chapter 2: understanding 21st century learners

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Chapter 2: Understanding 21st Century Learners. By: Valerie Peacock and Calli Moniodis EDUC 447 Fall 2013. Characteristics of 21st Century Learners. Multiple Intelligences Perceptual Preferences and Strengths Information Processing Habits Physiological Factors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 2: Understanding 21st Century Learners

Chapter 2: Understanding 21st Century LearnersBy: Valerie Peacock and Calli MoniodisEDUC 447Fall 2013Characteristics of 21st Century LearnersMultiple Intelligences

Perceptual Preferences and Strengths

Information Processing Habits

Physiological Factors

Learning Style MeasurementsMultiple IntelligenceWho designed the concept of Multiple Intelligence?

Howard GardnerWhat are the Multiple Intelligences?Verbal/LinguisticlanguageLogical/Mathematicalscientific/quantitativeVisual/Spatial imagining objects in space/navigatingMusical/Rhythmiclistening/movement Bodily/Kinestheticdancing/athleticsMultiple Intelligences, cont.Interpersonalunderstanding other peopleIntrapersonalunderstanding oneselfNaturalistrelating to ones surroundingsExistentialistability to reflectMultiple Intelligences and Technology/MediaEffective teachers need to teach to different types of intelligences. This can be done by using technology to make graphics (visual/spatial) and writing/typing activities (verbal/linguistic), playing videos/songs (musical/rhythmic), and more.

Can you think of an example of how you would use technology/media to teach an intelligence?Perceptual Preferences and StrengthsThe way a child likes to learn is not always the same as the way he/she is used to learning.

An example of this is that most children do not prefer to learn through listening, but this is one of the most common teaching techniques. Information Processing HabitsWhat are they?learning habits and styles that teachers use to group students based on concrete versus abstract learning, and random versus sequential learningPossible Combinations of Information Processing1) Concrete & Sequential: prefer direct, hands-on learning experiences that are presented in a logical order; use workbooks, computer-based instruction, demonstrations, and structured lab exercises

2) Concrete & Random: prefer trial and error approach; use games, simulations, independent study projects, and discovery learningCombinations of Information Processing, cont. 3) Abstract & Sequential: prefer to decode verbal and symbolic messages presented in logical order; have students read and listen to presentations

4) Abstract & Random: identified by capacity to extract meaning from human-mediated presentations; respond well to tone and style of speakers; use group discussions, lectures with question/answer sessions, and mediated experiences such as interactive dvdsPhysiological FactorsGenderThere are other factors besides learning styles to consider when teaching:HealthEnvironmentMental Conditionsexample: boys tend to be more competitive and aggressive than girls, and therefore learn better with competitive games while girls prefer student engagement activities like sharing and discussionsIf basic needs- hunger, temperature, noise lighting, etc.- are not met, children cannot successfully learn (Maslows Hierarchy of Needs)Maslows Hierarchy of NeedsLearning Style MeasurementsDunn & Dunn created a guide for discovering an individual students preferences and learning styles

This chart can be used to come up with general adaptations for different types of learnersLearning TheoriesCognitivismBehaviorismConstructivismSocial PyschologyBehaviorist PerspectiveB.F. Skinnerreinforcement and rewards shape behaviorfoundation for computer-assisted instruction based solely on observable behaviorsmore applicable to simple learning taskslimited relevance to higher-level learningCognitive Perspective

Jean Piagetexplores mental processes individuals use in responding to environmentcognitivists create mental model of long term and short term memorylearners combine information and skills in long term memory to develop cognitive strategies for dealing with complex tasksConstructivist Perspectiveconsiders the engagement of students in meaningful experienceslearners create their own interpretations of the world of informationprovide students with ways to assemble knowledgestudents are engaged in authentic tasks that relate to meaningful contexts learning by doingSocial Psychology Perspectivehow social organization of classroom affects learninggroup structure (independent, small)cooperative learningtechniques of incorporating small-group collaboration, learner-controlled instruction, and rewards based on group achievement into instructionInformation and InstructionInformation is...knowledge, facts, news, comments, and content.

Instruction isany intentional effort to stimulate learning by the deliberate arrangement of experiences. Effective InstructionPrinciples:Assess prior knowledgegather information about knowledgeConsider individual differencesmultiple learning needs of studentsState objectivesstandards/outcomes: what we will learnDevelop metacognitive skillsmonitoring, evaluating, and adjusting

Effective InstructionPrinciples:Provide social interactioncollaborating with classmatesIncorporate realistic contextsapplying knowledge to real-world contextEngage students in relevant practiceskills that build toward the desired outcomeOffer frequent, timely, and constructive feedbackmisconceptions and improving strategiesEffective Technology UtilizationTeachers expected to be effective in use of technology

National Education Technology Standards for Students (NETS-S)Technology Literacy Skills:Creativity and InnovationDigital CitizenshipCommunication/CollaborationTechnology OperationsCritical Thinking, Problemand ConceptsSolving, and Decision MakingEffective Media UtilizationMedia literacy skills are needed to access sources, understand and analyze the content, and create new media messages

Examples: text, television, and video

Provide opportunities for students to explore how to use media resources to communicate knowledge

Effective Text UtilizationText Literacy: the ability to use text as a means to gather information or to communicate

-reading:gather information from text-writing: generating text

Advantages:AvailabilityPortabilityEconomicalFlexibility User friendly

Effective Text UtilizationLimitations:Reading levelVocabularyMemorizationCurriculum determinationOne-way presentationCursory appraisal

Integration: Presenting InformationFont choiceArrangementBackground and patternsCheck and reviseTerms to KnowMultiple Intelligences and what they mean (visual/spatial, logical/mathematical, visual/spatial, musical/rhythmic, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalist, existentialist)Information Processing habits: mind styles that are used to group learners (abstract versus concrete and random versus sequential)Physiological Factors: gender, health, mental condition, environmentDunn & Dunn learning style measurementBehaviorism: B.F. Skinner; learning is based on rewards and reinforcement; not very applicable to high-level learningCognitivist Perspective: Jean Piaget; focuses on mental processes used and converting information from short-term to long-term memoryConstructivist Perspective: engaging students in meaningful experiences; learners create own interpretations of information; authentic tasks Social Psychology Perspective: how organization of classroom affects learning; group structure; collaboration techniquesInformation versus InstructionPrinciples for effective instruction