causes, consequences, and costs of war and militarism martin donohoe

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Causes, Consequences, and Costs of War and Militarism Martin Donohoe Slide 2 Contemporary Wars 250 wars in the 20 th Century 72 million lives lost in 20 th Century wars, another 52 million through genocides Incidence of war rising since 1950 Slide 3 Epidemiology of Warfare Deaths in war: 17 th Century = 19/million population 18 th Century = 19/million population 19 th Century = 11/million population 20 th Century = 183/million population Increasing casualties to civilians 85-90% in 20 th Century (vs. 10% late 19 th Century) Slide 4 War Deaths, 1945-2010 Slide 5 War Deaths Korean War: 3 million Vietnam War: 1.7 million Iran-Iraq War: 700,000 Soviet War in Afghanistan: 1.5 million Second Congo War: 3.8 million Second Sudanese Civil War: 1.9 million Slide 6 War Deaths (as of 5/5/13) First Gulf War: 105,000 military and 110,000 civilian deaths (almost all Iraqis) Second Iraq War: 4,488 U.S. soldiers; over 17,000 Iraqi military U.S. Afghan War: 2220 U.S. soldiers; approximately 1,100 coalition forces Slide 7 Iraq and Afghanistan Wars Civilian deaths 193,000 violent; 1 -1.5 million indirect Financial cost: $1.5-5 trillion (est.) Higher estimate includes fighting, rebuilding, veterans health care, economic losses, etc. Slide 8 Iraq and Afghanistan Wars More US soldiers have committed suicide than have died in Afghan War Veteran health care needs massive (TBI, psychiatric disorders, etc.) 26% of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans are uninsured and not part of the VA health care system Young veterans: believe war in Afghanistan was not worth fighting; 60% for Iraq War Slide 9 Contemporary Warfare 20 th Century: Chemical and biological weapons Small arms 90% of the 300,000 yearly deaths from violent conflict Land mines 24,000 deaths/yr, tens of thousands more disabled Slide 10 Contemporary Warfare 20 th Century: 300,000 child soldiers 10.5 million refugees; 27 million internally displaced persons Predator drones Weaponization of space Cyberwar Slide 11 Atomic Weapons Today Approximately 23,360 nuclear weapons at 11 sites in 14 countries (1/2 active or operationally-deployed) 5,200 active U.S. warheads today (more than on hair-trigger alert); 8,000 in Russia Several thousand megatons (100,000 Hiroshimas) Slide 12 Colonial Exploitation Christopher Columbus log entry upon meeting the Arawaks of the Bahamas: Theybrought usmanythingsThey willingly traded everything they ownedThey do not bear armsThey would make fine servantsWith fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. Slide 13 Colonial Exploitation Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship, DeBeers Mining Company): We must find new lands from which we can easily obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit the cheap slave labour that is available from the natives of the colonies. The colonies would also provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods produced in our factories. Slide 14 Exploitation leads to: Maldistribution of wealth and resources Environmental degradation Wars Slide 15 Consequences of War Deaths, injuries, psychological sequelae Collapse of health care system (affecting those with acute and chronic illnesses) Famine Slide 16 Consequences of War Environmental degradation Refugees, migrants, internally-displaced persons Increasing poverty and debt All lead to recurrent cycles of violence Slide 17 Environmental Consequences of Militarization U.S. Military: Worlds single largest polluter 8% of global air pollution 2-11% of raw material use Almost all high and low level radioactive waste Slide 18 Violence Against Women Common among U.S. servicewomen A deployed female soldier is more likely to be raped by a fellow soldier than killed by enemy fire Rape in war widespread, often genocidal Some refugee camps unsafe Slide 19 Violence and Rape in War Occurs against backdrop of ongoing societal forms of violence against women Legal, educational, social, and political marginalization Slide 20 Status of Women Worldwide: Women do 67% of the worlds work Receive 10% of global income Own 1% of all property U.S.: Women earn 79 cents/$1 men Slide 21 Poverty and Hunger US: 15% of residents and 22% of children live in poverty Rates of poverty in Blacks and Hispanics = 2X Whites Poverty associated with worse physical and mental health Slide 22 The State of U.S. Health Care 49 million uninsured patients Est. 51,000 deaths/year due to lack of health insurance US ranks near the bottom among westernized nations in life expectancy and infant mortality Racial disparities in coverage, processes, and outcomes of care Slide 23 Headline from The Onion Uninsured Man Hopes His Symptoms Diagnosed This Week On House Slide 24 Worldwide Poverty 1 billion people lack access to clean drinking water 3 billion lack adequate sanitation services Hunger-related causes kill as many people in 8 days as the atomic bomb killed at Hiroshima Slide 25 Maldistribution of Wealth Top 250 billionaires worldwide worth $1 trillion, the combined income of bottom 2.5 billion people (45% of worlds population) U.S: Richest 1% of the population owns 40% of the countrys wealth -poorest 80% own 7% -widest gap of any industrialized nation Slide 26 Overconsumption (Affluenza) U.S. = 6.3% of worlds population Owns 50% of the worlds wealth U.S. responsible for: 25% of worlds energy consumption 33% of paper use 72% of hazardous waste production Slide 27 Income Inequality Kills Higher income inequality is associated with increased morbidity and mortality at all per capita income levels Slide 28 Maldistribution of Wealth is Deadly 880,000 deaths/yr in U.S. would be averted if the country had an income gap like Western European nations, with their stronger social safety nets BMJ 2009;339:b4471 Slide 29 Voltaire The comfort of the rich rests upon an abundance of the poor Slide 30 Hudson River, 2009 Slide 31 Primo Levi A country is considered the more civilized the more the wisdom and efficiency of its laws hinder a weak man from becoming too weak or a powerful one too powerful. Slide 32 World Military Spending (2012) ($1.8 trillion in 2012; U.S. 34% of total) Slide 33 U.S. Discretionary Spending (2012) Slide 34 War and Peace World military budget 230X what the UN spends on peacekeeping US: Largest arms supplier $66 billion in annual sales (2011) = of global market Russia second with $5 billion in annual sales Profits at top 5 defense firms up 450% since 2002 Greatest debtor to U.N. (including U.N. peacekeeping fund) Slide 35 Slide 36 Military Spending and Jobs $1 billion in military spending generates 11,200 jobs 15,1000 in consumer goods production 16,800 in green energy development 17,200 in health care 26,700 in education Slide 37 Skewed Priorities The world spends $1.7 trillion/year on military goods and services For 25% of this, we could: Eliminate starvation and malnutrition Provide shelter for all Eliminate illiteracy Provide clean and safe water Prevent soil erosion Slide 38 Skewed Priorities Prevent global warming Stop deforestation Aid all refugees Retire developing nations debt Provide clean, safe energy (through efficiency and renewables) Slide 39 Skewed Priorities Prevent acid rain Fix the ozone hole Stabilize world population Provide basic universal health care and AIDS control Eliminate nuclear weapons and land mines Slide 40 DOD Announcement (September, 2011) Pentagon Lacks Funding to Fix Public Schools on Military Bases Slide 41 Dwight Eisenhower Every gun that is made, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and not clothed Slide 42 Martin Luther King A nation that continues year after year to spend more money on military defense than on programs of social uplift is approaching spiritual death. Slide 43 Foreign Aid In total dollars: U.S. #1 As a % of GDP, U.S. ranks 21 st among the worlds wealthiest nations U.S. Aid: Over 1/3 military, 1/4 economic, 1/3 for food and development Most U.S. aid benefits U.S. corporations Slide 44 Foreign Aid Americans think that 24% of the federal budget goes toward foreign aid 0.19% of the total federal budget, vs. UN target of 0.7% Slide 45 U.S. Charitable Giving 2.5% of income 2.9% at height of Great Depression Slide 46 The US: Rogue Nation History: Native Americans, slavery, current excesses, disparities and injustices Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its 225+ year history Over 1,000 bases worldwide today (737 in other 69 other countries) 54 countries helped facilitate CIAs secret detention, rendition, and interrogation program Slide 47 The US: Rogue Nation Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed: China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo, Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan, Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq Slide 48 The US: Rogue Nation Conservative estimate = 8 million killed US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of corporate interests Drone strikes on allied/other nations and on U.S. citizens Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation Slide 49 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve: Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change Convention on the Prohibition of Anti- Personnel Land Mines Convention on Cluster Munitions Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty Slide 50 International Non- Cooperation/Isolationism Failure to sign or approve: Convention on the Rights of the Child Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in Persons UN Convention on the Rights of Disabled Persons Slide 51 The US: Rogue Nation Failure to follow World Court Decisions Failure to recognize International Criminal Court Slide 52 Solutions Activism (PSR, IPPNW, etc.) Education (AP