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  • This article was downloaded by: [Johns Hopkins University]On: 21 October 2014, At: 17:14Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954Registered office: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH,UK

    Journal of School ViolencePublication details, including instructions forauthors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/wjsv20

    Bullying Victimization andExtracurricular ActivityAnthony A. Peguero aa Department of Sociology and Gerontology , MiamiUniversity , Oxford, Ohio, USAPublished online: 11 Oct 2008.

    To cite this article: Anthony A. Peguero (2008) Bullying Victimizationand Extracurricular Activity, Journal of School Violence, 7:3, 71-85, DOI:10.1080/15388220801955570

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15388220801955570

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    http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions

  • Journal of School Violence, Vol. 7(3) 2008Available online at http://jsv.haworthpress.com

    2008 by The Haworth Press. All rights reserved.doi:10.1080/15388220801955570 71

    WJSV1538-82201538-8239Journal of School Violence, Vol. 7, No. 3, April 2008: pp. 115Journal of School Violence

    Bullying Victimization and Extracurricular Activity

    Anthony A. PegueroJournal of School Violence Anthony A. Peguero

    ABSTRACT. This study investigated the relationships between bully-ing victimization and students extracurricular activity and misbehavior.This research examined whether students engagement in particularschool activities increased or decreased the likelihood of being bulliedwhile at school. Data for this research were drawn from the EducationalLongitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) and utilized the base yearsnationally represented stratified sample (N = 7,990). Associations wereexamined between various activities of 10th grade public schoolstudentsincluding classroom-related activities, club, interscholasticsports, intramural sports, and misbehaviorand their likelihood of beingbullied while at school.

    KEYWORDS. Bullying, school violence, extracurricular activity,children

    What is the relationship between bullying victimization and studentsextracurricular activity and misbehavior? Although few studies haveinvestigated the relationship between bullying victimization and students

    Anthony A. Peguero is affiliated with the Department of Sociology andGerontology, Miami University, Oxford, Ohio.

    The author thanks Jennifer Bondy for her support and patience with theresearch and writing processes associated with this article and all my work. I amgrateful to Valerie Wellin for her editorial efforts.

    Address correspondence to: Anthony A. Peguero, 367-D Upham Hall, MiamiUniversity, Oxford, OH 45056 (E-mail: pegueraa@muohio.edu).

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  • 72 JOURNAL OF SCHOOL VIOLENCE

    extracurricular activity, there has been evidence suggesting that studentsextracurricular activity may be linked to both positive and detrimentaloutcomes. For instance, sports participation was found to increase studentacademic achievement (Broh, 2002), self-esteem (Marsh & Kleitman,2003), and positive attitudes toward school and occupational goals (Rees &Howell, 1990). On the other hand, students participation in high schoolsports increased their likelihood of substance use (Zill, Nord, & Loomis,1995), dropping out (Davalos, Chavez, & Guardiola, 1999), sexual activ-ity (Miller et al., 1999), and other risky behavior (Rees & Howell, 1990).Furthermore, student involvement with deviant activities was also associ-ated with their increased exposure to violence. Schreck and colleagues(2003) reported that student involvement with gangs, drugs, and deviancewas linked with increased vulnerability to victimization by other studentswhile in school.

    In recent years, there has been an effort to scrutinize traditionallydefined minor forms of victimization, such as bullying and harassmentwithin schools, and to legitimately define them as forms of school vio-lence. Although conventional wisdom portrayed bullying victimizationas normative within the adolescent experience, findings indicated thatvictims of bullying sustained long-lasting detrimental effects (Olweus,1991, 1993; American Association of University Women EducationalFoundation, 2001; Finkelhor & Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994). In turn, thedefinition of bullying victimization used in school violence researchbecame broader and included may forms of victimization. Lowering thethreshold to measure bullying victimization was necessary becausechildren were found to be more susceptible to physical and emotionalinjury than adults (Finkelhor & Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994). Detrimentalsocial, psychological, and educational outcomes were linked toeven minor forms of adolescent victimization (Finkelhor & Dziuba-Leatherman, 1994; Olweus, 1991, 1993; Nansel et al., 2001; Crick &Bigbee, 1998).

    Student outcomes, such as achievement (Broh, 2002; Crosnoe, 2001;Eccles & Barber, 1999), self-esteem (Marsh & Kleitman, 2003; McHale,Crouler, & Tucker, 2001; Erkut & Tracy, 2002), perception of lifechances (Perry-Burney & Takyi, 2002; Rees & Howell, 1990; Jordan &Nettles, 2000), and educational aspirations (Marsh & Kleitman, 2003;Hanson & Kraus, 1998; Jordan & Nettles, 2000), were related to studentsparticipation in scholastic-related extracurricular activities, such as honorsociety, plays, sports, school bands, and clubs. Furthermore, participationin the aforementioned extracurricular activities reduced the likelihood of

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  • Anthony A. Peguero 73

    detrimental outcomes for students, such as dropping out (Mahoney &Cairns, 1997), substance use (Eccles & Barber, 1999; Colley et al., 1995),sexual activity (Miller et al., 1999), misconduct (Schmidt 2003), and riskybehavior (Eccles et al., 2003; Mahoney & Stattin, 2000). However, theseresults varied between the different categories of extracurricularactivities. For instance, an increase in student alcohol use was linked withinterscholastic sports participation (Zill et al., 1995), while studentsparticipation in classroomrelated routines, such as student government,decreased the likelihood of alcohol consumption (Colley et al., 1995).With the variances within different types of extracurricular activities, theargument to disaggregate extracurricular activities was supported. In turn,there were four distinct categories of extracurricular activities: classroom-related activities, school clubs, intramural sports, and interscholasticsports. Each of the extracurricular activity categories was distinctly linkedto both positive and negative student outcomes.

    Feldman and Matjasko (2005) argued that the categories of extracurric-ular and student activity were related to positive and negative studentoutcomes differently because of the distinctive nature of each extracurric-ular activity. The perceptions of these various extracurricular activities byother students, teachers, and parents were fundamentally different andneeded to be disaggregated (Feldman & Matjasko, 2005). On the otherhand, student misbehavior or involvement with deviant activities wasfound to increase the likelihood of detrimental student outcomes.

    Childrens involvement with deviance, delinquency, and misbehavioroften resulted in an increased likelihood of victimization (Mustaine &Tewksbury, 1998; Schreck, Wright, & Miller, 2002; Decker & VanWinkle, 1996). Once youths participated in deviant or delinquent acts,that behavior was associated with an increased involvement with poten-tially dangerous situations that risk their safety (Mustaine & Tewksbury,1998; Sampson & Lauritsen, 1990; Schreck et al., 2002). Deviant childrenwere often victimized because their relationships, as well as their activi-ties, involved interacting with other devi