changes in clients' emotion episodes in ther clients' dysfأ»nctional emotion-generating schemes....

Download Changes in Clients' Emotion Episodes in Ther clients' dysfأ»nctional emotion-generating schemes. Emotionally-focused

If you can't read please download the document

Post on 17-Jul-2020

3 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • Changes in Clients' Emotion Episodes in Therapy

    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies in partial fulfillment of the requirements

    for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    Graduate Programme in Psychology York University

    North York, Ontario

    March 1998

  • National Library of Canada

    Bibliothéque nationale du Canada

    Acquisitions and Acquisitions et Bibliographie Services services bibliographiques

    395 Wellington Street 395. nie Wellington OttawaON K1AON4 Ottawa ON K1A O N 4 Canada Canada

    The author has granted a non- exclusive licence allowing the National Library of Canada to reproduce, loan, distribute or seU copies of this thesis in microform, paper or electronic formats.

    The author retains ownership of the copyright in this thesis. Neither the thesis nor substantial extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's permission.

    L'auteur a accordé une licence non exclusive permettant à la Bibliothèque nationale du Canada de reproduire, prêter, distribuer ou vendre des copies de cette thèse sous la forme de rnicrofiche/film, de reproduction sur papier ou sur format électronique.

    L'auteur conserve la propriété du droit d'auteur qui protège cette thèse. Ni la thèse ni des extraits substantiels de celle-ci ne doivent être imprimés ou autrement reproduits sans son autorisation.

  • Changes in Clients ' Emot ion Episodes in Therapy

    a dissertation subrnitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies of York University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of

    DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    1998 Permission has been granted to the LIBRARY OF YORK UNIVERSITY to lend orsell copies of this dissertation. to the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF CANADA to microfilm this dissertation and to lend or seIl copies of the film. and to UNIVERSITY MICROFILMS to publish an abstract of this dissertation. The author reserves other publication rights. and neither the dissertation nor extensive extracts from it may be printed or otherwise reproduced without the author's written permission.

  • AB STRACT

    A major aùn of emotionally-focused therapies is the therapeutic restnichirùig of

    clients' dysfûnctional emotion-generating schemes. Emotionally-focused interventions

    are used to access and restructure clients' dysfunctional emotion schemes, and are

    thought to result in changes in clients7 emotional experiences. This study used the

    Emotion Episode (EE) method, developed in earlier work by the author, to measure

    whether or not therapeutic outcorne was associated with changes in the configurations of

    clients7 reported emotional episodes £iom early to late in emotionally-focused therapies

    for depression. The EE method was used to identify and demarcate EE segments in

    therapy transcripts, and to identiQ the situation, emotion, action tendency, appraisal, and

    concem associated with these segments.

    Clients ( N = 24) undergoing an average of 18 emotionally-focused therapy

    sessions pertaining to the treatment of mild to moderate depressions, were split into those

    having better or poorer outcomes based on a grand outcome ranking derived fiom their

    residual gain scores on the Beck Depression Inventory, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale,

    the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and the Global Severity Index of the Symptom

    Checklist 90.

    Al1 EEs occumng in the transcripts of the first three and the last three sessions of

    the clients' therapies were identified. The emotion or action tendency in each EE was

    categorized according to one of the higher-order emotion categories indexed in a

  • modified version an empirically-generated list of basic emotion categories (based on

    work by Shaver and his colleagues).

    For each client, a single difference value (D) was calculated to represent the

    overall difference in the relative frequency of occurrence of al1 emotions fiom early to

    late in therapy. It was found that D-values of the better outcorne group were significantly

    higher than those of the poorer outcome group. This finding suggested a greater degree of

    change in the reported emotions of the better outcome group over therapy. In addition,

    clinical ratings of the clients' therapeutic improvement, based on a reading of their EE

    protocols fiom early to late in therapy, were significantly conelated with the clients' D-

    values, thus indicating an association with positive clinical change. Taken together, these

    findings suggest that when successfül, emotionally-focused therapies targeting clients'

    emotional experiences are associated with positive therapeutic changes in clients'

    reported emotional experiences. Implications for future research are discussed.

  • ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    1 am deeply indebted to Leslie Greenberg for training me as a therapist and

    researcher. The education he provided has been of the very highest quality. 1 would also

    like to thank Les for quietly mentoring me as a person, and for showing me such a good

    time in graduate school.

    1 wish to express my appreciation to my cornmittee rnembers, Shaké Toukmanian

    and David Rennie. David took an interest in my persona1 and professional development

    throughout graduate school, and went the extra mile in helping me to complete this

    project. 1 would also like to thank Shaké for her carhg and thoughtfûlness.

    Liz Bolger provided invaluable suggestions in the preparation of this manuscnpt.

    1 am grateful also to Rhonda Goldman, Freda Kalegakoros, Alberta Pos, Mira Starlanan,

    and Bill Whelton for their work as raters on this study. Freda and Mira also made

    substantial theoretical contributions in early work on the Emotion Episode method. 1 wish

    to thank Georges Monettes for his most generous and inspired statistical contributions to

    this work. Thanks also to Mike Friendly, who obliged my need for quick and ~I.$J

    statistical fixes.

    1 am fortunate to have the following wonderful fi-iends, who provided love,

    support, and patience: monda Goldman, Ann Wainwright, Shelley McMain, Liz Herlich,

    Ken Scopick, Enoch Grey, Yedida Zalik, Liz Bolger, Ross Thomson, Robin Gagnon, and

    Marcie Fuchs. 1 was also lucky to have some very fine fiiends at York, among them Steve

  • vii

    Biggs, Cynthia Chataway, Sharon Day, Karen Hardtke, Heidi Levitt, Myriam Mongrain,

    S e ~ e Warwar, and Bill Whelton. I would also like to thank Patrick Smith of the Centre

    for Addictions and Mental Health for his patience and encouragement.

    1 would like to thank my family, Irving, Rebecca, and Sherry Korman, for their

    love and support. My parents' resolute confidence in me, especially, sustained me

    through this proj ect.

    1 dedicate this project to the late Jack (Atito) Rains, alive in me, in the here and

    now.

  • .. Vlll

    TABLE OF CONTENTS Page

    ABSTRACT .............................................................................................................. iv

    ACKNO WLEDGEMENTS ...................................................................................... vi

    ... TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................... vrii

    .................................................................................................... LIST OF TABLES xi

    .................................................................................................. LIST OF FIGURES xii

    CHAPTER 1 . INTRODUCTION ........................................................................... 1

    CHAPTER II . LITERATURE REVIE W ................................................................ 6 ................................. Philosophical Precurson of Current Emotion Theory 6

    ....................... Early Evolutionary and Physiological Theones of Ernotion 8 ........................................................................... Curent Emotion Theories 11

    ...................................................... Types of Emotion Appraisal Theories 14 .................................................................... Automatic or Basic Appraisals 15

    .................................................................................. Appraisals as Themes 24 .................. Neurophysiology and the Generation of Emotional Expenence 27

    ................................................... Emotion-Generating Schemes in Therapy ............................... .............. Emotion and Meaning in Psychotherapy ...

    ................... Emotion in the Client-Centred Theory of Human Functioning ..................................... .......................... Measures of Clients' Emotions ....

    ........................................................... Emotion Episodes in Psychotherapy .................................... The Core Conflictual Relationship Theme Method

    .................................................................. Development of the EE Method ........................................................................................... The EE Method

    ........................... Reliablity and Validity of the Emotion Episode Method .........................

Recommended

View more >