Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)

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<ul><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 1/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q1. Formation of endothelial gaps in venules is elicited by all of the following except?</p><p>A. HistamineB. BradykininC. Leukotrines</p><p>D. Nitric oxideE. Neuropeptide substance</p><p>Q2. TNF and IL-1 induce endothelial expression of the following molecules?</p><p>A. E-SelectinsB. P-SelectinsC. ICAM -1D. VCAM -1E. Integrins</p><p>a. 1,2,3b. 1,4,5c. 2,4,5d. 1,3,4e. 2,3,4</p><p>Q3. Extravasted leukocytes are able to bind to ECM by virtue of?</p><p>A. 1 integrinsB. 2 integrinsC. CD44</p><p>D. CD31E. A and C</p><p>Q4. In leukocytes adhesion deficiency type 2 the leukocytes are unable to bind to?</p><p>A. ICAM-1B. VCAM-1C. E-selectinD. P-selectinE. Both C and D</p><p>Q5. The surface proteins that mediate homing of lymphocytes in lymph node andperipheral site of inflammation are respectively?</p><p>A. L-selectin and VLA-4B. L-selectin and MAC-1C. E-selectin and VLA-4D. P-selectin and LFA-1E. L-selectin and LFA-1</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 2/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q6. The sequence of events during leukocyte adhesion cascade is?</p><p>1. Rolling</p><p>2. Activation3. Tethering4. Migration5. Firm adhesion</p><p>A. 1,2,3,4,5B. 2,3,1,5,4C. 3,1,2,4,5D. 2,1,3,4,5E. 3,2,1,4,5</p><p>Q7. Which of the following is not a hallmark of acute inflammation?</p><p>A. PainB. HeatC. SwellingD. NecrosisE. Loss of function</p><p>Q8. The changes in vascular flow and caliber during acute inflammation occur in whatorder?</p><p>1. Blood stasis2. Vasodilation3. Exudation of plasma proteins4. Transient arteriolar vasoconstriction5. Increased microvascular permeability</p><p>A. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5B. 2, 1, 4, 5, 3C. 2, 4, 5, 3, 1D. 4, 2, 5, 3, 1E. 4, 2, 1, 5, 3</p><p>Q9. The net accumulation of fluid (edema) in tissues due to inflammation is caused bywhich of the following mechanisms?</p><p>1) Increased oncotic pressure gradient between the tissues and the plasma2) Decreased oncotic pressure gradient between the tissues and the plasma3) Increased leakage of plasma water due to increased vascular permeability4) Increased hydrostatic pressure gradient between the vasculature and the tissues</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 3/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>5) Decreased hydrostatic pressure gradient between the tissues and the vasculature</p><p>A. 1, 3, 5B. 1, 4C. 2, 3, 4</p><p>D. 2, 5E. 2, 4</p><p>Q10. Active hyperemia occurs as a result of the action of all of the following chemicalmediators except:</p><p>A. BradykininB. Nitric oxideC. ProstaglandinsD. Leukotriene B4E. A and D</p><p>Q11. Which of the following is not a chemotactic mediator?</p><p>A. C3aB. C5aC. PeptidoglycanD. Leukotriene B4E. Lipopolysaccharide</p><p>Q12. Increased blood flow to a tissue in inflammation is due to which of the following?</p><p>A. Opening of new capillary bedsB. Mast cell degranulationC. Production of NOD. Arteriolar dilationE. all of the above</p><p>Q13. Which of the following substances acts on venules 20-60 um in diameter to producelarger intercellular gaps?</p><p>A. HistamineB. BradykininC. Substance PD. LeukotrienesE. All of the above</p><p>Q14. Which of the following is found pre-made in granules in platelets and endothelialcells?</p><p>A. P-selectin</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 4/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>B. E-selectinC. L-selectinD. D-selectinE. all of the above</p><p>Q15. TNF and IL-1 can induce expression of ligands for integrins such as?</p><p>A. ICAMB. VCAMC. E-selectinD. P-selectinE. a and b</p><p>Q16. Which of the following is a cause of increased vascular permeability during acuteinflammation?</p><p>A. Leukocyte-dependant endothelial cell injuryB. Increased endothelial cell transcytosisC. Opening of endothelial gapsD. Direct endothelial cell injuryE. All of the above</p><p>Q17. The order of leukocyte extravasation is</p><p>1. Rolling2. Adhesion3. Tethering4. Diapedesis5. Margination</p><p>A. 2,3,1,4,5B. 3,5,1,2,4C. 3,2,1,4,5D. 5,1,3,2,4E. 5,3,1,2,4</p><p>Q18. Which of the following does not play a role in leukocyte adhesion?</p><p>A. SelectinsB. IntegrinsC. EndothelinsD. ImmunoglobulinsE. Mucin-like glycoproteins</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 5/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q19. Cardinal signs of inflammation include:</p><p>1. Rubor (Redness)2. Calor (Heat)</p><p>3. Odor (Smell)4. Tumor (Swelling)5. Dolor (Pain)</p><p>A. 1, 2, 3, 4B. 1, 2, 4, 5C. 1, 2, 3, 5D. 2, 3, 4, 5E. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5</p><p>Q20. Formation of endothelial gaps during an acute inflammatory response occurs</p><p>primarily in:</p><p>A. arteriolesB. capillariesC. venulesD. lymphaticsE. both c &amp; d</p><p>Q21. In the leukocyte adhesion cascade, tethering and rolling of leukocytes is largelymediated by:</p><p>A. L- and P-selectinsB. E-selectin and 2 integrinsC. 2 integrins and ICAM-1D. E-selectin and ICAM-2E. PECAM-1 and JAM</p><p>Q22. Cattle, dogs, and humans with leukocyte adhesion deficiency (LAD) type I lackfunctional expression of:</p><p>A. E-selectinB. 2 integrinsC. ICAM-1D. P-adherinE. sialyl-Lewis X</p><p>Q23. All of the following proteins can acts opsonins except?</p><p>F. FibronectinG. Fibrinogen</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 6/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>H. Phospholipase CI. C-reactive proteinJ. Mannose binding protein</p><p>Q24. The most efficient bactericidal system in neutrophils involves?</p><p>A. Bactericidal permeability increasing proteinB. H2O2-MPO-halide systemC. Major basic proteinD. NADPH oxidaseE. Defensins</p><p>Q25. Which one of the following is not a characteristic of Chediak-Higashi syndrome?</p><p>A. neutropeniaB. platelet abnormalities</p><p>C. delayed microbial killingD. giant granules in leukocytesE. defective neutrophil chemotaxis</p><p>Q26. All of the following are present in azurophil granules of neutrophils except?</p><p>A. ElastaseB. DefensinsC. LysozymeD. LactoferrinsE. Myeloperoxidase</p><p>Q27. All of the following are functions of substance P except?</p><p>A. VasodilationB. VasoconstrictionC. BronchoconstrictionD. Increased vascular permabilityE. Leukocyte activation and chemotaxis</p><p>Q28. Which of the following is not an actin-regulating protein?</p><p>A. ProfilinB. FilaminC. GelsolinD. ParafilinE. Calmodulin</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 7/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q29. All of the following takes part in the activation of leukocytes except?</p><p>A. Antigen-antibody complexesB. Cytokines and chemokinesC. Products of necrotic cells</p><p>D. Apoptotic cellsE. Microbes</p><p>Q30. Majority of the microbial killing of bacteria by phagocytes takes place by?</p><p>A. Altering pH in a phagolysosomeB. Pore forming proteinsC. Enzymatic digestionD. Oxidative burstE. All the above</p><p>Q31. A mouse with NADPH oxidase defect in neutrophils will have</p><p>1. Inability to generate Superoxides2. Inability to fight microbial infection3. Inability to generate arachidonic acid metabolites4. Inability of cellular receptors to bind to opsonized particles5. Inability to halogenate oxygen free radicals in the phagolysosome</p><p>A. 1&amp;2B. 1&amp;3C. 1&amp;5D. 2&amp;3E. 2&amp;5</p><p>Q32. Which of the following does NOT result in leukocyte activation?</p><p>A. Binding of CD14 molecules on the cell surfaceB. Binding of CD34 molecules on the cell surfaceC. Binding of toll-like receptors on the cell surfaceD. Binding of mannose receptors on the cell surfaceE. Binding of seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors on the cell surface</p><p>Q33. Which of the following is NOT part of the reactive oxygen burst that occurs inneutrophils?</p><p>A. NADPH oxidaseB. MyeloperoxidaseC. Superoxide anionD. Hydrogen peroxideE. Superoxide dismutase</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 8/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q34. Which of the following are endogenous chemoattractants</p><p>A. ChemokinesB. Complement components</p><p>C. N-formyl-methionine terminal amino acidD. A &amp; BE. All of the above</p><p>Q35. Which inflammatory mediator can be produced by platelets</p><p>A. CytokinesB. Nitric oxideC. LeukotrienesD. ProstaglandinsE. Platelet-activating factors</p><p>Q36. Eosinophils are not associated with which of the following</p><p>A. Mast cell tumorsB. Collagen degredationC. Histamine productionD. Parasitic inflammationE. Elaboration of cytokines</p><p>Q37. Leukocyte activation occurs by</p><p>A. Recognition of N-formylmethionyl by seven-transmembrane G-protein receptorsB. Binding of mannose to opsonin receptorsC. Activation of phospholipase A2D. Activaion of Toll-like receptorsE. All of the above</p><p>Q38. Which two receptors typically initiate phagocytosis of microbes and dead cells?</p><p>1. Toll-like receptors2. Mannose receptors3. Scavenger receptors4. Opsonin receptors5. Seven-transmembrane G-protein-coupled receptors</p><p>A. 1 &amp; 2B. 1 &amp; 5C. 2 &amp; 3D. 2 &amp; 5E. 3 &amp; 4</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 9/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q39. Polymerization of actin is an important step in leukocyte...</p><p>A. chemotaxisB. activation</p><p>C. phagocytosisD. a &amp; bE. a &amp; c</p><p>Q40. Preformed chemical mediators of inflammation include</p><p>1. Histamine2. Prostaglandins3. Leukotrienes4. Serotonin5. Lysosomal enzymes</p><p>A. 1, 2, 3B. 1, 4, 5C. 2, 3, 4D. 2, 4, 5E. 3, 4, 5</p><p>Q41. The most efficient bactericidal system in neutrophils is...</p><p>A. lysozymeB. NADPH oxidaseC. major basic proteinD. H2O2-MPO-halideE. bactericidal permeability increasing enzyme</p><p>Q42. Following are the endogenous chemoattractants EXCEPT</p><p>A. C5aB. GCRsC. IL8D. LTB4E. a &amp; c</p><p>Q43. Toll- like receptors (TLRs) play an essential role in cellular response to thefollowing components of bacterial cell EXCEPT</p><p>A. LPSB. RNAC. EndotoxinD. ProteoglycansE. Unmethylated CpG nucleotides</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 10/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q44. The process of phagocytosis is dependent on polymerization of</p><p>A. myosin filamentsB. actin filaments</p><p>C. independent processD. both a and bE. none of above</p><p>Q45. What enzyme is present in the azurophilic granules of neutrophils</p><p>A. MPOB. CatalaseC. ElastaseD. LysozymesE. Major basic protein</p><p>Q46. What is the common cell precursor for mast cell and basophils that originates anddifferentiates in bone marrow?</p><p>A. CD4B. CD34+C. IL-5D. IL-3E. All of the above</p><p>Q47. What is the normal distribution of mast cells in the connective tissue?</p><p>A. blood vessels of skinB. lymphatics of skinC. lymphatics of mucous membraneD. blood vessels of mucous membraneE. all of the above</p><p>Q48. What is the typical location of the mast cells in the mucous membrane?</p><p>A. Respiratory epitheliumB. Intestinal epitheliumC. Cutaneous epitheliumD. a and bE. b and c</p><p>Q49. Which two proteolytic enzymes released by mast cells are responsible for theremodeling of the extracellular matrix?</p><p>A. Tryptase</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 11/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>B. ChymaseC. ElastaseD. a and bE. b and c</p><p>Q50. The eosinophilic granules of horse eosinophils are rich in which of the followingamino acidA. GlycineB. AlanineC. ArginineD. TryptophanE. Ornithine</p><p>Q51. All of the following can inhibit complement activation system EXCEPT?</p><p>A. Decay accelerating factor</p><p>B. C1 inhibitorC. Factor 1D. PlasminE. CD59</p><p>Q52. Which of the following facilitates activation of Hageman factor?</p><p>1. Collegen and basement membrane2. Activated platelets3. HMWK 4. Kallikrein5. Plasmin</p><p>A. 1,2B. 1,2,3C. 3,4,5D. 1,2,3,4E. 1,2,3,4,5</p><p>Q53. Activation of protease activation receptors-1 by thrombin can induce acuteinflammation by?</p><p>1. Mobilization of P-selectin2. Induction of cyclooxygenase3. Production of prostaglandins4. Production of PAF and NO5. expression of endothelial adhesion molecules</p><p>A. 1,2,3B. 1,3,5C. 2,3,4,5</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 12/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>D. 1,2,4,5E. 1,2,3,4,5</p><p>Q54. Which of the following is the most essential link between coagulation system andinflammation?</p><p>A. Factor IB. Factor IIC. Factor XID. Factor XIaE. Factor II</p><p>Q55. Which of the following about kallikrein is incorrect?</p><p>A. Is converted to active form by factor XIIaB. Converts plasminogen to plasminC. Is inactivated by kininase</p><p>D. Produces bradykininE. Converts C5 to C5a</p><p>Q56. Which of the following about factor XIIa is incorrect?</p><p>A. Is inactivated by plasminB. Initiates the clotting cascadeC. Converts prekallikrein to kallikreinD. Can be produced by kallikrein by feedbackE. Cleaved from factor XII by collagen and basement membranes</p><p>Q57. Which complement protein is not part of early complement activationA. Activated C1B. C2C. C3bD. C4bE. C5</p><p>Q58. Which of the following are known as C5 convertase?1) C2bBc3b2) C3bBb3b3) C3bBb5a4) C4b2b3b5) C4b2bBb</p><p>A. 1 and 2B. 2 and 3C. 2 and 4D. 3 and 4E. 4 and 5</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 13/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q59. Which of the following is NOT a function of C5a?A. Causes vasodilationB. Acts as an opsoninC. Chemotactic for neutrophilsD. Causes increased vascular permeability</p><p>E. Activates the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolism inneutrophils and monocytes</p><p>Q60. Anaphylatoxins C5a and C3a affect vascular permeability by which of thefollowing mechanisms?</p><p>A. direct endothelial injuryB. stimulate histamine release from mast cellsC. activating the lipoxygenase pathway of arachidonic acid metabolismD. a,b,cE. b and c</p><p>Q61. The functions of Plasmin include which of the following?</p><p>1. Activation of C32. Activation of C53. Dissolution of fibrin4. Activation of Hageman Factor5. formation of the membrane attack complex</p><p>A. 1,2,3,4,5B. 1,2,3,4C. 1,2,3D. 2,3,4,5E. 2,3,4</p><p>Q62. Activation of the intrinsic clotting pathway can lead to which of the following?</p><p>A. Formation of vasoactive peptides like BradykininB. Chemotaxis and phagocytosis of microbesC. Endothelial and leukocyte activationD. FibrinolysisE. All of the above</p><p>Q63. Deficiency in which of the following complement proteins will result inautoimmune diseases</p><p>A. C2 &amp; C3B. C2 &amp; C4C. C3 &amp; C4D. C2 &amp; C5</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 14/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>E. C3 &amp; C5</p><p>Q64. The functions of protease kallikreins includeA. Cleaves plasma proteins to produce kininogensB. Converts plasminogen to plasmin</p><p>C. Activates Hageman factorD. Converts C5 to C5aE. All the above</p><p>Q65. Which of the following is a powerful chemoattractant?</p><p>A. C3B. C5C. C3aD. C5aE. All</p><p>Q66. The alternative pathway of complement can be triggered by all exceptA. LPSB. EndotoxinC. Cobra venomD. Mannose-binding lectinE. Complex polysaccharides</p><p>Q67. The classical pathway C3 convertase is also known asA. C4b2bB. C4b2b3bC. C3bBbD. C3bBb3bE. C5-9</p><p>Q68. Activated Hageman factor (factor XIIa) initiatesA. The kinin systemB. The clotting systemC. The fibrinolytic systemD. The complement systemE. All of the above</p><p>Q69. Formation of Lipoxins A4 and B4 by 12-lipoxygenase takes place in?A. PlateletsB. MonocytesC. NeutrophilsD. Vascular endotheliumE. All of the above</p></li><li><p>8/9/2019 Chapter 2 (Questions 2008-2009 Compiled)</p><p> 15/89</p><p>General pathology 2008-2009Compiled by Bhupinder Bawa</p><p>Q70. An imbalance of the following has been implicated as...</p></li></ul>