cauliflower - cultivation aspects
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VSC 602 Production Technology of Cool Season Vegetable Crops (2+1)
VSC 602 Production Technology of Cool Season Vegetable Crops (2+1)PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF CAULIFLOWER
IntroductionCauliflower is one of the most important Cole crop grown as vegetable throughout the world.Now it grown in both temperate and tropical areas.It is originated from wild cabbage B. oleracea L. var. sylvestris L.
Cauliflower Botanical name Brassica olerace var. BotrytisFamily Brassicaceae / CruciferaeChromosome number2n=18Edible part Curd
Origin B. oleracea var. botrytis L. is believed to have originated in Cyperus or somewhere in southern part of Europe around meditteranion coast.It is originated in the island of Cyperus from moved to Syria, Turky, Egypt, Italy, Spain and north western Europe (bosewell, 1949)
In middle 16th century first illustration description herbalist Dodoens (1544)18th century popularized Different types of cauliflowers is there
typesoriginCornishEngland NorthernEngland Roscoff France AngersFrance Erfurts or snowfallGermany & netherlands
Cornish type 1st introduction India contribute resist genes Eg. Black rot, self incompatibility curd flavor, open plant habit and exposed yellow loose curds (swarup and chatterjee, 1972)Indian cauliflower early maturing annual type tolerant High temperature and humid condition.
History Caulis latin cabbageFlori flowerBotrytis buddingIn introduced in India at 1822 by Dr. Jemson a botanist from Kew. (Saharanpur Northern plains) (Swarup and Chatterjee, 1972)
AREA AND PRODUCTION
Botany Edible potion is the white curd like mass composed of a close aggregation of abortive flowers, developed on thick bunches of the inflorescence. This is called as curd.Curd is made numerous hypertrophic branch it terminate main stem and highly suppressed with no part of flower apparent there. (kato 1964)
Composition It is a source of vitamin A and C.(Nath, 1976)Energy 31 caloriesProtein 2.4gCalcium 22mgVitamin A 40 IUAscorbic acid 70 mgThiamine 0.2mgRiblovin 0.1mgNiacin 0.57mg (Conew 1959)
Uses Cauliflower used to prepare dishesSeedling used for salads and greensCurd used for curries, soups and pickles.Curd is cut in to pieces, dried and preserved for off-season use.
Indian Vs European CauliflowerTROPICAL TYPE/INDIANEUROPEAN/ERFURT/SNOWFALL TYPEHeat tolerant Non-tolerant Curd can form at 20-27 c5-20 c (10-16coptimum)Annual typeBiennialEarly Late Curd yellow with strong flavorWhite with mild flavorShort juvenile phase Long juvenile phase
Varieties and hybrids Cauliflower varieties are very responsive to temperature and photoperiod.Require specific temperature for their curd and development.According to temperature requirement varieties have been classified in 5 groups (Singh and Nath, 2011)
Extra early temperature (20 27c)Early kunwari PAU, PunjabLeaves are bluish green with waxy bloomsPartial blanching habit curdColour cremishField tolerant to alternaria blight and block rotSensitive to ricyness
Pusa early synthetic IARI, New Delhi.Curd is yellowish whitePlanting End of June or 1st week of JulyCurd yield 110q/Ha
Early selection Nursery May JuneMature at 70-75 DAS
Pusa meghna Plants collected from Hazipur (Bihar) using recurrent selection methodCurds are white, weight is 350-400gSemi spreading plants with 5-7 cm long stalks and 45-48 cm heightMaturity about 90-100 days
Ati shigra (F1) (NS 1351)Curd weight 0.5Kg mature at 50 days.White colour and good firmness
Himlata Tolerant to high temperature and grow in summer.Mature in 50-55 Days after planting.White colour curd, Popular and well known to Throught country.
Himdev Grow in summer and rainy seasonMature within 35-40 Days after planting.
Basant (F1) (NS 245)White curd colour, semi dome shaped and good firmnessCurd weight 1 1.5Kg maturity at 55-60 daysPerform well in southern states
Early group (20-25c)Pusa deepaliIARI, New DelhiInbreeding through local collectionCrop duration 100-120daysHot weather cauliflower creamy whiteHighly tolerant to ricyness and fuzzyness
Arka kanti IIHR, Bengaluru25 tones/ haHeads white compact
Sharvani Curd pure white and dome shaped Tolerant to soft rot (Erwina sp.)Suitable for rainy season cultivation
Medium group (16-19c)Improved japanese Introduction from israel 90 95 days for maturity145q/ha
Pusa himjyoti IARI, Reginol station, katrainCurds are pure white and they retain their colour even after exposure150 170q/ha
Pusa hybrid 2 Resistant to downy mildew Curd cream white23 tones/ha
Somersat Better heat tolerant Curd weight 2KgSelf blanchingTolerant to fusarium wilt
Mid late group 12-16cPusa syntheticIARI, New DelhiSome what Self blanchedMature at 130 days from sowingThis is the 1st synthetic variety recommended vegetable cropsSet seeds without sacrificing yieldTolerant to curd blight
Romanesco Self blanching typeGood source of vitamin c and antiaging, wound healing, degreesing blood chloestral 120-125 DA Transplanting
Late group (10-16c)Pusa snowfall 1RRS Katrain intervarietal cross EC 12012XEC 12013Snow white colour curd
Pusa snowfall K 1Selection made at Katrain from exotic materialTolerant to black rot disease and curd and inflorescence blight Best quality curds among snowball types
Ooty 1It is a selection from OP progenies of local types and released from Horticultural Research Station Ooty. Compact uniform curds with attractive creamy white colour. Curd is free from ricyness and have good keeping quality
Self blanched variety Pusa DeepaliSelf blanched and offseason variety Pusa Himjyoti and Hisar 1Tolerant to black rot disease and curd and inflorescence blight Pusa snowfall K-1Highly resistant to black rot and free Riceyness Pusa katkiTolerant to curd Curd and inflorescence blight Pusa synthetic.
Climate Thermo sensitive cropOptimum temperature required range from 20 to 25 c in sep to Oct and 5 to 10 c during Dec to JanTropical type curd formation 20 to 25cTemperate annuals curd formation 10 cto 16c
At high altitudes the longer day length promotes much faster growth of the plant (Salter 1960)The optimum temperature for growth of young plants is around 23C and 1720C in later stages.
SoilIt can be grown in wide range of soil with good fertility.light soil are more sensitive to drought and therefore, adequate moisture supply is important.Light soil early crop, loam and clay soils mid and late season crops.
ContCauliflower is relatively more sensitive to deficiency of boron and molybdenum respectively it cause browning and whiptail. Also it has high requirement of magnesium.Magnesium deficiency appear in acid soil.
ContHigh ph reduces the availability of boroncauliflower require on an average ph range of 5.5 to 6.6ph and below 5.5ph it would be necessary to do liming at the rate of 4 to 8 tonnes/ha.
Season(Swarup and Chatterjee,1972)GROUP TEMPERATURETIME OF SOWING SEEDTIME OF CURD MATURITYEARLY MATURITY EARLY I20 27cMAY TO JUNESEPTEMBEREARLY II20 25cFIRST FORTNIGHT OF JULYOCT. TO MID NOV.MID SEASON MATURITY GROUP II16 20cJULY-AUGUSTLATE NOV. TO MID DEC.MID LATE MATURITY GROUP III12 16 cSEPTEMBERLATE DEC. TO MID JANLATE MATURITY GROUP (SNOWBALL TYPE)10 16cOCTOBERMID JAN ONWARDS
Crop rotationMaximum returns obtained from cauliflower Tomato Okra (Randhawa and Singh, 1977) and Late crops spinach
Randhawa and Saini, 1996Cauliflower Tomato Okra Brinjal - Cauliflower Bottle GourdCauliflower (early) Radish Chilli Okra - Cauliflower (Main Crop) French BeanMaize Cauliflower(mid Season) BrinjalCauliflower (early) OnionCauliflower (early) Carrot (Seed Crop)Cauliflower (early) Radish (Seed Crop)Garlic Turnip - Cauliflower Blackgram Cauliflower (Late) CowpeaCluster Bean Cauliflower (Main Crop)- Bitter Gourd
Seed treatment Prior to sowing seeds are treated with fungal culture of Trichoderma viride (4 g/ kg of seed) or Thiram (3g/ kg of seed) or to avoid damage from damping-off carbendazim (3g/ kg of seed) (pythium, Rhizoctonia) disease.Streptocycline 1.5g/kg of seed for control black rot or hot water treatment with 50 c for 30 minutes.
Nursery practices Early crop 500-600g/haMid and late crop 350-400gBed preparation The soil of the nursery beds should be reduced to the finest possible tilth before sowing and manuring FYM or Compost @10kg/m2Length is convenient and width 1m, height 30cm
Sowing method The seed sown thinly (15-20seed per 30cm) in rows and not more than 1.5-2cm deep.The rows should be 7cm apart.Seeds are covered after sowing with 0.5-1cm of soil.Mulching material (dry grass) can be used to cover the bed after sowing. It should be removed after seed sprouting(3-4 days),
After sowing the seedbed irrigate frequently using rose cane twice a day. And channel between the two beds watered alternate days or every third day.Watering should be withheld 3-4 days before transplanting so that seedlings get hardened.Before uprooting, the beds are thoroughly soaked water to facilitate to remove for transplanting.
ProtrayThe protrays of 98 cells are ideal for cauliflower seedling production. Around 600 Protrays are required for of 28,333 seedlings required for one hectare at a spacing of 60x45x45 cm in three row planting.
Protected nurseryRaise the seedlings in shade net house. A nursery area of 5 cents with slanting slope of 2% is required for the production of seedlings for 1 ha.Cover the nursery area with 50 per cent shade net and the sides with 40/50 mesh insect proof nylon net. Form the raised beds of 1m width and convenient length inside the nursery and above the beds, place the protrays.
Growing mediumThe sterilized coco peat @