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Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence.early battles of the Civil War.
• Pro_22:8 He that soweth iniquity
shall reap vanity: and the rod of
his anger shall fail.
Civil War
• Lincoln being elected as President begins the domino effect of Southern States seceding from the Union.
• Fort Sumter was the first battle of the Civil War.
• Ironically the only casualty was a horse.
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence. • Civil War started slowly.
• Three months after the firing on Fort Sumter was the next battle.
• In July 1861, General Scott sent General Irvin McDowell and more than 30,000 Union troops to do battle with Confederate troops outside Washington.
• The two armies met at Bull Run, a creek near Manassas, Virginia.
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence.
• The two armies met
near Manassas,
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence.
• In the first few hours, the Union Federal troops looked like they had the upper hand.
• But a failed charge where Thomas “Stonewell” Jackson of the Confederate forces held their ground led to chaos among the Federal forces and caused them along the civilian spectators to retreat back to Washington.
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence. • “But now the most extraordinary spectacle I
have ever witnessed took place. I had been gazing at the numerous well-formed lines as they moved forward to the attack…. I looked, and what a change had taken place in an instant. Where those well-dressed, well- defined lines, with clear spaces between, had been steadily pressing forward, the whole field was a confused swarm of men, like bees, running away as fast as their legs could carry them, with all order and organization abandoned.” W.W. Blackford, Confederate Officer who fought in Bull Run. Source: Arthur L. White, Ellen G. White: The Progressive Years, 1862-1876, vol. 2, 36-37.
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence.
• “[General] Beauregard had their cannons loaded with chain shot, and was about to fire. He looked toward the advancing host, and cried out: `The Yanks are all retreating. Don't fire the guns.“ A Mr. Johnson interviewed by J.N. Loughborough who fought in the battle. Arthur L. White, Ellen G. White: The Progressive Years, 1862-1876, vol. 2, 38.
Bull Run Shakes Union Confidence. • “I had a view of the disastrous battle at
Manassas…. The dead and dying were on every side. Both the North and the South suffered severely. The Southern men felt the battle, and in a little while would have been driven back still further. The Northern men were rushing on, although their destruction was very great. Just then an angel descended and waved his hand backward. Instantly there was confusion in the ranks. It appeared to the Northern men that their troops were retreating, when it was not so in reality, and a precipitate retreat commenced.” Ellen White, Testimonies to the Church, vol. 1, 266.
Impact of Bull Run
• Despite their victory, Confederate troops were far too disorganized to press their advantage and pursue the retreating Yankees, who reached Washington by July 22.
• The First Battle of Bull Run (called First Manassas in the South) cost some 3,000 Union casualties, compared with 1,750 for the Confederates.
• Hopes for a quick Union victory was dashed.
• “I was shown that many do not realize
the extent of the evil that has come
upon us. They have flattered
themselves that the national difficulties
would soon be settled, and confusion
and war end; but all will be convinced
that there is more reality in the matter
than was anticipated. Men have looked
for the North to strike a blow and end
the controversy.” Ellen White, , “Slavery
and War,” Advent Review and Sabbath
Herald, 27 August 1861.
Impact of Bull Run
• On the Confederate side accusations between Jefferson Davis and his generals hurled on why the Rebel army could not pursue the retreating Federal troops.
• For the Union, Lincoln removed McDowell from command and replaced him with George B. McClellan, who would retrain and reorganize Union troops to a more disciplined force.
• When McClellan began to organize his army of the Potomac, General Ulysses S. Grant pursued the Mississippi Valley wing of the Anaconda Plan.
• In February 1862, he directed the attack and capture of two Confederate strongholds.
• Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River.
• His bold action drove Confederate forces from western Kentucky and much of Tennessee, and boosted northern morale
• However in April, Grant fought a terrible battle in Southwest Tennessee in the Battle of Shiloh where two days of fighting killed or wounded 25,000 Union and Confederate soldiers.
• This horrified the whole nation
Naval Battles • Admiral David Farragut sailed
through the Gulf of Mexico and seized the vital southern port of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi
• Farragut continued to sail up the Mississippi but stopped 50 miles from its objective in Vicksburg.
Naval Battles
• In 1862, the Monitor and the Virginia, both iron clad ships fought each other in battle.
• The battle was a stalemate but it signaled the shift from wooden ships to iron clad ships.
As you have just seen the initial blood shed of
the Civil War, do you think it was worth the
lives lost?
decided to issue the
roles that African Americans
• Luk_4:18 The Spirit of the Lord is
upon me, because he hath
anointed me to preach the gospel
to the poor; he hath sent me to
heal the brokenhearted, to
preach deliverance to the
to the blind, to set at liberty them
that are bruised,
Slow Progress
• McClellan and Lincoln clashed because McClellan was very cautious in his strategy.
• McClellan wanted to make a decisive drive towards the Confederate Capital of Richmond but wanted to wait until he felt the troops were ready.
• Lincoln also did not give all the troops McClellan requested because he felt that a large force was need to protect D.C.
Slow Progress • McClellan finally ceded to Lincoln’s
wishes and took his troops and sailed into Virginia.
• McClellan’s army engaged the Confederate forces defending Richmond commanded by General Robert E. Lee.
• Although McClellan had a larger army, Lee defeated him because of McClellan’s cautious style and retreated back to Washington in a series of battles called the Seven Days.
Slow Progress
• Lincoln replaced McClellan after his defeat but the move was a mistake.
• Larger Federal forces were crushed by Stonewell Jackson’s army in the Second Battle of Manassas.
• This energized the Rebel Army and McClellan was returned to his command.
Enslaved African Americans Seek Refuge • Pressure from both home and abroad
urged Lincoln to address the issue of slavery.
• Abolitionists such as Frederick Douglas and William Lloyd Garrison as well as the thousands who supported them were impatient with Lincoln’s policies.
• Slavery was unpopular in Europe.
• Antislavery sentiment was one of the main reasons why Great Britain was reluctant to aid the Confederacy.
• Union officers had a dilemma to do with slaves they had under their control in territory they occupied.
• It was absurd to return them to their owners.
• General Benjamin Butler gathered hundreds of Black refugees into his camps and set them to do manual labor.
• He declared the fugitives under his protection to be contraband or captured war supplies.
• General John Fremont declared
retaliation from border states.
• Lincoln realized he could not avoid the slavery issue for long.
• He secretly began working on a plan for the emancipation of enslaved African Americans living in Confederate states.
• The Cabinet surprised but supportive, advised Lincoln to hold off on the announcement.
• In early September 1862, General Lee brimming with confidence led his troops into Maryland, the border state where many favored the South.
• Lee hoped for a pro-confederate uprising.
• A victory on Union soil might also spur European recognition of the Confederacy.
• Lee invited Maryland to ally with the South but they did not respond with great interest.
• General Robert E. Lee advanced into Maryland, with the thought of going on the offensive rather than fighting a defensive war, was worth the risk.
• However a lost copy of Lee’s battle plan came to a Union commander wrapped around some cigars at an abandoned rebel camp site.
• But General McClellan’s cautious defensive minded tactics wasted the advantages he had along with a army that was two to one greater than Lees.
• On September 17, 1862, Generals Robert E. Lee and George McClellan faced off near Antietam creek in Sharpsburg, Maryland.
• In the first battle of the American Civil War to be fought on northern soil.
• McClellan failed to crush Lee’s army but was able to halt Lee’s advance to Northern territory.
• Lee withdrew across the river on September 18, suffering 10,318 casualties (of 38,000 engaged) to McClellan’s 12,401 (of 75,000).
• This tactical victory allowed Lincoln the cover to issue his emancipation proclamation.
• It was the single most bloodiest day in American history with over 22,000 casualties.
• A series of graphic battlefield photographs of the dead, taken by Alexander Gardner.
• Gardner brought to the home front “the terrible earnestness of war.”
Emancipation at Last
• On September 22, 1862, Lincoln formally announced the Emancipation Proclamation.
• Issued as a military decree, it freed all enslaved people in states still in rebellion after January 1, 1863.
• It did not however apply to loyal border states or to places that were already under Union military control.
• Lincoln hoped the proclamation might convince some southern states to surrender before the January 1 deadline.
Emancipation at Last
• Frederick Douglas praised it.
• William Lloyd Garrison thought it did not go far enough to free all slaves in the union.
• Many Republicans also agreed with Garrison.
• Democrats believed it was too drastic a step.
Emancipation at Last
• Although the Emancipation Proclamation did not actually free a single slave, it was an important turning point in the war.
• For northerners, it redefined the war as being about slavery.
• For White Southerners, the call to free the slaves ended any desire for negotiated end to the war.
• Confederate leaders now felt they must fight to the end.
Emancipation at Last
the proclamation made them eager
to join the Union army and fight
against slavery.
growing demands by African
soldiers on the frontlines led to the
Union to reconsider its ban on
African American soldiers.
Call To Arms
• Just two months before the proclamation, Congress had passed the Militia Act.
• Mandating that black soldiers be accepted into the military.
• “What could be more appropriate than that the slaves themselves should be the instruments used to punish the merciless tyrants who have so long ground them to the dust. Such is so far beginning to be the case, that even the swamps where the slaves have been wont to secrete themselves to avoid the lash of cruel masters, those same masters now seek, to hide from vengeance which they know they deserve, and which they fear will be meted out to them at the hands of their former outraged and oppressed slaves. An army of 50,000 blacks could march from one end of Rebeldom to the other almost without opposition the terror they would inspire making them invincible.” James White, ed., “Justice Awakening,” Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, 26 January 1864.
African Americans Join The Fight
• After the emancipation proclamation, the Union actively began recruiting African American soldiers.
• The abolitionist governor of Massachusetts enthusiastically supported the formation of the all black 54th Massachusetts Regiment.
African Americans Join The Fight
• By war’s end, more than 180,000 African American volunteers had served in the Union military.
• The rebels considered drafting slaves and free blacks in 1863 and 1864, but most Southerners opposed the enlistment of African Americans.
• Even as they fought to end slavery in the Confederacy, the African-American soldiers of the 54th were fighting against another injustice as well.
• The U.S. Army paid black soldiers $10 a week; white soldiers got $3 more.
• To protest against this insult, the entire regiment–soldiers and officers alike–refused to accept their wages until black and white soldiers earned equal pay for equal work.
• This did not happen until the war was almost over.
African Americans Join The Fight
• They were usually assigned menial tasks such as cooking, cleaning, or digging latrines.
• They often served the longest guard duty and were placed in exposed battle positions.
• If captured they would be instantly killed.
• For example: the Fort Pillow Tennessee incident where 100 African American troops were killed trying to surrender.
African Americans Join The Fight
• The 54th Massachusetts was commanded by Robert Gould Shaw, a son of prominent abolitionist parents and dropped out of Harvard to fight in the war.
• The regiment was instrumental and performed admirably in a couple of skirmishes in South Carolina.
• On July 18, 1863, the 54th Massachusetts prepared to storm Fort Wagner, which guarded the Port of Charleston.
• At dusk, Shaw gathered 600 of his men on a narrow strip of sand just outside Wagner’s fortified walls and readied them for action.
• “I want you to prove yourselves,” he said.
• “The eyes of thousands will look on what you do tonight.”
African Americans Join The Fight
• Although the 54th was unable to take the fort, they fought with bravery.
• Colonel Shaw was killed and buried with his troops.
• It was meant as a insult but it was seen with pride in the eyes of abolitionists.
African Americans Join The Fight
• The 54th lost the battle at Fort Wagner, but they did a great deal of damage there.
• Confederate troops abandoned the fort soon afterward.
• For the next two years, the regiment participated in a series of successful siege operations in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
• The 54th Massachusetts returned to Boston in September 1865.
African Americans Join The Fight
• One Solider, William Carney was the first African American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor for retrieving the flag of the regiment.
• This proved that African American troops were gallant and brave and that they were more than capable to fight.
• They helped turn the tide of the war. Some 70,000 lost their lives.
Enslaved People Help the Union Cause: • White plantation owners often
abandoned plantations for the safety of southern cities.
• Leaving trusted slaves to manage the farm.
• Advancing Union forces often enlisted these African Americans to produce food for the northern troops.
• Some served as spies and scouts for the Union army because of their familiarity with the terrain.
Is there such a thing as just wars (wars that
are necessary and justified) and is the Civil
War an example of a war that is justified?
Please write a one paragraph response on the
blank pages in your packet.
o We will analyze how the war changed the economy and society in the North and the South.
o We will discuss how northern and southern soldiers experienced the war.
o We will explain the impact of the war on women.
• Pro_14:34 Righteousness
reproach to any people.
Life During the Civil War
o In the North, revenue to fund the war was based upon an income tax and the selling of government bonds.
o In 1863, the Union instituted a draft to meet the unending demand for fresh troops.
o Under this system a white man between the ages of 20 and 45 might be called for required military service.
o However a man could pay $300 to hire a replacement.
Life During the Civil War
• Most who were drafted were either recent immigrants or those with low paying jobs.
• This led to draft riots in the North where poor whites who were drafted attacked African Americans and inflicted property damage to factories and war supplies.
Life During the Civil War
• May 21, 1863 was when the Seventh-day Adventist Church formally organized.
• The Adventist church at this time leaned towards non-military service and lobbied the government for the right not to bear arms if they were indeed drafted.
Civil Liberties Suspended
• A faction calling themselves “Peace Democrats” opposed Lincoln’s conduct of the war and demanded an end to the fighting.
• Their opponents dubbed them Copperheads after a type of poisonous snake found in the south.
• Lincoln viewed any effort to undermine the war effort as a grave threat to the nation.
Civil Liberties Suspended
• He suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus, which protects a person from being held in jail without being charged with a specific crime.
• Lincoln empowered the military to arrest people suspected of disloyalty to the Union, including some who had criticized the President and others who had participated in draft riots.
What do you think of the suspension of civil
liberties during the Civil War? Do you think our
personal liberties should be sacrificed for the
sake of feeling safe?
Life In The Wartime South
• In The South, a fierce blockade prevented cash crop goods from traveling out of the South and manufactured goods from coming in.
• Supplies and foods were of short supply and many even resorted to seizing Union supplies from fallen troops, especially shoes and boots.
Life In The Wartime South
• Although Britain remained officially neutral, British shipyards helped the Confederacy build blockade runners to try to break the blockade.
• Like the North, the Confederate government enacted conscription laws, seized private property to support of the war effort, and suspended habeas corpus.
Life of the Soldier
• Weapons innovations caused casualties to mount.
• Such as the canister, a projectile fired metal ball that spread a range of 400 yards that mowed down troops.
• Most frequent treatment was the amputation of limbs, sometimes without anesthesia.
• Poor drinking water and lack of sanitation led to a rapid spread of illness in the ranks.
• For every soldier killed in battle, two died of disease.
Life of the Soldier
• Prisoners of War were treated harshly.
• One of the most notorious was the Andersonville Camp in Georgia.
• By 1864, 33,000 Union prisoners had been crowded there.
• With their own troops starving, Confederates had little incentive to find food for Union prisoners.
• During the 15 months that Andersonville remained in operation more than 12,000 Union prisoners died of disease and malnutrition.
Life of the Soldier
• With brothers or sons fighting on different sides.
• Soldiers might find themselves far from home but camped across the battlefield from the family.
• It was not uncommon for soldiers to exchange greetings with the “enemy” between engagements.
Women and the War
• One is Clara Barton.
• After collecting medical supplies in her Massachusetts community, she secured permission to travel with Union army ambulances and assist in distributing comforts for the sick and wounded of both sides.
Women and the War
formation of the United States Sanitary
Commission, which authorized women
military installations.
yet another effect of the civil war.
MUSIC • Music was used by both
the North and South to inspire the troops to fight on.