brief introduction to acupoints

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Brief Introduction to Acupoints. Lecturer: QU Hongyan. Acupoints. General Introduction to acupoints. 1. concept 2. classification 3. therapeutic properties 4. specific points 5. methods for locating acupoints. 1. Basic concept of acupoints. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Brief Introduction to AcupointsLecturer: QU Hongyan

  • Acupoints

  • General Introduction to acupoints1. concept2. classification3. therapeutic properties4. specific points5. methods for locating acupoints

  • 1. Basic concept of acupoints The places for acupuncture and moxibustion, also known as acupuncture points, acupoints or points, are the specific sites where the qi of zang-fu organs and channels is transported to the body surface. Points are not only the reflecting places of disorders but also the sites to receive the stimulation by acupuncture and moxibustion.

  • 2. Classification of Acupoints Fourteen meridian points Extraordinary points A-shi points

  • Meridian pointsconcepthave fixed names and locations; belong to fourteen meridians.e.g. Hegu(LI4)Zusanli(ST36)featuresthey have definate namesfixed locations and meridian tropismeffecttreat the disorders of the pertained meridiansGo Back

  • Extraordinary pointsconceptthe points that have definite locations but have not been recognized as points of the fourteen meridians have specific names and effective indications. e.g.Taiyang(EX-HN 5)Shixuan(EX-UE 11)featuresdefinite names, fixed locationeffecthave special therapeutic effect to some disordersGOBack

  • A-shi pointsconceptalso called tender spots, sensitive points. These points have neither specific names nor definite locations.featuresthey have no definate namesfixed locations and meridian tropismeffectcertain diseases

  • 3. Therapeutic properties of acupoints Local and adjacent properties Remote properties Special properties 1bi-directional beneficial regulation 2relative specificity

  • (1) Local and adjacent propertiesconceptall acupoints can treat disorders of nearby tissues and organs.

    examples ocular regionsupper abdomenthe kneeA-shi pointcan treat the localized disorders of itself

  • (2)Remote propertiesconceptthe meridian points, especially those of the 12 meridians located below the elbow and knee joints, are also effective for disorders of the tissues and zang-fu organs so far as the course of their pertaining meridians can effect. e.g.the five-shu pointsbasisthe indications of points extend to where their pertinent meridians reachexamples Hegu(LI 4) Zusanli(ST 36)

  • (3)Special propertiesconceptsome points have certain special effects such as bi-directional regulation, general regulation, and other specific actions.basisclinical practiceexamples Tianshu(ST 25)Neiguan(PC 6) Dazhui(GV14)Zhiyin(BL67)

  • 4. Specific points Specific points refer to those points of the fourteen channels that have special therapeutic effects and are specifically named under certain categories. the commonly used specific points are Five Transport points, Yuan-Source points, Luo-Connecting points, Xi-Cleft points, Back-Shu points, Front-Mu points, Lower-He Sea points, Eight Influential points, Eight Confluent points and Crossing points.

  • Five transport points Five transport points refer to five groups of points distributed distally to the elbow or knee joints, namely Jing-Well, Ying-Spring, Shu-Stream, Jing-River and He-Sea. The terms and locations of the Five transport points were stated in Ling Shu (Spiritual Pivot).

  • Yuan-Source points Yuan means source or original qi, which is the original power of vital activities. The term of the Yuan-Source points was first mentioned in Ling Shu (Spiritual Pivot). Yuan-Source points are a group of regular channel points located near the wrist or ankle, and these are the places where the original qi of zang-fu organs and channels passes and gathers.

  • Luo-Connecting points Luo-Connecting points are the sites where the Fifteen Collaterals branch out from the channels (including the Governor Vessel and Conception Vessel). Luo means connecting.The term of the Luo-Connecting points was first recorded in Ling Shu (Spiritual Pivot). They are called Fifteen Luo-Connecting points.

  • Xi-Cleft points Xi means hollow or cleft. Xi-Cleft points are situated at the sites where the channel-qi is deeply converged and accumulated in the limbs. The term of the Xi-Cleft points was first mentioned in the ABC Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Most Xi-Cleft points are situated distal to the elbow or knee joints. How many Xi-Cleft points in human body?

  • Back-Shu points Back-Shu points are the corresponding points on the back where the qi of the respective zang-fu organs infused. The term of Back-Shu points was first recorded in Ling Shu (Spiritual Pivot). All these Back-Shu points are situated on the first lateral line of the Bladder meridian of Foot-Taiyang, and are longitudinally distributed roughly according to the anatomic position of the zang-fu organs.

  • Front-Mu points Mu means converging and recruiting. Front-Mu points are a group of regular meridian points located on the chest and abdomen where the qi of the respective zang-fu organs infuses and converges. The term for the Front-Mu points was first stated in Su Wen (Plain Questions). Each of six zang and six fu-organs has one Front Mu point which are situated close to their corresponding zang or fu-organs.

  • Lower He-Sea points Lower He-Sea points, also called Lower He-Sea points of six fu-organs, refer to the six points where the qi of the six fu-organs pours downward toward the three yang meridians of the foot. The term for the Lower He-Sea points was first recorded in Ling Shu (Spiritual Pivot). There are six Lower He-Sea points in total.

  • Eight Influential points The Eight Influential Points refer to the eight points which are the gathering places for the zang-organs, fu-organs, qi, blood, tendon, vessel, bone and marrow respectively. The term of Eight Influential Points was first recorded in Nan Jing (Difficult Classic). The Eight Influential Points are distributed on the trunk and the four limbs, amongst which the Influential Points of the zang-organs, fu-organs, qi, blood and bone are located on the trunk, while those of the tendon, vessel and marrow are on the four limbs.

  • Eight Confluent points Eight confluent points refer to the eight points on the four limbs where the twelve regular channels communicate with the eight extra meridians. The term was first stated in Zhen Jing Zhi Nan (Guidance to Acupuncture Classic). Eight Confluent points are distributed distal to the wrist or the ankles.

  • Rules for the point indication 1. Rules of indication in channels The meridian points on the four limbs have special therapeutic effects for the disorders of the head, trunk and zang-fu organs. These are the foundation for point indications according to channel distribution, and the origin of the therapeutic rules of so-called four roots and three tips summarized by ancient doctors.

  • Rules for the point indication 2. Rules of indication according to the physical regionThe points in head, face, neck and trunk take the local and adjacent effect as the principal factorPoints in chest and abdomen and in waist and back can treat the disorders of corresponding part and zang-fu organs, while the latter can also treat the diseases of lower limbs. Points above the elbows and knees and below the elbows and knees can treat the local disorders, while the latter can also treat the diseases of distant areas, general disorders such a fever, unconsciousness.

  • 5. Methods for Locating AcupointsBone-length proportional measurementMeasurement with Anatomic LandmarksFinger measurementSimplified measurement

  • (1)Bone-length proportional measurementconceptIt locates acupoints by means of respectively dividing the width or length of various portions of the human body into definite numbers of equal units, as the standard for measurement.meritsscientific and practicalapplicable for different ages, sexes, and body sizes. the commonly used are as follows:

  • 121833816852169121813191416

  • headchestbackThe lateralLower limbscontinue

  • back

  • Back

  • back

  • back

  • (2) Measurement with Anatomic Landmarksconceptlocating by referring to the anatomic landmarks on the body surface.types fixed anatomic landmarks moving landmarks

  • (3)Finger measurementConceptusing the length and width of the patients finger (s) as a standard to locate points. Typesmiddle finger measurement thumb measurement four-finger measurement

  • (4) Simplified Measurement It is a simple method used to locate points. For instance, when the patient stands erect with the hands close to the legs, Fengshi(GB 31)is where the tip of the middle finger touches the leg.