cell structure and function i. cell theory 1. all living things are made of cells. 3. new cells are...
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Cell Structure and Function I Slide 2 Cell Theory 1. All living things are made of cells. 3. New cells are produced from existing cells 2. Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things. Slide 3 Cell Exploration Light Microscopes Living organisms can be seen Light limits the resolution so extremely small things like proteins and viruses cannot be observed Slide 4 Cell Exploration High resolution video technology Allows scientists to see time elapsed movies of cells as the grow, divide and develop. http://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis. htmhttp://www.cellsalive.com/mitosis. htm Slide 5 Cell Exploration Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs ) Can see more detain and extremely small structures Beams of electrons must pass through ultra-thin sliced samples therefore no living things can be seen Slide 6 Cell Exploration Scanning Electron Microscope (SEMs) Beams of electrons scanned over the surface of a specimen Produces a 3D image Samples must be chemically preserved and removed of all water so no living things can be seen. Slide 7 Prokaryotes vs. Eukaryotes Prokaryotes (bacteria) have no nucleus and very few organelles. DNA is not contained Eukaryotes (protists, fungi, plants and animals) larger,more complex,DNA is inside the nucleus Slide 8 Plant Cells Vs. Animal Cells Both plant and animal cells contain a variety of organelles. Some structures are specific to either plant cells or animal cells only. Only plant cells contain: Cell wall Chloroplasts Large central vacuoles Only animal cells contain: Centrioles Slide 9 Slide 10 Slide 11 Smooth ER vs. Rough ER Rough ER - ribosomes on the ER make proteins, the ER modifies the proteins Smooth ER - makes lipids Slide 12 Mitochondria vs. Chloroplasts Mitochondria make energy from chemicals (food molecules) Chloroplasts make energy from light through photosynthesis Slide 13 Cytoskeleton Network of protein filaments Maintains shape Involved in cell movement Slide 14 ProkaryotesEukaryotes Cell membrane Contain DNA Nucleus Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Lysosomes Vacuoles Mitochondria Cytoskeleton DNA is free floating Slide 15 Cell Structure and Function II Slide 16 Cell Wall Provides support and protection for plant cell walls Made of porous cellulose so it does not regulate what enters and leaves Slide 17 Cell Membrane Regulates what enters and leaves the cell and provides support and protection Structure lipid bilayer with embedded proteins Slide 18 Diffusion through Cell Boundaries Particles move from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration No energy is required Slide 19 Osmosis Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane Slide 20 Is this really Osmosis??? Slide 21 Isotonic "ISO" means the same Concentration of solutes (salts) is the same inside and outside of cell. Water flows in and out in equal amounts No effect on cell Slide 22 Hypertonic Hyper means more Concentration of solutes is more outside the cell than inside Water flows out of cell The cell shrivels and may die. This is why it is dangerous to drink sea water This is also why "salting fields" was a common tactic during war, it would kill the crops in the field, thus causing food shortages. Slide 23 Hypotonic "HYPO" means less Concentration of solutes is less outside the cell than in. Water flows in The cell swell with water and becomes turgid Slide 24 Active Transport Carried our by protein pumps found in the membrane Energy is required Slide 25 Facilitated Diffusion Molecules move through protein channels. No energy required Slide 26 Endocytosis Cell takes material into cell by infolding of the cell membrane Phagocytosis eating cell engulfs large particles Pinocytosis drinking cell takes in liquid www.endocyte.com/ animation/animation.htm Slide 27 Exocytosis Cell releases large amounts of material Slide 28 Cell Specialization The cells in multicellular organisms can develop in different ways to perform different tasks. Slide 29 Levels of Biological Organization Organism Organ system Organ Tissue Cell Organelle DNA Atoms