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C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicula r Skeleton

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Page 1: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

C h a p t e r

8

The Appendicular

Skeleton

Page 2: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton

The Appendicular Skeleton

126 bones

Allows us to move and manipulate

objects

Includes all bones besides axial

skeleton

The limbs

The supportive girdles

Page 3: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pectoral Girdle

Also called the shoulder girdle

Connects the arms to the body

Positions the shoulders

Provides a base for arm movement

Consists of Two clavicles

Two scapulae

Connects with the axial skeleton only at the manubrium

Page 4: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Clavicles

Also called collarbones

Long, S-shaped bones

Originate at the manubrium (sternal end)

Articulate with the scapulae (acromial end)

Page 5: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Scapula

Articulate with arm and collarbone

Structures of the scapula Anterior surface: the subscapular fossa

Body has three sides:

– superior border

– medial border (vertebral border)

– lateral border (axillary border)

Body has three corners:

– superior angle

– inferior angle

– lateral angle

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Scapula

Glenoid cavity or fossa Articulates with humerus

To form shoulder joint

Coracoid process: anterior, smaller

Acromion: posterior, larger

articulates with clavicle

at the acromioclavicular joint

Page 7: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Scapula

Scapular spine:– ridge across posterior surface of body

Separates two regions: – supraspinous fossa

– infraspinous fossa

Page 8: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Upper Limbs

The upper limbs consist of the arms,

forearms, wrists, and hands

arm (brachium)

Page 9: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Humerus

Head:

Rounded, articulating surface

Contained within joint capsule

Anatomical neck:

Margin of joint capsule

Surgical neck:

The narrow metaphysis

Page 10: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Humerus

The Shaft Deltoid tuberosity:

– a bulge in the shaft

– attaches deltoid muscle

Radial groove:

– for radial nerve

– posterior to deltoid tuberosity

Page 11: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Humerus

The distal epiphysis Medial and lateral epicondyles:

– for muscle attachment Condyle of the humerus:

– articulates with ulna and radius

Articular regions of the condyle Trochlea:

– coronoid fossa and olecranon fossa

– articulates with ulna Capitulum:

– radial fossa– articulates with radius

Page 12: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Forearm

Also called the antebrachium

Consists of two long bones

Ulna (medial)

Radius (lateral)

Page 13: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ulna

The olecranon

Superior end of ulna

Point of elbow

Superior lip of trochlear notch

Articulates with trochlea of humerus

The coronoid process

Inferior lip of trochlear notch

Page 14: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ulna

Articulations with the humerus Forearm extended:

– olecranon enters olecranon fossa Forearm flexed:

– coronoid process enters coronoid fossa

Other articulations Radial notch:

– articulates with head of radius– forms proximal radio-ulnar joint

Ulnar head:– prominent styloid process– attaches to articular disc between forearm and wrist

Page 15: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Radius Lateral bone of forearm

Disk-shaped radial head above the

neck

Radial tuberosity below the neck,

attaches biceps

Articulations of the radius Ulnar notch:

– distal end

– articulates with wrist and radius

Styloid process:

– stabilizes wrist joint

Page 16: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

8 Carpal Bones

Scaphoid

Lunate

Triquetrum

Pisiform

Trapezium

Trapezoid

Capitate

Hamate

Sally loves to play the Trumpet, Tuba, Cello, and Harp

Page 17: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Metacarpals & Phalanges

Metacarpal Bones The five long bones of the hand Numbered I–V from lateral (thumb) to medial Articulate with proximal phalanges

Phalanges of the Hands (14 total finger bones) Pollex (thumb)

Two phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers

Three phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)

Page 18: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Upper Limbs

Figure 8–6a Bones of the Wrist and Hand.

Page 19: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pelvic Girdle

Made up of two hip bones (coxal bones) Strong to bear body weight, stress of

movement Part of the pelvis Coxal bones

Made up of three fused bones Ilium (articulates with sacrum) Ischium Pubis

Page 20: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pelvic Girdle

Coxal Bones The acetabulum

Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and

pubis Is on the lateral surface of the hip bone (coxal

bone) Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)

Acetabular notch A gap in the ridge of the margins of the acetabulum

Page 21: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ilium

Greater sciatic notch

For sciatic nerve

Iliac crest

Upper brim

Iliac fossa

Depression between iliac crest and arcuate line

Page 22: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ischium

Ischial spine Above lesser sciatic

notch

Ischial tuberosity Posterior projection you

sit on

Ischial ramus Meets inferior ramus of

pubis

Superior ramus Meets pubic tubercle

Page 23: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Pubis

Pubic symphysis

Gap between pubic tubercles

Padded with fibrous cartilage

Obturator foramen

Formed by ischial and pubic rami

Attaches hip muscles

Pectineal line

Ridge of superior ramus of pubis

Continues to iliac crest as arcuate line (both of the

ilium)

Page 24: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pelvic Girdle

Coxal Bones Articulations of the pelvic girdle

Sacroiliac joint– Articulation of posterior auricular surface of ilium

– With the sacrum

– Stabilized by ligaments of iliac tuberosity

The Pelvis Consists of two coxal bones, the sacrum, and the coccyx

Stabilized by ligaments of pelvic girdle, sacrum, and lumbar vertebrae

Page 25: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pelvic Girdle

Figure 8–8a The Pelvis.

Page 26: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Pelvic Girdle

Divisions of the Pelvis True pelvis

Encloses pelvic cavity Pelvic brim:

– upper edge of true pelvis – encloses pelvic inlet

Perineum region:– inferior edges of true pelvis– forms pelvic outlet– perineal muscles support organs of pelvic cavity

False pelvis: Blades of ilium above arcuate line

Page 27: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Comparing the Male Pelvis and Female Pelvis

Female pelvis Smoother and lighter Pelvis modifications for Childbearing

– enlarged pelvic outlet

– broad pubic angle (>100°)

– less curvature of sacrum and coccyx

– wide, circular pelvic inlet

– broad, low pelvis

– ilia project laterally, not upwards

Page 28: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

The Lower Limbs

Bones of the Lower Limbs

Femur (thigh)

Patella (kneecap)

Tibia and fibula (leg)

Tarsals (ankle)

Metatarsals (foot)

Phalanges (toes)

Page 29: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Femur

The proximal epiphysis Femoral head:

– articulates with pelvis at acetabulum

– attaches at fovea capitis

The neck:

– Narrow area between head and

trochanters

– Joins shaft at angle

Page 30: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Femur

The proximal epiphysis

Trochanters:

– greater trochanter and lesser

trochanter:

» tendon attachments

– intertrochanteric line (anterior) and

intertrochanteric crest (posterior):

» mark edge of articular capsule

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Femur

The shaft Linea aspera:

– most prominent ridge of shaft– attaches hip muscles– joins epicondyles

The distal epiphysis Medial epicondyle and lateral epicondyle:

– above the knee joint

Medial condyle and lateral condyle:– separated by intercondylar fossa and patellar surface– form part of knee joint

Page 32: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Patella

Also called the kneecap

A sesamoid bone

Formed within tendon of

quadriceps femoris

Base attaches quadriceps

femoris

Apex attaches patellar

ligament

Page 33: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Tibia

The proximal epiphysis

Medial and lateral tibial

condyles:

– separated by intercondylar

eminence

– articulate with medial and lateral

condyles of femur

Tibial tuberosity:

– attaches patellar ligament

Page 34: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Tibia

The shaft

Anterior margin:

– sharp ridge of shinbone

The distal epiphysis

Medial malleolus:

– medial projection at the ankle

Page 35: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Fibula

Attaches muscles of feet and toes

Smaller than tibia

Lateral to tibia

Page 36: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Fibula

Articulations with tibia Fibula/tibia articulations:

– head

– inferior tibiofibular joint

Interosseous

membrane:

– binds fibula to tibia

Lateral malleolus:

– lateral projection of ankle

Page 37: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ankle

Also called the tarsus Consists of seven tarsal

bones Bones of the ankle

Talus:– carries weight from tibia across

trochlea Calcaneus (heel bone):

– transfers weight from talus to ground

– attaches calcaneal (Achilles) tendon

Cuboid:– articulates with calcaneus

Page 38: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Ankle

Navicular:– articulates with talus and three

cuneiform bones

Medial cuneiform

Intermediate cuneiform

Lateral cuneiform

Page 39: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Metatarsal Bones of the Foot

Five long bones of foot

Numbered I–V, medial to

lateral

Articulate with toes

Page 40: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Phalanges of the foot

14 bones of the toes

Hallux

Big toe or great toe, two phalanges (distal,

proximal)

Other four toes

Three phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)

Page 41: C h a p t e r 8 The Appendicular Skeleton. An Introduction to the Appendicular Skeleton  The Appendicular Skeleton  126 bones  Allows us to move and

Arches of the Feet

Arches transfer weight from one part of the foot to another The longitudinal arch

Calcaneal portion:– lateral

Talar portion:– medial

The transverse arch Formed by a difference in curvature between

medial and lateral borders of the foot