centralism vs. regionalism centralism vs. regionalism in russia andrei treivish


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  • CENTRALISM: PREREQUISITES PRO et CONTRA Byzantine, Holden Horde and other Asiatic impacts Deep historical tradition conditioned by frequent wars, revolts and expansion Ethnically / culturally melting colonization process Huge landmass, long distances and hampered communications Ethnic and regional diversity + 90 years of federalism Recurrent crises of central power
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  • SUMMING UP DIFFERENT DEFINITIONS AND INTERPRETATIONS OF REGIONALISM A TRIAD: of regional (provincial) self-consciousness and identity, local spirit and divotion to this level of 'patriotism' and tradition etc. of their realization in regional public activities (movements and institutions), more or less radical and successful of their recognition along with the needs and interests of regional development as a rightful and legal form of civil society; attention of state policies to them
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  • CENTRALISM and MONOCENTRISM of settlement systems
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  • All-Russia's rank-size ratios Historical Russian Empire, USSR and RF 50 largest cities Minsk Moscow Warsa w Moscow Lodz Leningrad St.P-g Odessa Tashkent Kiev Novosibirsk N.Novg. 10 100 1000 10000 1 10 100 Size (population) in 1,000 10 Moscow Leningrad St.P-g Moscow Togliatti Novosibirsk N.Novgorod Moscow St.P-g Rostov on Don - Moscow Saratov St.P-g 100 1000 10000 1 10 100 City rank (1-50) 2002 1989 1959 1926 1897 1867 Russian Federation in its contemporary limits Russian Empire 1897 USSR 1989 RF 1989 Leningrad Moscow 30 largest urban agglomerations of four giant countries in the early 21st century Chicago-Milwaukee Samara-Togliatti N.Y.- Philadelphia Moscow Hong Kong Beijing Belo Horizonte Rio de Janeiro Shanghai BRAZIL St.Peter. Dilli Mumbai ; Los Angeles Sao Paulo CHINA INDIA RUSSIA USA 100 1000 10000 100000 110 100 (1-30) Size in 1,000 Kolkata
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  • 2 3 5 55 0.5 0.003 CENTRALISM IN REGIONAL URBAN SYSTEMS sole city in the region smalle r larger times 10 the capital is 1 RATIO OF THE REGIONAL CAPITAL'S POPULATION TO THE LARGEST ONE AMONG OTHER CITIES, 2008 Official regional centre (capital) The second (largest) city
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  • BASIC TYPES OF RUSSIA'S 'REGIONIMS' Urban proper (town or fortress, etc.) Ethnic (tribal) Religious Personal human Natural geographic (hydronim etc.) Other, combined or uncertain Names of regions (near 2005) and of their centres (capitals) SAME AS THE CENTRE'S NAME classified by etymology of the latter: DIFFERENT FROM THE CENTRE'S NAME Ethnic Natural geographic Combined natural-ethnic and abrogated (Taymyr Dolgano-Nenets AO) Abrogated by 2008 joint with the larger 'maternal' region Personal human, different from that of the centre Murmansk Kaliningrad St. Peters- burg Arkhangelsk Petrozavodsk Pskov Naryan-Mar Vologda Novgorod Tver Salekhard Khanty-Mansiysk Dudinka Syktyvkar Yakutsk Anadyr Tura Magadan Palana Kudymkar Ust-Ordynskoye Irkutsk Krasnoyarsk Kyzyl Ulan-Ude Chita Aginskoye Blagoveshchensk Khabarovsk Birobidjan Vladivostok Yuzhno- Sakhalinsk Petropavlovsk- Kamchatskiy Abakan Tomsk Novosibirsk Barnaul Omsk Gorno- Altaysk Tyumen Kurgan Chelyabinsk Yekaterinburg Kirov Kostroma Orenburg Ufa Perm Kazan Astrakhan Izhevsk Bryansk Kursk Belgorod Rostov on Don Voronezh Moscow Kaluga Saratov Samara Penza N.N. Orel Volgograd Vladimir Ivanovo Smolensk Yar. Elista Krasnodar Stavropol Maykop Tula R. Y-O. V.: Vladimir; R.: Ryazan; L.: Lipetsk; T.: Tambov; N.N.: Nizhniy Novgorod; Y-O.: Yoshkar-Ola; Ch.: Cheboksary; S: Saransk; U.: Ulyanovsk; Cher.: Cherkessk; VK.: Vladikavkaz L. T. Ch. S. Makhachkala Groznyy Magas U. Cher. Nalchik VK.
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  • Years (up to 2000) 50 150250 350 450 550 TIME SPENT IN THE STATE HEADED BY MOSCOW OR ST. PETERSBURG 'LENGTH OF SERVICE' in average upon contemporary regions' areas
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  • Macroregions and 'independent' regions Regions within macroregions 1990 Regional disparities in per capita net material (by Soviet methodology) and gross regional products (new methodology), current prices, RF = 100 NET MATERIAL PRODUCT (11 MACRO-REGIONS and 73 REGIONS) 350 1996 Kaliningrad obl. NORTH N-WEST CENTRE C. CHERNOZEM VOLGA N.CAUCASUS URALS W.SIBERIA E.SIBERIA FAR EAST GRP (11 MACRO-REGIONS and 79 REGIONS) N-WEST CENTREKaliningrad oblN-WEST Kaliningrad oblNORTH CENTRE 2002 1996 VOLGA-VYATKA V.-VYATKA VOLGA-VYATKA V.-VYATKA CENTRE C. CHERNOZEM VOLGA N.CAUCASUS W.SIBERIA URALS E.SIBERIA FAR EAST
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  • USA: 9 macro-regions, 51 region BRAZIL: 5 macroregions, 27 regions CHINA: 6 macro-regions, 31 region INDIA: 7 macro-regions, 35 regions RUSSIA: 11 macro-regions, 79 regions Per capita GRP by region and macro-region of selected giant states in the mid- 2000s, percentages of each national average Dispersion of percapita GRPs (number of regions): USA (51) 38,4; EU 4250 (over 100); MEXICO (32) 53; BRAZIL (27) 57; INDIA (35) 66; CHINA (31) 71; RF (79) 67; (88, included) 133 Macroregions and 'independent' regions Regions within macroregions
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  • Basic types of GRP sectoral structures in 1998 and 2004 EXPLANATIONS: H-A hyper-agrarian, A-S agrarian-service, H-I hyper-industrial, I predominantly industrial, I-S industrial-service, S service, H-S hyper-service 1998 2004 TYPES
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  • THE AUTHOR'S POSITION Regionalism and regionalization (booming regionalism in the 1990s Russian sense) are antonyms of CENTRALISM AND CENTRALIZATION (of monotony and unification etc.), but not yet synonymous with SEPARATISM AND DISINTEGRATION Regionalism can grow into separatism as a result of a long suppression and disregard (especially in times of troubles)
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  • POLAR VIEWS OF RUSSIAN REGIONALISM It is extremely weak as well as Russia's historical provinces and unofficial vernacular regions. The very Russian culture and, thus, identity are aspatial (relatively indifferent to space in a huge flat and expanding country). It does exist but really is special in a centralised state which either incorporates it into its own regional system, or leaves "beyond the power". Russian regions and regionalism belongs to a polis- shaped type and often "secret" (at the local levels in particular).
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  • Some regularities of administrative division and of Russia's regional system Population density per 1 km y = 842512x -0,8078 R 2 = 0,5137 1000 10000 100000 1000000 1101001000 . , ? -89 . , . / ? -78 ( ) : . : . Average regions' area, km RF: 78 (AO excluded) RF: 89 RF: East RF: West AMERICAS AFRICA EUROPE ASIA Average population density per 1 km RUSSIA: 87 REGIONS Area of basic units as function of population density by the 21 st century: Worldwide and Russia's A sheme of Russia's regional 'stairs' 2 PARTS (European and Asian) 7 13 MACRO-REGIONS 50 90 MAIN ADMINISTRATIVE UNITS 300 400 UYEZD (INTRA-OBLAST REGIONS) 2,000 3,000 LOCAL REGIONS and INDEPENDENT CITIES WORLD: STATES AND Region's area, 1000 km
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  • 'PENDULUM' OF RUSSIA'S REGIONALIZATION CENTRALIZATION: AN AUTHOR'S SCHEME Collapse of Russaian Empire, Civil war Collapse of the USSR disintegration SEPERATISM REGIONALISM HYPER-CENTRALISM Great Gosplan oblasts Sovnarkhoz Regional hozraschet
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  • The last group of questions: INTEGRATION OR CENTRALIZATION? 1. The reasons for a new centralization: mostly economic or political? 2. What is more probable and preferable, tactically and strategically?
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  • If the pendulum of centralism regionalism does swing anyway, it would better quicker and lesser in amplitude, but how can Russia ajust it?


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