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CHAPTER 13

Simple Harmonic Motion

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Oscillations

An object oscillates when it moves back and forth repeatedly, on either

side of some equilibrium position. If the object is stopped from

oscillating, it returns to the equilibrium position.

Oscillations can be observed in different ways:

1) Time keeping

2) Planetary Motion

3) Musical Instruments

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Source: flickr

Source: Pixabay

Source: Pixabay

Natural (free) Oscillations

The easiest oscillations to understand are natural

oscillations, which every oscillator possesses. Every

oscillator has a natural frequency ππ of vibration, the frequency with which it vibrates freely after an initial

disturbance.

Simplest examples of natural oscillations: tuning fork and

pendulum.

5 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Newtons_cradle.gif

Forced Oscillations

If a force is applied continuously to an oscillator, this will

cause the oscillator to vibrate in a forced oscillation. The

frequency of a forced oscillation is not the natural frequency

of the oscillator but rather the forcing frequency of the

external force.

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Simple Harmonic Motion

A simple harmonic motion is a special kind of oscillations.

Definition:

A simple harmonic motion is defined as the motion of a

particle about a fixed point such that its acceleration π is proportional to its displacement π₯ from the fixed point, and is directed towards the point.

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Simple Harmonic Oscillators

1) Mass β Spring System

2) A Pendulum

8Wikipedia Commons

Source: Wikipedia Commons

Amplitude, Period and Frequency

The displacement changes between positive

and negative values.

The maximum displacement is called Amplitude, ππ or A.

The period, T is the time for one complete oscillation.

The frequency,f is the number of oscillations per unit time,

a reciprocal of π.

π: Equilibrium Position

π, π:Extreme Points

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X

Y

Amplitude, Period and Frequency

Recall:

Frequency, π = 1

π

Angular frequency,

π = 2ππ Or

π = 2π

π

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Example 1

For the graph below, determine the amplitude, frequency and time

period of the oscillation.

Answer:

Amplitude, π΄ = 0.8 m

Time period, π = 3 Γ 2 = 6 s

Frequency, π = 1

6

= 1.67 Hz

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Simple Harmonic Motion

A system will oscillate if

there is a force acting on it

that tends to pull it back to

its equilibrium position β a

restoring force.

In a swinging pendulum the

combination of gravity and

the tension in the string that

always act to bring the

pendulum back to the centre

of its swing.

Tension

Gravity

Resultant

(restoring

force)

For a spring and mass the

combination of the gravity

acting on the mass and

the tension in the spring

means that the system will

always try to return to its

equilibrium position. M

T

g

Restoring

force

Simple Harmonic Motion

kxF οο½

When the force acting on the particle is directly proportional

to the displacement and opposite in direction, the motion is

said to be simple harmonic motion.

xF οο‘

Simple Harmonic Motion

Relation of SHM with Circular Motion

The pattern of SHM is the same as the side view of an

object moving at a constant speed around a circular path

The amplitude of the

oscillation is equal to

the radius of the circle.

The object moves quickest

as it passes through the

central equilibrium position.

The time period of the

oscillation is equal to the

time taken for the object to

complete the circular path.Source: Wikimedia Commons

General SHM Equations

Most of the time, simple harmonic motion can be described by these two

basic trigonometric functions:

Where (ππ‘ + π) denotes the phase of SHM. π denotes the angular frequency and π is the phase constant.

π₯ = π₯0 sin(ππ‘ + π) or π₯ = π₯0 cos(ππ‘ + π)

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Phase Difference

The term phase describes the point that an oscillating mass has

reached within the complete cycle of an oscillation.

It is often important to describe the phase difference between two

oscillations.

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Calculating Phase Difference

To calculate the phase difference, follow these steps:

1) Measure the time interval π‘ between two corresponding points on the graphs.

2) Determine the period π for one complete oscillation.

3) Calculate the phase difference as a fraction of an oscillation.

4) Convert to degrees or radians.

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Question 2 A body oscillating with SHM has a period of 1.5s and amplitude of 5cm. Calculate its frequency and maximum acceleration.

(a) f = 1 / T = 1 / 1.5s frequency = 0.67 Hz

(b) a = - (2Οf )2 x maximum acceleration is when x = A (the amplitude) a = - (2Οf )2 A

= - (2Ο x 0.6667Hz)2 x 0.015m maximum acceleration = 0.88 ms-2

Question 3: Calculate the phase difference

between the two oscillations in

degrees and in radians.

Answer:

The time interval, π‘, is 17 ms.

Period, π = 60 ms.

Phase difference,

π = π‘

π =

17

60 = 0.283 oscillation

Phase difference in degree:

π = 0.283 Γ 360Β° = 102Β°

Phase difference in radian:

π = 0.283 Γ 2π = 1.78 rad

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Question 4

The motion of a body in simple harmonic motion is described by the

equation:

π₯ = 4.0 cos(2ππ‘ + π

3 )

Where π₯ is in metres, π‘ is in seconds and (2ππ‘ + π

3 ) is in radians.

(a) What is (i) the displacement, (ii) the velocity, (iii) the acceleration

and (iv) the phase when π‘ = 2.0 s? (b) Find (i) the frequency and (ii) the period of the motion.

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Solution:

(a) (i) Displacement, π₯ = 4.0 cos(2ππ‘ + π

3 )

when, π‘ = 2.0 s,

π₯ = 4.0 cos(4π + π

3 )

=2.0 m.

(ii) Velocity, π£ = ππ₯

ππ‘ = β2π 4.0 sin(2ππ‘ + π/3)

When π‘ = 2.0s,

π£ = β8.0π sin(4π + π

3 )

= β21.8 ms-1

Solution (continued):

(iii)Acceleration, π = ππ£

ππ‘ = β 4π2 4.0 cos(2ππ‘ +

π

3 )

When π‘ = 2.0 s,

π = β 4π2 4.0 cos 4π + π

3 = β79.0 ms-2.

(iv) Phase = (2ππ‘ + π

3 )

When t=2.0s, phase = (4π + π

3 ) rad = 13.6 rad.

(b) (i) π = 2π, π = π

2π =

2π

2π = 1 Hz

(ii) π = 1

π = 1s

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Simple Harmonic Motion

Consider a simple harmonic oscillation, described by the formula

π₯ = π₯0 cos(ππ‘)

The velocity of its vibration is described as

π£ = ππ₯

ππ‘ = βππ₯0 sinππ‘

The acceleration

π = ππ£

ππ‘ = βπ2π₯0 cosππ‘

But π₯0 cosππ‘ = π₯.

Hence,

π = βπ2π₯.

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Acceleration in SHM

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x

a

+ A- A

- Ο2 x

+ Ο2 x

gradient = - Ο2 or - (2Οf )2

Simple Harmonic Motion

π2π₯

ππ‘2 = βπ2π₯

π£ ππ£

ππ₯ = βπ2π₯

By separation of variables,

π£ππ£ = βπ2π₯ππ₯ Integrating them,

π£2

2 = β

π2π₯2

2 + π

When π₯ = Β±π₯0, π£ = 0.

π = π2π₯0

2

2 Hence, π£2 = π2 π₯0

2 β π₯2

Or

When v= max,

π£ = Β±π π₯0 2 β π₯2

26 π£0 = Β±ππ₯0

Simple Harmonic Motion

π

A B

-π₯ +π₯

+π βπ

π₯ = βπ₯0 π£ = 0 π2π₯

ππ‘2 = π2|π₯|

Max. PE

Zero KE

π₯ = 0 π£ = Β±ππ π2π₯

ππ‘2 = 0

Zero PE

Max KE

π₯ = +π₯0 π£ = 0 π2π₯

ππ‘2 = βπ2|π₯|

Max. PE

Zero KE

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Example:

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Answer: (a) Amplitude =0.15 m

(b) Period π = 2.0s

(c) Frequency π = 1

π =

1

2.0 = 0.5 Hz

(d) Angular velocity π = 2ππ = 3.14 rad sβ1

(e) (i) When π₯ = 0, π2π₯