buddhist values 1.chapter

Download Buddhist  values 1.chapter

Post on 21-Aug-2015

288 views

Category:

Documents

4 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  1. 1. 1 01 mrspzfPAoh ( 01 Chapter ) yeZoskajSu ( Introduction )ld,du iQ;@h uZ.ska ms
  2. 2. 2 idOqFjh fukau widOqFjho /ZoSwe;af;a ufkdauQ
  3. 3. 3wkqidrfhka tlS pska;k uQ,dY@ mdolfldgf.k is|=lrkakdjQ idrOrAuSh l@shdjkaf.a wiuzmQrAKNdjh jsoHudkfjz tu wiuzmQrAKnj fya;`fjka tlS idrOrAuSh l@shd tla tla iodpdrd;aul ugzguzj,g wh;afjzfuu iodpdrd;aul ugzguz m@d:usl ;,fhaisg W;alDIaG ugzgu olajd jsjsOfjzpska;kh u;u fuzwdldrfhka tajdfha m@fNao.; Ndjh jsoHudkjkjdjskd fjk;a ndysr lsis|= wOsldrSuh;Fjhla Bg fya;`fkdfjz1 ld,du iQ;@fhka fyt&y sh cfn`tn nfdhs,snt` ek`. nAnAyk`kAr,ebUd`D s^s`kRtfk mDYs`TAny,n[dfmAl,edhfvl,2001.2kAlAm Dm%y,sfrf sFvlF,smyvD%n m
  4. 4. 4iudkrEmSj fhoSwe; i;aydioahkafkka jHjydrjkafka hym;ahk wrA:hf.koSu iZoydnjtujpkh Ndjs;dlrwe;s ia:dk jsuidne,Qjsg meyeos,sfjzOrAuhkak Ouzuhk md,sjpkfha w:!hgiuSmFjhla orhs1Ouzuhkmohg md,s NdIdfjz b;dmqZM,a w:!hla oSwe;o fuysoSOuzuhkmoh iZoydfu;kg wdfoaYlsrSug iq|=iqu moh Ouzuf;da hk Ynzofhka fmkajk w:!h nejz yefZ.a2fuu md,sOuzuf;dahk jpkfhka woyiajkafka fya;`iys;j lreKqiys;jo;hq;` hulafmkajSu msKsi nj uydj.a.md,sfha th jHjydr jS we;swkaou wkqj fmkShhs tjsg i;a>ioa>idr=hym;a hkjpkh yd Ouzuf;da aT%ykf.emZnfsA EkaAgmkfn`sArDr~mels hHzn`vn
  5. 5. 5lf;da,sl oyu;`< js.@yjkakdjQ fm@auh hk ixl,amh ;`< lsishuz jsOdkd;aul iajrEmhla .enzfjz.fuys meyeos,sju wdZ{dj hk moh fhdod ;sfnz.lsia;`iajykafia ish Y@djlhka ;ukaf.a us;`rkayegshg i,lk nj fuys iZoyka fldg ;snqK;a tys lsishuz jsu;shla olakg ,efnkqfha us;`frla;j;a us;`frl`g ljuod lj;a hula wdZ{d iajrEmfhka fkdlshk ksidh.wdZ{dj Ndjs;d lrkqfhajyf,l` yd iajdusfhl` w;r we;s udkqIsl iuznJO;djh jsjsrKh lsrSug usi us;`frl` yd ;j;aus;`frl` w;r we;s udkqIsl inZo;djh jsjrKh lsrSug fkdfjz.us;`renj fyj;a us;@;ajh we;sjkafka iudk ;,fhys lghq;` lsrSu Wvh. fuz wkqj fN#;sl jYfhka wiudkhka fofofkl` w;rjqj;a udkisluh iudk;ajh ;sfnkakdjQ ffp;isl jgdmsgdjla ;`
  6. 6. 6 1lreKq tl wd.ulg muKla iSudfkdjQ fmd|=jsYajSh OdrKdjka fjz kuq;a idudkH jHjydrfhaoSth iodpdrh fukau idrOrAu(Values) f,io yZ|=kajdfokq olakg ,efnzmkais,aj, .enzjkqfha jsYajuh fmd|= ;;ajhls tkuz l`uk wd.u l`uk ;rd;srulg wh;a wfhl` jqjo oeyeus mqoa.,fhl`lrjkakdjQ fmd|= Wmfoia myla ta ;`< wka;rA.;h kuq;a fuu mkais,a fn#oaO idrOu!hla f,iumuKla yZ|=kajd fokakg hEu;`< tys wrA:h mgqjS tuZ.ska by;ska wfmaCIs; mqZM,a wruqK bgq fkdfjzfufiajS we;af;a mohl kshudrA:h fkdi,ld tyeu mohlu w:!h idudkHlrkh lrkakg hEufya;` fjks idrOrAu yd iodpdrh hk mofol muKlafkdj wo nyq,j jHjydr lrkq,nk fujeksmo rdYshl jsfYaIs ;d:!h lmamd|=lr idudkHlrKhg (Similization) ,lafldg ta iqjsfYaI w:!/.;a mo iudkd:!fhys Ndjs;d lsrSu is|=lrkq ,nhs2fuysoS ;j;a fldaKhlska .;al< idrOrAu jkdyS huzlsis we.hquzYS,S m@ia;`;hl ixl,amuhOdrKdj wZ.jkw;r tys jHjydrsl OdrK;dj yZ.jkafka iodpdrh hk mofhksksoiqklaf,ifklaLuzu ixlmamhf,iska w:!j;ajk lduixl,amkd j,ska neyerjSu fn#oaO idrOrAuhlsfuuidrOrAuh tkuz ixl,amh jHjydrsl ugzgug meusKSfuzoS th ldufhys jrojd yeisrSfukaje
  7. 7. 7 1huz wvqmdvq ;snshyelsh nq|=iuh fuka mrsmQrAK n@yauphH!hla fkdjsh yelsh kuq;a tu lreKby; olajk,o fmd|= iodpdruh m@ia;`;h iuZ. >gzGkhla we;sjk lreKla fkdjk nejska thfu;ekg wod
  8. 8. 8meyeos,sju ksrEmKh jS we;af;a ld,du iQ;@fha oelafjk ksoyia pska;kh fmroers lrf.k nj fuzuZ.ska meyeos,sj fmfkaidrOrAu hkqfjka idudkHfhka w:!j;ajkqfha tla iudc mruzmrdjla i;` mdruzmrsl oekqujsYajdi yd w.hka iuqodhhlakuz th tla mruzmrdjlska ;j mrmqrlg ,efnkafka flfiao hkmekh u;`fjz1 tfukau idrOrAu flfkl`f.ka ;j wfhl`g b.ekajsh yelso hk .egZMj u;`fjz fuzms
  9. 9. 9tlZ.j l@shdfldg iudc iuzu; kS;sfhka wksgq m@;sM< N`la;s jsZoskjdo hk .egZMjg uqyqK mEugfunZ|= mrsydkshg m;ajQ hq.j,oS usksidg is|=fjz.funZ|= ld, jljdkq j,oS usksid ;u meje;au fjkialr .ksh.iudc iuzu;hkago mgyeks sfkdjkdldrfhka ish idrOu! ksIaGdj YdlaId;a lr.ekSu iZoyd usksid Tyqgu wdfjzKsll@fudamdhhka ksu!dKh lr .kS.usksid jQ l,S ienjskau mrsl,ams; ksrAudKYS,S yelshdjkaf.ka msrsiQCIu nqoaOsu;a cSjsfhls.iudc iuzu; kS;shg Tyq ,nd fokakdjQ jsjsO wF:!l:k ish wjYH;djhkag.e
  10. 10. 10jSfuzoS th msg;g m@ldYkhjSfuz iajrEmfhka fujeks ,CIK jsoHudk jknj kQ;k wOHdmk ufkdajsoHdZ{hka wF:!olaj;s. wmf.a mrskdusl nJOQka iuZ. ieiZZoSfuysoS usksid jevsysgsfhl` njg m;ajSu iZoyd .;lrkld,h fo.`Khls.Wmf;a isg jevsysgsfhl` olajd usksidf.a jO!kh wl@uj;ah cSjs;fha m@;dj jirlg fikagsuSgrA 12 la muK fjz.oajs;sl,sx.sl ,CIK my@jSu fya;`fjkafydafudak l@shdldrS;ajh by@;dfjz by@;djh ksrAudKh lrwe;snj usps.ka irijsfha uydpdrAh ners fnd.Ska mjihs.wmjgdwe;af;a ixlSrAK ixialD;shla yd jsjsO idrOu! iys; iudchls.fuz ksid ixlSrAK jgdmsgdjlcSj;ajSu iZoyd fndfyda m
  11. 11. 11 fuz hgf;a wfkla CIsrmdhs i;`kag idfmaCIlj usksidf.a fud@ ;djhlska jO!kh fkdfjz.tafjkqjg wehf.a jO!kh jkqfha yeZ.Suz j,g iuznJO wfjzok fCIa;@hhs.ffkirA.slju wehg WreujQujz mojsh oerSu iZoyd wehj YdrSrslj iQodkuz lrjSu fuys ffcjjsoHd;aul wrA:hhs.fuu wdfjzokmrsK;sh wehg fhduqlrjkafka ish j.!hd fkdkeiS /l .ekSu iZoyd b;d blaukska yd myiqfjka,sx.sl wdfjzokhka jsZo.ekSu;a tfukau ,sx.sl l~Gm@dma;shg iuzm@dma;jSu;a Uiafia yels blaukskaudkj nSchla wehf.a l`i;`< we;sjSug bv m@ia;djkdj ie@ fjkialuz /ila we;sjSu;a fh#jfkdaoh WodjSu;a iuZ.u b;du;au fjz.fhka weh;`< we;s jkldhsl fjkialuz w;rfjz. .eyekq
  12. 12. 12 fuu YlH;djh wehg ,efnkqfha b;d blaukska ldhsl yd udkisl mrsK;shg ,Z.djSfuz ffcjjsoHd;aul mCIfha n,mEu uZ.skq;a yd by; oelajQ wdldrfhka jevsysgshka iuZ. ,nk jsjsOw;aoelSuz ,en.ekSug bv lvla ksrAudKh jS ;snSu uZ.skq;ah.fuu udkj ia;@Skagu wfjzKsl iS>@,sx.sl yd m@ckk l@shdj,sh udkj mruzmrdj fkdkeiS mj;ajd .ekSu iZoyd w;sYhskau bjy,ajSwe;snj fuz ms,snZo mrAfhaIK l< udkj jsoHdZ{hkaf.a wdl,amh jS ;sfnz.fuhska @;dj fud
  13. 13. 13 Le. Moustier 1 f,i yZ|=kajk ,dnd, kshekavrA;d,a udkjfhl`f.a fmdis,fhka ,nd.;a o;ams@fhka wvqjsh.fuys m@;sM,hcdk fjkiajSula u.ska b;d ,dnd, jsfhaoSu .eyeKq fudar i;`ka ,sx.sl mrsK;shg m;ajSuhs.fuzu.ska fudarekaf.a m@ckk yd jO!k iS>@;djh by< oud .ekSug ffcj jsoHd;aul yelshdjla ,enSwe;.msrsus i;`kag jvd fuu yelshdj .eyeKq iFjhkag ,enS ;sfnkafka ffcj jsoHd;aulj wehf.aldrAhNdrh j.!hd fkdkeiS mj;ajd .ekSu iZoyd m@ckk l@shdj,sh bosrshg mj;ajdf.k hdu jkfyhsks.ldh jsoHd;aulj Bgu wkqrEmjk mrsos ffcj l@shdldrS;ajhla m@fjzKs.;j usksid we;`ZMiEuiFj jsfYaIhlu .eyeKq i;`kag Wreujk nejsk.s idrOu! bf.kSfuz l@shdj,shg lsishuz ffcj jsoHd;aul miqq;,hla we;aoehs fidhdne,Su msKsiis|=l< mrAfhaIK;`,ska kj;u woyia yd ixl,am .,d tuska mj;S.b;du uE;loS is|=l< mrAfhaIKhlska ;yjqre jQ woyig fndfyda jsoHdZ{hskaf.a tlZ.;djh m@;dj by@;djhby< fyda my< w.hla .kakdnj jsoHd;aul mrAfhaIK uZ.ska ;yjqre lrf.k we;.fuz hgf;audkjhdf.a mrudhqI wvqjSu idrOu! ixl,amhka jO!kh jSfuz iS>@;djh wvqlrjk w;r udkjhdf.amrudhqI jevsjSu idrOu! ixl,amhka jO!k jSfuz iS>@;djh by< kxjk nj fidhdf.k we;.idrOu!
  14. 14. 14ixl,amhka udkjhkaf.a fud< jHqyfhys ridhksl ixhq;sh fjkialsrSug oelajQ odhl;ajh ms@ jO!khhs.fuz uZ.ska yels blaukska weh ujla njg mrsjrA;kh jSfuz yd ujlf.a ldrAhNdrhbgqlsrSfuz yelshdj ,efnk mrsos ore fifkyi we;sjSug wjYH wdfjzok ;Sj@;dj fydafudak l@shdldrSFjh uZ.ska wehf.a isrer yd uki ;`< we;s lrjkq ,efnz. z tlS orefjl` ms
  15. 15. 15j, mj;sk |=ros. fkdn,kakdjQ njg yd wixjsOdkd;aul njg fya;`j Tjqkaf.a mqfrda,,dg ndyslfha W#k ixjrAOk hhs.2 lef,dai foayh .eyeKq msrsus fomCIfhau
  16. 16. 16jskdvshlg jdr ishh blaujQ wOsl yDo iamkaokfhka hq;a ;eke;a;ka yDohdndO wOs reOsrmSvkh wd>d;h yd mrAhka; jdyskS wdndO jeks frd.dndOhkag f.d|=rejSfuz jevs wjodkuz ;;ajhlmiqfjknj mrAfhaIK .Kkdjlskau fy yd ixlSrAK l@shdj,sfhys tlawjia:djla muKsksoiqkla f,i huzlsis
  17. 17. 17idrOu!hla YdlaId;a l@shdj idrOu!jO!k l@shdj,shla jsh hq;`h.fuz ksid idrOu! ms
  18. 18. 18m@;scdkd;aul we.hquz ms
  19. 19. 19huz iqjsfYaIS jia;~ka mqoa.,hka isoaOs wdosh ms r;a;x ys;dh iqLdhd;s
  20. 20. 20 m@fhdackh fyda jeo.;alui,ld usksiqkajsiska jgskdlula fokq,nk fyda ,nd.ekSug W;aiylrk .`K wdl,am l@u hkdoSfoa w.hka f,i fld,skaia fldans,avz bx.@Sis YnzofldaIh wre;a fohs1fuhska lshfjkafka udkj jgskdluz idrOu! f,i wF:!j;ajk njhs. ljfrl` fyda huzjsgl ienjska leu;sjk jgskdlulafok Wiiafldg i,lk wdYdlrk wkqu;lrk fyda jsZosk TzkEu fohla uQ
  21. 21. 21wiuzu; idrOrAuhkq mqoa.,hd fyda iudch jsiska msd;x wdmcAfchH ;x lsiaify;` h:d ;x NslaLfj wjsihiausx2w. ks. 1";sl ksmd;h uydj.a. ld,du iq;a;"nq c uq "337-343 msgqhod ;`uzfy ld,du w;a;kdj cfkhHd:bfu Ouzud wl`i,d bfu Ouzud idjcAcd bfu Ouzud jsZ[aZ|+ .rys;d nfu Ouzud iu;a;d iudoskakd wys;dh|=laLdh ixj;a;ka;S;sw: ;`uzfy ld,dud"mcfyhHdld,dud"mcfyhHd3Religions,Values and peak experience,H.Abraham Maslow,Penguine,1970,p.78.4...Do..,p.79.5Critique of Practical Reason,I.Kant,T.K.Abbort 4 th edition,1889,p.380.The pure concepts ofreason. are thus at least necessary as setting us te task of extending the unity of understanding,wherepossible,up to the unconditioned, and are grounded in the nature of human reason.
  22. 22. 22by; olajk,o lreKq wkqj iudc iuzuq;sfhka neyerjo idrOrAu mj;sknj ms,s.ekSug wmgis|=fjz wiuzu; idrOrAu ms
  23. 23. 23 1neyer lrk fyhska Tz,afmdgz olajk iajd;auh mqoa., wkkH;djh f,i.; yelsh tfiau iajShFjhyd fmdreIFjh f,io oelajsh yelsh ta wkqj ld,du iQ;@fhys js.@yflfrk idrOrAuo ixl,amShf,i iajShFjh yd mqoa., fm#reIFjh yd neZ|=k b.ekajSuz f,i yZ|=kajdosh yelsh fya;`j idrOrAui;r n@yau jsyrK yd ;@sjsO l`Y,uQ< f,iixl,amSh jYfhka wdOHd;ausl jsjrKh lr;sfnknejsks2 fuz wkqj idrOrAu m@Njjkafka mqoa., wOHd;au flaJ|@lr f.knj ld,duiQ;@.; b.ekajSuzj,ska ;yjqrejk nj fmkajd osh yelshfuz wkqj idOrAu my
  24. 24. 24B
  25. 25. 25hf:dala; lreKg wod
  26. 26. 261iudciodpdr uQ
  27. 27. 271.ukalsrSuls tkuz fu;a;d ixl,amfhys wdNdIh ,nd.ekSuhsfuu l@shdj,sh ixialD;sllrKhkuska yeZoskafjz5 cSjk udrAf.damfoaYh idrOrAu mqoa.,fhl`g mQrAKcSjs;hlrd jO!khjSuguZ.fmkajhs;jflfkl`f.a wdOsm;Hhlska f;drju ;ukag i;H oelshyelsnj mejiSu uZ.ska cSjkorAYkfhys,d iajdOsm;Hh ;yjqre lsrSu fm#reI jO!kfhys,d w;sYhskau jeo.;ahld,du iQ;@fhkajs.@yjkafka fujeks cSjk udrAf.damfoaY hla ms
  28. 28. 28.Ks; .egZMjloS hula m@ldY lsrS