Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [Johns Hopkins University]On: 21 October 2014, At: 17:14Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK</p><p>Journal of School ViolencePublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsv20</p><p>Bullying Victimization andExtracurricular ActivityAnthony A. Peguero aa Department of Sociology and Gerontology , MiamiUniversity , Oxford, Ohio, USAPublished online: 11 Oct 2008.</p><p>To cite this article: Anthony A. Peguero (2008) Bullying Victimizationand Extracurricular Activity, Journal of School Violence, 7:3, 71-85, DOI:10.1080/15388220801955570</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15388220801955570</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all theinformation (the Content) contained in the publications on our platform.However, Taylor &amp; Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness,or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinions and viewsexpressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of theContent should not be relied upon and should be independently verified withprimary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for anylosses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages,and other liabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsv20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/15388220801955570http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15388220801955570</p></li><li><p>indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use of theContent.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes.Any substantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan,sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone isexpressly forbidden. Terms &amp; Conditions of access and use can be found athttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>Journal of School Violence, Vol. 7(3) 2008Available online at http://jsv.haworthpress.com</p><p> 2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.doi:10.1080/15388220801955570 71</p><p>WJSV1538-82201538-8239Journal of School Violence, Vol. 7, No. 3, April 2008: pp. 115Journal of School Violence</p><p>Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity</p><p>Anthony A. PegueroJournal of School Violence Anthony A. Peguero</p><p>ABSTRACT. This study investigated the relationships between bully-ing victimization and students extracurricular activity and misbehavior.This research examined whether students engagement in particularschool activities increased or decreased the likelihood of being bulliedwhile at school. Data for this research were drawn from the EducationalLongitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) and utilized the base yearsnationally represented stratified sample (N = 7,990). Associations wereexamined between various activities of 10th grade public schoolstudentsincluding classroom-related activities, club, interscholasticsports, intramural sports, and misbehaviorand their likelihood of beingbullied while at school.</p><p>KEYWORDS. Bullying, school violence, extracurricular activity,children</p><p>What is the relationship between bullying victimization and studentsextracurricular activity and misbehavior? Although few studies haveinvestigated the relationship between bullying victimization and students</p><p>Anthony A. Peguero is affiliated with the Department of Sociology andGerontology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.</p><p>The author thanks Jennifer Bondy for her support and patience with theresearch and writing processes associated with this article and all my work. I amgrateful to Valerie Wellin for her editorial efforts.</p><p>Address correspondence to: Anthony A. Peguero, 367-D Upham Hall, MiamiUniversity, Oxford, OH 45056 (E-mail: pegueraa@muohio.edu).</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>72 JOURNAL OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE</p><p>extracurricular activity, there has been evidence suggesting that studentsextracurricular activity may be linked to both positive and detrimentaloutcomes. For instance, sports participation was found to increase studentacademic achievement (Broh, 2002), self-esteem (Marsh &amp; Kleitman,2003), and positive attitudes toward school and occupational goals (Rees &amp;Howell, 1990). On the other hand, students participation in high schoolsports increased their likelihood of substance use (Zill, Nord, &amp; Loomis,1995), dropping out (Davalos, Chavez, &amp; Guardiola, 1999), sexual activ-ity (Miller et al., 1999), and other risky behavior (Rees &amp; Howell, 1990).Furthermore, student involvement with deviant activities was also associ-ated with their increased exposure to violence. Schreck and colleagues(2003) reported that student involvement with gangs, drugs, and deviancewas linked with increased vulnerability to victimization by other studentswhile in school.</p><p>In recent years, there has been an effort to scrutinize traditionallydefined minor forms of victimization, such as bullying and harassmentwithin schools, and to legitimately define them as forms of school vio-lence. Although conventional wisdom portrayed bullying victimizationas normative within the adolescent experience, findings indicated thatvictims of bullying sustained long-lasting detrimental effects (Olweus,1991, 1993; American Association of University Women EducationalFoundation, 2001; Finkelhor &amp; Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994). In turn, thedefinition of bullying victimization used in school violence researchbecame broader and included may forms of victimization. Lowering thethreshold to measure bullying victimization was necessary becausechildren were found to be more susceptible to physical and emotionalinjury than adults (Finkelhor &amp; Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994). Detrimentalsocial, psychological, and educational outcomes were linked toeven minor forms of adolescent victimization (Finkelhor &amp; Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994; Olweus, 1991, 1993; Nansel et al., 2001; Crick &amp;Bigbee, 1998).</p><p>Student outcomes, such as achievement (Broh, 2002; Crosnoe, 2001;Eccles &amp; Barber, 1999), self-esteem (Marsh &amp; Kleitman, 2003; McHale,Crouler, &amp; Tucker, 2001; Erkut &amp; Tracy, 2002), perception of lifechances (Perry-Burney &amp; Takyi, 2002; Rees &amp; Howell, 1990; Jordan &amp;Nettles, 2000), and educational aspirations (Marsh &amp; Kleitman, 2003;Hanson &amp; Kraus, 1998; Jordan &amp; Nettles, 2000), were related to studentsparticipation in scholastic-related extracurricular activities, such as honorsociety, plays, sports, school bands, and clubs. Furthermore, participationin the aforementioned extracurricular activities reduced the likelihood of</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Anthony A. Peguero 73</p><p>detrimental outcomes for students, such as dropping out (Mahoney &amp;Cairns, 1997), substance use (Eccles &amp; Barber, 1999; Colley et al., 1995),sexual activity (Miller et al., 1999), misconduct (Schmidt 2003), and riskybehavior (Eccles et al., 2003; Mahoney &amp; Stattin, 2000). However, theseresults varied between the different categories of extracurricularactivities. For instance, an increase in student alcohol use was linked withinterscholastic sports participation (Zill et al., 1995), while studentsparticipation in classroomrelated routines, such as student government,decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption (Colley et al., 1995).With the variances within different types of extracurricular activities, theargument to disaggregate extracurricular activities was supported. In turn,there were four distinct categories of extracurricular activities: classroom-related activities, school clubs, intramural sports, and interscholasticsports. Each of the extracurricular activity categories was distinctly linkedto both positive and negative student outcomes.</p><p>Feldman and Matjasko (2005) argued that the categories of extracurric-ular and student activity were related to positive and negative studentoutcomes differently because of the distinctive nature of each extracurric-ular activity. The perceptions of these various extracurricular activities byother students, teachers, and parents were fundamentally different andneeded to be disaggregated (Feldman &amp; Matjasko, 2005). On the otherhand, student misbehavior or involvement with deviant activities wasfound to increase the likelihood of detrimental student outcomes.</p><p>Childrens involvement with deviance, delinquency, and misbehavioroften resulted in an increased likelihood of victimization (Mustaine &amp;Tewksbury, 1998; Schreck, Wright, &amp; Miller, 2002; Decker &amp; VanWinkle, 1996). Once youths participated in deviant or delinquent acts,that behavior was associated with an increased involvement with poten-tially dangerous situations that risk their safety (Mustaine &amp; Tewksbury,1998; Sampson &amp; Lauritsen, 1990; Schreck et al., 2002). Deviant childrenwere often victimized because their relationships, as well as their activi-ties, involved interacting with other deviant children and criminal adults(Jensen &amp; Brownfield, 1986; Lauritsen, Sampson, &amp; Laub, 1991; Schrecket al., 2002). This relationship between criminality and victimization wasindicative of a subculture of violence for youths (Osgood, et al., 1996;Singer, 1981; Wolfgang &amp; Ferracuti, 1967). As a result, participation indeviant activities changed childrens perceptions of potentially dangeroussituations as well. Children who were involved in deviant activities grewaccustomed to potentially dangerous situations and accepted theirexposure to violence as normal (Kennedy &amp; Baron, 1993; Felson, 1998).</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>74 JOURNAL OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE</p><p>Deviant children routinely found themselves in relatively more dangeroussituations and in turn were more susceptible to being victimized in com-parison with children who were not involved in deviant activities.Furthermore, as juveniles become more engrossed in deviant activities,the boundary between offender and victim became blurred and difficult todistinguish. Osgood and colleagues (1996) suggested that a sharpdistinction between offender and victim was not applicable to a largeshare of illegal or deviant behavior, such as the use of illicit drugs,reckless behavior, illegal services, and mutual violence erupting fromdisputes (p. 636).</p><p>Although few studies investigated the relationship between studentsextracurricular activities and the likelihood of their victimization, somefindings indicate that participation in extracurricular activities may pro-tect students from harm or make students more vulnerable to victimiza-tion. This study attempted to address the following questions: Is studentinvolvement with different categories of extracurricular activities (i.e.,classroom-related, club, interscholastic sports, intramural sports) andmisbehavior a protective factor against, or a risk factor for, being bulliedwhile at school? If either, how is each category of extracurricular activityand misbehavior related to the likelihood of bullying victimization? Thisresearch investigated the relationships between bullying victimization andfactors such as the students socioeconomic status, gender, race andethnicity, educational achievement, extracurricular activities (such asclassroom-related activities, school clubs, intramural sports, and inter-scholastic sports), and misbehavior.</p><p>METHOD</p><p>Participants</p><p>The Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) providedthe data for this study. The ELS:2002 data was a longitudinal surveyadministered by the Research Triangle Institute (RTI) for the NationalCenter for Education Statistics (NCES) of the United StatesDepartment of Education. ELS:2002 was designed to monitor thetransition of a national sample of young people as they progress fromtenth grade through high school and on to postsecondary educationand/or the world of work (NCES, 2004, p. 7). These data includedinformation about the experiences and backgrounds of students,</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>Anthony A. Peguero 75</p><p>parents, and teachers, and descriptions of the schools those studentsattended.</p><p>Missing, not administered (students who only participated in the abbre-viated survey, which did not include victimization questions), and multi-ple responses were coded as missing and excluded from the analyses. Thesubsample included 7,990 public school White, Black, and Latino stu-dents in 578 public schools (see Table 1).</p><p>Measures</p><p>Dependent variable. To measure bullying victimization, studentswere asked about their bullying experiences in various ways duringthe first semester or term of the school year. Bullying victimizationwas measured by six items including: (1) someone threatened to hurtme at school, (2) someone hit me, (3) someone used strong-arm orforceful methods to get money or things from me, (4) someone bulliedme or picked on me, (5) I had something stolen from me at school, and(6) someone purposely damaged or destroyed my belongings. Themeasurement of bullying victimization was dichotomized to indicatewhether or not the student was a victim of bullying. In this study,3,517 (44.0%) students reported experiencing at least one form ofvictimization.</p><p>Classroom-related activities. Similar to previous studies (Markstromet al., 2005; Marsh &amp; Kleitman, 2002), classroom-related extracurricularactivities were often led by a teacher or an adult sponsor. The fiveclassroom-related extracurricular activity measurements that constructedthe variable were: (1) band, orchestra, chorus, or choir; (2) school play ormusical; (3) student government; (4) academic (or achievement)relatedhonor society; and (5) school yearbook, newspaper, or literary magazine.</p><p>TABLE 1. Summary statistics for entire sample</p><p>Metric Min. Max. Mean Std. Dev.</p><p>Dependent VariablesBullying Victimization 0 = No; 1 = Yes 0 1 0.44 0.49</p><p>Independent VariablesFamily SES z-scores 1.97 1.98 0.027 0.71Achievement z-scores 21.56 78.30 50.166 9.99</p><p>Note: Sample N = 7.990 public school students, 576 public schools.</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>John</p><p>s H</p><p>opki</p><p>ns U</p><p>nive</p><p>rsity</p><p>] at</p><p> 17:</p><p>14 2</p><p>1 O</p><p>ctob</p><p>er 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>76 JOURNAL OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE</p><p>In this study, 4,984 (62.4%) students indicated no participation inclassroom-related extracurricular activities, 2,696 (33.7%) in one or twoclassroom-related extracurricular activities, and 310 (3.9%) in three ormore classroom related extracurricular activities.</p><p>School club. As defined in previous studies (Marsh &amp; Kleitman, 2002;Huebner &amp; Mancini, 2003), school club extracurricular activitiesinvolved the goal of establishing social networks of peer...</p></li></ul>

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