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1 B.Sc. Biosciences Semester Pattern Semester-I S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr 1. BSB-11 Animal Diversity-I 4 4 2. BSB-12 Plant Diversity-I 4 4 3. 4. BSB-13 Physics-I BSB-14 Maths-I 4 4 4 4 5. 6. BSB-15 Lab Course Biosciences –I BSB-16 Lab Physical Sciences-I 8 8 4 4 7. 8. 9. Gen English-I Islamiat-I Urdu-I 3 3 3 3 3 3 Total 41 33 Semester-II S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr 1. BSB-21 Animal Diversity-II 4 4 2. BSB-22 Plant Diversity-II 4 4 3. 4. BSB-23 Physics-II BSB-24 Maths-II 4 4 4 4 5. 6. BSB-25 Lab Course Biosciences–II BSB-26 Lab Physical Sciences-II 8 8 4 4 7. 8. 9. Gen English-II Islamiat-II Urdu-II 3 3 3 3 3 3 Total 41 33

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    B.Sc. Biosciences

    Semester Pattern

    Semester-I S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-11 Animal Diversity-I 4 4 2. BSB-12 Plant Diversity-I 4 4 3. 4.

    BSB-13 Physics-I BSB-14 Maths-I

    4 4

    4 4

    5. 6.

    BSB-15 Lab Course Biosciences I BSB-16 Lab Physical Sciences-I

    8 8

    4 4

    7. 8. 9.

    Gen English-I Islamiat-I Urdu-I

    3 3 3

    3 3 3

    Total 41 33

    Semester-II S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-21 Animal Diversity-II 4 4 2. BSB-22 Plant Diversity-II 4 4 3. 4.

    BSB-23 Physics-II BSB-24 Maths-II

    4 4

    4 4

    5. 6.

    BSB-25 Lab Course BiosciencesII BSB-26 Lab Physical Sciences-II

    8 8

    4 4

    7. 8. 9.

    Gen English-II Islamiat-II Urdu-II

    3 3 3

    3 3 3

    Total 41 33

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    Semester-III S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-31 Animal Diversity-III 4 4 2. BSB-32 Plant Diversity-III 4 4 3. 4. 5.

    BSB-33 Physics-III BSB-34 Maths-III BSB-35 Chemistry-I

    4 4 4

    4 4 4

    6. 7.

    BSB-36 Lab Course BiosciencesIII BSB-37 Lab Physical Sciences-III

    8 8

    4 4

    8. Gen English-III 3 3 Total 39 31

    Semester-IV S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-41 Environmental Biology 4 4 2. 3.

    BSB-42 Genetics BSB-43 Cell Biology-I

    4 4

    4 4

    3. 4.

    BSB-44 Biomaths and Biostats BSB-45 Chemistry-II

    4 4

    4 4

    5. 6.

    BSB-46 Lab Course BiosciencesIV BSB-47 Lab Physical Sciences-IV

    8 8

    4 4

    7. Gen English-IV 3 3 Total 39 31

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    Total Credit = 184

    Semester-V S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-51 Animal Physiology-I 4 4 2. 3. 4.

    BSB-52 Plant Physiology-I BSB-53 Cell Biology-II BSB-54 Molecular Biology

    4 4 4

    4 4 4

    5. BSB-55 Chemistry-III 4 4 6. 7.

    BSB-56 Lab Course BiosciencesV BSB-57 Lab Course BiosciencesVI

    8 8

    4 4

    8. Educational Tour (after SemV exams) - - Total 36 28

    Semester-VI S.No. Code and Title P/W Cr

    1. BSB-61 Animal Physiology-II 4 4 2. 3. 4.

    BSB-62 Plant Physiology-II BSB-63 Biochemistry BSB-64 Microbiology

    4 4 4

    4 4 4

    5. BSB-65 IT and Bioinformatics 4 4 6. 7.

    BSB-66 Lab Course BiosciencesVII BSB-67 Lab Course BiosciencesVIII

    8 8

    4 4

    Total 36 28

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    Animal Diversity I (BSB-11) Unit I- Introduction and classification of Invertebrates Principles of taxonomy and relationship with systematics. General characters and criteria for classification of invertebrates. An outline classification of non-chrodates. Unit II- Phylum Protozoa General characters and classification of Protozoans. Type study of Paramecium caudatum and Plasmodium vivax. Locomotion and reproduction in Protozoa. Protozoa and human diseases. Unit III- Sub kingdom Metazoa and phylum Porifera Organization of metazoa including symmetry, metamerism and body cavity or coelom. Theories of origin of metazoa. General characters and classification of phylum Porifera. Type study of Sycon with reference to reproduction and development. Canal system and skeleton in Sponges. Unit IV- Phylum Coelenterata and Platyhelminthes General characters and classification of Coelenterates. Type study of Aurelia. Polymorphism. Corals and coral reefs. General characters and classification of phylum Platyhelminthes. Type study of Taenia solium. Unit V- Phylum Nematoda and Annelida General characters and classification of nematodes. Type study of Ascaris lumbricoides. Nematodes and human diseases. Coenorhabditis elegans and its application in research. General characters and classification of phylum Annelida. Type study of Pheretima posthuma. Nephridial system in annelids.

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    Plant Diversity I (BSB-12) Unit I Cyanobacteria: General features, Classification, Distribution, Cell structure, Envelope, cell wall, Heterocyst, Nutrition, Water bloom, Reproduction and economic importance. Type study of Nostoc. Unit II Algae: General features, Classification, Distribution, Range of thallus organization, Reproduction, Life Cycle and Economic importance with special reference to Volvox, Oedogonium, Chara, Ectocarpus, Vaucheria and Polysiphonia. Unit III Fungi: General features, Classification, Range of thallus organization, Reproduction, Parasexual cycle and Economic importance with special reference to Slime molds, Albugo, Phytophthora, Penicillium, Saccharomyces, and Puccinia. Selected plant Diseases caused by fungi: White rust of Crucifers, Late blight of Potato, Black stem Rust of wheat. Unit IV Lichens: General features, Classification, Habitat, Distribution, Thallus organization, Structure, Nutrition, Asexual and sexual reproduction, Ecological significance and Economic importance. Unit V Bryophytes: Amphibians of plant kingdom, General features, Classification, Habitat, Distribution, Thallus organization, Structure, Reproduction and Economic importance with special reference to Marchantia, Anthoceros and Funaria.

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    Physics I (BSB-13) Unit I Vector and scalar quantities. Addition, substraction, multiplication of vector quantities. Pratial derivatives and elementary ideas of gradient, divergence and curl.

    Unit II Description of motion in two and three dimensions. Newtons laws of motion. Invariance of Newtons laws in Galalian transformations. Pseudo forces. Limitations of Newtonian mechanics. Need for relativistic and quantum mechanics (only elementary idea). Conservation of momentum. Centre of mass. Finding center of mass for discrete and continuous distributions of mass. Examples in biological systems.

    Unit III Work-Energy theorem. Work done by a variable force. Numerical method. Potential energy. Electrical potential energy in a capacitor and inductor. Conservative forces. Scattering and collisions. Elastic and inelastic collisions. Reactions and decay processes. Rutherfords scattering. Examples in biological systems.

    Unit IV Angular momentum. Torque. Moment of inertia. The cases of ring, disc axis and sphere. Parallel and perpendicular theorems. Rotational kinetic energy and conservation of angular momentum. Combination of angular and translational motion. Examples in biological systems.

    Unit V Simple Harmonic motion. Damped and forced oscillations. Resonance. Waves in an elastic medium. Power and intensity of a wave. Wave particle duality. De Broglie waves. Group and phase velocity. Davisson and Germer experiment. Compton effects. Examples in biological systems.

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    Mathematics-I (BSB-14) Unit I: Set Theory Set and their representations, finite and infinite sets, subsets, type of sets, operations on sets and their algebraic properties, Venn diagram, ordered pair, Cartesian product, Relation, application. Unit II: Permutations and Combination The factorial introduction, fundamental principle of counting, permutation as arrangement, practical problems on permutations, permutation under certain conditions. Combinations, practical problems on combinations, combinational identities. Unit III: Binomial Theorem Binomial theorem for any positive integral exponent (without proof), general and middle term, Binomial theorem for any index, some applications. Unit IV: Probability Random experiment and associated sample space, events, definition of probability of event, algebra of events, and addition and multiplication theorem on probability (without proof). Conditional probability, Independent event, Bayes theorem (without proof). Unit V: Probability Distribution Binomial, Poisson and Normal distributions.

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    Animal Diversity II (BSB 21) Unit I: Phylum Arthropoda General characteristics and classification of Arthropods. Type study of Palaemon malcolmsonii. Mouth parts of insects. Vision in arthropods. Metamorphosis in insects. Larval forms of Crustaceans. Social insects and their life cycle. Economic importance of insects. Lac culture, Sericulture, Apiculture and Prawn culture. Unit II: Phylum Mollusca and Echinodermata General characters and classification of phylum Mollusca. Type study of Pila globosa. Torsion and detorsion in gastropods. General characters and classification of phylum Echinodermata. Type study of Asterias. Water vascular system and larval forms of Echinoderms. Unit III: Introduction and classification of Chordates General Characters, origin and ancestry of Chordates. A brief classification of phylum Chordata. Diversity of chordates and comparison with non-chordates. Unit IV: Protochordates Characteristics and classification of subphylum Hemichordata. Structure and affinities of Balanoglossus. General characters and classification of subphylum Urochordata. Characteristics and affinities of Herdmania. General characters and classification of subphylum Cephalochordata. Characters and structure of Branchiostoma. Unit V: Superclass Pisces General characters and classification of superclass Pisces. Type study of Class Cyclostomata: Petromyzon. Types and origin of fins. Types of tail or caudal fins. Scales of fishes. Air or swim bladder and accessory respiratory organs. Migration and parental care in fishes. Pisciculture.

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    Plant Diversity II (BSB-22) Unit I Pteridophytes: The first vascular plants, General features, Stelar system, Heterospory and seed habit, affinities and Classification. Important characterstics of Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida. Unit II Pteridophytes: General features, Habitat and distribution, Structure, Reproduction and alternation of generation with special reference to Psilotum, Lycopodium, Selaginella and Pteris. Unit III General features of Gymnosperms and their classification; Evolution and diversity; Evolutionary parallelism between Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, Geological time scale. Unit IV Gymnosperms: General features, Habitat and distribution, External Features, Anatomy of vegetative and reproductive structures, Development and reproduction with special reference to Cycas, Pinus, Gnetum and Ephedra. Unit V Economic importance of Gymnosperms: Food, Fodder, Timber, Ornamentals, Medicine Fuel for heat, fossil fuels etc.

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    Physics II (BSB-23) Unit I Fluid pressure and density. Pascals and Archemedes laws. Bernoullis equation. Surface tension and viscosity. Fluid dynamics. Capillary flow. Temperature. Macro and microscopic definitions. Measurement of temperature. First and second law of thermodynamics. Reversible and irreversible processes. Carnots cycle. Absolute scale. Entropy. Statistical interpretation of entropy. Maxwellian distribution of molecular velocities. Examples in biological systems Unit II Towards quantum mechanics. Plancks law of radiation and qualitative idea of quanta of radiations. Uncertainty and complementarily. Wave packets in space and time. Schrodingers wave equation. Wave function. Expectation value. Examples in biological systems Unit III Coulombs law, Electrostatics, Electric field for different cases of charge distributions. Electric potential. Field as potential gradient. Capacitance. Multipolar expansion of potential due to a given charge distribution, Guasss law and its applications. Dielectrics. Polarization Peizo, pyro and ferroelectricity. Examples in biological systems Unit IV Electric current. Ohms law, Kirchoffs laws and applications. Potentiometer. Wheatstone bridge. Heat generated in resistor. Thermoelectricity. Peltier and Thomsons effects. Conductivity in metals. Examples in biological systems

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    Unit V Magnetism. Magnetic field around conductors during the passage of electric currents. Magnetic field of permanent magnets. Ferromagnetism. Earths magnetic field. Faradays laws. Electromagnetic induction. Lenzs rule, Lorentz force. Self and mutual induction. Transformers. Alternating current Dia and para magnetism. Examples in biological systems

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    Mathematics-II (BSB-24) Unit I: Functions Concept of functions, its domain and range, graphs of some well known functions, even and odd functions, periodic functions, polynomial functions, absolute value functions, greatest integer functions, signum functions, algebra of functions, composite functions, inverse of a function, exponential, hyperbolic and logarithmic functions, trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometric functions. Unit II: Limits and Continuity Limits, left hand and right hand limits, algebra of limits, continuity of a function at a point, over an open/closed interval, algebra of functions. Unit III: Differentiability Differentiability of a function at a point, left hand and right hand differentiability, relation between continuity and differentiability. Unit IV: Differentiation Derivative of a function, its geometrical and physical significance, derivative of sum, difference, product and quotient of functions, derivative of trigonometric functions, inverse trigonometric functions, hyperbolic functions, inverse hyperbolic functions, exponential functions, logarithmic functions, implicit functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric form, derivative of higher order (excluding nth order). Unit V: Applications Rate of change, related rate, increasing and decreasing functions, maxima and minima , singular points, point of inflexion, concavity and convexity, tracing of standard curve (Cartesian form only).

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    Animal Diversity III (BSB 31) Unit I: Class Amphibia General characters, origin and classification of Amphibians. Parental care in class Amphibia. Type study of Rana tigrina. Unit II: Class Reptilia Origin, general characters and classification of Reptiles. Identification of snakes. Poisonous and non-poisonous snakes in India. Biting mechanism in snakes. Venom and anti-venom. Extinct reptiles (Dinosaurs). Evolution and adaptive radiation of reptiles. Unit III: Class Aves General characteristics and classification of class Aves. Affinities, origin and evolution of birds. Mechanism and modes of flight. Aerial or flight adaptations. Type of beaks and claws in birds. Migration in birds. Unit IV: Class Mammalia General characters and classification of class Mammalia. Dentition in Mammals. Aquatic and aerial adaptations. Adaptive radiation in mammals. Origin and ancestry of mammals. Evolution of horse and man. Structural peculiarities and affinities of prototherian and metatherian. Unit V: Histology Types of tissues. Histology of liver, kidney, pancreas, stomach, intestine, thyroid gland, testes and ovary.

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    Plant Diversity III (BSB-32) Unit I Morphology, Origin and development, Arrangement and diversity in size and shape of Leaf, Stem, Root, Inflorescence, flower and floral parts of Angiosperms. Unit II Taxonomy of Angiosperms: History and principles of classification, Botanical nomenclature and units of classification, Outlines and relative study of the important systems of classification of Angiosperms viz. Bentham and Hookers system and Hutchinsons system. Unit III Systematic study, Affinities, Distinguishing features, Economic importance of dicot families viz. Ranunculaceae, Solanaceae, Moraceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae , Apiaceae, Asteraceae, and Lamiaceae. Unit IV Life cycle of a typical Agiosperm: Androgenesis, Gynogenesis, Pollination biology, fertilization, Embryo and seed development. Systematic study, Affinities, Distinguishing characters and economic importance of monocot families viz. Liliaceae and Graminae. Unit V Utilization and improvement of plants of food, drug, fiber, spices, beverages and rubber. Introduction to Vavilovian concept of centres of genetic diversity.

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    Physics III (BSB-33)

    Unit I Electromagnetic oscillations. Damped and undamped induced oscillations. Electromagnetic waves in conductors and in dielectrics. Electromagnetic waves spectrum, Technological applications. Examples in biological systems

    Unit II Semiconductors. Band theory of solids. Diodes and Zener diodes. Properties and applications. Transistors. PNP and NPN transistors. Characteristics of a transistors. Common base amplifier. Operational amplifier (Basics). Oscillator. Field effect transistor (FET) (basic idea only). Examples in biological systems Unit III Electrode processes. Galvanic cells. Theory of electical double layers. Electrokinetic phenomena. Planck-Henderson. Nerst planck equation. Diffusion potential. Donnan Potential. Brownian motion. Ficks I & II laws. Stokes law. Examples in biological systems

    Unit IV Fundamentals of atomic physics. Interpretation of atomic spectra. Hydrogen and hydrogen like atoms. Electronic, vibrational and rotational spectra. Examples in biological systems

    Unit V Thermodynamics and Biosystems. Equilibrium and Near Equilibrium thermodynamics. Gibbs Free Energy. Chemical Potential. Thermodynamic analysis of membrane transport. Phase equilibrium. Irreversible thermodynamics. Bioenergetics and ATP. Redox reactions. Cellular respiration. Chemiosmotic theory. Photosynthesis. Muscle Contraction.

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    Mathematics-III (BSB-34) Unit I: Matrices and Determinants Definition and examples of matrices, types of matrices, basic operations, equality of matrices, addition and scalar multiplication of matrices, properties of addition and scalar multiplication, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices and their properties, matrix multiplication in general and its properties. Definition of Determinant, minors and cofactors of an element of a determinant, singular and non-singular matrices, cofactor matrix, adjoint of a matrix, determinant of adjoint of a matrix, multiplicative inverse of a matrix and its properties, Unit II: Applications Linear equation in matrix notation, consistent and inconsistent system of linear equations, Cramers rule, Solution of linear equations in three variables by matrix inversion method. Unit III: Integration Introduction of indefinite integral, anti-derivative or primitive function, standard formulae, and fundamental laws of integrations, methods of integration: by substitution, by parts, by long division, by partial fractions, by successive reduction, Integration of some well known forms. Unit IV: Definite integration Definition of definite integral as the limit of sum, The fundamental theorem of calculus (without proof), evaluation of definite integral, transformation of definite integral by substitution, by parts. Properties of definite integral and problems based on these properties. Unit V: Applications Area bounded by a curve, between two ordinates and X-axis, area between two curves, length of plane curves.

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    CHEMISTRY-I (BSB-35) Unit I: Fundamentals of Organic Chemistry Electronic Displacements: Inductive Effect, Electromeric Effect, Resonance and Hyperconjugation. Polarity of Bonds and molecules, Cleavage of Bonds: Homolysis and Heterolysis. Structure, shape and reactivity of organic molecules: Nucleophiles and electrophiles. Reactive Intermediates: Carbocations, Carbanions free radicals. Strength of organic acids and bases: Comparative study with emphasis on factors affecting pK values. Introduction to types of organic reactions and their mechanism: Addition, Elimination and Substitution reactions. Unit II: Stereochemistry Fischer Projection, Newman and Sawhorse Projection formulae and their interconversions. Geometrical isomerism: cistrans and, syn-anti isomerism E/Z notations.Optical Isomerism: Optical Activity, Specific Rotation, Chirality/Asymmetry, Enantiomers. Molecules with two or more chiral-centres, Distereoisomers, meso structures, racemic mixture and resolution. Relative and absolute configuration: D/L and R/S designations. Unit III: Aliphatic Hydrocarbons Alkanes: Structure of methane, ethane, propane and butane, Nomenclature, Physical Properties. Reactions: Free radical Substitution: Halogenation of alkanes, selectivity of bromine towards substitution reactions. Alkenes: Structure of ethylene, propylene and butylenes, Isomerism in alkenes, Nomenclature, Physical Properties. Reactions: cis-addition (alk. KMnO4) and trans-addition (bromine). Addition of HX (Markownikoffs and anti-Markownikoffs addition). Hydration, Ozonolysis, oxymecuration-demercuration, hydroboration-oxidation.

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    Unit IV: Aromatic Hydrocarbons Aromaticity: Huckels rule, aromatic character of arenes, cyclic carbocations/carbanions and heterocyclic compounds with suitable examples. Electrophilic aromatic substitution: halogenation, nitration, sulphonation and Friedel-Crafts alkylation/acylation with their mechanism. Directing effects of the groups.

    Unit V: Alkyl halides and Ionic reactions Structure, classification, nomenclature and physical properties, Reactions, of Alkyl halides: Nuleophilic substitution reactions (Nucleophiles & leaving groups, Thermodynamics & kinetics, SNI & SN2 reactions: mechanism, kinetics, stereochemistry and reactivity, Carbocations: structures, relative stabilities & rearrangement, Factors affecting rates of SNI & SN2 reactions), Eliminaiton reactions of Alkyl halides: Dehydrohalogenation, E1 & E2 reactions. Elimination vs substitution.

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    Environmental Biology (BSB-41) Unit I Biotic and abiotic factors of ecosystem, Ecosystem structure: Species diversity- Number, Biomass; Trophic levels: Producers, Consumers, Decomposers, Ecological pyramids and their limitations: Pyramids of number, biomass and energy; Ecosystem productivity: Primary & secondary; Food chains: Grazing, Parasitic and Detritous; Food web; Ecosystem function: Energy flow, Material cycling-Hydrological, Gaseous & Sedimentary; Homeostasis; Compensation point; Types of ecosystems: Aquatic & Terrestrial; Natural &man-made; Ocean; Estuaries; Lakes; Rivers; Grasslands; Forests; Deserts. Unit II Morphological, anatomical and physiological adaptations of hydrophytes, xerophytes, halophytes. Unit III Soil formation: Weathering of rocks, Mineralization & Humification; Soil types; soil properties: Nutrient, Texture, Moisture, Aeration, Mixing, Cation exchange capacity, Nutrient availability; Ecological succession: Primary & Secondary, Allogenic & Deflected; Hydrach & Xerarch succession; Causes of succession: Climatic, Topographic & Biotic; Process of succession: Nnudation, Invasion, Migration, Ecessis: Aggregation, Competition, Reaction, Stabilization & Climate stage. Unit IV Air pollution: CO2, SO2, NOx, CFC, PAN, O3 layer depletion, Acid rain, climate change, global warming; Water pollution: BOD, COD, Hg, Pb, Fluoride, Pesticides, Bioaccumulation, Biomagnification, minimata disease, Itai-Itai disease, skeletal fluorosis disease, Coliform count, Solid waste pollution: Domestic, Industrial & Hospital; Thermal &

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    oil pollution; Noise pollution; Radiation pollution: TV, X-rays, Cesium & Stronsium, Nuclear waste. Unit V Ecosystem degradation: Deforestation, Overgrazing, Agriculture, Minning, Urbanization; Environmental management::In situ & Ex situ biodiversity conservation.

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    Genetics (BSB-42)

    Unit I Mendelism and laws of inheritance, law of segregation, and law of independent assortment, Genes alleles, Chromosomal theory of inheritances, Linkage, linkage groups, complete and incomplete linkage, recombination, linkage maps, crossing over, , Double crossover, Coincidence & interference. Sex linkage, Work of TH Morgan X-linked inheritance. Unit II Multiple Alleles Incomplete dominance, Overdominance and codominance, Sex determination, Non allelic or inter-allelic Gene interactions; examples of modified dihybrid ratio. 9:3:4, 9:7, 12:3:1, 15:1, 13:3, 9:6:1, 7:6:3, 6:3:3:4, and 7:4:3:2, epistasis, additivity, Interaction between more than two gene pairs, Modifiers Unit III Population genetics: Mendelian and non mendelian population Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium, gene and genotypic frequencies Factors affecting the frequencie of gene in population Pleiotropism; lethal genes, Penetrance and expressivity Unit IV Structural organisation of chromatin nucleosome model, euchromatin and heterochromatin ; Structure of Chromosome; Special chromosome (e.g., polytene and lampbrush chromosomes); banding patterns in human Chromosomes. Structural and numerical aberration involving chromosomes; hereditary defects Kleinefelter, Turner, Cri-du-chat and Down syndromes. Abnormal euploidy: monoploids, triploids, polyploids, autotetraploids and allopolyploids. Mutations- spontaneous and induced; chemical and physical mutagens; induced mutation

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    Unit V Extrachromosomal Inheritance, Mitochondrial genome, Cytoplasmic Inheritance. maternal effects, extra nuclear genome, variegation in leaves of higher plants, shell coiling in snail. Recombination in bacteria, Transformation, Transduction and Conjugation.

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    Cell Biology I (BSB 43) Unit I The cell theory. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell. Structure of model membrane. Lipid bilayer and membrane protein diffusion. Ion channels, ion pumps. Membrane transport- osmosis, simple diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport, endocytosis, pinocytosis, phagocytosis and exocytosis. Unit II Bioenergetics- Importance of energy, flow of energy. System, heat and work. First and second law of thermodynamics. Enthalpy, entropy and free energy. Free energy change measurements for living systems. Unit III Structural organization and function of endoplasmic reticulum, golgi complex, mitochondria, chloroplast and plastids. Evolution of mitochondria and chloroplast. Unit IV Structure and function of vacuoles, endosomes, lysosomes and peroxisomes. Protein sorting. Secretory and endocytotic pathways. Unit V Structure and function of nucleus. Nuclear membrane and nuclear pore complex. Transport through nuclear membrane. Structure of chromatin, nucleosome and chromosome.

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    Biomathematics and Biostatistics (BSB-44) Unit I: Differential Equations Differential equation, order and degree of a differential equation, solution of a (first order and first degree) differential equation by the method of variable separable, Homogeneous differential equation and their solution, solution of the linear differential equation of the first order of type: dy/dx+P(x).y=Q(x). Unit II: Introduction of Bio-Mathematics Mathematical Modeling, Steps in building Mathematical Models, Relation of Models to data, Evolution, Choosing Mathematics for the models. Unit III: Mathematical Models Linear and Non linear First order Discrete Time Model; Differential Equation Models, Population dynamics, Discrete Dynamical Models, Continuous Models, Bifurcation Studies, Epidemic Models, Diabetes Models, Growth Models.

    Statistics Unit IV: Central tendency Methods of sampling, measure of central tendency (mean, median and mode), measures of variation (mean deviation and standard deviation). Unit V: Correlation and Regression Correlation, covariance, Karl Pearsons coefficient of correlation, degree of correlation, Regression, coefficient of regression, Method of Least Square.

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    CHEMISTRY-II (BSB-45) Unit I: The Behaviour of Gases Properties of Gases: The gas laws (kinetic theory of gases, the pressure and volume concept, absolute temperature scale; equation of state, the ideal and real gas laws; vapour pressure and vapour density (Daltons law of partial pressure), diffusion of gases (Grahams law of diffusion and its application to biological problems). Unit II: Properties of Aqueous Solutions of Nonvolatile and Volatile electrolytes Definition and type of solution; expressing the concentration of solution; colligative properties (definition); Roults law; activity and activity coefficient; Roults law and molecular weight of the solute; elevation of boiling point; depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure; definition, laws of osmotic pressure, vant Hoff theory of dilution; determination of molecular weight, theoretical explanation of osmosis.Osmotic behaviour of living cells: tonicity, turgor pressure. Unit III: Solution of Electrolytes Electrolytes (True and Potential), Ionization of electrolytes, Colligative properties of true electrolytes (The vant Hoff factor, the nonideality of solution, activity and activity coefficient, ionic strength of the solution and its effect on Debye-Huckel limiting law) Colligative properties of potential electrolytes; (Ionization and degree of ionization. Solubility of Salts: Thermodynamic and apparent solubility products, salt or electrolyte effect, the common in effect.

    Unit IV: Acid, Bases and Buffers Introduction (Biological relevance of pH); Concepts of acids and bases (the ionization of water; definition of pH, pH-scale, Arrhenius concept; strength of acids and bases). The exact treatment of the ionization of monoprotic acid in water;

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    Relation between initial acid concentration, pKa and pH, Henderson-Hasselbalch equation, dependence of ionization on pH of solution, uses of the H-H equation, titration of strong and weak acids with strong base. Exact treatment of the ionization of diprotic acid. Exact treatment of Bronsted lowery type monobase. Salt hydrolysis. Buffer mixtures (buffering range, buffering capacity). pH indicators, Biological relevance of pH: buffering in living organism, effect of pH on protoplasmic components.

    Unit V: Chemical Kinetics and Photochemistry Definition of terms: reaction rate, order and molecularity. Rate measurements and rate laws, Factors influencing rates of reactions. Zero, I and II order reaction with examples. Mathematical treatments of rate constants of I and II order reactions. Calculation of activation energy, Collision and absolute theory of reaction rates.

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    Animal Physiology-I (BSB-51) Unit I: Endocrinology and reproduction Endocrine glands: basic mechanism of hormone action, hormones and diseases; Reproductive processes, basic function of ovary and testes, hormonal regulation of ovarian cycle, uterine cycle, parturition, fertilization, gestation, implantation, oogenesis, spermatogenesis and lactation. Unit II: Sensory and Muscular System Sensory receptors, types, transduction mechanism, vision, hearing and tactile response; skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle and their mechanism of contraction. Unit III: Nervous System Neurons, action potential, Neuroglia, , gross neuroanatomy of the brain and spinal cord, central and pheripheral nervous systems, Myelination, Axonal Guidance, Sleep. Unit IV: Excretory System Comparative physiology of excretion, kidney, urine formation, urine concentration, waste elimination, micturition, regulation of water balance, electrolyte balance, acid-base balance. Unit V: Respiratory System Anatomical considerations, transport of gases, exchange of gases, waste elimination, neural and chemical regulation of respiration. Oxygen Dissociation curve.

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    Plant Physiology I (BSB-52) Unit I Movement of water in plants in relation to water potential, osmotic potential, pressure potential and metric potential. Ascent of sap: mechanism of water absorption, Guttation and transpiration, Physiology of stomatal opening and closing, Significance of transpiration. Unit II Essential elements. Quantitative requirement and mechanism of uptake of various minerals. Role of essential elements in plant metabolism and their deficiency symptoms. Methods of studying mineral nutrient requirement. Unit III Role of photosynthetic pigments. PS II and PS I complex and their inter-relationship. Mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport. Photophosphorylation. Mechanism of carbondioxide fixation in C3, C4 and CAM Plants. Photorespiration. Unit IV Brief account of glycolysis. Aerobic and anaerobic repiration. Respiratory quotient (R.Q.) and determination of R.Q. values for different respiration substrates. Unit V Uptake and assimilation of various forms of nitrogen by plants. Nitrogen fixation: Nonsymbiotic and symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Assimilation of ammonia. Role of glutamine synthase and glutamine dehydrogenase.

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    Cell Biology II (BSB 53) Unit I Cytoskeletal system- microtubules, microfilaments and intermediate filaments. Ciliary, flagellar and amoeboid movement. Filament based movement in muscle cells. Unit II Cell-cell interactions- extra cellular matrix (collagen, elastin, proteoglycans, laminins and integrins), Cell-cell recognition and adhesion. Cell junctions. Cell differentiation. Unit III Cellular signaling- nerve cell, membrane potential, action potential in neuron, action potential in nonmyelinated exon. Synaptic transmission- neurotransmitters, neuro-receptors. Integration and processing of nerve signals. Unit IV Cell cycle and its regulation. Mitosis and meiosis. Spermatogenesis and oogenesis. Cell senescence and programmed cell death. Cancer. Unit V Protein degradation pathways- lysosome, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, clathrin mediated, receptor mediated endocytosis, chaperons mediated pathway.

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    MOLECULAR BIOLOGY (BSB-54) Unit I Restriction and modification of DNA: Restriction enzymes, ligase, kinase, phosphatase, nuclease, DNA/RNA polymerases; Properties of cloning vectors: plasmid, M13 phage, cosmid; strategies of molecular cloning of DNA and RNA. Unit II General features of DNA Replication, DNA polymerase and other involved enzymes, replication origin, replication fork, semi conservative replication of double stranded DNA. Unit III RNA Synthesis and processing: Types of RNA polymerases, transcription: recognition of promoter, binding of RNA polymerase, initiation, elongation and termination of RNA chain; RNA processing, RNA capping, poly A addition, RNA splicing. Unit IV Protein Synthesis: Role of ribosome, formation of initiation complex, initiation stage, elongation stage and termination of protein synthesis; differences in protein synthesis between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Unit V Detection of cloned genes: Northern hybridisation, Southern hybridisation, Polymerase chain reaction (PCR): types of PCR, RT-PCR, Inverse PCR, Ligase PCR, Real Time PCR; application of recombinant DNA technology: genetic engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis, development of transgenic plants, virus resistance

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    CHEMISTRY-III (BSB-55) Unit I: Origin of spectra, Interaction of radiation with matter, fundamental laws of spectroscopy and selection rules, validity of Beer-Lamberts Law. UV-Visible spectroscopy: Basic principles of instrumentation (choice of source, monochromator and detector) for single and double beam instrument. Unit II: Alcohols and Phenols Alcohols: Structure & Nomenclature, Physical properties, Chemistry of -OH group, Alcohols as acids & bases, Reactions of Alcohols: Reactions with hydrogen halide, phosphorous trihalide and thionyle chloride, Methods of protecting OH group: Conversions of alcohols into mesylates, tosylates, alkyl halide & alkyl phosphates, Dehydration of alcohols (mechanism, carbocation stability & molecular rearrangement), synthesis of ethers from alcohols, Intermolecular dehydration, Williamson synthesis, Oxidation of alcohols. Phenols: Structure & Nomenclature, Physical properties. Reactions: Electrophilic substitution: Nitration, halogenation and sulphonation. ReimerTiemann Reaction, Gattermann-Koch Reaction, HoubenHoesch Condensation, SchottenBaumann Reaction

    Unit III: Aldyehydes and Ketones Structure, Nomenclature and Physical properties, Nucleophilic addition to carbon-oxygen double bond, Reaction of Aldehydes and Ketones: Oxidation, Baeyer Villager oxidation, Reduction to alcohols & hydrocarbons: Clemmensen & Wolff Kishner reduction, Reductive amination, Addition of water & alcohols (hydrates, hemiacetal, hemiketal, acetal, ketal, cyclic ketals, thioacetals & thioketals), Additions of derivatives of ammonia (reactions with hydroxylamine, hydrazine, phenylhydrazine & semincarbazide), Addition of hydrogen cyanide & sodium

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    bisulphite, Addition of Halides : Wittig reaction, Aldol reactions: enolate ions, keto-enol tautomerism, reactions via enol and enolate ions (recemization, halogenation of ketones, haloform reaction, aldol condensation & related reactions).

    Unit IV: Carboxylic acids and their Derivatives Structure, Nomenclature, Physical properties and Acidity of carboxylic acids, Reactions of carboxylic acids: Nucleophilic substitutions at acyl carbon, Conversion into acyl chloride, anhydrides, lactones, nitriles esters, amides and lactams, Reduction of carboxylic acids, substitution in alkyl or aryl group, Decarboxylation of carboxylic acids, Reactions of acyl chloride and acid anhydrides, Reaction of Esters: Conversion into acids and acids and acid derivatives (Hydrolysis, ammonolysis & alocholysis), Reduction to alcohols, Reactions with carbanion (claisen condensation).

    Unit V: Amines and Amides Structure, Nomenclature, Physical properties and Basicity of Amines, Reactions of Amines: Oxidation, Reactions of Amines with nitrous acid. Replacement and coupling reactions of Arenediazonium salts, Conversion to amides and sulfonamides, Hofmann and Cope eliminations. Reactions of Amides: hydrolysis, conversion to imides, Hofmann degradation.

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    Animal Physiology-II (BSB-61) Unit I

    Cardiovascular System: Comparative anatomy of heart structure, myogenic heart, specialized tissue, ECG its principle and significance, cardiac cycle, heart as a pump, blood pressure, neural and chemical regulation of all above. Unit-II Digestive System: Physiology of Digestion, digestive enzyme, Coordination of digestion. Digestion, absorption, energy balance, BMR Unit III Circulation System: Circulation of body fluid, Pulmonary Circulation, Body fluids, general plan, mammalian, blood vessels-blood flow, and blood cells.

    Immunology Unit IV The Immune system and Immunity along with historical perspective. Antigen antibody and their structure, the organs and the cells of the immune system and their function.

    Unit V Humoral and cell mediated immunity, Antigen- antibody interaction, Origin of diversity in the immune system, Effector mechanisms, Immunity to infectious diseases, Vaccines.

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    Plant Physiology II (BSB-62) Unit I Translocation of photo-assimilates in plants. Anatomy of Phloem tissues. Substances translocated in Phloem. Mechanisms of phloem transport. Phloem loading and unloading. Assimilate distribution. Unit II Plant growth regulators Auxin, Ethylene, Cytokinins, Gibbrelins and abscicis acid: Brief history, distribution and mechanism of action of plant growth regulators. Role of plant growth regulators in various plant development processes. Importance of growth regulators in agriculture. Unit III Photropism: Phototropic signal perception, Signal transduction in Phototropism. Gravitropism: Graviperception, Signal Transduction. Growth response. Nastic movements. Nyctinasty, Seismonasty, Photoperiodism. Biological Clock. Vernalization. Dormancy: Significance, Seed dormancy, bud dormancy. Unit IV Introduction to in vitro methods, Terms and definitions, Elementary knowledge on various requirements and general techniques, Factors involved in totipotency, embryogenesis, organogenesis and their applications. Aauxillary bud, shoot tip and meristem culture. Unit V Haploids and their applications, Hybrid vigour, Somaclonal variations and applications, Single cell suspension culture and their applications in selection of variants. Introduction to protoplast isolation, principles and applications. An introduction to Somatic hybridization and practical applications.

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    Biochemistry (BSB-63) Unit I 1. Proteins and Amino Acids- Protein content of cells;

    Composition and biological functions of proteins. Amino acids; Zwitter ion nature; properties and reactions of amino acids. Peptide bond formation; peptides; dihedral angle; Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of proteins; conformation; classification. Correlation of biological properties with native structure of proteins. Denaturation.

    2. Nucleic Acids- Nucleotide composition and structure, hydrogen bonding. Double helix and other helices. Structure of t-RNA, Super-coiling. Properties of DNA denaturation.

    3. Carbohydrates- Simple sugars, reducing and non-reducing sugars. Different kinds of linkages- Classification into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. Mutarotation and inversion. Derivatisation in glycoprotein, etc.

    4. Lipids- Biological functions; classification into fatty acids, glycerol lipids, essential and non-essential fatty acids. Structure and derivatisation. Lipids as storage material. Surface monolayers and lipid vesicles. Conformation.

    Unit II Enzymes and their properties. Enzyme catalysis, specificity of enzyme action, co-enzymes. Active sites. Activation energy. Classification of enzymes. Factors affecting enzyme activities. Feedback inhibition. Chemical kinetics and order

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    of reactions; Michaelis and Menten equation, Vmax and Michaelis constant. Unit III Allosteric enzymes. Mechanism of action. Models for cooperativity. Competitive, non-compettive and uncompetitive inhibition. Bisubstrate reactions. Control of enzyme activity. Multienzyme systems. Unit IV Metabolic generation of energy. Definition of metabolism; energy relationship between catabolic and anabolic pathways. Stages of extraction of energy from foodstuff. ATP as energy currency of the cell. Concepts of energy rich compounds and intermediates. Glycolysis: ATP production and regulation. Shuttle systems. TCA cycle and its regulation. Oxidation of fatty acids. Electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation. Unit V Energy utilization in metabolic processes. Dark reaction of photosynthesis fixation of carbon dioxide, reduction and combination, regeneration of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate, C3, C4 and CAM plants; Nitrogen fixation. Biosynthesis for storage- polysaccharides, fats and triglycerides. Muscular contraction.

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    Microbiology (BSB-64) Unit I History of Microbiology: the microscope, cell theory, spontaneous generation, theory of biogenesis, Kochs postulates, fermentation, pasteurization, vaccination, germ theory of diseases, Diversity: viruses, viriods, phytoplasmas, prions, spiroplasma. Unit II Bacterial size, shapes and pattern of arrangement; the cell wall structure: Gram positive and gram negative bacteria; Structures external to cell wall: glycocalyx, flagella, pili, axial filaments; Structures internal to cell wall: Cytoplasmic membrane, cytoplasmic inclusion and nuclear material, Gram staining mechanism. Unit III Reproduction and growth of bacteria: modes of cell division, binary fission, budding generation time; Growth curve: Lag phase, exponential phase, stationary phase, death phase; Bacteriological media: Selective media, maintenance media, differential media. Unit IV Control of microorganisms: Definitions and fundamentals of control, Physical agents/processes for control: high temperature, low temperature, filteration, desiccation, osmotic pressure, high pressure, radiation. Unit V Architecture of viruses; Capsid morphology: Isometric viruses, Rod shaped viruses, Bacilliform viruses; Transmission of viruses: mechanical, fungal, nematodes, seeds; Replication: RNA virus, DNA virus.

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    Information Technology & Bioinformatics (BSB-65) Unit I: Basic Concept Computer and its components, Characteristics of Computer, Types of Digital Computer, Hardware basics: Processors, motherboard, slots / cards, bus, parallel and serial ports. Various storage devices, Input/Output, Memory unit, Software basics: Data vs. information, Software: types of software, Operating systems, Languages, Compilers, Interpreters, Ideas of portability and platform dependence. Basic word processing in Microsoft word. Power Point and Excel, Preparing and processing text documents.

    Suggested Experiments: 1. Installation of Operating System.

    2. Lab assignment on System Administration.

    3. Making a presentation in Power Point.

    4. Drawing tables and graphs in Excel.

    Unit II: Computer Programming Various languages, Detailed study of C programming language, C fundamentals, loops, control flow, Arrays. Basic ideas of C++ and Java based object oriented programming (no programming in Java or C++) Suggested experiments: 1. Programming in C.

    Unit III: Internet Technology Internet: back ground, functioning, governing bodies, uses. Client- server organization, World wide web, Web browsers, Web server and mail managers, Netscape and Internet explorer, Internet domain. Search engines, Web indexes. Protocol: FTP, HTTP, Telnet, Gopher, and other protocols.

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    Concepts of firewall. Information Retrieval, Information browsing.

    Suggested experiments: 1. Setting up a web mail account. 2. Find the recent publications on a

    given research problem.

    Unit IV: Introduction to Bioinformatics What is Bioinformatics, Use of information technology for studying Biosciences, Emerging areas in Bioinformatics, Future prospects of Bioinformatic, Introduction to Genomics, Introduction to Proteomics, Human Genome Project, Biological Software, Public Database, Gen Bank.

    Unit V: Computational Methods and Data Mining Gene Prediction, Sequence alignment and Sequence searching, multiple sequence alignment, Phylogenetic analysis, Protein sequence analysis, Protein structure prediction. Basics of database management system, SQL, Artificial Neutral Network Technology, Gentic alogorithm, Decision trees.

    Experiment 1- Accessing and using of public data bases Experiment 2- BLAST & FAST . etc.