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Brief History of Typography And Access to the Written Word (A Western Perspective)

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Page 1: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Brief History of Typography

And Access to the Written Word (A Western Perspective)

Page 2: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Typography: the study, use and design of type, or sets of repeatable letterforms.

Page 3: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Earliest WritingMiddle East spreading into Europe

Page 4: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Roman AlphabetTimes New Roman is used today

Page 5: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Medieval Ages (400-1450)

• Religious Manuscripts • Hand-scribed calligraphy • Very time consuming • Blackletter, Gothic • Gold gilding, illumination • Books only available to the

Church or wealthy patrons

Page 6: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Wood Block Prints• Texts made more available in

the middle of the 15th century in Europe

• Need for more readable type

• Lowercase letters

• Whiteletter scripts Juan de Torquemada. Meditationes. Rome: Stephan Plannck, March 13, 1484. Rosenwald Collection. Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Library of Congress (9)

Page 7: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Renaissance (1450-1650)• Great growth in art and science

• Rationalism over religion

• Rebirth of Greek and Roman classical ideas, art

• Development of moveable type technology

Page 8: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Moveable Type Printing PressBooks More Available

Page 9: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Age of Enlightenment (1650-1765)

• Logic and scientific reasoning

• Questioning convention and authority

• Art focusses on human nature, lifestyle, culture

• Sets the stage for Democratization and Globalization

Page 10: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Type Design as a

Profession

• Nicholas Jensen developed first full Roman Typeface - early 1400’s

• Aldus Manutius invents italics for miniaturized books - late 1400’s

• Geoffroy Troy bases letterforms on the ideal human form - early 1500’s

• Pierre Simon Fournier standardizes font sizing with the point system - early 1700’s

• John Baskerville’s Transition Font - mid 1700’s

Page 11: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Industrial Revolution (1765-1900)

• Steam engine, electric light, telephone

• People moving to the cities

• Mechanization of production

• Advertising, Typewriter, Steam powered press

• Beginning of “Modern Art Movement”

Page 12: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Simple, Readable Text Display Font, San Serif, Bold

Page 13: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Many Schools of Art and Design

International SchoolArt Nouveau

Arts and Crafts

Page 14: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Information Revolution• Helvetica, Times New Roman • ISOTYPE, International Typographic Style, infographics• Structure, legibility, readability, internationalism

Page 15: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Art DecoIndustrialization and product design leads to increasingly

decorative typography

Page 16: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Mid and Late Modern

Page 17: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken
Page 18: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Art of Rebellion 1960’s and 70’s

• Vietnam War

• Rock-n-Roll

• Drug Counterculture

• Political and Social unrest

Page 19: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Psychodelic

Grafitti

Figurative

Page 20: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Computer Age• Early Apple Fonts: Chicago, Geneva

• Laser Printer, Outline Fonts

• Font Standards

• Font Revival

• Anyone can design

Page 21: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Modern Age

• Experimentation

• Font as part of an overall design

• Legibility ????

• Grunge, Punk, New Wave, Deconstruction, Controlled Chaos, Rave, Broken and Chaotic

Page 22: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken
Page 23: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Current Trends in Typography

• E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing

• Responsive web design, reader’s choice

• Kinetic Typography

• Broken and Chaotic is still in fashion, but

• Clean, legible, minimalism has returned

Page 24: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

Cutouts and Overlay

Wide kerning

Hidden Content

Hand Drawn Lettering

Page 25: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

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Navigating health risks during a GRS soccer-based activity in Alexandra, South Africa.

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Page 26: Brief History of Typography · 2019-03-31 · Typography • E-books, Social Media, Self Publishing • Responsive web design, reader’s choice • Kinetic Typography • Broken

The Future???