chapter 21 the furnace of civil war, 18611865. i. bull run ends the ninety-day war bull run...
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DESCRIPTIONI. Bull Run Ends the “Ninety-Day War” (cont.) – Raw Yankee troops left Washington toward Bull Run on July 21, 1861: At first the battle went well for the Yankees But Thomas J. (“Stonewall”) Jackson and Confederate reinforcements arrived unexpectedly The “military picnic” at Bull Run: – Though not decisive militarily, bore significant psychological and political consequences – Victory was worse than defeat for the South because it inflated an already dangerous overconfidence – Many Southern soldiers promptly deserted
Chapter 21 The Furnace of Civil War, 18611865 I. Bull Run Ends the Ninety-Day War Bull Run (Manassas Junction) Lincoln eventually concluded that an attack on a smaller Confederate force might be worth a try: If successful it would demonstrate the superiority of Union arms It might lead to the capture of the Confederate capital at Richmond, 100 miles to the south If Richmond fell, secession would be thoroughly discredited and the Union could be restored without damage to the economic and social system of the South I. Bull Run Ends the Ninety-Day War (cont.) Raw Yankee troops left Washington toward Bull Run on July 21, 1861: At first the battle went well for the Yankees But Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson and Confederate reinforcements arrived unexpectedly The military picnic at Bull Run: Though not decisive militarily, bore significant psychological and political consequences Victory was worse than defeat for the South because it inflated an already dangerous overconfidence Many Southern soldiers promptly deserted I. Bull Run Ends the Ninety-Day War (cont.) Southern enlistment fell off sharply Defeat was better than victory for the Union: It dispelled all illusions of a one-punch war Caused the Northerners to buckle down to the staggering task It set the stage for a war that would be waged: Not merely for the cause of the Union Eventually for the abolitionist ideal of emancipation II. Tardy George McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign In 1861 General George B. McClelland was given command of the Army of the Potomac Embodied a curious mixture of virtues and defects: Superb organizer and drillmaster Injected splendid morale into the Army Hating to sacrifice his troops, he was idolized by his men, who affectionately called him Little Mac He was a perfectionist II. Tardy George McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign (cont.) He consistently but erroneously believed that the enemy outnumbered him He was overcautious A reluctant McClellan decided to approach Richmond Which lay west of a narrow peninsula formed by the James and York Rivers Hence the name given to this historic campaign: the Peninsula Campaign (see Map 21.1) He inched toward the Confederate capital, spring 1862, with 1000,000 men II. Tardy George McClelland and the Peninsula Campaign (cont.) Took McClelland a month to take historic Yorktown; he finally came within sight of Richmond Lincoln diverted McClelland to chase Stonewall Jackson, who was moving toward Washington, D.C Stalled in Richmond, Jeb Stuarts Confederate cavalry rode completely around his army on reconnaissance General Lee launched a devastating assaultthe Seven Days BattlesJune 26-July 2, 1862 The Confederates slowly drove McClellan back to the sea II. Tardy George McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign (cont.) The Peninsula Campaign The Union forces abandoned the Peninsula Campaign as a costly failure Lincoln temporarily abandoned McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac. Lee: Achieved a brilliant, if bloody, triumph He ensured that the war would endure until slavery was uprooted and the Old South destroyed II. Tardy George McClellan and the Peninsula Campaign (cont.) Union strategy now turned toward total war (see Map 21.2): Finally developed the Northern military plan Slowly suffocate the South by blockading its coasts Liberate the slaves and hence undermine the very economic foundations of the Old South Cut the Confederacy in half by seizing control of the Mississippi River backbone Chop the Confederacy by sending troops to Georgia and the Carolinas Decapitate it by capturing its capital at Richmond Try everywhere to engage the enemys main strength and to grind it into submission Map 21-1 p437 III. The War at Sea The blockade: 3500 miles of coast was impossible to patrol for the Northern navy Blockading was simplified by concentrating on the principal ports and inlets where docks were used to load bulky bales of cotton Britain recognized it as binding and warned its shippers that they ignored it at their peril Blockade-running was risky but profitable The lush days of blockade-running passed as Union squadrons pinched off leading Southern ports. III. The War at Sea (cont.) The Northern navy enforced the blockade with high- handed practices They would seize British freighters on the high seas, if laden with war supplies The justification was obviously these shipments were ultimately destined by devious routes for the Confederacy London acquiesced in this disagreeable doctrine of ultimate destination or continuous voyage Britain might need to use the same interpretation in a future war; in fact they did in WWI III. The War at Sea (cont.) The most alarming Confederate threat to the blockade came in 1862 Resourceful Southerners raised and reconditioned a former wooden U.S. warship, the Merrimack: Plated its sides with old iron railroad rails Renamed it the Virginia: Easily destroyed two wooden ships of the Union navy in the Virginia waters of Chesapeake Bay It threatened catastrophe to the entire Yankee blockading fleet III. The War at Sea (cont.) The Monitor: For four hours, March 9, 1862, the little Yankee cheesebox on a raft fought the wheezy Merrimack to a standstill A few months after the historic battle, the Confederates destroyed the Merrimack to keep it from the grasp of advancing Union troops Map 21-2 p439 IV. The Pivotal Point: Antietam Second Battle of Bull Run (August 29-30, 1962): Lee encountered a Federal force under General John Pope Lee quickly attacked Popes troops and inflicted a crushing defeat Lee daringly now thrust into Maryland He hoped to strike a blow that would: Encourage foreign intervention Seduce the still-wavering Border State and its sisters from the Union The Marylanders did not respond to the siren song IV. The Pivotal Point: Antietam (cont.) Antietam Creek, Maryland, a critical battle Little Mac McClellan was restored to active command: Found copies of Lees battle plans McClelland succeeded in halting Lee at Antietam on September 7, 1862, in one of the bloodiest and bitter days of the war Antietam was more or less a draw militarily: Lee withdrew across the Potomac McClellan was released of duty for the second time The landmark Battle of Antietam was one of the divisive engagements of world history; most decisive Civil War battle IV. The Pivotal Point: Antietam (cont.) Antietam was the long-awaited victory that Lincoln needed for launching his Emancipation Proclamation Midsummer of 1862 the Border States were safely in the fold and Lincoln was ready to move However, Lincoln decided to wait for the outcome of Lees invasion Antietam served as the needed emancipation springboard Lincoln issued on September 23, 1862, the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation It announced that on January 1, 1863, the President would issue a final proclamation IV. The Pivotal Point: Antietam (cont.) On schedule, he fully redeemed his promise The Civil War became more of a moral crusade for slavery On January 1, 1863, Lincoln said, the character of the war will be changed. It will be one of subjugation....The (Old) South is to be destroyed and replaced by new propositions and ideas. V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation Lincolns Proclamation of 1863 declared forever free the slaves in those Confederate areas still in rebellion: Bondsmen in the loyal Border States were not affected Nor were those in specific conquered areas in the South The tone of the document was dull and legalistic: Lincoln: the proclamation was an act of justice and calling for the considering judgment of mankind and the gracious favor of Almighty God. V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) The presidential pen did not formally strike the shackles from a single slave: Where Lincoln could free the slavesin the loyal Border Stateshe refused to do so, lest he spur disunion Where he could notin the Confederate stateshe tried to In short, where he could he would not, and where he would he could not V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) Thus the Emancipation Proclamation was stronger on proclamation than emancipation There were thousands of do-it-yourself liberations By issuing the Proclamation Lincoln: Addressed the refugees plight Strengthened the moral cause of the Union at home and abroad Also clearly foreshadowed the ultimate doom of slavery (see Map 21.3) V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) The ultimate doom of slavery was Thirteenth Amendment (see the Appendix): Legally achieved by the ratification of the individual states The Emancipation Proclamation fundamentally changed the nature of the war: It effectively removed any chance of a negotiated settlement Both sides knew that the war would be a fight to the finish V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) Public reactions to the long-awaited proclamation of 1863 were varied: Many ardent abolitionists complained Lincoln had not gone far enough Formidable number of Northerners felt that he had gone too far Opposition mounted in the North against supporting an abolition war Volunteers had fought for the Union, not against slavery V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) Desertions increased sharply Critical congressional elections of 1862 went heavily against the administrationparticularly New York, Pennsylvania and Ohio Aristocrats of Europe were inclined to sympathize with Southern protests The Old World working classes, especially in Britain, reacted otherwise Gradually the diplomatic position of the Union improved V. A Proclamation Without Emancipation (cont.) The North now had much the stronger moral cause: In addition to preserving the Union, It had committed itself to freeing the slaves. The moral position of the South was correspondingly diminished. Map 21-3 p442 VI. Blacks Battle Bondage Lincoln: Moved to emancipate the slaves He took steps to enlist blacks in the armed forces Black enlistees were accepted By wars end some 180,000 blacks served in the Union army, most of them from the slave states, many more from the free-soil North Blacks accounted for about 10% of the total enlistments in the Union forces on land and sea Two Mass. Regiments were raised largely through the efforts of the ex-slave Frederick Douglas. VI. Blacks Battle Bondage (cont.) Service offered them a chance to prove their manhood and strengthen their claim to full citizenship at wars end They received about 500 Congressional Medals of Honor Their casualties were extremely heavy: More than 30,000 died Many were captured and put to death Confederacy and slaves: Could not bring itself to enlist slaves until a month before the war endedit was too late VI. Blacks Battle Bondage (cont.) Tens of thousands were forced into labor battalions: The building of fortifications; the supplying of armies Other war-connected activities Slaves were the stomach of the Confederacy: They kept the farms going while the white men fought. Involuntary labor did not imply slave support for the Confederacy VI. Blacks Battle Bondage (cont.) In many ways the actions of Southern slaves hamstrung the Confederate war efforts: Fear of slave insurrection necessitated home guards, keeping many white men from the front Every form of slave resistance diminished productivity and undermined discipline When Union troops neared, slave assertiveness increased They stopped short of violent uprising: Slaves contributed powerfully to the collapse of slavery and the disintegration of the antebellum way of life Map 21-4 p444 VII. Lees Last Lunge at Gettysburg Lincoln replaced McClellan with General A.B. Burnside: He proved his unfitness when he launched a rash frontal attack on Lees strong position at Fredericksburg, Virginia on December 13, 1862 Burnside yielded his command to Joseph (Fighting Joe) Hooker At Chancellorsville, Virginia, on May 2-4, 1863, Lee divided his forces and sent Hooker to attach the Union flank. The victory was Lees most brilliant, but it was dearly bought. VII. Lees Last Lunge at Gettysburg (cont.) Lee now prepared to invade the North again: A decisive blow would add strength And would encourage foreign interventionstill a Southern hope Three days before the battle Union general George C. Meade was informed that he would replace Hooker Meade took his stand near the quiet little Gettysburg, Pennsylvania (see Map 21.4): There his 92,000 men locked in furious combat with Lees 76,000 The battle seesawed across the rolling green slopes for three agonizing daysJuly 1-3, 1863. VII. Lees Last Lunge at Gettysburg (cont.) Picketts charge: The failure of General George Picketts magnificent but futile charge finally broke the back of the Confederate attack And broke the heart of the Confederate cause Its has been called the high tide of the Confederacy. It defined the northernmost point reached by any significant Southern force and the real last chance for the Confederates to win the war At the Battle of Gettysburg raged, a Confederate peace delegation was moving under a flag of peace of truce toward the Union lines near Norfolk, Virginia VII. Lees Last Lunge at Gettysburg (cont.) The victory at Gettysburg belonged to Lincoln He refused the Confederate peace mission to pass though Union lines From now on, the Southern cause was doomed, yet the men from Dixie fought for two more years In autumn of 1863, while the graves were still fresh, Lincoln journeyed to Gettysburg to dedicate the ceremony. He read a two minute address, followed by a two-hour speech by a former president of Harvard. The Gettysburg Address attracted relatively little attention at the time, but the president was speaking for the ages. VIII. The War in the West Ulysses S. Grant Grants first signal success came in northern Tennessee theater (see Map 21.5) He captured Fort Henry and Fort Donelson on the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers in February 1862 When the Confederate commander at Fort Donelson asked for terms, Grant bluntly demanded an unconditional and immediate surrender Grants triumph in Tennessee was crucial: It riveted Kentucky to the Union It opened the gateway to the strategically important region of Tennessee, Georgia and the heart of Dixie. VIII. The War in the West (cont.) Battle at Shiloh: Just over the Tennessee border from Corinth on April 6-7, 1862 Grant counterattackedthe impressive Confederate showing at Shiloh confirmed that there would be no quick end to the war in the West Other western events: 1862 David G. Farragut joined with a Northern unit to deal a striking blow by seizing New Orleans VIII. The War in the West (cont.) Vicksburg, Mississippi: Was the Souths sentinel protecting the lifeline to the western sources of supply Grant was commander of the Union forces at Vicksburg: this was his best-fought campaign The Union victory at Vicksburg came the day after the Confederate defeat at Gettysburg Reopening the Mississippi helped quell the Northern peace The twin victories tipped the diplomatic scale in favor of the North and Britain stopped delivery of the Laird rams to the Confederates (see p. 425) Confederate hope for foreign help was irretrievably lost Map 21-5 p448 IX. Sherman Scorches Georgia Grant transferred to east Tennessee: Confederates won the battle of Chickamauga, near Chattanooga, to which they laid siege Grant won a series of desperate engagements in November, 1863: Missionary Ridge and Lookout Mountain (the Battle Above the Clouds) Chattanooga was liberated, the state cleared of Confederates Way opened for an invasion of Georgia Grant was rewarded by being made general in chief IX. Sherman Scorches Georgia (cont.) Georgias conquest: It was entrusted to General William Tecumseh Sherman He captured Atlanta in September 1864, burned the city in November 1864 Sherman with 6000 troops cut a sixty-mile swath of destruction through Georgia Major purposes of Shermans march: destroy supplies destined for the Confederate army weaken the morale of the men at the front by waging war on their homes (see Map 21.6) IX. Sherman Scorches Georgia (cont.) Sherman was a pioneer practitioner of total war: His success in Shermanizing the South was attested by increasing numbers of Confederate desertions All his methods were brutal He probably shortened the struggle and hence saved lives The discipline of his army at times broke down After seizing Savannah as a Christmas present for Lincoln, his army veered north into South Carolina, where the destruction was even worse: Shermans conquering army rolled deep into North Carolina by the time the war ended Map 21-6 p450 X. The Politics of War Presidential elections come by the calendar and not by the crisis: Political infighting added to Lincolns cup of woe Factions within his own party, distrusting his ability or doubting his commitment to abolition, sought to tie his hands or remove him from office Conspicuous among his critics was the overambitious secretary of the Treasury, Salmon Chase X. The Politics of War (cont.) Congressional Committee on the Conduct of War formed in late 1861: Dominated by radical Republicans who Resented the expansion of presidential power in wartime Pressed Lincoln zealously on emancipation Most dangerous to the Union cause were the Northern Democrats: Taint with the association with the seceders Tragedy befell when their gifted leader Stephen A. Douglas died X. The Politics of War (cont.) Lacking a leader, the Democrats divided The War Democrats supported the Lincoln administration Tens of thousands of Peace Democrats did not Extreme were the Copperheadsopenly obstructed the war through: Attacks against the draft Against Lincoln Especially, after 1863, against emancipation Denounced the president as the Illinois Ape Condemned the Nigger War Commanded considerable political strength in the southern parts of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois X. The Politics of War (cont.) Notorious was congressman from Ohio, Clement L. Vallandigham: He publicly demanded an end to the wicked and cruel war He was convicted by a military tribunal in 1863 for treasonable utterance and was sentenced to prison Lincoln thought he liked the Confederates so much, he ought to be banished to their lines. This was done. Vallandigham inspired Edward Everett Hale to write his moving but fictional story of Philip Nolan, The Man Without a Country (1863) Nolan was a young army officer found guilty of participation with Aaron Burr plot of 1806 (see p. 214). He was condemned to a life of eternal exile on American warships. X. The Politics of War (cont.) Lincolns renomination at first encountered surprisingly strong opposition: Hostile factions wanted to shelve Old Abe in favor of Secretary of the Treasury Chase The ditch Lincoln move collapsed, and he was nominated by the Union party without serious dissent His running mate was Andrew Johnson, a loyal War Democrat from Tennessee: A small slaveowner when the conflict began Placed on the Union Party ticket to sew up the election With no proper regard for the possibility that Lincoln would die in office X. The Politics of War (cont.) Democrats: Nominated the deposed and overcautious war hero General McClellan: Their plank denounced the prosecution of the war as a failure McClellan repudiated this defeatist declaration Campaign: Noisy and nasty campaign with numerous slogans Lincolns reelection was at first gravely in doubt X. The Politics of War (cont.) The anti-Lincoln Republicans started a movement to dump Lincoln in favor of someone else Atmosphere changed by succession of Northern victories The president pulled through, but nothing more than necessary was left to chance: At election time many Northern soldiers were furloughed home to support Lincoln at the polls Some Northern soldiers were permitted to cast their ballots at the front Lincoln bolstered the bayonet vote with 212 electoral votes for Lincoln and 21 for McClellan XI. The Election of 1864 (cont.) Election of 1864: Lincolns precarious authority depended on his retaining Republican support while spiking the threat from the Peace Democrats and Copperheads Fearing defeat, the Republican party executed a clever maneuver: Joining the War Democrats, it proclaimed itself to be the Union party (see Figure 21.1) Thus the Republican party was temporarily out of existence XI. The Election of 1864 (cont.) Lincoln lost Kentucky, Delaware, and New Jersey (see Map 21.7) Little Mac ran a closer race than the electoral count indicates He netted a healthy 45% of the popular vote, 1,803,787 to Lincolns 2,206,938 Crushing defeat for the Northern Democrats in 1864 The removal of Lincoln was the last ghost of a hope for a Confederate victory When Lincoln triumphed, desertions from the sinking Southern ship increased sharply Figure 21-1 p452 p453 XII. Grant Outlasts Lee Wilderness Campaign: Grant with 100,000 men struck toward Richmond He engaged Lee in a series of furious battles in the Wilderness of Virginia, May and June 1864 Grant suffered 50,000 lost (see Map 21.8) On June 3 Grant ordered a frontal assault on Cold Harbor: In about 5 minutes, 7 thousand men were killed or wounded XIII. Grant Outlasts Lee (cont.) Public opinion in the North: Critics cried Grant the Butcher had gone insane Grants reputation was underserved While Lees was overrated Lees rate of loss was the highest of any general in the war By contrast, Grant lost one of ten Grant had intended to fight battles out in the open Lee turned the eastern campaign into a war of attrition fought in the trenches XII. Grant Outlasts Lee (cont.) Lee could no longer seize the offensive His new defensive posture in turn forced Grant into some brutal arithmetic Grant could trade two men for one and still beat the enemy to his knees In February 1865 the Confederates tried desperately to negotiate for peace between the two countries Lincoln met with Confederate representatives aboard a Union ship at Hampton Road, Virginia, to discuss peace Lincoln could accept nothing short of Union and emancipation Southerners could accept nothing less than independence XII. Grant Outlasts Lee (cont.) The tribulation wore on to its terrible climax Appomattox Courthouse: The end came with dramatic suddenness: Advancing Northern troops captured Richmond and cornered Lee at Appomattox Courthouse, Virginia, April 1865 Grant met with Lee April 9 th, Palm Sunday Granted generous terms of surrender The hungry Confederates were allowed to keep their horses for spring plowing XII. Grant Outlasts Lee (cont.) Tattered Southern veterans wept as they took leave of their beloved commander The elated Union soldiers cheered Lincoln traveled to conquered Richmond and sat in Jefferson Daviss evacuated office just forty hours after the Confederate president had left it Sadly, as many freed slaves were to discover, the hereafter of their full liberty was a long time coming Map 21-7 p454 Map 21-8 p455 XIII. The Martyrdom of Lincoln Lincolns death: On April 14, 1865 (Good Friday) only five days after Lees surrender, Forts Theater in Washington witnessed its most sensational drama Pro-Southern actor, John Wilkes Booth, slipped behind Lincoln and shot him in the head The Great Emancipator died the following morning Lincoln expired in the arms of victory, at the very pinnacle of his fame His dramatic death erased the memory of his shortcomings and caused his nobler qualities to stand out in clearer relief XIII. The Martyrdom of Lincoln (cont.) The full impact of Lincolns death was not at once apparent to the South As time wore on, increasingly Lincolns death was perceived as a calamity for the South Belatedly they recognized his kindliness and moderation The assassination increased bitterness in the North, partly because of the rumor that Jefferson Davis had plotted it Some historians argued that Andrew Johnson was crucified in Lincolns steaddoesnt really stand up! XIII. The Martyrdom of Lincoln (cont.) Lincoln: Lincoln no doubt would have had clashes with Congress Lincoln was a victorious president, and there is no arguing with victory His powers of leadership were refined in the war crucible Lincoln possessed in full measure tact, sweet reasonableness and an uncommon amount of common sense XIV. The Aftermath of the Nightmare The Civil Wars grisly toll: 600,000 men died in action or of disease Over a million were killed or seriously wounded The amount of dead amounted to 2% of the entire nations population To its lasting hurt, the nation lost the cream of its young manhood and potential leadership Tens of thousands of babies went unborn because potential fathers were at the front XIII. The Aftermath of the Nightmare (cont.) Direct monetary costs of the conflict: Total cost of the conflict$15 billion Does not include continuing expensespensions, and interest on the national debt Intangible costsdislocations, disunities, wasted energies, lowered ethics, blasted lives, bitter memories, and burning hatscannot be calculated. Greatest Constitutional decision was written in blood and handed down at Appomattox Courthouse XIII. The Aftermath of the Nightmare (cont.) The extreme states righters were crushed The national government, tested in the fiery furnace of war, emerged unbroken Nullification and secessions were laid to rest The Civil War was the supreme test of American democracy The preservation of democratic ideals was subconsciously one of the major objectives of the North XIV. The Aftermath of the Nightmare (cont.) Victory for Union arms provided inspiration to the champions of democracy and liberalism (pp ) The great English Reform Bill of 1867, under which England became a true political democracy, was passed two years after the Civil War ended American democracy proved itself Its success was an additional argument used by disfranchised British masses in securing similar blessings for themselves XVI. The Aftermath of the Nightmare (cont.) The Lost Cause of the South was lost The shameful cancer of slavery was sliced away by the sword African Americans were last in a position to claim their rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness The nation was once again united politically Great dangers were adverted by a Union victory: The indefinite prolongation of the peculiar institution The unleashing of the slave power on weak Caribbean neighbors XVI. The Aftermath of the Nightmare (cont.) The transformation of the area from Panama to Hudson Bay into an armed camp: With several heavily armed and hostile states constantly snarling and sniping at one another American still had a long way to go to make the promises of freedom a reality for all its citizens, black and white Emancipation laid the necessary groundwork: a united and democratic United States was free to fulfill its destiny as the dominant republic of the hemisphereand eventually of the world. p463