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  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania


    Equator Initiative Case StudiesLocal sustainable development solutions for people, nature, and resilient communities



    Empowered live

    Resilient nation

  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania



    Local and indigenous communities across the world are advancing innovative sustainable development solutions that wo

    or people and or nature. Few publications or case studies tell the ull story o how such initiatives evolve, the breadth

    their impacts, or how they change over time. Fewer still have undertaken to tell these stories with community practition

    themselves guiding the narrative.

    To mark its 10-year anniversary, the Equator Initiative aims to ll this gap. The ollowing case study is one in a growing ser

    that details the work o Equator Prize winners vetted and peer-reviewed best practices in community-based environmenconservation and sustainable livelihoods. These cases are intended to inspire the policy dialogue needed to take local succ

    to scale, to improve the global knowledge base on local environment and development solutions, and to serve as models

    replication. Case studies are best viewed and understood with reerence toThe Power of Local Action: Lessons from 10 Years

    the Equator Prize, a compendium o lessons learned and policy guidance that draws rom the case material.

    Click on the map to visit the Equator Initiatives searchable case study database.

    EditorsEditor-in-Chief: Joseph CorcoranManaging Editor: Oliver Hughes

    Contributing Editors: Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Erin Lewis, Whitney Wilding

    Contributing WritersEdayatu Abieodun Lamptey, Erin Atwell, Toni Blackman, Jonathan Clay, Joseph Corcoran, Larissa Currado, Sarah Gordon, Oliver Hughe

    Wen-Juan Jiang, Sonal Kanabar, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Rachael Lader, Patrick Lee, Erin Lewis, Jona Liebl, Mengning Ma,

    Mary McGraw, Gabriele Orlandi, Juliana Quaresma, Peter Schecter, Martin Sommerschuh, Whitney Wilding, Luna Wu

    DesignOliver Hughes, Dearbhla Keegan, Matthew Konsa, Amy Korngiebel, Kimberly Koserowski, Erin Lewis, John Mulqueen, Lorena de la Pa

    Brandon Payne, Mariajos Satizbal G.

    AcknowledgementsThe Equator Initiative acknowledges with gratitude the Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT), and in particular the guidance a

    inputs o Edward Loure Parmelo and Paul Senyael. All photo credits courtesy o UCRT. Maps courtesy o CIA World Factbook and Wikiped

    Suggested CitationUnited Nations Development Programme. 2012. Ujamaa Community Resource Team, Tanzania. Equator Initiative Case Study Series. N

    York, NY.
  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania


    PROJECT SUMMARYUjamaa Community Resource Team works acrossnorthern Tanzania to help secure land and resource rightsor pastoralist, agro-pastoralist, and hunter-gatherercommunities, many o whom are negatively aected bythe existence o the countrys large protected areas. Thegroups approach has capitalized on Tanzanias village landlegislation, which allows communities to develop by-lawsand land use plans or their customary lands, and has alsoocused on improving the ecosystem management capacityo these communities.

    By guiding socially marginalized groups through thearduous process o securing ocial rights to land, the NGOhas secured several landmark agreements, including thelegal demarcation o the rst village or hunter-gatherersin Tanzania. Capacity-building, confict resolution, andsustainable livelihoods programming have underpinned theinitiatives work, helping to demonstrate the eectivenesso these rural communities as land and resource managers.



    FOUNDED: 1998

    LOCATION: Northern Tanzania

    BENEFICIARIES: Pastoralist & agro-pastoralist communiti

    BIODIVERSITY: Community-conserved areas




    Background and Context 4

    Key Activities and Innovations 5

    Biodiversity Impacts 7

    Socioeconomic Impacts 7

    Policy Impacts 9

    Sustainability 10

    Replication 10

    Partners 10

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    Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT) is a non-prot

    nvironmental and social justice organization that works with

    ndigenous groups o dierent cultures in northern Tanzania. The

    arget communities are those who depend on communal resource

    management regimes to support their livelihoods.

    Threats facing ethnic minorities

    UCRTs work began in 1998, under what was known as TAZAMA

    rust, beore its ocial registration in 2002. The organization

    ims to strengthen the capacity o ethnic minorities in northern

    anzania, principally pastoralists and hunter-gatherers such as

    he Maasai, Barabaig, Akie, Sonjo and Hadzabe. The livelihoods ohese communities are under threat by overexploitation o natural

    esources, political marginalization, and limited resources and access

    o knowledge. Marginalization has been urther exacerbated by the

    eographical remoteness o many ethnic minority communities; the

    illage nearest to Arusha, or example, is 85 kilometres away, while

    ome are as ar as 370 kilometres rom the nearest urban centre.

    Making law and policy work for marginalized communities

    UCRTs goal is improved welare o villages in marginalized areas

    hrough community-based natural resource management.

    articipatory natural resource governance is a central tenet o

    he organizations work, as is building on customary institutions,ommunity-based land management practices, and traditional

    esource governance systems. UCRT views law and policy as

    nstruments or empowering resource-dependent communities,

    while also acknowledging the barriers they can (and oten do) pose

    o local empowerment. By supporting community-based natural

    esource management, local institutions, and community land

    ghts, the organization aims not only to protect the rich biodiversity

    round the Serengeti and Tarangire ecosystems, but also to protect

    ommunities rom the growing trend o illegitimate and exploitative

    and appropriation.

    The organization works with 40 villages in six districts acros

    regions o Arusha, Manyara, and Shinyanga. Capacity building

    training is oered to each village in how best to positively infu

    and leverage existing policies and legal processes. Local govern

    reorm in Tanzania has created opportunities or resou

    dependent communities to secure collective property rights

    resource entitlements. Taking advantage o these opportun

    however, requires knowledge o where and how best to advoca

    rights. For this reason, UCRT has ocused on education and tra

    or community leaders building their capacity to meaning

    engage with policymaking processes and with the legal ramew

    that govern land and resource access.

    Background and Context

  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania



    Key Activities and Innovations

    UCRT works primarily with pastoralists, agro-pastoralists, andunter-gatherers. The goal is to help these typically marginalized

    ommunities secure land and resource rights, improve their natural

    esource management capacity, develop the skills and tools to

    manage their resources more eectively, establish community

    onserved areas based on indigenous land management practices,

    nd to enhance the economic benets accruing rom their lands and

    cosystems (largely through ecotourism). The geographic scope o

    he initiative is northern Tanzania, including the biodiversity-rich

    reas o the Serengeti and Tarangire. UCRT work alls into our

    ey areas: land use, natural resource management, community

    mpowerment, and advocacy.

    and use and securing tenureOne central component o the UCRT work is the development o

    and use plans that ensure communities have secure property rights

    nd resource access. Since the Tanzanian Land Act o 1999, ocial

    ocumentation is needed to support land claims. To obtain a village

    and or customary right-o-occupancy certicate, communities

    must produce land use plans stating who will be given what

    and, and or what purpose. UCRT then has been involved in the

    urveying, mapping and demarcation o community lands to ease

    nter-community conficts and the process o ormalizing tenure. In

    ddition to support with drating land use plans, UCRT also helps to

    acilitate the implementation o plans within the villages.

    Community-based natural resource management

    A second key area in which Ujamaa works is the management o

    atural resources. The intention is to ensure that villages are able

    o identiy and document the natural resources that are available to

    hem, and to take advantage o those that can sustainably leveraged

    o greatest economic and social benet. To assist in this process,

    UCRT orms committees within village councils to oversee resource

    plans and to monitor resource use. This resource mapping exercise

    as also resulted in innovative partnerships between communities

    and cultural tourism operators, establishing ethno-touenterprises which provide communities with an additional sour

    income. In these instances, UCRT has ensured that there is a bala

    relationship between the tourism enterprise and the commun

    particularly in the areas o land and resource access. Other succe

    ventures have included a number o womens village bomas: arti

    cooperative groups which have ormed to market local product

    part o its resource management work, UCRT employs comm

    members as game scouts, providing bicycles, GPS devices and o

    equipment to ensure the protection and monitoring o end

    species. The organization is also involved in the developme

    resource management by-laws. These laws a drawn up by UCRT

    village-level input, are reviewed at the way and district levels,

    are then put into practice by local government authorities.

    Community empowerment & building on local instituti

    Another dimension o UCRT work is community empowerment

    majority o work in this area has involved work with village cou

    governing bodies that are created by the central governm

    but which have oten received very little ormal training on g

    governance standards, nancial management planning (inclu

    the allocation o village revenues), and land managem

    responsibilities. UCRT has lled this vacuum by providing works

    or village council members on some o these issues, and by ma

    available basic narrative reports on their work. Each village co

    is composed o three committees: security, nancial managemand planning, and general development issues. UCRT pro

    appropriate training in each o these areas or the village mem

    who participate in specic committees. Trainings also inc

    inormation on land and resource legislation, such as that conta

    in local government reorm programs. Through these train

    communities are supported to better understand their land r

    under Tanzanian law. In addition, inormation is provided on

    role and unctioning o village land tribunals (Mabaraza ya a

    and village assemblies, which are oten the arbiters o village


  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania



    obbying and advocacy

    Another important aspect o UCRT work is educating communities

    n existing and emerging government policies so they are equipped

    with the inormation needed to eectively lobby or their rights and

    dvocate or policy reorm. Among the most important policies

    ncluded in this orientation is Tanzanias National Strategy or Growth

    nd the Reduction o Poverty (MKUKUTA), a development ramework

    which constitutes the nations roadmap or delivering on a Vision025 plan. Inroads into this strategy have ocused on economic

    rowth and the reduction o poverty, improved quality o lie and

    ocial wellbeing, and improved governance and accountability.

    Guidance is also given on other important legislation such as: the

    roperty and Business Formalisation Programme (MKURABITA),

    which has aimed at acilitating the transormation o property and

    usiness entities in the inormal sector into legally held and majority

    perated entities in the ormal sector; the Local Government Reorm

    rogramme, which has aimed to empower local government

    uthorities to improve the quality, access to and equitable delivery

    o public services; and the Strategic Plan or the Implementa

    o Land Laws, which has been an attempt to coordinate Tanza

    various land laws the Land Act (1999), the Village Land Act (1

    and the Land Disputes Courts Act (2002).

    Through on-site training, UCRT has been able to raise awarene

    these dierent policies and how they relate to community na

    resource management. Communities are advised on how

    can react to new laws, and on how to argue or the amendmencontentious passages. For example, community capacity building

    been particularly important in cases where communities have b

    dispossessed o land or commercial conservation purposes.

    while UCRT has served as an early warning system or commun

    on unair land legislation, they have also evolved the unctio

    giving local communities a direct voice in legislative proce

    Communities have been empowered to contact and lobby

    politicians, and have been given the foor at parliamentary hear

    or the Wildlie Act (2010) and Tanzanian Rangeland Act (2010).

    Policy makers should consider the needs of local people before they impose policies. By th

    same token, traditional means of conserving wildlife have been successful for generations an

    should be recognised. Conservation and the safeguarding of local livelihoods are not opposin

    goals and can be pursued together.

    Edward Loure Parmelo, Coordinator, UCRT

  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania





    Ujamaa has had a considerable impact on biodiversity in northern

    Tanzania, primarily through the creation o community-conserved

    reas in key wildlie corridors and habitats o the Serengeti

    ecosystem. Notable among the conservation areas have been

    oliondo and Simanjiro, which contain important populations o

    wildebeest, Arican wild dogs, cheetahs, and oryx.

    An important acet o UCRT work has been to balance conservation

    priorities, community resource needs and eco-tourism enterprise

    mbitions. The organization has helped ecotourism ventures and

    other commercial interests understand the incentives o conservingvegetation or both livestock and wildlie, as opposed to converting

    and to agriculture. Through its easement program, started in

    2005, tour operating companies give USD 5,000 annually to villages

    owning land adjacent to Tarangire (in which the wildebeest come to

    graze) in return or community commitment to conserving the land.

    Contracts are drawn up between the villages and tour operators to

    ensure that the conservation o biodiversity and the socio-economic

    well-being o participating communities are legally secured.

    UCRT has also worked to mitigate wildlie-livestock confict, which

    nevitably leads to tensions between the local population and

    wildlie. For example, wildebeest rom Tarangire National Park

    migrate to Simanjiro during the wet season, carrying diseases thatre atal to cattle. This has meant that communities are unable to

    graze their herds on these lands. UCRT has worked with eected

    ommunities to develop alternative strategies that allow or healthy

    vestock eeding and protection o the wildebeest populations.

    ecuring land and resource rights or local communities has

    produced biodiversity benets in the orm o more eective land

    management and providing the kind o certainty which makes

    or long-term land investments. One notable case o a community

    eclaiming its territory was in Hanang. In the 1970s, the state-owned

    corporation NAFCO appropriated 100,000 acres o land

    pastoralists in Hanang to grow wheat, leaving thousands o am

    landless. Ater mismanagement o the arms and ailure o the w

    project, the government decided to grant some o the land ba

    the Hanang pastoralists. The process was subverted, howeve

    local politicians who proposed awarding the land to Mount Ha

    cultivators instead. With the support o Oxam Ireland, UCRT

    able to put pressure on the government to return the land to

    pastoralists. Eventually, 28,000 acres o land were returned to

    Mingenyi, Mogitu, Mulbadaw, Gidika, Basotu and Gawidu vill

    beneting more than 8,000 amilies.

    Another example o UCRT advocacy or the return o commland comes rom Emboreet, where pastoralists living along

    eastern edge o Tarangire National Park were similarly disposse

    o 29,000 hectares o land by the government. In this inst

    the lands were appropriated or a large-scale, commercial

    cultivation project. When the project ailed, the government assu

    rights to the land rather than returning them to the pastoralist

    response, UCRT partnered with the Wildlie Conservation Socie

    appeal or the return o the land to its rightul occupants. A

    lengthy negotiation, all 29,000 hectares o land were returned t



    One o the main socioeconomic impacts o UCRT work has bee

    ostering o private sector partnerships that have enabled vil

    to earn income rom wildlie conservation by way o commu

    based ecotourism ventures. In Ngorongoro district alone, s

    Maasai villages have used ecotourism to increase their incomes

    approximately USD 30,000 in 1998 to over USD 300,000 in 2

    Participating villages also created cultural bomas, where wo

    produce artisanal goods which are sold to tourists. UCRT condu

    training in each village on community-based natural reso

    management and the development o land-use plans.

  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania


    Rather than have ecotourism exist in isolation rom other economic

    and social activities, UCRT emphasised balancing ecotourism

    priorities with other environmental and economic considerations.

    Participating villages were provided with access to legal aid during

    negotiations with prospective tourism operators, ensuring that

    contracts were not asymmetrically weighted towards the interests

    o private sector partners. For example, in the village o Engaresero,

    UCRT assisted in drawing up a participatory and transparent contract

    between the community and the tour operator which, among otherhings, recognized the communitys rights to their natural resources.

    The ecotourism enterprise generated employment or nine villagers,

    while annual income in 2009 alone cleared USD 30,000. Revenues

    have subsequently been invested into school inrastructure, school

    ees, a rotating loan scheme or women and youth, health service

    provision, and the construction o a health centre.

    UCRT works through the Olalaa Pastoralist Development Initiatives,

    Simanjiro Women Income Generating Group, and Hanang women

    groups to empower and support alternative livelihoods projects

    or local women. To date, more than 20 womens cooperatives

    have been ormed. Each o the groups is engaged in subsistence

    arming on small, two-acre plots o land. Each has been providedwith an ox-plough, which has eased the manual labor burden and

    mproved arm productivity. Local womens cooperatives have also

    been provided with goats (more than 600 to date), allowing them

    diversiy their livelihoods with livestock rearing. UCRT has also

    used these groups to promote genetic diversity and agricultural

    diversication, distributing over 300 kilograms o bean seeds and

    over 100 kilograms o maize seeds.

    Womens empowerment programs are operated in conjunction

    with the Pastoral Womens Council o Tanzania: an NGO working

    with pastoralist groups in northern Tanzania to advance womens

    ights and the education o Masaai girls. Since its inception, UCRT

    has recognized the empowerment o women as an essential

    dimension o its work to secure community-based property rights

    and land tenure. They recognized that a ractured community

    whether along ethnic, economic or gender lines cannot advocate

    as successully or collective rights as one in which the rights o

    members o the community are given equal consideration. As s

    UCRT mobilized women to become active and visible in the deand implementation o community projects. In partnership

    a number o dierent advocacy groups and non-governme

    organizations, UCRT provides trainings to women in land r

    issues, economic independence and livelihoods diversica

    (including beadwork, soap-making and ecotourism). Local wo

    have not only become participants in land rights advocacy

    active leaders and champions o community-based property rig

    The organization has been equally active in promoting literacy

    opening up access to schools and education or geographi

    economically and socially marginalized youth. UCRT has a prog

    in place which covers secondary school ees or children rom backgrounds who have passed their primary school exams, but

    are unable to attend classes because o inadequate nances. A

    time this report was written, more than 150 students were b

    supported to attend school through this program. Scholar

    have also been extended to both pastoralist amilies and the rem

    hunter-gatherer communities o Hadzabe and Akie to cover tu

    clothing and transportation expenses. In a related initiative, U

    unded construction o a local orphanage and currently supp

    33 orphans to attend secondary school. An important stipula

    o UCRT support or scholarships and school ees is that stud

    that graduate are required to return to the village or a minimu

    three years and act as a peer educator. Students receiving sup

    through UCRT are brought together at an annual orum, whereshare experiences and plans or uture collaboration.

    UCRT has also mainstreamed HIV/AIDS education and aware

    raising into its programs, with a particular outreach ocus on rem

    and marginalized villages. The organization has leveraged its

    educators to disseminate knowledge o the disease and ho

    is transmitted among ethnic minorities such as the Maasai

    Barabaig tribes.


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    UCRT is one o the only organizations in Tanzania to eectively bridge

    he gap between national government land policies and community-

    ased property rights regimes. In 2008, UCRT mobilized a critical

    mass o community representatives to travel to Dodoma in an eort

    o convince Tanzanian parliament to reject a proposed Wildlie Bill.

    Had it not been voted down, the bill would have orced pastoralist

    ommunities out o Game Controlled Areas, which were unilaterallyoned without community consultation as strict conservation

    reas, thereby stripping these communities o their traditional

    velihoods. Most recently, the organization helped to ensure that

    ommunity voices were included in hearings on the Wildlie Act

    2009) and the Rangeland Act (2010). The organization serves an

    ssential communication and advocacy unction, linking pastoralist

    ommunities into dialogue with government representatives and

    ther key stakeholders.

    Navigating government bureaucracy and local politics is a

    rogrammatic constant or UCRT. Even when land use plans and

    enure arrangements has been agreed upon within and betweenommunities, there are oten signicant delays at the local level o

    government where the approval process or village by-laws t

    place. Addressing the barriers aced to getting by-laws appr

    can be both time-consuming and costly. As one example, dis

    ocials require payment to participate in by-law approval meet

    ocials oten charge by the USD 32 per day or a process tha

    run as long as three to our weeks. At one stage o the app

    process, nine district ocials are required.

    In July o 2009, the national government supported a orcommercial hunting company to orcibly evict eight Maasai vil

    rom land adjacent to Serengeti National Park village inrastruc

    and Maasai cultural bomas where burned to the ground. This wa

    latest incident in a long history o dispute over an area o land

    has been sustainably managed by Maasai peoples or generat

    The eviction aected more than 10,000 pastoralists and displ

    more than 50,000 heads o their cattle, many o which died in

    ollowing months due to insucient grazing areas and scarce ac

    to water. Although the people remain dispossessed, UCRT has

    able to involve local, national and international media and ri

    groups in documenting the plight o these communities. Knowl

    o the eviction within Tanzania has increased and pressure has put on the government to launch an ocial inquiry into the inci


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    Sustainability and Replication

    SUSTAINABILITYUCRT is nancially dependent on donor support. The organization

    as been able to sustain its work through a number o dierent part-

    ership programs, ranging rom one-o to continuous unding. For

    xample, Dorobo Fund and Oxam Ireland are annual donors, while

    UCRT received a GEF-Small Grants Programme grant o USD 27,000

    or 2009-2010. And while individual communities are engaged in

    co-tourism ventures, UCRT itsel does not operate prot-making

    nterprises. The organization is currently seeking a long-term donor

    o support its work and ensure the long-term nancial viability o its


    Organisational sustainability is ensured by employing sta members

    rom within the communities where UCRT works. The majority o

    ta remains connected with grassroots initiatives, and many divide

    heir time between on-site activities and the UCRT oce in Arusha.

    Field acilitators are permanently based in participating villages to

    llow or easy communication between the eld and headquarters.

    ta are also supported to pursue degree and certicate programs,

    or instance at the Arusha-based Training Centre or Development

    Cooperation or at Kenyatta University, Nairobi.


    UCRT has been a model o peer-to-peer learning and successul rep-

    cation. The organization has been able to secure land and resource

    enure or more than 40 village communities. Not only have these

    illages beneted rom improved tenure security, but communities

    ave also been supported to improve and diversiy their livelihoods.

    he key to UCRTs success has been a combination o holistic land

    se plans and leveraging village by-laws. The organizations model

    o empowering communities to advocate or security o tenure

    been transerred on a demand-driven basis; several commun

    have approached UCRT to request support in applying the mod

    land use and resource management planning in their village.

    Peer-to-peer knowledge exchanges have been critical or UC

    eectively mobilizing support or policy change and land re

    so too, partnerships with groups such as the Pastoralist Indige

    Non-Governmental Organisations Forum and Pastoral Wom

    Council have created a support structure and board-based coa

    on which eective lobbying eorts have been built. It is thro

    partnerships that the responsibilities and risks associated with

    vocacy are shared.


    Arican Initiatives (a UK-based NGO) was initially an impo

    donor, but phased out their support in 2007

    OXFAM Ireland makes annual nancial contributions

    Norwegian Peoples Aid (NPA) makes annual na


    UNDP-implemented GEF-Small Grants Programme provid

    grant or 2009-2010 (USD 27,000)

    Wildlie Conservation Society makes an annual na

    contribution Cordaid (Netherlands-based NGO) makes an annual na


    Pastoralist Indigenous Non-Governmental Organisations Fo

    (PINGOs Forum) advocates at the national level or indige


  • 7/27/2019 Case Studies UNDP: UJAMAA COMMUNITY RESOURCE TEAM, Tanzania


    Equator Initiative

    Environment and Energy GroupUnited Nations Development Programme (UNDP)

    304 East 45th Street, 6th Floor

    New York, NY 10017

    Tel: +1 646 781 4023

    The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the UNs global development network, advocating or change and

    necting countries to knowledge, experience and resources to help people build a better lie.

    The Equator Initiative brings together the United Nations, governments, civil society, businesses and grassroots organizati

    o recognize and advance local sustainable development solutions or people, nature and resilient communities.

    2012 by Equator Initiative

    All rights reserved


    Ujamaa Community Resource Team (UCRT). 2010. Participatory Land Use Planning as a Tool for Community Empowerment in Nort

    Tanzania. IIED, Gatekeeper 147, December (with Fred Nelson, Malisaili Initiatives).

    ResourceArica UK,A Plain Plan, (YouTube)

    Ujamaa Community Resource Team PhotoStory (Vimeo) (English) (Swahili)

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