Building a global community for a culture of peace: the Hague appeal for peace global campaign for peace education (1999–2006)

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Laurentian University]On: 05 October 2014, At: 03:16Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Journal of Peace EducationPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:</p><p>Building a global community for aculture of peace: the Hague appealfor peace global campaign for peaceeducation (19992006)Werner Wintersteiner aa Centre for Peace Research and Peace Education , KlagenfurtUniversity , Klagenfurt , AustriaPublished online: 16 Jul 2013.</p><p>To cite this article: Werner Wintersteiner (2013) Building a global community for a culture ofpeace: the Hague appeal for peace global campaign for peace education (19992006), Journal ofPeace Education, 10:2, 138-156, DOI: 10.1080/17400201.2013.790250</p><p>To link to this article:</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;Conditions of access and use can be found at</p><p></p></li><li><p>Building a global community for a culture of peace: the Hagueappeal for peace global campaign for peace education (19992006)</p><p>Werner Wintersteiner</p><p>Centre for Peace Research and Peace Education, Klagenfurt University, Klagenfurt, Austria</p><p>This paper is about the early history of the Hague Appeal for Peace GlobalCampaign for peace education (HAP/GCPE), an ambitious attempt to create aglobal movement of peace educators to advance and disseminate peace educationin their own localities and engage when possible in transnational cooperation.This Campaign has developed outstanding activities, including pilot projects inpeace education in four post-conflict regions and has published three usefulbooks between 2000 and 2005. In 2006, this phase as a project of HAP endedwhen the GCPE was transferred first to Peace Boat and later to other organiza-tions. This is the period described and discussed in this article. Thus, I make adistinction between the HAP Campaign and the Campaign as such. Today, theCampaign is lead from the joint headquarters of the International Institute onPeace Education and the National Peace Academy, a US institution founded in2009. Its activities and those of hundreds of other peace educators throughout theworld are reported in a regular newsletter of the GCPE. While the original advi-sory group no longer functions as such, a number of its members, in conjunctionwith other networks, continue to engage in common activities. This paper relatesthe origins and the philosophy of the Campaign, enumerates and assesses itsachievements, and discusses the lessons we can learn from this experience forfuture efforts in order to develop and disseminate peace education.1</p><p>Keywords: peace education; hague appeal for Peace; international education;global education</p><p>Nowadays, peace education has, from a general point of view, to face three majorchallenges: recognition at a political level, a deeper connection with the discoursesof the academic world, and integration in a international/global peace movement.Recognition at a political level means two things: first, that peace education be rec-ognized as an indispensable part of any education at all levels, be integrated intothe formal school system, and that funds are provided for academic peace educationresearch and teacher training; second, that peace education be recognized (and used)as a tool to overcome war and group violence, as an important resource for a last-ing peace. This, in turn, requires a better integration of peace education approachesinto the discourses of peace research on one hand and educational research on theother, and vice versa. Peace education has always been more than just peace activ-ism and must develop its own academic standards. This again would also improvethe capacity of peace educators to support their fellow educators as well as thepeace movements professionally (see Wintersteiner 2010).</p><p>Corresponding author. Email:</p><p>Journal of Peace Education, 2013Vol. 10, No. 2, 138156,</p><p> 2013 Taylor &amp; Francis</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Lau</p><p>rent</p><p>ian </p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity] </p><p>at 0</p><p>3:16</p><p> 05 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>In order to make a difference in these domains, it may be useful to study theexperience of the contemporary peace education movement that emerged at the endof the last century and developed its main activities in the first five years of thenew century the Hague Appeal for Peace Global Campaign for Peace Education(HAP/GCPE). This paper retraces some crucial moments of the history of thismovement. It is written from the perspective of a European peace educator involvedin its activities almost from the beginning. His sources are official documents aswell as private notes, emails, and consultations of the main actors of theCampaign.</p><p>1. What is/was the HAP GCPE?</p><p>The HAP/GCPE was not a peace education program, but rather a network of peaceeducators from all over the world with an aim to legitimize peace education andpromote its integration into general educational practice, and thus, incite theformation of new peace education initiatives in many parts of the globe as well asto advocate the integration of peace education into national curricula as the agreedobligations of UNESCO member states. It deployed its main activities as part ofthe HAP movement, at the very beginning of the new century, between 1999 and2006.</p><p>1.1. The philosophy and the preparative stage</p><p>The GCPE was a result, and maybe the most convincing one of the HAP move-ment. At the same time, it was a powerful tool to promote the agenda of the HAP.</p><p>After several years of preparation, in 1999, at the centenary of the historicHague Peace Conference 1899 and the establishment of the Permanent Court ofArbitration, a huge gathering of 10,000 peace activists from all parts of the worldtook place in The Hague, The Netherlands. It was organized by an internationalcommittee of nongovernmental organizations inspired and directed by Cora Weiss,a very experienced peace activist from New York, and then (vice-) president of theInternational Peace Bureau (IPB).2 (See Weiss 2010)</p><p>The HAP was, from its beginnings, more than a conference. The HAP move-ment was not intended to be limited to a single activity; its aim was a renewal ofthe international peace movement. As a result of the lobbying of peace educatorslike Magnus Haavelsrud and especially, Betty A. Reardon, peace education becamea central part of the HAP movement. HAP defined itself as a growing communityof people all over the world who are tired of war, violence, and injustice(Conference program, 6). Thus, it was meant as a forum and a network for indepen-dent initiatives like International Action Network on Small Arms (IANSA), Interna-tional Criminal Court Global Ratification Campaign, International Campaign toBan Landmines, Campaigns to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, Global Action to PreventWar, Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers, and others. Unlike theseinitiatives, peace education was not backed by any strong international initiative ororganization.</p><p>The philosophy of the HAP movement and basic document of the conferencewas formulated as The Hague Agenda for Peace and Justice for the 21st Century, aset of 50 (still very significant) policy recommendations to achieve global peaceand justice organized in four strands (The Hague Agenda 1999b):</p><p>Journal of Peace Education 139</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Lau</p><p>rent</p><p>ian </p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity] </p><p>at 0</p><p>3:16</p><p> 05 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p> The Root Causes of War and a Culture of Peace. International Humanitarian and International Human Rights Law andInstitutions.</p><p> Prevention, Resolution, and Transformation of Violent Conflict. Disarmament and Human Security.</p><p>This ambitious text was intended as a global citizens agenda for peace andjustice whose authority grew enormously when the Hague Agenda became anofficial UN document, UN Ref. A/54/98. As a main means for achieving theserecommendations, a series of civil society campaigns were supported, newlyproposed, or started. Among these new ones, the GCPE, launched at the HagueCivil Society was probably the most important one. Lacking structure, GCPE wasdirectly managed by the HAP headquarters. It was the first time that a broadly rep-resentative international peace conference and a concerted international peace move-ment had put peace education so much and so clearly in the center of the strugglefor social change towards peace deeming that broad-scale public education wasrequired for the implementation of all the Agendas policy proposals. Even if it wasoriginally not planned, the main activities of the HAP movement after the confer-ence were educational activities; its most developed initiative was the GCPE asuccess of the indefatigable lobbying of the peace education community.3</p><p>In the Hague Agenda, already education for peace played an important role.Unlike many similar appeals, be it from the UN, from peace researchers or fromthe civil society, peace education is understood here as an indispensable tool forachieving sustainable political peace. The first of the 50 recommendations is entitledEducate for Peace, Human Rights, and Democracy. The text, in detail, reads (TheHague Appeal for Peace 1999b):</p><p>In order to combat the culture of violence that pervades our society, the coming gener-ation deserves a radically different education one that does not glorify war but edu-cates for peace, nonviolence and international cooperation. The HAP has launched aworld-wide campaign to empower people at all levels with the peacemaking skills ofmediation, conflict transformation, consensus-building and non-violent social change.</p><p>This campaign:</p><p> Insists that peace education be made compulsory at all levels of the educationsystem.</p><p> Demands that education ministries systematically implement peace educationinitiatives at a local and national level.</p><p> Calls on development assistance agencies to promote peace education as acomponent of their teacher training and materials production.</p><p>It was at the same Hague conference that a workshop and a panel on peace edu-cation were held. The plan: to create an international movement of peace educators,a GCPE. The goal: to initiate a quantum leap in mainstreaming peace education inall countries at all levels of the educational system. The initiating actor was BettyReardon, professor for peace education, Teachers College, Columbia University,New York, who for the first time developed the idea of a global campaign.</p><p>140 W. Wintersteiner</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>Lau</p><p>rent</p><p>ian </p><p>Uni</p><p>vers</p><p>ity] </p><p>at 0</p><p>3:16</p><p> 05 </p><p>Oct</p><p>ober</p><p> 201</p><p>4 </p></li><li><p>This special session of the HAP Conference, Studying Peace: Founding andLaunching A Global Campaign for Education Towards a Culture of Peace, orga-nized by Magnus Haavelsrud from Norway, assembled outstanding personalities,most of them involved in peace education projects, like Archbishop Desmond Tutu,Johan Galtung, one of the founders of modern peace research, Takehito Ito (Japan),and well-known peace education veterans like Toh Swee-Hin (Canada) and initia-tor Betty A. Reardon. The panel was followed by a strategy session chaired byBetty Reardon (The Hague Appeal for Peace 1999a).</p><p>The network that emerged from this initiative has carried out many activitiesbetween 2000 and 2005, including pilot projects in peace education in four post-conflict regions. Further, the network developed a manual with a rationale for peaceeducation published in several languages.</p><p>The campaign had two major goals which made it unique among many otherattempts of an international organization of peace educators4:</p><p>(1) Creating civil and political support for peace education at all levels of educa-tion;</p><p>(2) Educating teachers to teach for peace.</p><p>In order to achieve its goals, the HAP organized regular global meetings of acore group of the GCPE, started a partnership with the Department for Disarma-ment Affairs (DDA) of the UN in New York, and established contacts with variousfoundations and organizations, namely, the Fundacin Cultura de Paz of FedericoMayor, the ex-director of UNESCO.</p><p>In 2006, this period ended officially when the HAP GCPE was not formallydissolved but started cooperation with Peace Boat which lead for a shortmoment to the handover of the peace education activities to this organization,and then, later to the Peace Education Center at Teachers College, ColumbiaUniversity, and eventually to the US National Peace Academy. Today, there is aregular newsletter of the GCPE with more than 4000 subscribers and a new Cam-paign Website.5 However, there are no more common projects of the members ofthe GCPE network.</p><p>1.2. Main activities</p><p>The early history of the Campaign can be divided into three periods:</p><p>(1) The starting phase: conception and preparation (19992000): The outlineof the Campaign, as conceived by Betty Reardon, and preparatory meetingsin Geneva and The Hague, organized by Cora Weiss.</p><p>(2) The establishment: laying the ground (20012002): The establishment ofthe Campaign, Alicia Cabezudo as the educator in residence, the manual asthe basic document that offers orientation and provides a common identity;the start of the pilot projects; the installation of the Advisory Board.</p><p>(3) New horizons: structures and strategy (20032005/2006): Partnershipprojects give the Campaign a profile and bring new experiences. TheAdvisory Board becomes a proper institution and develops its structure:steering committee and chair. The Campaign adopts a two-year pla...</p></li></ul>