courts do not need to be ratified before they can be enforced in the Dubai Courts, but they operate under a separate, common law, English-language legal system and do not have jurisdiction over criminal matters.Legislation and offencesThe main legislation in the UAE governing bribery and corruption is Federal Law No. 3 of 1987, as amended (Federal Penal Code). Provisions combatting corruption in the public sector are also found in the following laws: Federal Law No. 11 of 2008 (Federal Government HR Law). Dubai Law No. 27 of 2006 (Dubai Government HR Law). Federal Law No. 3 of 1971 (Armed Forces Law). Various Laws relating to governmental contracts and procurement.The Federal Penal Code expressly criminalises active and passive bribery in the public sector, and passive bribery in the private sector.In the public sector, bribery in all its forms includes soliciting or accepting, directly or indirectly, a donation or advantage of any kind, or a promise of anything of the like. These acts may be done either before or after the commission or omission of an act in violation of the public officers duty. A bribe for the commission or omission of an act that is a legitimate duty of the public officers function (facilitation payment) is also criminalised.The provision relating to the private sector prohibits the direct or indirect demand or acceptance of a donation, or a promise thereof, in order to commit or omit any of the duties of ones job or to breach such duties. Although active bribery in the private sector is not specifically criminalised by the law, prosecution is possible by using the accomplice provisions of the Federal Penal Code.In all cases, it is the bribe that is criminalised, rather than the subsequent commission or omission of an act. As such, the offence shall be considered complete even if the recipient intends not to commit or omit such an act or if the offer of a bribe is declined.
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A mediator to a bribe will be liable to the same penalty as the paying/promising and receiving/demanding parties. The bribe payer or mediator may be exempted from prosecution if he informs the authorities of the crime before it is discovered.There is no separate offence under UAE law relating to bribery of foreign public officials.Investigating and prosecuting authoritiesThe relevant Emirates Public Prosecution oversees and directs the Police in the conduct of investigations into bribery and corruption. There is currently no special agency dedicated to anti-bribery and corruption investigations, although the establishment of an Anti-Corruption Unit has been announced.PenaltiesThe maximum penalties for bribery offences are as follows: 15 years imprisonment for passive bribery committed by a public officer in order to act
in violation of his duties (10 years for facilitation payments). 10 years imprisonment for passive bribery committed by a public officer after an act in
violation of his duties (three years for facilitation payments). Five years imprisonment for passive bribery committed by a public officer in order to
commit an improper act which is not related to his function. Five years imprisonment for bribery committed by a person in the private sector,
whether before or after the improper act or omission. Five years imprisonment for active bribery of a public officer. The same penalty
applies to a mediator in the bribery. Three years imprisonment for a person who requests payment to intervene or exert
influence to get a public officer to act improperly.In all cases, the offender shall also be punished with a fine equivalent to the amount of the bribe, provided that it is a minimum of Arab Emirates Dirhams (AED) 1,000. Further, any bribe accepted by the public officer shall be confiscated.Other legal consequencesBribery by a contractor or supplier in a government contract may lead to the revocation of the contract by the contracting government entity, seizure of the performance bond and the execution of the contract at the cost of the contractor or supplier.
Overview of enforcement activity and policy during the past two years
In 2012, the Federal Supreme Court convicted an individual of offering a bribe to a public official. The bribe was offered to a Customs Officer in Ajman Port and Customs, with the intention that he would allow the entry of certain goods without inspection. Offering a bribe to a public official for the exclusion of duties assigned to him is a violation of the Federal Penal Code. The Court of First Instance imposed a sentence of six months in prison and a fine of AED3,000 and confiscated the amount of the bribe. The sentence was reduced to three months on appeal.
Law and policy relating to issues such as facilitation payments and hospitality
Facilitation paymentsFacilitation payments are not permitted under UAE law. The bribery articles of the Federal Penal Code prohibit bribery in return for the commission or omission of an act that is a legitimate duty of a public officers function.
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In addition, Article 70 of the Federal Government HR Law specifically prohibits any government employee from accepting, taking or offering any amount of money, service or anything of material or moral value to spoil the course of action by taking any act that would: Accelerate any work that the employee is required by his job to do. Lead to the employees failure to do an assigned task. Lead one employee to influence another to finish an application or take any procedure
in violation of the existing laws.HospitalityHospitality of government officials is governed by the Federal Government HR Law, with mirror provisions in the Dubai Government HR Law.Article 70 of the Federal Government HR Law prohibits the acceptance of gifts by government employees, unless the gift is a promotional product and bears the name and emblem of the presenting entity. Gifts may not be distributed unless in the name of the Ministry, so a personal gift may not be given by a government employee.
Key issues relating to investigation, decision-making and enforcement procedures
Self-reportingArticle 239 of the Federal Penal Code provides that the bribe payer or middle-man will be exempt from prosecution for the offence if th