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<p>PAPER PRESENTATION ON BUBBLE POWERBY: SAI RAM.K SAI KRISHNA.A</p> <p>INTRODUCTIONThe power generation is based on principle of sonofusion. y Sonofusion was derived from a related phenomenon, sonoluminescence.y At one day it may become a revolutionary new energy</p> <p>source. y Sonofusion Research team from various organizations have joined forces to create acoustic fusion technology energy consortium (AFTEC) to promote the development of sonofusion.</p> <p>SONOLUMINESCENCEy When a gas bubble in liquid is excited by an</p> <p>ultrasonic acoustic waves, it can emit short flashes of light of extreme temperatures inside the bubble.</p> <p>y These flashes of light, known as sonoluminescence,</p> <p>occur as the bubble implodes. Chemical reactions occurs &amp;yield of photons and ions formed y Gas bubbles in liquid convert sound energy into liquid. y It is also called as single bubble sonoluminescenece involve a single gas bubble trapped inside flask by a pressure field.</p> <p>THE IDEA OF SONOFUSION Technically known as acoustic inertial confinement</p> <p>fusion.</p> <p> In this piezoelectric crystal attached to a liquid-filled</p> <p>flask send pressure waves through the fluid, exciting the motion of tiny gas bubbles. core .</p> <p> High temperatures and pressure speculated at the bubble This leading to conditions suitable for thermonuclear</p> <p>fusion.</p> <p>BASIC REQUIREMENTSVacuum pump Pyrex flask Piezoelectric crystal Wave generator Amplifier Neutron generator Neutron and gamma ray detector Photomultiplier Microphone &amp; speaker y Dueterated acetone(C3D6O).</p> <p>HOW SONOFUSION WORKSAction of vacuum pump to remove natural occuring gas</p> <p>bubbles in liquid because they cant withstand high temparature&amp;presure. Fill the flask with deuterated acetone because this atoms can easily undergoes fusion&amp;fiuid can withstand high tension without unwanted bubble. For initiation an oscillating voltage of 20kHz applied to the ring through wave generator&amp;amplifier,then it contract&amp;expand,flask send pressure wave(max 1500kpa ,min -1500kpa) through liquid. Fire a pulsed neutron generator when pressure reaches to lowest point.</p> <p>ACTION IN THE FLASK Stage (1)The fast moving neutrons may knock atoms nuclei&amp;give their kinetic energy to liquid moleculesflying in the flask create a bubble cluster(about 1000 bubbles) in the deuterated acetone liquid.</p> <p>Stage (2)y By firing neutron</p> <p>generator in low pressure i.e, negative pressure in the liquid makes the bubbles swell 100000 times in size (from nano to millimeter-scale).</p> <p>Stage (3)y The liquid pressure</p> <p>turns positive and compresses the bubble, causing them to implode with great violence&amp;creates spherical shockwaves within bubbles.</p> <p>Stage(4)y The implosion creates</p> <p>an instantaneous pressure of 10 trillion kilopascals and temperature of more than 100 million degree C, making the deuterium fuse.</p> <p>FUSION REACTION</p> <p>y Deuterium-Deuterium fusion has two probable</p> <p>outputs, helium and a 2.45-MeV neutron or tritium and a proton. y The energy of 2.45MeV neutron can be harnessed in a reactor to create water vapor &amp;drive an electricity generator.</p> <p>EVIDENCE TO SUPPORT TABLETOP NUCLEAR FUSION DEVICEy We gather two kinds of evidence that the deuterium is</p> <p>fusing.y The first is by measuring levels of another hydrogen</p> <p>isotope tritiumy The second is neutron emissions detected by the neutron</p> <p>detector.</p> <p>ADVANTAGESy It is self sustaining. y Easily control. y Produce more energy than it consumes. y Low cost. y Easily available raw materials. y Environmental friendly.</p> <p>APPLICATIONSy The technology might one day, in theory, lead to a new</p> <p>source of energy. It may result in a new class of low cost energy.y Compact detectors for security applications. y To analyze molecular structure of materials. y Machines that cheaply manufacture new synthetic</p> <p>materials &amp; efficiently produce tritium, which is used for medical imaging to watch dials.</p> <p>FUTURE DEVELOPMENTSy Fully self-sustained.</p> <p>neutrons</p> <p>CONCLUSIONy For more than half a century, thermonuclear fusion has</p> <p>held out the promise of cheap, clean and virtually limitless energy. y 1 gram of deuterium,an isotope of hydrogen,would be equal to produced by burning 7000liters of gasoline. y Deuterium abundent in ocean water ,1 cubic kilometer of seawater could supply all the worlds needs for several hundred years.</p> <p>REFERENCEy www.purdue.edu y www.iter.org y www.washington.edu y Fuels&amp; combustion-samir sarkar y Principles of inorganic chemistry-</p> <p>puri,sharma,kalia.</p> <p>ANY QUERRIES?</p> <p>THANK YOU</p>