causes of world war i

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Causes of World War I. long-term Causes of WWI (Intro.). Imperialism Nationalism Militarism Alliances. Imperialism. Expand empire to become more powerful > need military to control and defend territory - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


World War I

Causes of World War I

long-term Causes of WWI (Intro.)ImperialismNationalismMilitarismAlliancesImperialismExpand empire to become more powerful > need military to control and defend territoryCountries dispute territories far away > increased possibility of fighting to resolve disputesColonial rivalry > increased tension

How did imperialism cause WWI?How did imperialism cause WWI?Colonial rivalries and the desire to defend territories increased tension in Europe.

MilitarismDesire to protect overseas colonies > military buildup Race to buildup navies (esp. in Britain and Germany)

Increased arms stockpiles

Focus on creating modern weapons

Increasing strategic infrastructure (esp. railways)

18501913How was militarism a cause of WWI?How was militarism a cause of WWI?Tensions caused European countries to build up massive armies and stocks of weapons so countries were ready to fight. This buildup only escalated the tension in Europe.Also, both sides felt invincible and were convinced the war would be quick and decisive.CountrySpending IncreaseMilitary SizeBritain117%430,000France92%970,000Russia19%1,500,000Germany158%760,000Austria-Hungary160%480,000NationalismTwo types of nationalism:1. desire of subject people for independence1871 France loses territory of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany

2. desire of independent nations for dominanceGreat Britain has largest overseas empire competition with other European countries

How was nationalism a cause of WWI?How was nationalism a cause of WWI?Many groups felt that Europes borders did not reflect their national allegiances which led to militant nationalist groups and fighting over territory.Conservative leaders within countries feared revolutions and saw war as a way to suppress internal dissent.

Pride in ones country led many men into war, even against their better judgment.Nationalist propaganda before the war had created hatred between different countries, justifying war.How was nationalism a cause of WWI?AlliancesWhy would European countries feel the need to create alliances in the early 20th century?AlliancesWhy would countries feel the need to create alliances?Military buildup > countries feel threatenedDesire for peace > alliances to prevent war

How were alliances a cause of WWI?How were alliances a cause of WWI?Tension becomes heightened over time Sometimes alliances are secret countries become suspiciousGermany and Austria-Hungary are surrounded by allied countries becomes defensive

Alliances draw other countries into war quickly, even if the starting event is small and unimportant

Why 1914?These tensions had been building for decades so why now?Austria-Hungary wants to assert its authority in the Balkans.Russia wants to reestablish its military prestige after losing to the Japanese in 1905 (and maintain social order over the peasants).France wants to win back Alsace-LorraineThe German Kaiser wanted to avoid civil unrest from the growing socialist movement

The single eventJune 28, 1914 Serbian nationalist/terrorist Gavrilo Princip assassinates the heir to the Austrian throne, the Archduke Franz Ferdinand


escalationJuly 28: Austria declares war on SerbiaJuly 29: Russia (allied with Serbia) begins to mobilize.July 31: Germany (allied with Austria/afraid of Russia) institutes the Schlieffen Plan to invade France and neutralize it, then turn to fight RussiaAugust 1: France begins to mobilizeAugust 4: Germany invades Belgium to get to FranceAugust 4: Great Britain (allied with Belgium) declares war on GermanyAttempts to avoid warThroughout the period of June-July, 1941 many European countries, led by Great Britain, attempted to avoid war.However, the tensions and competition in Europe had grown too great and neither side trusted the other to uphold their end of the agreement and didnt want to be left behind when war began.So, even though most of Europe wanted to avoid war, all of Europe went to war.