Chapter 11 The Income Statement & The Statement of Stockholders’ Equity.
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Chapter 11 The Income Statement & The Statement of Stockholders Equity Slide 2 Learning Objectives Analyze a complex income statement Account for a corporations income tax Analyze a statement of stockholders equity Understand managers and auditors responsibilities for the financial statements Slide 3 Income Statement Periodically Prepared to report Financial Consequences of Activities Undertaken By Accounting Entity Within a Certain Period of Time Profit More resources available at end-of-period then beginning-of-period Loss Consumed more resources by the end-of-period then it generated Slide 4 Income Statement Summary of Revenues and Expenses For a Specific Period of Time Grouped by Class Sales Returns and Allowances Discounts Cost of Goods Sold Gross Margin/Profit Operating Expenses Selling Expenses Salaries Advertising Travel Telephone Supplies Depreciation Administrative Salaries Telephone Legal & Professional Supplies Depreciation Bldg & Equip Misc. Net Income from Operations Other Interest Expense Interest Income Discontinued Operations Extraordinary Events Cumulative Effect of Change Net Income Earnings Per Share Slide 5 Accounting Principles Matching Revenue Realization Slide 6 Income Statement - Continuing Operations Allied Electronics Corporation Income Statement Year Ended December 31, 20x5 Sales revenue$500,000 Cost of goods sold240,000 Gross margin$260,000 Operating expenses 181,000 Operating income$ 79,000 Slide 7 Other gains (losses): Loss on restructuring operations ( 8,000) Gain on sale of machinery 19,000 Income from continuing operations before income tax$90,000 Income tax expense 36,000 Income from continuing operations$54,000 Income Statement - Continuing Operations Slide 8 Discontinued operations: $35,000, less income tax of $14,000 21,000 Income before extraordinary items and cumulative effect of change in depreciation method$75,000 Extraordinary flood loss, $20,000, less income tax savings of $8,000(12,000) Cumulative effect of change in depreciation method, $10,000, less income tax of $4,000 6,000 Net income$69,000 Income Statement - Special Items Slide 9 Income from Continuing Operations A measure of the part of the business expected to be ongoing. Used to predict future income. Slide 10 Predicting Future Profits Estimated value of Common Stock = Estimated annual income in the future Investment capitalization rate If estimated value of the company: Decision ExceedsCurrent market Value of the Company Buy the stock EqualsHold the stock Is less thanSell the stock Slide 11 Estimated Value of Common Stock Slide 12 Continuing Operations The company restructured operations at a loss of $8,000. Report as Other item part of continuing operations, but falls outside of main business endeavor Slide 13 Other Income Statement Items Discontinued Operations Extraordinary Gains and Losses (Extraordinary Items) Must be both infrequent seldom happening or occurring and Unusual not ordinarily encountered Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Method Slide 14 Discontinued Operations Segment identifiable division of a company Sold or Closed Slide 15 Extraordinary Items Unusual for the company and infrequent Losses due to natural disasters Expropriations the action of the state in taking or modifying the property rights of an individual in the exercise of its sovereignty An Exception Material gains/losses from extinguishment of debt (to be reported as extraordinary item) Slide 16 Cumulative Effect of a Change in Accounting Principle From double-declining-balance (DBB) to straight-line depreciation From first-in, first-out (FIFO) to weighted- average cost for inventory Report in a special section of the income statement after extraordinary items Slide 17 Earnings Per Share Earnings per share = Net Income-Preferred dividends Average number of shares of common outstanding Earnings per share is disclosed separately for: continuing operations discontinued operations (do not subtract pfd) Extraordinary items (don not subtract pfd) Cumulative effect of change in accounting method (do not subtract pfd) Slide 18 Earnings per share of common stock (20,000 shares outstanding): Income from continuous operations (54000)/20000 $2.70 Income from discontinued operations (21000/20000) 1.05 Income before extraordinary item and cumulative effect of change in depreciation method (75000/20000)$3.75 Extraordinary loss (12000/20000)(0.60) Cumulative effect of change in depreciation method (6000/20000) 0.30 Net income (69000/20000)$3.45 Income Statement - Earnings per Share Slide 19 Earnings Per Share Effect of preferred stock preferred dividends must be paid before distributions of earnings to common stockholders. Dilution Convertible items could result in diluted eps. Diluted EPS is disclosed on the income statement. Slide 20 Comprehensive Income Change in total stockholders equity from all sources other than from the owners of the business. Unrealized gains (losses) on available-for- sale investments Foreign-currency translation adjustments Slide 21 Corporate Income Taxes Must measure Income tax expense Income tax payable Income tax expense = Income before income tax (from the income statement) X Income Tax Rate Income tax payable = Taxable income from the income tax return filed with the IRS X Income Tax Rate Slide 22 Corporate Income Taxes Difference between income tax expense and income tax payable is a deferred tax liability or deferred tax asset. Slide 23 Suppose for 20x5, Nike, Inc., has pretax accounting income of $900 million on the income statement. Taxable income is $800 million on the companys income tax return. The tax rate is 40%. Accounting for Corporate Income Taxes Slide 24 Dec 31Income Tax Expense ($900 x.40)360 Income Tax Payable ($800 x.40)320 Deferred Tax Liability40 Recorded income tax for the year 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Financial Accounting, 6/e Harrison/Horngren Slide 25 Income statement Income before income tax$900 Income tax expense 360 Net income$540 Balance sheet Current Liabilities: Income tax payable$320 Long-term liabilities: Deferred tax liability 40* Total$360 *Assumes beginning tax liability was zero. Accounting for Corporate Income Taxes Slide 26 Retained Earnings Prior period adjustments corrections of errors that occurred in prior periods. Since the temporary accounts have been closed to retained earnings, errors from prior periods must be made to retained earnings. Slide 27 CNN Corporation Statement of Retained Earnings Year Ended December 31, 2005 Retained Earnings, Dec. 31, 2004 (original)$390,000 Prior-period adjustment debit to correct error in recording income tax expense of 2004 ( 10,000) Retained earnings, Dec. 31, 2004, adjusted$380,000 Net income for 2005 114,000 Total$494,000 Deduct: Dividends for 2005 ( 41,000) Retained earnings balance, Dec. 31, 2005$453,000 Reporting a Prior-Period Adjustment 2006 Prentice Hall Business Publishing Financial Accounting, 6/e Harrison/Horngren Slide 28 Restrictions on Retained Earnings Dividends and purchases of treasury stock require payments by the corporation to its stockholders Creditors may restrict a corporations dividend payments and treasury stock purchases Companies report any retained earnings restrictions in notes to the financial statements Slide 29 Statement of Stockholders Equity Reports all changes in equity for the period. Issuance of stock Net income Cash dividends Stock dividends Treasury stock transactions Accumulated other comprehensive income Slide 30 Statement of Stockholders Equity Slide 31 Responsibility for the Financial Statements Management issues a statement of responsibility with financial statements declares responsibility for financial statements and states that they conform to GAAP Slide 32 Auditor Report Typically contains three paragraphs: Identifies the audited financial statements Describes how the audit was performed States the auditors opinion - financial statements conform to GAAP and people can rely on them for decision making Slide 33 Auditor Report Unqualified (Clean) the financial statements presented are free of material misstatements and are in accordance with GAAP Qualified the financial statements are fairly presented with a certain exception which is otherwise misstated Adverse the information contained is materially incorrect, unreliable, and inaccurate in order to assess the auditees financial position and results of operations Disclaimer the auditor could not form, and consequently refuses to present, an opinion on the financial statements