ch21 section 5 the napoleonic era, 1799 1815
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- 1. AP European History Eastview High School Chapter 21 The Revolution in Politics (1775-1815) Section 5 The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815 McKay, et al. 8 thed. The Napoleonic Era, 1799-1815
2. Napoleon Bonaparte
- Napoleon was born into an impoverished noble family from Corsica he left home in 1785 and became a lieutenant in the French artillery.He rose rapidly in the French army and was placed in command of French forces in Italy (fighting against Austria) and won impressive victories in 1796 and 1797 this helped to create his reputation.
3. France in 1799
- Napoleon appealed to many like abbe Emanuel Sieyes, who looked for a strong military leader to end the countrys upheaval.Sieyes new motto wasConfidence from below, authority from above.
4. Napoleon as First Consul
- Napoleon was named First Consul of the Republic in 1799.
5. Essential Early Compromises
- He maintained order and worked out important compromises.
- His Civil Code of 1804 granted the middle class equality under the law and safeguarded their right to own property.
- He confirmed the gains of the peasants.
- He centralized the government, strengthened the bureaucracy, and granted amnesty to nobles.
- He signed the Concordat of 1801, which guaranteed freedom of worship for Catholics.
6. Order & Stability, but at a cost
- Napoleon brought order and stability to Francebut betrayed the ideals of the Revolution by violating the rights of free speech and press and free elections .
- Women had no political rights; they lost many gains they had made, and the Napoleonic Code re-established the power of the male in the family.
- There were harsh penalties for political offenses.
7. Napoleons Wars & Foreign Policy
- Napoleons wars and foreign policy
- He defeated Austria (1801) and made peace with Britain (1802), the two remaining members of the Second Coalition.
- Another war (against the Third CoalitionAustria, Russia, Sweden, and Britain) resulted in British naval dominance at the Battle of Trafalgar (1805).
8. Napoleon Crowned Emperor
- Napoleon used the fear of a conspiracy to return the Bourbons to power in order to proclaim himself Emperor in 1804.
- He also crowns Josephine as Empress
- Painting by David
9. Napoleons Wars & Foreign Policy
- The Third Coalition collapsed at Austerlitz (1805), and Napoleon reorganized the German states into the Confederation of the Rhine.
- In 1806, Napoleon defeated the Prussians at Jena and Auerstadt.
- In the Treaty of Tilsit (1807), Prussia lost half its population, while Russia accepted Napoleons reorganization of western and central Europe.
- Russia also joined with France in a blockade against British goods.
10. The Grand Empire
- Napoleons Grand Empire in Europe meant French control of continental Europe.
- Napoleon introduced many French laws, abolishing feudal dues and serfdom in the process.
- However, he also levied heavy taxes.
11. Beginning of the End
- The beginning of the end for Napoleon came with the Spanish revolt (1808) and the British blockade.
12. The Invasion of Russia
- The French invasion of Russia in 1812 was a disaster for Napoleon.
13. Napoleons Defeat
- Napoleon was defeated by the Fourth Coalition (Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain) and abdicated his throne in 1814, only to be defeated again at Waterloo in 1815.
14. Napoleons Excile
- Napoleon is finally exciled to the island of St. Helena located off the west coast of Africa.
15. Napoleons Tomb in Paris 16. Questions for your review
- What was the Concordat of 1801?Who was the agreement between and what did it stipulate?
- What are the significant achievements of Napoleons domestic reforms?
- What was the Treaty of Amiens and what did it stipulate?
- Who did Napoleon defeat at the Battle of Austerlitz?
- What happened at the Battle of Trafalgar?
- What was the aim of Napoleons family monarchy?
- With whom does Napoleon negotiate peace terms with on a raft in the middle of a river?
- What was the Continental system and how would you characterize its success?
- Where did the first great revolt against the Grand Empire occur?
- Explain the significance of Napoleons invasion of Russia.